Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 39 out of 42

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Legal system:
mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Political parties and leaders:
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE;
Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi SITHOLE;
Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel
MAGOCHE; Forum Party, Enock DUMBUTSHENA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Executive President:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Robert
MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%
Parliament:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 117,
ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1
Executive branch:
executive president, 2 vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice
President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President
Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of Chancery, Ambassador-designate Amos
Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI

*Zimbabwe, Government

chancery:
1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 332-7100
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER
embassy:
172 Herbert Chitapo Avenue, Harare
mailing address:
P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone:
[263] (4) 794-521
FAX:
[263] (4) 796-488
Flag:
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and
green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist
side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in
the center of the triangle

*Zimbabwe, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40%
of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining,
produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP. Mining accounts for
only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals
account for about 40% of exports. Wide fluctuations in agricultural
production over the past six years have resulted in an uneven growth rate,
one that on average has matched the 3% annual increase in population. Helped
by an IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program, output rose 3.5% in
1991. A severe drought in 1991/92 caused the economy to contract by about
10% in 1992.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$545 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
45% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
at least 35% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.7 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $330 million (FY91)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
agricultural 35% (tobacco 20%, other 15%), manufactures 20%, gold 10%,
ferrochrome 10%, cotton 5%
partners:
UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%,
chemicals 16%, fuels 15%
partners:
UK 15%, Germany 9%, South Africa 5%, Botswana 5%, US 5%, Japan 5% (1991)
External debt:
$3.9 billion (March 1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 38% of GDP
Electricity:
3,650,000 kW capacity; 8,920 million kWh produced, 830 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer,
beverage, transportation equipment, wood products
Agriculture:
accounts for 13% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land area
divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops -
corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $389 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $134
million
Currency:
1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

*Zimbabwe, Economy

Exchange rates:
Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 6.3532 (February 1993), 5.1046 (1992),
3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Zimbabwe, Communications

Railroads:
2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge (including 42 km double track, 355 km
electrified)
Highways:
85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed stone, gravel,
stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication
Pipelines:
petroleum products 212 km
Airports:
total:
485
usable:
403
with permanent-surface runways:
22
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
29
Telecommunications:
system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor
maintenance; consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio
communications stations; 247,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 18
FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Zimbabwe, Defense Forces

Branches:
Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police
(including Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police), People's Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,315,461; fit for military service 1,436,671 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)

***

Appendix A:

The United Nations System

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous
subordinate agencies and bodies as follows:

1) Secretariat

2) General Assembly:
UNCHS United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for
Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UN Institute for Training and Research
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine
Refugees in the Near East
UN Special Fund
UN University
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program

3) Security Council:
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India
and Pakistan
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UNIKOM United Nations Iran-Kuwait Observation Mission
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in
Western Sahara
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somolia
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC):
Specialized agencies
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IDA International Development Association
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
ILO International Labor Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and
Cultural Organization
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization

Related organizations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

Regional commissions
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

Functional commissions
Commission on Human Rights
Commission on Narcotics Drugs
Commission for Social Development
Commission on the Status of Women
Population Commission
Statistical Commission
Commission on Science and Technology for Development
Commission on Sustainable Development
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Commission on Transnational Corporations

5) Trusteeship Council

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)

***

Appendix B
Abbreviations for
International
Organizations and Groups
A ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACC Arab Cooperation Council
ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique;
see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries
AfDB African Development Bank
AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG Andean Group
AL Arab League
ALADI Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion;
see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
AMF Arab Monetary Fund
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANZUS Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
AsDB Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
B BAD Banque Africaine de Developpement;
see African Development Bank (AfDB)
BADEA Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique;
see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
BCIE Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico;
see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
BDEAC Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale;
see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
Benelux Benelux Economic Union
BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo;
see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
BIS Bank for International Settlements
BOAD Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement;
see West African Development Bank (WADB)
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone
C C Commonwealth
CACM Central American Common Market
CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity
CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market
CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
CCC Customs Cooperation Council
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CE Council of Europe
CEAO Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest;
see West African Economic Community (CEAO)
CEEAC Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale;
see Economic Community of Central African
States (CEEAC)
CEI Central European Initiative
CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance;
also known as CMEA or Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
CEPGL Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs;
see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries
(CEPGL)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire;
see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
CG Contadora Group
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as
Comecon; abolished 1 January 1991
COCOM Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as CMEA;
abolished 1 January 1991
CP Colombo Plan
CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
D DC developed country
E EADB East African Development Bank
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC European Community
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East;
see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(ESCAP)
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America;
see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia;
see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EIB European Investment Bank
Entente Council of the Entente
ESA European Space Agency
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
F FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FLS Front Line States
FZ Franc Zone
G G-2 Group of 2
G-3 Group of 3
G-5 Group of 5
G-6 Group of 6 (not to be
confused with the Big Six)
G-7 Group of 7
G-8 Group of 8
G-9 Group of 9
G-10 Group of 10
G-11 Group of 11
G-15 Group of 15
G-19 Group of 19
G-24 Group of 24
G-30 Group of 30
G-33 Group of 33
G-77 Group of 77
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council
H Habitat Commission on Human Settlements
I IADB Inter-American Development Bank
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration;
see International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration;
see International Organization for Migration (IOM)
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
IDA International Development Association
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IEA International Energy Agency
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC International Finance Corporation
IGADD Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
IIB International Investment Bank
ILO International Labor Organization
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization;
see International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization
IOC International Olympic Committee
IOM International Organization for Migration
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
L LAES Latin American Economic System
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LAS League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL)
LDC less developed country
LLDC least developed country
LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
M MERCOSUR Mercado Comun del Cono Sur;
see Southern Cone Common Market
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime
N NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council
NAM Nonaligned Movement
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC Nordic Council
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NIB Nordic Investment Bank
NIC newly industrializing country;
see newly industrializing economy (NIE)
NIE newly industrializing economy
NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group
O OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS Organization of American States
OAU Organization of African Unity
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference
ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador
OPANAL Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la
America Latina y el Caribe; see Agency for the Prohibition of
Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
P PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration
R RG Rio Group
S SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACU Southern African Customs Union
SADC Southern African Development Community
SELA Sistema Economico Latinoamericana;
see Latin American Economic System (LAES)
SPARTECA South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPF South Pacific Forum
U UDEAC Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale;
see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
UN United Nations
UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and
Cultural Organization
UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities;
see UN Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNHCR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission
UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
UNOMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somalia
UNPROFOR United Nations ProtectionForce
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for
Palestine Refugees in the Near East
UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
UPU Universal Postal Union
USSR/EE USSR/Eastern Europe
W WADB West African Development Bank
WCL World Confederation of Labor
WEU Western European Union
WFC World Food Council
WFP World Food Program
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WP Warsaw Pact (members met 1 July 1991 to
dissolve the alliance)
WTO World Tourism Organization
Z ZC Zangger Committee
Note: Not all international organizations and groups have
abbreviations

***

Appendix C:
International Organizations
and Groups

advanced developing countries
another term for those less
developed countries (LDCs) with particularly
rapid industrial development; see newly
industrializing economies (NIEs) African,
Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP)

established-1 April 1976

aim-members have a preferential
economic and aid relationship with the EC

members-(69) Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana,
Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-
Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho,
Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

African Development Bank (AfDB),
also known as Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)

established-4 August 1963

aim-to promote economic and social
development

regional members-(50)
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,
Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon,
The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
nonregional members-(25)
Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea,
Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Yugoslavia

Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT)
see Agency for Cultural and
Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

Agency for Cultural
and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)

note-acronym from Agence de Cooperation
Culturelle et Technique

established-21 March 1970

aim-to promote cultural and technical
cooperation among French-speaking countries

members-(31) Belgium, Benin, Burkina, Burundi,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros,
Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial
Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda,
Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaire

associate members-(7) Cameroon, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Laos, Mauritania,
Morocco, Saint Lucia
participating governments-(2) New Brunswick (Canada),
Quebec (Canada)

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean (OPANAL)

note-acronym from Organismo para
la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la
America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)

established-14 February 1967

aim-to encourage the peaceful uses
of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear weapons

members-(26) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago,
Uruguay, Venezuela Andean Group (AG)

established-26 May 1969

effective-16 October 1969

aim-to promote harmonious development
through economic integration

members-(5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Venezuela
associate member-(1) Panama
observers-(26) Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark,
Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy,
Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has
dissolved, and ceases to exist. None of the successor states of the
former Yugoslavia, including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to
participate solely on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia
in the United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and
their subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations Specialized Agencies.
The United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate of the SFRY to
remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to function, and continues to
fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, a number
of other organizations have not yet taken action with regard to the membership
of the former Yugoslavia. The The World Factbook therefore continues to list
Yugoslavia under international organizations where the SFRY seat remains or
where no action has yet been taken.

Arab Bank for Economic
Development in Africa (ABEDA)

note-also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)
established-18 February 1974

effective-16 September 1974

aim-to promote economic development

members-(17 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq,
Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania,
Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization;

note-these are all the members of the Arab League
except Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen

Arab Cooperation Council
(ACC)

established-16 February 1989

aim-to promote economic cooperation and integration,
possibly leading to an Arab Common Market

members-(4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen

Arab Fund for Economic
and Social Development (AFESD)

established-16 May 1968

aim-to promote economic and social
development

members-(20 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt
(suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

Arab League (AL)

note-also known as League of Arab States (LAS)

established-22 March 1945

aim-to promote economic, social,
political, and military cooperation

members-(20 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt,
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania,
Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan,
Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation
Organization

Arab Maghreb Union
(AMU)

established-17 February 1989

aim-to promote cooperation and integration
among the Arab states of northern Africa

members-(5) Algeria, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia

Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)

established-27 April 1976

effective-2 February 1977

aim-to promote Arab cooperation,
development, and integration in monetary and
economic affairs

members-(19 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia,
UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

established-NA November 1989

aim-to promote trade and investment
in the Pacific basin

members-(15) all ASEAN members (Brunei,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)
plus Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, South
Korea, NZ, Taiwan, US

Asian Development Bank
(AsDB)

established-19 December 1966

aim-to promote regional economic
cooperation

regional members-(36)
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma,
Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Laos,
Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal,
NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga,
Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa nonregional members-(16)
Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)
see Latin American
Integration Association (LAIA)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

established-9 August 1967

aim-to encourage regional economic, social, and
cultural cooperation among the non-Communist countries
of Southeast Asia

members-(6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand
observer-(1) Papua New Guinea

Australia Group

established-1984

aim-to consult on and coordinate
export controls related to chemical and biological weapons

members-(25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
observer-(1) Singapore

Australia--New Zealand--United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)

established-1 September 1951

effective-29 April 1952

aim-to implement a trilateral mutual security
agreement, although the US suspended security
obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986
members-(3) Australia, NZ, US

Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE)
see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)
see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

established-20 January 1930

effective-17 March 1930

aim-to promote cooperation among
central banks in international financial settlements

members-(30) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia

Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)
see African Development Bank (AfDB)

Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)
see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)

Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique
Centrale (BDEAC) see Central African States
Development Bank (BDEAC)

Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)
see West African Development Bank (WADB)

Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)

note-acronym from Belgium,
Netherlands, and Luxembourg

established-3 February 1958

effective-1 November 1960

aim-to develop closer economic cooperation and integration

members-(3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

Big Seven

note-membership is the same as the Group of 7

established-NA

aim-to discuss and coordinate major economic policies

members-(7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
UK) plus the US Big Six

note-not to be confused with the Group of 6

established-NA

aim-to foster economic cooperation

members-(6) Canada, France, Germany,
Italy, Japan, UK

Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)

established-25 June 1992

aim-to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation

members-(11) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia,
Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia,
Turkey, Ukraine

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

established-4 July 1973

effective-1 August 1973

aim-to promote economic integration
and development, especially among the less developed
countries

members-(13) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica,
Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago
associate members-(2)
British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
observers-(10) Anguilla, Bermuda,
Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico,
Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela

Caribbean Development Bank
(CDB)

established-18 October 1969

effective-26 January 1970

aim-to promote economic development and cooperation

regional members-(20)
Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands,
Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico,
Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks
and Caicos Islands, Venezuela
nonregional members-(5) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK

Cartagena Group
see Group of 11

Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

note-acronym from Union Douaniere
et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale

established-8 December 1964

effective-1 January 1966

aim-to promote the establishment of a Central African Common
Market

members-(6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)

note-acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de
l'Afrique Centrale

established-3 December 1975

aim-to provide loans for economic
development

members-(9) Cameroon, Central African
Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France,
Gabon, Germany, Kuwait

Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)

note-acronym from Banco Centroamericano
de Integracion Economico

established-13 December 1960

aim-to promote economic integration
and development

members-(5) Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

Central American Common Market (CACM)

established-13 December 1960

effective-3 June 1961

aim-to promote establishment of
a Central American Common Market

members-(5) Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

Central European Initiative (CEI)

note-evolved from the Hexagonal Group
established-July 1991

aim-to form an economic and political
cooperation group for the region between the Adriatic and
the Baltic Seas

members-(10) Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Yugoslavia

centrally planned economies a term applied mainly to the
traditionally Communist states that looked to the
former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving
toward more democratic and market-oriented
systems; also known formerly as the Second World
or as the Communist countries; through the 1980s,
this group included
Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary,
North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia

Colombo Plan (CP)

established-1 July 1951

aim-to promote economic and social
development in Asia and the Pacific

members-(26) Afghanistan,
Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Canada,
Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos,
Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Singapore,
Sri Lanka, Thailand, UK, US

Commission for Social Development

established-21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29 July 1966

aim-Economic and Social Council
organization dealing with social
development programs of UN

members-(32) selected on a rotating
basis from all regions

Commission on Human Rights

established-18 February 1946

aim-Economic and Social Council organization dealing
with human rights programs of UN

members-(53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

Commission on Human Settlements (Habitat)

established-12 October 1978

aim-Economic and Social Council organization assisting in solving human
settlement problems of UN

members-(58) selected on a rotating
basis from all regions

Commission on Narcotic Drugs

established-16 February 1946

aim-Economic and Social Council organization dealing
with illicit drugs programs of UN

members-(53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
with emphasis on producing and processing countries

Commission on the Status of Women

established-21 June 1946

aim-Economic and Social Council organization dealing with
women's rights goals of UN

members-(32) selected on a rotating
basis from all regions

Commonwealth (C)

established-31 December 1931

aim-voluntary association that evolved
from the British Empire and that seeks to foster
multinational cooperation and assistance

members-(48) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe
special members-(2) Nauru, Tuvalu

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

established-8 December 1991

effective-21 December 1991

aim-to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for
the orderly dissolution of the USSR

members-(10) Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO)
see West African Economic Community (CEAO)

Communaute Economique des
Etats de l'Afrique Centrale
(CEEAC)

see Economic Community of Central
African States (CEEAC)

Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs
(CEPGL)

see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

Communist countries
traditionally the Marxist-Leninist
states with authoritarian governments and command
economies based on the Soviet model; most of the
successor states are no longer Communist; see
centrally planned economies

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(CSCE)

established-NA November 1972

aim-discusses issues of mutual concern and reviews implementation of the
Helsinki Agreement

members-(53) Albania, Armenia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine,
UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia
observer-(1) Japan

Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN)

see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

Contadora Group (CG)

was established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island of Contadora) to
reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America but evolved into the Rio Group
(RG); members included Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the
Gulf

see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)

established-NA 1949

aim-to control the export of strategic
products and technical data from member countries to
proscribed destinations

members-(17) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France,
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Spain, Turkey, UK, US
cooperating countries-(8) Austria, Finland, Ireland,
South Korea, NZ, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
also known as CMEA or Comecon,

was established 25 January 1949 to promote the
development of socialist economies and was abolished
1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan (observer),
Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with
USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba,
Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos
(observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua
(observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen
(observer), Yugoslavia (associate)

Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)

established-3 June 1957

effective-30 May 1964

aim-to promote economic integration
among Arab nations

members-(11 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya,
Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine

Liberation Organization Council of the Baltic Sea States
(CBSS)

established-5 March 1992

aim-to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in
the areas of aid to new democratic institutions, economic
development, humanitarian aid, energy and the environment,
cultural and education, and transportation and communication
members-(10) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden
observers-(2) Belarus, Ukraine

Council of Europe (CE)

established-5 May 1949

effective-3 August 1949

aim-to promote increased unity and
quality of life in Europe

members-(29) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, San Marino,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK

Council of the Entente (Entente)

established-29 May 1959

aim-to promote economic, social,and political coordination

members-(5) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo

Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

established-15 December 1950

aim-to promote international cooperation
in customs matters

members-(114) Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chile, China, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

developed countries (DCs)

the top group in the comprehensive
but mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed
countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former
USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs);
includes the market-oriented economies of the
mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South
Africa, and the European ministates; also known as the
First World, high-income countries, the North, industrial
countries; generally have a per capita GNP/GDP in excess of
$10,000 although some OECD countries and South Africa have
figures well under $10,000 and two of the excluded OPEC
countries have figures of more than $10,000; the 34 DCs are:
Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda,
Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

developing countries

an imprecise term for the less developed countries with growing economies; see
less developed countries (LDCs)

East African Development Bank (EADB)

established-6 June 1967

effective-1 December 1967

aim-to promote economic development

members-(3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (ESCAP)

established-28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
(ECAFE)

aim-to promote economic development
as a regional commission for the UN's Economic and
Social Council

members-(46) Afghanistan, Australia,
Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore,
Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tonga,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, UK,US, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa
associate members-(10) American Samoa, Cook Islands, French
Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana
Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands (Palau)

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA)

established-9 August 1973 as Economic
Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)

aim-to promote economic development
as a regional commission for the UN's Economic and
Social Council

members-(12 and the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen,
Palestine Liberation Organization

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-to coordinate the economic and
social work of the UN; includes five regional
commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa,
Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic
and Social Commission for Western Asia) and six
functional commissions
(see Commission for Social Development, Commission on
Human Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission
on the Status of Women, Population Commission, Statistical
Commission, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on
Sustainable Development, Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice,
and Commission on Transnational Corporations)

members-(54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

established-29 April 1958

aim-to promote economic development
as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and
Social Council

members-(52) Algeria, Angola, Benin,
Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-
Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar,
Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome
and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe associate members-(2)
France, UK

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
(ECAFE)
see Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

established-28 March 1947

aim-to promote economic development
as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council

members-(44) Albania, Austria, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San
Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK,
US, Yugoslavia

Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
see Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean (ECLAC)

established-25 February 1948 as
Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

aim-to promote economic development
as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and
Social Council

members-(41) Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia,
Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua,
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela
associate members-(6)
Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Netherlands
Antilles, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)
see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)-acronym from Communaute
Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale

established-18 October 1983

aim-to promote regional economic
cooperation and establish a Central African Common
Market

members-(10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Zaire
observer-(1) Angola

Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries
(CEPGL)

note-acronym from Communaute Economique
des Pays des Grands Lacs

established-26 September 1976

aim-to promote regional economic
cooperation and integration

members-(3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire
Economic Community of

West African States (ECOWAS)

established-28 May 1975

aim-to promote regional economic
cooperation

members-(17) Benin, Burkina, Cape
Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,
Sierra Leone,Togo

Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)

established-1985

aim-to promote regional cooperation
in trade, transportation, communications, tourism, cultural
affairs,and economic development

members-(10) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(EBRD)

established-15 April 1991

aim-to facilitate the transition
of seven centrally planned economies in Europe (Bulgaria, former
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia)
to market economies by committing 60% of its loans to privatization

members-(58) Albania, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, European Community (EC), Egypt,
European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France,
Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico,
Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan,
Yugoslavia; note-includes all 24 members of the OECD and the EC as an
institution

European Community (EC)

established-8 April 1965

effective-1 July 1967

aim-to integrate the European Atomic

Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel
Community (ESC), and the European Economic Community
(EEC or Common Market); the EC plans to establish a
completely integrated common market and an eventual
federation of Europe

members-(12) Belgium, Denmark, France,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

established-4 January 1960

effective-3 May 1960

aim-to promote expansion of free rade

members-(7) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Leichtenstein,
Norway, Sweden, Switzerland

European Investment Bank EIB)

established-25 March 1957

effective-1 January 1958

aim-to promote economic development
of the EC

members-(12) Belgium, Denmark, France,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

European Organization for uclear Research (CERN)

note-acronym retained from the predecessor
organization Conseil Europeen pour la
Recherche Nucleaire established-1 July 1953

effective-29 September 1954

aim-to foster nuclear research for
peaceful purposes only

members-(19) Austria, Belgium, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
observers-(6) EC, Israel, Russia, Turkey, United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
Yugoslavia

European Space Agency ESA)

established-31 July 1973

effective-1 May 1975

aim-to promote peaceful cooperation
in space research and technology

members-(13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
associate member-(1) Finland
cooperating state-(1) Canada

First World

another term for countries ith advanced, industrialized
economies; this term is fading from use; see developed countries
(DCs)

Food and Agriculture rganization (FAO)

established-16 October 1945

aim-UN specialized agency to raise
living standards and increase availability of
agricultural products

members-(162) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, EC, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swazi
land, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe associate member-(1) Puerto Rico

Former USSR/Eastern Europe former USSR/EE)

the middle group in the comprehensive
but mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed
countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former
USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); these
countries are in political and economic transition and
may well be grouped differently in the near future;
this group of 27 countries includes Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia,
Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia. Moldova, oland,
Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Four Dragons

the four small Asian less developed
countries (LDCs) that have experienced unusually rapid economic
growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group
includes Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan

Four Tigers

another term for the Four Dragons;
see Four Dragons

Franc Zone (FZ)

established-NA

aim-to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies are
linked to the French franc

members-(15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Mali,
Niger, Senegal, Togo; note-France includes
metropolitan France, the four overseas departments
of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique,
Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of
France (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and the
three overseas territories of France (French
Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna)

Front Line States (FLS)

established-NA

aim-to achieve black majority rule
in South Africa

members-(7) Angola, Botswana, Mozambique,
Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

established-30 October 1947

effective-1 January 1948

aim-to promote the expansion of
international trade on a nondiscriminatory basis

members-(104) Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho,
Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Group of 2 (G-2)

established-informal term that came
into use about 1986

aim-bilateral economic cooperation
between the two most powerful economic giants

members-(2) Japan, US

Group of 3 (G-3)

established-NA October 1990

aim-mechanism for policy coordination

members-(3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela

Group of 5 (G-5)

established-22 September 1985

aim-the five major non-Communist economic powers

members-(5) France, Germany, Japan,
UK, US

Group of 6 (G-6)

note-not to be confused with theBig Six

established-22 May 1984

aim-to achieve nuclear disarmament

members-(6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico,
Sweden, Tanzania

Group of 7 (G-7)

note-membership is the same as the Big Seven

established-22 September 1985

aim-the seven major non-Communist economic powers

members-(7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus
Canada and Italy

Group of 8 (G-8)

established-NA October 1975

aim-the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the
Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several
sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977

members-(8) Australia, Canada, EC
(as one member), Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
US

Group of 9 (G-9)

established-NA

aim-informal group that meets occasionally
on matters of mutual interest

members-(9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania,
Sweden, Yugoslavia

Group of 10 (G-10)

note-also known as the Paris Club

established-NA October 1962

aim-wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money to be loaned
and act as the informal steering committee; name persists in spite of the
addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984

members-(11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Group of 11 (G-11)

note-also known as the Cartagena Group

established-22 June 1984, in Cartagena,
Colombia

aim-forum for largest debtor nations
in Latin America

members-(11) Argentina, Bolivia,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Group of 15 (G-15)

note-byproduct of the Non-Aligned
Movement

established-1989

aim-to promote economic cooperation
among developing nations; to act as the main political
organ for the Non-Aligned Movement

members-(15) Algeria, Argentina,
Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malaysia,
Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Venezuela, Yugoslavia,
Zimbabwe

Group of 19 (G-19)

established-NA October 1975

aim-the less developed countries (LDCs) that participated in the Conference on
International Economic Cooperation (CIEC) held in several sessions between NA
December 1975 and 3 June
1977

members-(19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia

Group of 24 (G-24)

established-NA January 1972

aim-to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia,
and Latin America within the IMF

members-(24) Algeria, Argentina,
Brazil, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia,
Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon,
Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri
Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela,
Yugoslavia, Zaire

Group of 30 (G-30)

established-NA 1979

aim-to discuss and propose solutions
to the world's economic problems

members-(30) informal group of 30
leading international bankers, economists, financial
experts, and businessmen organized by Johannes
Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF)

Group of 33 (G-33)

established-NA 1987

aim-to promote solutions to international economic
problems

members-(33) leading economists from 13 countries

Group of 77 (G-77)

established-NA October 1967

aim-to promote economic cooperation among developing countries;
name persists in spite of increased membership

members-(127 plus the Palestine
Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation

Organization Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

note-also known as the Cooperation Council for the
Arab States of the Gulf

established-25-26 May 1981

aim-to promote regional cooperation in economic, social,
political, and military affairs

members-(6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest