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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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5,640 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
note:
includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land,
and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus
Land boundaries:
total 404 km, Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot
summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain:
mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
32%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers
Note:
landlocked; there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank and 14
Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

*West Bank, People

Population:
1,404,114 (July 1993 est.)
note:
in addition, there are 102,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and 134,000
in East Jerusalem (1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
35.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.93 years
male:
68.48 years
female:
71.46 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.37 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%
Religions:
Muslim 80% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12%, Christian and other 8%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew spoken by Israeli settlers, English widely understood
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
small industry, commerce, and business 29.8%, construction 24.2%,
agriculture 22.4%, service and other 23.6% (1984)
note:
excluding Israeli Jewish settlers

*West Bank, Government

Note:
The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
These negotiations will determine how the area is to be governed.
Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
West Bank
Digraph:
WG

*West Bank, Economy

Overview:
Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli military
administration and the effects of the Palestinian uprising (intifadah).
Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable investment have
been discouraged by a lack of local capital and restrictive Israeli
policies. Capital investment consists largely of residential housing, not
productive assets that would enable local firms to compete with Israeli
industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and Persian Gulf states, but such transfers from the Gulf
dropped dramatically after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake
of the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned to the West
Bank, increasing unemployment, and export revenues have plunged because of
the loss of markets in Jordan and the Gulf states. Israeli measures to
curtail the intifadah also have pushed unemployment up and lowered living
standards. The area's economic outlook remains bleak.
National product: GNP - exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,200 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $31.0 million; expenditures $36.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Jordan, Israel
Imports:
$410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Jordan, Israel
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1989); accounts for about 4% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap,
olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have
established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers
Agriculture:
accounts for about 15% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
beef, and dairy products
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000
fils

*West Bank, Economy

Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.6480 (November 1992), 2.2791 (1991),
2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987); Jordanian dinars
(JD) per US$1 - 0.6890 (January 1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636
(1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

*West Bank, Communications

Highways:
small road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways to service
new settlements
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; broadcast stations - no
AM, no FM, no TV

*West Bank, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Western Sahara, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Atlantic Ocean, between Morocco and Mauritania
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
266,000 km2
land area:
266,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total 2,046 km, Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km
Coastline:
1,110 km
Maritime claims:
contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue
International disputes:
claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and the
UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered
cease-fire has been currently in effect since September 1991
Climate:
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and
heavy dew
Terrain:
mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising
to small mountains in south and northeast
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
81%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring;
widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting
visibility; sparse water and arable land

*Western Sahara, People

Population:
206,629 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.52% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
47.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
19.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
155.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.88 years
male:
43.98 years
female:
46.06 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.01 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality: noun:
Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)
adjective:
Sahrawian, Sahraouian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Berber
Religions:
Muslim
Languages:
Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
12,000
by occupation:
animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

*Western Sahara, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Western Sahara
Digraph:
WI
Type:
legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved; territory
contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation
of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally
proclaimed a government in exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR); territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976,
with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from
Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979;
Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since
asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was
seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued
sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September
1991
Capital:
none
Administrative divisions:
none (under de facto control of Morocco)
Leaders:
none
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none

*Western Sahara, Economy

Overview:
Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having little
rainfall, has a per capita GDP of roughly $300. Pastoral nomadism, fishing,
and phosphate mining are the principal sources of income for the population.
Most of the food for the urban population must be imported. All trade and
other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan Government.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $60 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$300 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.)
commodities:
phosphates 62%
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
Imports:
$30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.)
commodities:
fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners:
Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are
included in overall Moroccan accounts
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced, 425 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
phosphate mining, fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some barley is grown in
nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food
imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic
natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.034 (January 1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707
(1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988)
Fiscal year:
NA

*Western Sahara, Communications

Highways:
6,200 km total; 1,450 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and unimproved earth
roads and tracks
Ports:
El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio
relay, troposcatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations linked to
Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

*Western Sahara, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Western Samoa, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,860 km2 land area:
2,850 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
403 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
Natural resources:
hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land:
19%
permanent crops:
24%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
47%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

*Western Samoa, People

Population:
199,652 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.37% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
38.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.58 years male:
65.19 years
female:
70.08 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.28 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Western Samoan(s)
adjective:
Western Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood),
Europeans 0.4%
Religions:
Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with the London
Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist,
Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Samoan (Polynesian), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
38,000
by occupation:
agriculture 22,000 (1987 est.)

*Western Samoa, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Independent State of Western Samoa
conventional short form:
Western Samoa
Digraph:
WS
Type:
constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital:
Apia
Administrative divisions:
11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga,
Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence:
1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)
Constitution:
1 January 1962
Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of
legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 1 June
Political parties and leaders:
Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti, chairman; Samoan National
Development Party (SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal, but only matai (head of family) are able to run
for the Legislative Assembly
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 5 April 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) HRPP 28, SNDP 18, independents 1
Executive branch:
chief, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chief Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January 1962
until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988)
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Neroni SLADE
chancery:
(temporary) suite 510, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 833-1743
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa

*Western Samoa, Government

embassy:
address NA, Apia
mailing address:
P.O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone:
(685) 21-631
FAX:
(685) 22-030
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five
white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

*Western Samoa, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force, contributes 50% to
GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings comes from
the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on emigrant
remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports several times
export earnings. Tourism has become the most important growth industry, and
construction of the first international hotel is under way.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $115 million (1990)
National product real growth rate:
-4.5% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$690 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $95.3 million; expenditures $95.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $41 million (FY92)
Exports:
$9 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
coconut oil and cream 54%, taro 12%, copra 9%, cocoa 3%
partners:
NZ 28%, American Samoa 23%, Germany 22%, US 6% (1990)
Imports:
$75 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners:
New Zealand 41%, Australia 18%, Japan 13%, UK 6%, US 6%
External debt:
$83 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
29,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
timber, tourism, food processing, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $306 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million
Currency:
1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene
Exchange rates:
tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2.5681 (January 1993), 2.4655 (1992), 2.3975 (1991),
2.3095 (1990), 2.2686 (1989), 2.0790 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Western Samoa, Communications

Highways:
2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; 1,667 km mostly gravel, crushed stone, or
earth
Ports:
Apia
Merchant marine:
1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,838 GRT/5,536 DWT
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground station

*Western Samoa, Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of Police and Prisons
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*World, Geography

Map references:
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
510.072 million km2
land area:
148.94 million km2
water area:
361.132 million km2
comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US
note:
70.8% of the world is water, 29.2% is land
Land boundaries:
the land boundaries in the world total 250,883.64 km (not counting shared
boundaries twice)
Coastline:
356,000 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf:
200 m depth claimed by most or to the depth of exploitation, others claim
200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea:
12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note:
boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries from
extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm; 42 nations and
other areas that are landlocked include Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi,
Central African Republic, Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican
City), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger,
Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Climate:
two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate
zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates
Terrain:
highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest depression is
the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is the
Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters
Natural resources:
the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of
forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and
the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe and
the former USSR) pose serious long-term problems that governments and
peoples are only beginning to address
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%

*World, Geography

meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland: 31%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters
(earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions), overpopulation,
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances),
loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of
wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

*World, People

Population:
5,554,552,453 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.6% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
66 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62 years
male:
60 years
female:
64 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.2 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
combined:
74%
male:
81%
female:
67%
Labor force:
2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation:
NA

*World, Government

Digraph:
XX
Administrative divisions:
265 sovereign nations, dependent areas, other, and miscellaneous entries
Legal system:
varies by individual country; 182 are parties to the United Nations
International Court of Justice (ICJ or World Court)

*World, Economy

Overview:
Real global output--gross world product (GWP)--rose one-half of 1% in 1992,
with results varying widely among regions and countries. Average growth of
1.5% in the GDP of industrialized countries (62% of GWP in 1992) and average
growth of 5% in the GDP of less developed countries (30% of GWP) were offset
by a further 15-20% drop in the GDP of the former Soviet-East European area
(now only 8% of GWP). The United States accounted for 23% of GWP in 1992;
the 12-member European Community, which established a single internal market
on 1 January 1993, accounted for another 23%, and Japan accounted for 10%.
These are the three "economic superpowers" presumably destined to compete
for mastery in international markets on into the 21st century. In general,
growth in the industrialized countries was sluggish in 1992, with
unemployment typically at 7-11%. As for the less developed countries, China,
India, and the Four Dragons--South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
Singapore--posted good records; however, many other countries, especially in
Africa, suffered bitterly from drought, rapid population growth, and civil
strife. The continued plunge in production in practically all the former
Warsaw Pact economies strained the political and social fabric of these
newly independent nations, in particular in Russia. The addition of nearly
100 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating
the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and
famine. Because of their own internal problems, the industrialized countries
have inadequate resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the
world, which, at least from the economic point of view, are becoming further
marginalized. (For the specific economic problems of each country, see the
individual country entries in this volume.)
National product:
GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power equivalent - $25.6 trillion
(1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,600 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
developed countries:
5% (1992 est.)
developing countries:
50% (1992 est.)
note:
these figures vary widely in individual cases
Unemployment rate:
developed countries typically 7-11%; developing countries, extensive
unemployment and underemployment (1992)
Exports:
$3.64 trillion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners: in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries
Imports:
$3.82 trillion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
partners:
in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries
External debt:
$1 trillion for less developed countries (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1992 est.)

*World, Economy

Electricity:
2,864,000,000 kW capacity; 11,450,000 million kWh produced, 2,150 kWh per
capita (1990)
Industries:
industry worldwide is dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in
computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical
equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small
portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these
technological forces, and the technological gap between the industrial
nations and the less-developed countries continues to widen; the rapid
development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating
already grim environmental problems
Agriculture:
the production of major food crops has increased substantially in the last
20 years; the annual production of cereals, for instance, has risen by 50%,
from about 1.2 billion metric tons to about 1.8 billion metric tons;
production increases have resulted mainly from increased yields rather than
increases in planted areas; while global production is sufficient for
aggregate demand, about one-fifth of the world's population remains
malnourished, primarily because local production cannot adequately provide
for large and rapidly growing populations, which are too poor to pay for
food imports; conditions are especially bad in Africa where drought in
recent years has intensified the consequences of overpopulation
Economic aid:
NA

*World, Communications

Railroads:
239,430 km of narrow gauge track; 710,754 km of standard gauge track;
251,153 km of broad gauge track; includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the Far
East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and only 4,160 km in
North America; fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr attained by
France's SNCF TGV-Atlantique line
Ports:
Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, New
Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama
Merchant marine:
23,943 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 397,225,000 GRT/652,025,000 DWT;
includes 347 passenger-cargo, 12,581 freighters, 5,473 bulk carriers, and
5,542 tankers (January 1992)

*World, Defense Forces

Branches:
ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology
Defense expenditures:
$1.0 trillion, 4% of total world output; decline of 5-10% (1991 est.)

*Yemen, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, south of Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
527,970 km2
land area:
527,970 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
note:
includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North
Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South
Yemen)
Land boundaries:
total 1,746 km, Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Coastline:
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm in the North
24 nm in the South
continental shelf:
200 m depth in the North
200 nm in the South or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; Administrative Line with
Oman; a treaty with Oman to settle the Yemeni-Omani boundary was ratified in
December 1992
Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western
mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh
desert in east
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains;
dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of
the Arabian Peninsula
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold, lead,
nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
57%
Irrigated land:
3,100 km2 (1989 est.)

*Yemen, Geography

Environment:
subject to sand and dust storms in summer; scarcity of natural freshwater
resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden,
one of world's most active shipping lanes

*Yemen, People

Population:
10,742,395 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.31% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
51 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
15.37 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
115.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
50.94 years
male:
49.83 years
female:
52.11 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate: 7.27 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Yemeni(s)
adjective:
Yemeni
Ethnic divisions:
predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in coastal locations; South
Asians in southern regions; small European communities in major metropolitan
areas; 60,000 (est.) Somali refugees encamped near Aden
Religions:
Muslim (including Sha'fi, Sunni, and Zaydi Shi'a), Jewish, Christian, Hindu
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
38%
male:
53%
female:
26%
Labor force:
North:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture and herding 70%, expatriate laborers 30% (est.)
South:
477,000
by occupation:
agriculture 45.2%, services 21.2%, construction 13.4%, industry 10.6%,
commerce and other 9.6% (1983)

*Yemen, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Yemen
conventional short form:
Yemen
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form:
Al Yaman
Digraph:
YM
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sanaa
Administrative divisions:
17 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Al Bayda',
Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb,
Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz
note:
there may be a new capital district of San'a'
Independence:
22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the merger
of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} and the
Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or
South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November
1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30
November 1967 (from the UK)
Constitution:
16 April 1991
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress, 'Ali 'Abdallah SALIH; Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP; formerly South Yemen's ruling party - a coalition of National Front,
Ba'th, and Communist Parties), Ali Salim al-BIDH; Yemen Grouping for Reform
or Islaah, Abdallah Husayn AHMAR
Other political or pressure groups:
conservative tribal groups; Muslim Brotherhood; Islamist parties; pro-Iraqi
Ba'thists; Nasirists
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held NA (next to be held 27 April 1993); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (301); number of seats by party NA; note - the 301 members of the
new House of Representatives come from North Yemen's Consultative Assembly
(159 members), South Yemen's Supreme People's Council (111 members), and
appointments by the New Presidential Council (31 members)
Executive branch:
five-member Presidential Council (president, vice president, two members
from northern Yemen and one member from southern Yemen), prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Yemen, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President 'Ali 'Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of
North Yemen); Vice President Ali Salim al-BIDH (since 22 May 1990);
Presidential Council Member Salim Salih MUHAMMED; Presidential Council
Member Kadi Abdul-Karim al-ARASHI; Presidential Council Member Abdul-Aziz
ABDUL-GHANI; Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-'ATTAS (since 22 May 1990,
the former president of South Yemen)
Member of:
ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI
chancery:
Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 965-4760 or 4761
consulate general:
Detroit
consulate:
San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Arthur H. HUGHES
embassy:
Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa or Sanaa, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-6330
telephone:
[967] (2) 238-842 through 238-852
FAX:
[967] (2) 251-563
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the
flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has three green
stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle
centered in the white band

*Yemen, Economy

Overview:
Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united Yemen,
the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities, is the
economic and commercial capital. Future economic development depends heavily
on Western-assisted development of promising oil resources. Former South
Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in
Soviet economic support. The low level of domestic industry and agriculture
have made northern Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its
essential needs. Large trade deficits have been compensated for by
remittances from Yemenis working abroad and by foreign aid. Once
self-sufficient in food production, northern Yemen has become a major
importer. Land once used for export crops - cotton, fruit, and vegetables -
has been turned over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by
Yemenis which has no significant export market. Oil export revenues started
flowing in late 1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.
Economic growth in former South Yemen has been constrained by a lack of
incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production
decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: NA%
National product per capita:
$775 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
100% (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
30% (December 1992)
Budget:
revenues $NA, expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$908 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish
partners:
US, EC countries, South Korea, Saudi Arabia
Imports:
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar,
grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals
partners:
Japan, Saudi Arabia, Australia, EC countries, China, Russia, US
External debt:
$5.75 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%, accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
714,000 kW capacity; 1,224 million kWh produced, 120 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of
cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small
aluminum products factory; cement
Agriculture:
accounted for 26% of GDP; products - grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly
narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, fish; not
self-sufficient in grain

*Yemen, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
billion
Currency:
Yemeni rial (new currency); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils; 1 South
Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils
note:
following the establishment of the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990, the
North Yemeni riyal and the South Yemeni dinar are to be replaced with a new
Yemeni rial
Exchange rates:
Yemeni rials per US$1 - 12.0 (official); 30-40 (unofficial) (est.); North
Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1 - 12.1000 (June 1992), 12.0000 (1991), 9.7600
(1990), 9.7600 (January 1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987); South Yemeni
dinars (YD) per US$1 - 0.3454 (fixed rate)
note:
following the establishment of the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990, the
North Yemeni riyal and the South Yemeni dinar are to be replaced with a new
Yemeni rial
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Yemen, Communications

Highways:
15,500 km total; 4,000 km paved, 11,500 km natural surface (est.)
Pipelines:
crude oil 644 km, petroleum products 32 km
Ports:
Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun, Ra's Kathib, Salif
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
45
usable:
39
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
18
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
since unification in 1990, efforts are still being made to create a national
domestic civil telecommunications network; the network consists of microwave
radio relay, cable and troposcatter; 65,000 telephones (est.); broadcast
stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 10 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; microwave
radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

*Yemen, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,060,124; fit for military service 1,172,633; reach
military age (14) annually 133,727 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $762 million, 10% of GDP (1992)

*Zaire, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Congo and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,345,410 km2
land area:
2,267,600 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of US
Land boundaries:
total 10,271 km, Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic
1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia
1,930 km
Coastline:
37 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along the
Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been
made)
Climate:
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in
southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator
- wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of
Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October
Terrain:
vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Natural resources:
cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold,
silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore,
coal, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
78%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
100 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment: dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands;
periodic droughts in south
Note:
straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo
River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

*Zaire, People

Population:
41,345,738 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.2% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
48.43 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
113.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.26 years
male:
45.45 years
female:
49.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zairian(s)
adjective:
Zairian
Ethnic divisions:
over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest tribes
- Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up
about 45% of the population
Religions:
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other
syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%
Languages:
French, Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
72%
male:
84%
female:
61%
Labor force:
15 million (13% of the labor force is wage earners; 51% of the population is
of working age)
by occupation:
agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12% (1985)

*Zaire, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zaire
conventional short form:
Zaire
local long form:
Republique du Zaire
local short form:
Zaire
former:
Belgian Congo Congo/Leopoldville Congo/Kinshasa
Digraph:
CG
Type:
republic with a strong presidential system
Capital:
Kinshasa
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu,, Bas-Zaire, Equateur,
Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu, Independence:
30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
Constitution:
24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978; amended April
1990; new constitution to be put to referendum in 1993
Legal system:
based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)
Political parties and leaders:
sole legal party until January 1991 - Popular Movement of the Revolution
(MPR); other parties include Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS),
Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba; Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC),
Joseph ILEO; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI), NGUZ
a Karl-I-Bond; Unified Lumumbast Party (PALU), leader NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 29 July 1984 (next to be scheduled by High Council, the
opposition-controlled transition legislature); results - President MOBUTU
was reelected without opposition
Legislative Council:
last held 6 September 1987 (next to be scheduled by High Council); results -
MPR was the only party; seats - (210 total) MPR 210; note - MPR still holds
majority of seats but some deputies have joined other parties
Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament; anti-Mobutu opposition claims National
Parliament replaced by High Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24
November 1965)

*Zaire, Government

Head of Government:
Interim Prime Minister Faustin BIRINDWA (since 18 March 1993)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador TATANENE Manata
chancery:
1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-7690 or 7691
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Deputy Chief of Mission John YATES
embassy:
310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
mailing address:
APO AE 09828
telephone:
[243] (12) 21532, 21628
FAX:
[243] (12) 21232
consulate general:
Lubumbashi (closed and evacuated in October 1991 because of the poor
security situation)
Flag:
light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm holding a
red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the hoist
side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Zaire, Economy

Overview:
In 1992, Zaire's formal economy continued to disintegrate. While meaningful
economic figures are difficult to come by, Zaire's hyperinflation, the
largest government deficit ever, and plunging mineral production have made
the country one of the world's poorest. Most formal transactions are
conducted in hard currency as indigenous banknotes have lost almost all
value, and a barter economy now flourishes in all but the largest cities.
Most individuals and families hang on grimly through subsistence farming and
petty trade. The government has not been able to meet its financial
obligations to the International Momentary Fund or put in place the
financial measures advocated by the IMF. Although short-term prospects for
improvement are dim, improved political stability would boost Zaire's
long-term potential to effectively exploit its vast wealth of mineral and
agricultural resources.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $9.2 billion (1992, at 1990 exchange rate)
National product real growth rate:
-6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$235 (1992, at 1990 exchange rate)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35-40% per month (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA, expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copper, coffee, diamonds, cobalt, crude oil
partners:
US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa
Imports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment,
fuels
partners:
South Africa, US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK
External debt:
$9.2 billion (May 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth grate NA%
Electricity:
2,580,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear,
and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement, diamonds
Agriculture:
cash crops - coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops - cassava,
bananas, root crops, corn
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $263
million; except for humanitarian aid to private organizations, no US
assistance was given to Zaire in 1992

*Zaire, Economy

Currency:
1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta
Exchange rates:
zaire (Z) per US$1 - 2,000,000 (January1993), 15,587 (1991), 719 (1990), 381
(1989), 187 (1988), 112 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Zaire, Communications

Railroads:
5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge;
limited trackage in use because of civil strife
Highways:
146,500 km total; 2,800 km paved, 46,200 km gravel and improved earth;
97,500 unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes
Pipelines:
petroleum products 390 km
Ports:
Matadi, Boma, Banana
Merchant marine:
1 passenger cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,489 GRT/13,481 DWT
Airports:
total:
281
usable:
235
with permanent-surface runways:
25
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
73
Telecommunications:
barely adequate wire and microwave service; broadcast stations - 10 AM, 4
FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

*Zaire, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, Civil Guard,
Special Presidential Division
Manpower availability: males age 15-49 8,879,731; fit for military service 4,521,768 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988)

*Zambia, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Zaire and Zimbabwe
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
752,610 km2
land area:
740,720 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia
233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate:
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
47%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
320 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
landlocked

*Zambia, People

Population:
8,926,099 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.96% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
46.53 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.88 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
83.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.56 years
male:
44.97 years
female:
46.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.75 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zambian(s)
adjective:
Zambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official)
note:
about 70 indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
73%
male:
81%
female:
65%
Labor force:
2.455 million
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%, transport and
services 9%

*Zambia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zambia
conventional short form:
Zambia
former:
Northern Rhodesia
Digraph:
ZA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lusaka
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern,
North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
24 October 1964 (from UK)
Constitution:
NA August 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United National
Independence Party (UNIP), Kebby MUSOKATWANE; United Democratic Party, Enoch
KAVINDELE
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held mid-1995); results - Frederick
CHILUBA 84%, Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
National Assembly:
last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held mid-1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dunstan KAMONA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-9717 through 9721

*Zambia, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gordon L. STREEB
embassy:
corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka
mailing address:
P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone:
[260-1] 228-595, 228-601, 228-602, 228-603
FAX:
[260-1] 251-578
Flag:
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and
orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

*Zambia, Economy

Overview:
The economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports
and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a chronically
depressed level of copper production and ineffective economic policies. In
1991 real GDP fell by 2% and in 1992 by 3% more. An annual population growth
of more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 50% over the past
decade. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in
recent years, as well as severe drought in the crop year 1991/92.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.7 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$550 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
170% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $665 million; expenditures $767 million, including capital
expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners:
EC countries, Japan, South Africa, US, India
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures
partners:
EC countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US
External debt:
$7.6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2% (1991); accounts for 50% of GDP
Electricity:
2,775,000 kW capacity; 12,000 million kWh produced, 1,400 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages,
chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 17% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops - corn (food staple),
sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava;
cattle, goats, beef, eggs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $4.8 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $533
million
Currency:
1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee
Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 178.5714 (August 1992), 61.7284 (1991),
28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Zambia, Communications

Railroads:
1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track
Highways:
36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or
stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,724 km
Ports:
Mpulungu (lake port)
Airports:
total:
116
usable:
104
with permanent-surface runways:
13
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
22
Telecommunications:
facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity microwave
connects most larger towns and cities; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 5 FM, 9
TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT

*Zambia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,810,442; fit for military service 949,878 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 1% of GDP (1992 est.)

*Zimbabwe, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
390,580 km2
land area:
386,670 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km,
Zambia 797 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement
Climate:
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in
east
Natural resources:
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium,
lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures:
12%
forest and woodland:
62%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
2,200 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil
erosion; air and water pollution
Note:
landlocked

*Zimbabwe, People

Population:
10,837,772 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
38.16 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
17.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
75.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
42.82 years
male:
41.2 years
female:
44.49 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.26 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Zimbabwean(s)
adjective:
Zimbabwean
Ethnic divisions:
African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and Asian
1%
Religions:
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%,
indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Languages:
English (official), Shona, Sindebele
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 67%
male:
74%
female:
60%
Labor force:
3.1 million
by occupation:
agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing,
construction 10% (1987)

*Zimbabwe, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form:
Zimbabwe
former:
Southern Rhodesia
Digraph:
ZI
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Harare
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland
West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence:
18 April 1980 (from UK)
Constitution:
21 December 1979

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