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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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triangular and wavy

*Uruguay, Economy

Overview:
Uruguay is a small economy with favorable climate, good soils, and solid
hydropower potential. Economic development has been held back by excessive
government regulation of economic detail and 50% to 130% inflation. After
several years of sluggish growth, real GDP jumped by about 8% in 1992. The
rise is attributable mainly to an increase in Argentine demand for Uruguayan
exports, particularly agricultural products and electricity. In a major step
toward greater regional economic cooperation, Uruguay in 1991 had joined
Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in forming the Southern Cone Common Market
(Mercosur). A referendum in December 1992 overturned key portions of
landmark privatization legislation, dealing a serious blow to President
LACALLE's broad economic reform plan.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $9.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
58% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.9 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $388 million (1991)
Exports:
$1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%
partners:
Argentina, Brazil, US, Germany
Imports:
$1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, fuels, and lubricants, metals, machinery, transportation
equipment, industrial chemicals
partners:
Brazil 23%, Argentina 17%, US 10%, EC 27.1% (1990)
External debt:
$4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.4% (1990), accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
2,168,000 kW capacity; 5,960 million kWh produced, 1,900 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel,
tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine
Agriculture:
large areas devoted to livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum;
self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $420 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million
Currency:
1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

*Uruguay, Economy

Exchange rates:
new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 3,457.5 (December 1992), 3,026.9
(1992), 2,489 (1991), 1,594 (1990), 805 (1989), 451 (1988), 281 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Uruguay, Communications

Railroads:
3,000 km, all 1.435-meter (standard) gauge and government owned
Highways:
49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth
Inland waterways:
1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft
Ports:
Montevideo, Punta del Este, Colonia
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,797 GRT/132,296 DWT; includes 1
cargo, 2 container, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
88
usable:
81
with permanent-surface runways:
16
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
14
Telecommunications:
most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave
network; 337,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Uruguay, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, Marines), Air Force,
Grenadier Guards, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 755,667; fit for military service 613,585 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $216 million, 2.3% of GDP (1991 est.)

*Uzbekistan, Geography

Location:
Central Asia, bordering the Aral Sea, between Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
447,400 km2
land area:
425,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099
km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Uzbekistan does border the Aral Sea (420 km)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
mostly mid latitude desert; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; Fergana Valley in east
surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in
west
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc,
tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
47%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
43%
Irrigated land:
41,550 km2 (1990)
Environment:
drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical
pesticides and natural salts
Note:
landlocked

*Uzbekistan, People

Population:
22,127,946 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.17% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
30.57 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
54.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.36 years male:
65.05 years
female:
71.84 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.78 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Uzbek(s)
adjective:
Uzbek
Ethnic divisions:
Uzbek 71.4%, Russian 8.3%, Tajik 4.7%, Kazakhs 4.1%, Tartars 2.4% (includes
70% of Crimean Tatars deported during World War II), Karakalpaks 2.1%, other
7%
Religions:
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages:
Uzbek 85%, Russian 5%, other 10%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
7.941 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 39%, industry and construction 24%, other 37%
(1990)

*Uzbekistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form:
Uzbekistan
local long form:
Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form:
none
former:
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
UZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tashkent (Toshkent)
Administrative divisions:
12 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and 1 autonomous republic*, (avtomnaya respublika);
Andizhan, Bukhara, Dzhizak, Fergana, Karakalpakstan*, (Nukus), Kashkadar'ya (Karshi), Khorezm
(Urgench), Namangan, Navoi,
Samarkand, Surkhandar'ya (Termez), Syrdar'ya (Gulistan), Tashkent
note:
an administrative division has the same name as its administrative center
(exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
evolution of Soviet civil law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Party (PDP; formerly Communist Party), Islam A. KARIMOV,
chairman; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party (EDP), Muhammad SOLIKH, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Birlik (Unity) People's Movement (BPM), Abdul Rakhman PULATOV, chairman;
Islamic Rebirth Party (IRP), Abdullah UTAYEV, chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results -
Islam KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%
Supreme Soviet:
last held 18 February 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (500 total) Communist 450, ERK 10, other 40; note -
total number of seats will be reduced to 150 in next election
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Islam KARIMOV (since NA March 1990)

*Uzbekistan, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Abdulkhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992), First Deputy
Prime Minister Ismail Hakimovitch DJURABEKOV (since NA); Supreme Soviet
Chairman Shavkat Muhitdinovitch YULDASHEV (since NA June 1991)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDA, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhammed Babir MALIKOV
chancery:
200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: (202) 778-0107
FAX:
(202) 861-0472
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Henry L. CLARKE
embassy:
55 Chelanzanskaya, Tashkent
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
[7] (3712) 77-14-07
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by
red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side
quadrant

*Uzbekistan, Economy

Overview:
Although Uzbekistan accounted for only 3.4% of total Soviet output, it
produced two-thirds of the USSR's cotton and ranks as the fourth largest
global producer. Moscow's push for ever-increasing amounts of cotton had
included massive irrigation projects which caused extensive environmental
damage to the Aral Sea and rivers of the republic. Furthermore, the lavish
use of chemical fertilizers has caused extensive pollution and widespread
health problems. Recently the republic has sought to encourage food
production at the expense of cotton. The small industrial sector specializes
in such items as agricultural machinery, mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil,
and bridge cranes. Uzbekistan also has some important natural resources
including gold (about 30% of former Soviet production), uranium, and natural
gas. The Uzbek Government has encouraged some land reform but has shied away
from other aspects of economic reform. Output and living standards continued
to fall in 1992 largely because of the cumulative impact of disruptions in
supply that have followed the dismemberment of the USSR.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
at least 17% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.1% includes only officially registered unemployed; there are also large
numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$900 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
cotton, gold, textiles, chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe
Imports:
$900 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
machinery and parts, consumer durables, grain, other foods
partners:
principally other former Soviet republics
External debt:
$2 billion (end 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -6%
Electricity:
11,950,000 kW capacity; 50,900 million kWh produced, 2,300 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil, textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, with much smaller production of grain, fruits, vegetables, and
livestock
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication programs; used as transshipment points for illicit
drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$950 million official aid commitments by foreign donors (1992)

*Uzbekistan, Economy

Currency:
retaining Russian ruble as currency (January 1993)
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Uzbekistan, Communications

Railroads:
3,460 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
78,400 km total; 67,000 km hard-surfaced, 11,400 km earth (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km, petroleum products 40 km, natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
totol:
265
useable:
74
with permanent-surface runways:
30
with runways over 3,659 m: 2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
19
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent;
1.4 million telephone lines with 7.2 lines per 100 persons (1992); linked by
landline or microwave with CIS member states and by leased connection via
the Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth
stations - Orbita and INTELSAT (TV receive only); new intelsat earth station
provides TV receive only capability for Turkish broadcasts; new satellite
ground station also installed in Tashkent for direct linkage to Tokyo.

*Uzbekistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,214,075; fit for military service 4,272,398; reach
military age (18) annually 218,916 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Vanuatu, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
14,760 km2
land area:
14,760 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
note:
includes more than 80 islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,528 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
91%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism
causes minor earthquakes

*Vanuatu, People

Population:
165,876 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.36% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.16 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
69.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
58.8 years
male:
57.11 years
female:
60.58 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective: Ni-Vanuatu
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese, Chinese, Pacific Islanders
Religions:
Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs 7.6%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7%
Languages:
English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as Bislama or
Bichelama)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
total population:
53%
male:
57%
female:
48%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

*Vanuatu, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form:
Vanuatu
former:
New Hebrides
Digraph:
NH
Type:
republic
Capital:
Port-Vila
Administrative divisions:
11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula,
Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea
Independence:
30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
Constitution:
30 July 1980
Legal system:
unified system being created from former dual French and British systems
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Political parties and leaders:
Vanuatu Party (VP), Donald KALPOKAS; Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), Serge
VOHOR; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; National United Party
(NUP), Walter LINI; Tan Union Party (TUP), Vincent BOULEKONE; Nagriamel
Party, Jimmy STEVENS; Friend Melanesian Party, leader NA
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held by November 1995); note - after
election, a coalition was formed by the Union of Moderate Parties and the
National United Party to form new government on 16 December 1991; seats -
(46 total) UMP 19; NUP 10; VP 10; MPP 4; TUP 1; Nagriamel 1; Friend 1
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament; note - the National Council of Chiefs advises on
matters of custom and land
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Maxime CARLOT KORMAN (since 16 December 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Sethy REGENVANU (since 17 December 1991)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, IOC,
ITU, NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Vanuatu does not have a mission in Washington
US diplomatic representation:
the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

*Vanuatu, Government

Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black isosceles
triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow
stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the
hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's
tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

*Vanuatu, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming which provides a
living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the other
mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has
no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the
local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $142 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1990)
National product per capita:
$900 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $90 million; expenditures $103 million, including capital
expenditures of $45 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$15.6 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
copra 59%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%
partners:
Netherlands, Japan, France, New Caledonia, Belgium
Imports:
$60.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%,
raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%
partners:
Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 8%
External debt:
$30 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 10% of GDP
Electricity:
17,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; export crops - coconuts, cocoa, coffee, fish;
subsistence crops - taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$606 million
Currency:
1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
vatu (VT) per US$1 - 120.77 (January 1993), 113.39 (1992), 111.68 (1991),
116.57 (1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Vanuatu, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads
Ports:
Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu
Merchant marine:
125 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,121,819 GRT/3,193,942 DWT; includes
23 cargo, 16 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 11 vehicle carrier, 1
livestock carrier, 6 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 54
bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger; note - a flag
of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
31
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT ground station

*Vanuatu, Defense Forces

Branches:
Vanuatu Police Force (VPF), paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF)
note:
no military forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Venezuela, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Colombia and
Guyana
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
912,050 km2
land area:
882,050 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,993 km, Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km
Coastline:
2,800 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
15 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river; maritime boundary dispute
with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains
(llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower,
diamonds
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
37%
Irrigated land:
2,640 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing
industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo
Note:
on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

*Venezuela, People

Population:
20,117,687 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.22% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.69 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.69 years
male:
69.76 years female:
75.77 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.14 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Venezuelan(s)
adjective:
Venezuelan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%
Languages:
Spanish (official), Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in
the remote interior
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
87%
female:
90%
Labor force:
5.8 million
by occupation:
services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16% (1985)

*Venezuela, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form:
Venezuela
local long form:
Republica de Venezuela
local short form:
Venezuela
Digraph:
VE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Caracas
Administrative divisions:
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* ( territorio), 1, federal district**,
(distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence***, (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui,,
Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales***,, Distrito Federal**,,
Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva
Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups
with a total of 72 individual islands
Independence:
5 July 1811 (from Spain)
Constitution:
23 January 1961
Legal system:
based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation
Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Hilarion CARDOZO, president, and Jose
CURIEL, secretary general (acting); Democratic Action (AD), Humberto CELLI,
president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero, secretary general; Movement Toward
Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and Freddy MUNOZ, secretary
general; The Radical Cause ( La Causa R), Pablo Medina, secretary general
Other political or pressure groups:
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation of
Workers (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action); VECINOS
groups
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held 5 December 1993); results -
Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%, Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%;
note - President Carlos Andres PEREZ suspended pending trial on corruption
charges
Senate:
last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held 5 December 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4;
note - 3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate
seats

*Venezuela, Government

Chamber of Deputies:
last held 4 December 1992 (next to be held 5 December 1993); results - AD
43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%; seats - (201 total) AD 97, COPEI
67, MAS 18, other 19
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica) consists of an
upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Interim President Ramon Jose VELASQUEZ (since 5 June 1993); note - President
Carlos Andres PEREZ suspended pending trial on corruption charges
Member of: AG, CARICOM (observer), CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM,
OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro
chancery:
1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-2214
consulates general:
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL
embassy:
Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas
mailing address:
P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34037
telephone:
[58] (2) 285-2222
FAX:
[58] (2) 285-0336
consulate:
Maracaibo
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of
arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white
five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

*Venezuela, Economy

Overview:
Petroleum is the backbone of the economy, accounting for 23% of GDP, 70% of
central government revenues, and 82% of export earnings in 1992. President
PEREZ introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed office in
February 1989. Lower tariffs and the removal of price controls, a free
market exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy
into confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. However, the economy
recovered part way in 1990 and grew by 10.4% in 1991 and 7.3% in 1992, led
by the non-petroleum sector.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $57.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
32% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.4% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $13.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$14.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 82%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic
manufactures
partners:
US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)
Imports:
$12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment
partners:
US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)
External debt:
$27.1 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.9% (1992 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
21,130,000 kW capacity; 58,541 million kWh produced, 2,830 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing,
textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn, sorghum,
sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish;
not self-sufficient in food other than meat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug trade
on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit the country
from Colombia; important money-laundering hub
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $10 million
Currency:
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

*Venezuela, Economy

Exchange rates:
bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 80.18 (January 1993), 68.38 (1992), 56.82 (1991),
46.90 (1990), 34.68 (1989), 14.50 (fixed rate 1987-88)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Venezuela, Communications

Railroads:
542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track, government
owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned
Highways:
77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km earth roads,
and 15,835 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km
Ports:
Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto Ordaz
Merchant marine:
56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 837,375 GRT/1,344,795 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 19 cargo, 2 container, 4
roll-on/roll-off, 18 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 6 bulk,
1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk
Airports:
total:
360
usable:
331
with permanent-surface runways:
133
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
87
Telecommunications:
modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 181 AM, no
FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite ground
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

*Venezuela, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales, FAN) includes - Ground
Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas
Navales or Armada), Air Forces (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of
Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperation or Guardia
Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,192,107; fit for military service 3,769,441; reach
military age (18) annually 221,043 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)

*Vietnam, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Laos and the
Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
329,560 km2
land area:
325,360 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,818 km, Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km
Coastline:
3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute
over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and
possibly Brunei; unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand; maritime
boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied
by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to
mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Terrain:
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in
far north and northwest
Natural resources:
phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits,
forests
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
18,300 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding

*Vietnam, People

Population:
71,787,608 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.85% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
27.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.92 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
46.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.1 years
male:
63.08 years
female:
67.25 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Vietnamese
Ethnic divisions:
Vietnamese 85-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham
Religions:
Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic, Protestant
Languages:
Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages
(Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
92%
female:
84%
Labor force:
32.7 million
by occupation:
agricultural 65%, industrial and service 35% (1990 est.)

*Vietnam, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form:
Vietnam local long form:
Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form:
Viet Nam
Abbreviation:
SRV
Digraph:
VM
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Hanoi
Administrative divisions:
50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh pho,, singular and plural);
An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh
Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai,
Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ho Chi, Minh*, Hoa Binh,
Khanh, Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang
Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu
Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc
Trang, Son La, Song Be, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien, Tien
Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai
Independence:
2 September 1945 (from France)
Constitution:
NA April 1992
Legal system:
based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), DO MUOI, general secretary
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 19 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1997); results - VCP is the
only party; seats - (395 total) VCP or VCP-approved 395
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi)
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Le Duc ANH (since 23 September 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991); First Deputy Prime
Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen
KHANH (since NA February 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Tran Duc LUONG (since
NA February 1987)

*Vietnam, Government

Member of:
ACCT, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

*Vietnam, Economy

Overview:
Vietnam has made significant progress in recent years moving away from the
planned economic model and toward a more effective market-based economic
system. Most prices are now fully decontrolled and the Vietnamese currency
has been effectively devalued and floated at world market rates. In
addition, the scope for private sector activity has been expanded, primarily
through decollectivization of the agricultural sector and introduction of
laws giving legal recognition to private business. Despite such positive
indicators, the country's economic turnaround remains tenuous. Nearly
three-quarters of export earnings are generated by only two commodities,
rice and crude oil. Meanwhile, industrial production stagnates, burdened by
uncompetitive state-owned enterprises the government is unwilling or unable
to privatize. Unemployment looms as the most serious problem with over 25%
of the workforce without jobs and population growth swelling the ranks of
the unemployed yearly.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $16 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$230 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15%-20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals, crude oil, ores,
seafood
partners:
Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan
Imports:
$1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum products, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals,
medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain
partners:
Japan, Singapore, Thailand
External debt:
$16.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 15% (1992); accounts for 30% of GNP
Electricity:
3,300,000 kW capacity; 9,000 million kWh produced, 130 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizer, glass, tires, oil
Agriculture:
accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50% of farm
output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas) and animal
products 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish catch of
943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)

*Vietnam, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $12.0
billion
Currency:
1 new dong (D) = 100 xu
Exchange rates:
new dong (D) per US$1 - 10,800 (November 1992), 8,100 (July 1991), 7,280
(December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990), 2,047 (1988), 225 (1987); note -
1985-89 figures are end of year
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Vietnam, Communications

Railroads:
3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter (standard)
gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to service
after war damage
Highways:
85,000 km total; 9,400 km paved, 48,700 km gravel or improved earth, 26,900
km unimproved earth (est.)
Inland waterways:
17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up
to 1.8 meter draft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 150 km
Ports:
Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City
Merchant marine:
99 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 460,712 GRT/739,246 DWT; includes 84
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 8 oil tanker, 3 bulk
Airports:
total:
100
usable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
50
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
the inadequacies of the obsolete switching equipment and cable system is a
serious constraint on the business sector and on economic growth, and
restricts access to the international links that Vietnam has established
with most major countries; the telephone system is not generally available
for private use (25 telephones for each 10,000 persons); 3 satellite earth
stations; broadcast stations - NA AM, 288 FM; 36 (77 repeaters) TV; about
2,500,000 TV receivers and 7,000,000 radio receivers in use (1991)

*Vietnam, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 17,835,536; fit for military service 11,338,880; reach
military age (17) annually 771,792 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

*Virgin Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Virgin Islands, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east and southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
352 km2
land area:
349 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
188 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity,
little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain:
mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Natural resources:
sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
26%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
47%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts, floods,
earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources
Note:
important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the
Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in
the Caribbean

*Virgin Islands, People

Population:
98,130 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.76% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.26 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate: -22.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.29 years
male:
73.6 years
female:
77.2 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.64 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Virgin Islander(s)
adjective:
Virgin Islander; US citizens
Ethnic divisions:
West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the
West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%; black 80%,
white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%
Religions:
Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
Languages:
English (official), Spanish, Creole
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
45,500 (1988)
by occupation:
tourism 70%

*Virgin Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Virgin Islands of the United States
conventional short form:
Virgin Islands
Digraph:
VQ
Type:
organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Office of
Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Capital:
Charlotte Amalie
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system:
based on US
National holiday:
Transfer Day, 31 March (1917) (from Denmark to US)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON; Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM),
Virdin C. BROWN; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Governor:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results -
Governor Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) 56.5% defeated Juan LUIS
(independent) 38.5%
Senate:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 2 November 1994); results - Ron
DE LUGO reelected as delegate; seats - (1 total); seat by party NA; note -
the Virgin Islands elect one representative to the US House of
Representatives
Executive branch:
US president, popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
unicameral Senate
Judicial branch:
US District Court:
handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and
over), and federal cases
Territorial Court:
handles civil matters up to $50,000, small claims, juvenile, domestic,
misdemeanors, and traffic cases
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
Head of Government:
Governor Alexander A. FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor
Derek M. HODGE (since 5 January 1987)
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), IOC

*Virgin Islands, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue
initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an olive branch in
one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of
vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

*Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of
GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of textile,
electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The agricultural
sector is small, most food being imported. International business and
financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. One of
the world's largest petroleum refineries is at Saint Croix.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.2 billion (1987)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$11,000 (1987)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
3.7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $364.4 million; expenditures $364.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
refined petroleum products
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
Imports:
$3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners:
US, Puerto Rico
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 12%; accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
380,000 kW capacity; 565 million kWh produced, 5,710 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction,
pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Agriculture:
truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol cattle
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $42
million
Currency:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways:
856 km total
Ports:
Saint Croix - Christiansted, Frederiksted; Saint Thomas - Long Bay, Crown
Bay, Red Hook; Saint John - Cruz Bay
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways :
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
note:
international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix
Telecommunications:
modern telephone system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable, microwave
radio, and satellite facilities; 58,931 telephones; 98,000 radios; 63,000 TV
sets in use; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 8 FM, 4 TV (1988)

*Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Wake Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Wake Island, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km west of Honolulu, about two-thirds of
the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
6.5 km2
land area:
6.5 km2 comparative area:
about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
19.3 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central
lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation less
than 4 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
subject to occasional typhoons
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; emergency landing location
for transpacific flights

*Wake Island, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 302 US Air Force personnel,
civilian weather service personnel, and US and Thai contractors; population
peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during the Vietnam conflict

*Wake Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Wake Island
Digraph:
WQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force (under
an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the US flag is used

*Wake Island, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel
and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must
be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US military

*Wake Island, Communications

Ports:
none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for large
ships
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
underwater cables to Guam and through Midway to Honolulu; 1 Autovon circuit
off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); Armed Forces Radio/Television
Service (AFRTS) radio and television service provided by satellite;
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV
Note:
formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only by US military
and some commercial cargo planes

*Wake Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US

*Wallis and Futuna, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

*Wallis and Futuna, Geography

Location:
in the South Pacific Ocean, 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu, about two-thirds
of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
274 km2
land area:
274 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note:
includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile Alofi,
and 20 islets
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
129 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to
October)
Terrain:
volcanic origin; low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops: 20%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
both island groups have fringing reefs

*Wallis and Futuna, People

Population:
14,175 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.15% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.42 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.59 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.2 years
male:
70.54 years
female:
71.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders
adjective:
Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)
Literacy:
all ages can read and write (1969)
total population:
50%
male:
50%
female:
51%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture, livestock, and fishing 80%, government 4% (est.)

*Wallis and Futuna, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
conventional short form:
Wallis and Futuna
local long form:
Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna
local short form:
Wallis et Futuna
Digraph:
WF
Type:
overseas territory of France
Capital:
Mata Utu (on Ile Uvea)
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France)
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la
Democratie Francaise (UDF); Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des
Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Territorial Assembly:
last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held NA March 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (20 total) RPR 7, UPL 5, UDF 4, UNF 4
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1998); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPR 1
French National Assembly:
last held 21 and 28 March 1992 (next to be held by NA September 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MRG 1
Executive branch:
French president, chief administrator; note - there are three traditional
kings with limited powers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale)
Judicial branch:
none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief
administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and
there is a magistrate in Mata Utu
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Chief Administrator Robert POMMIES (since 26 September 1990)
Member of:
FZ, SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an overseas territory of France, local interests are represented in the
US by France

*Wallis and Futuna, Government

US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*Wallis and Futuna, Economy

Overview:
The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about
80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconuts and
vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the
population is employed in government. Revenues come from French Government
subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import
taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and
Futuna imports food, fuel, clothing, machinery, and transport equipment, but
its exports are negligible, consisting of copra and handicrafts.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $25 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.7 million; expenditures $2.7 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1983)
Exports:
negligible
commodities:
copra, handicrafts
partners:
NA
Imports:
$13.3 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel
partners:
France, Australia, New Zealand
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
Agriculture:
dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro,
bananas, and herds of pigs and goats
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$118 million
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 99.65 (January
1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.0 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
(1988); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
NA

*Wallis and Futuna, Communications

Highways:
100 km on Ile Uvea, 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna
Inland waterways:
none
Ports:
Mata-Utu, Leava
Airports:
total:
2
useable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
225 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Wallis and Futuna, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*West Bank, Header

The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by
President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
has yet to be determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank
describes all of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian
administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to
negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, it is US policy that a
distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank
because of the city's special status and circumstances. Therefore, a
negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be different in
character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

*West Bank, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Jordan and Israel
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total area:
5,860 km2
land area:

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