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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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revenues $4.3 million; expenditures $4.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.)
commodities:
copra
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
Imports:
$2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.)
commodities:
food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
External debt: $NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 330 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, copra
Agriculture:
coconuts
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $101 million
Currency:
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January
1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752
(1988)
Fiscal year:
NA

*Tuvalu, Communications

Highways:
8 km gravel
Ports:
Funafuti, Nukufetau
Merchant marine:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 33,220 GRT/58,518 DWT; includes 1
passenger-cargo, 1 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000 radios;
108 telephones

*Tuvalu, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Manpower availability: NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

*Uganda, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, between Kenya and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
236,040 km2
land area:
199,710 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,698 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km,
Zaire 765 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June
to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain:
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
90 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked

*Uganda, People

Population:
19,344,181 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.69% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
49.86 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
22.98 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
38.4 years
male:
38.09 years
female:
38.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.15 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ugandan(s)
adjective:
Ugandan
Ethnic divisions:
African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Languages:
English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages, Nilotic languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
48%
male:
62%
female:
35%
Labor force:
4.5 million (est.)
by occupation:
agriculture over 80%
note:
50% of population of working age (1983)

*Uganda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Digraph:
UG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kampala
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern, Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda,
Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western
Independence:
9 October 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision
Legal system:
government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary
law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - National Resistance Movement (NRM), Yoweri MUSEVENI
note:
the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM); Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Milton
OBOTE; Democratic Party (DP), Paul SSEMOGEERE; and Conservative Party (CP),
Jeshua NIKHGI continue to exist but are all proscribed from conducting
public political activities
Other political or pressure groups:
Uganda People's Front (UPF); Uganda People's Christian Democratic Army
(UPCDA); Ruwenzori Movement
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Resistance Council:
last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held by January 1995); results -
NRM was the only party; seats - (278 total, 210 indirectly elected) 210
members elected without party affiliation
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Resistance Council
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986); Vice
President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since NA January 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA January 1991)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

*Uganda, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI
chancery:
5909 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-7100 through 7102
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
embassy:
Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address:
P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone:
[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
Flag:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and
red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested
crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

*Uganda, Economy

Overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular
rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. The economy has
been devastated by widespread political instability, mismanagement, and
civil war since independence in 1962, keeping Uganda poor with a per capita
income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels of the early 1970s, as
does industrial production.) Agriculture is the most important sector of the
economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export
crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government
has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency
reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of
petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes
are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over 300%
in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-92, the
economy has turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in
the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and
exports, and gradually improving domestic security.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
41.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million, including capital
expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$170 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners:
US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%
Imports:
$610 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation
equipment, food
partners:
Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.0% (1990); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
200,000 kW capacity; 610 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Agriculture:
mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80% of labor force;
cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops - cassava, potatoes,
corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food

*Uganda, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $169
million
Currency:
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,217.1 (January 1993), 1.133.8 (1992),
734.0 (1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.1 (1989), 106.1 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Uganda, Communications

Railroads:
1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel, and
laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks
Inland waterways:
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria
Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell,
both on Lake Victoria
Merchant marine:
3 roll-on/roll-off (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,091 GRT
Airports:
total:
31
usable:
23
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
fair system with microwave and radio communications stations; broadcast
stations - 10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite communications ground stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*Uganda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,137,983; fit for military service 2,250,793 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 15% of budget (FY89/90)

*Ukraine, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
603,700 km2
land area:
603,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,558 km, Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 428
km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km,
Slovakia 90 km
Coastline: 2,782 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
potential border disputes with Moldova and Romania in northern Bukovina and
southern Odes'ka Oblast'; potential dispute with Moldova over former
southern Bessarabian areas; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but
has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any
other nation
Climate:
temperate continental; subtropical only on the southern Crimean coast;
precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north,
lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to
cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the
country, hot in the south
Terrain:
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaux, mountains
being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula
in the extreme south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite,
titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber
Land use:
arable land:
56%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
12%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
26,000 km2 (1990)
Environment:
air and water pollution, deforestation, radiation contamination around
Chornobyl' nuclear power plant
Note:
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second largest
country in Europe

*Ukraine, People

Population:
51,821,230 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.06% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.87 years
male:
65.32 years
female:
74.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ukrainian(s)
adjective:
Ukrainian
Ethnic divisions:
Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev
Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate),
Protestant, Jewish
Languages:
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
25.277 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 19%, health,
education, and culture 18%, trade and distribution 8%, transport and
communication 7%, other 7% (1990)

*Ukraine, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ukraine
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ukrayina
former:
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
UP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kiev (Kyyiv)
Administrative divisions:
24 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya, respublika), and 2
municipalites (singular - misto) with oblast status**;, Chernihivs'ka, Cherkas'ka, Chernivets'ka,
Dnipropetrovs'ka, Donets'ka,
Ivano-Frankivs'ka, Kharkivs'ka, Khersons'ka, Khmel'nyts'ka, Kirovohrads'ka,
Kyyiv (Kiev)**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka, L'vivs'ka, Mykolayivs'ka,, Odes'ka, Poltavs'ka,
Respublika Krym*, Rivnens'ka, Sevastopol'**,Sums'ka,, Ternopil's'ka, Vinnyts'ka, Volyns'ka,
Zakarpats'ka, Zaporiz'ka, Zhytomyrs'ka
Independence:
1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
using 1978 pre-independence constitution; new consitution currently being
drafted
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Green Party of Ukraine, Vitaliy KONONOV, leader; Liberal Party of Ukraine,
Ihor MERKULOV, chairman; Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr
KLYMCHUK, chairman; Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr Oleksandrovych
YAVORIVSKIY, chairman; People's Party of Ukraine, Leopol'd TABURYANSKYY,
chairman; Peasants' Party of Ukraine, Serhiy DOVGRAN', chairman; Party of
Democratic Rebirth of Ukraine, Volodymyr FILENKO, chairman; Social
Democratic Party of Ukraine, Yuriy ZBITNEV, chairman; Socialist Party of
Ukraine, Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman; Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party,
Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman; Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party,
Stepan KHMARA, chairman; Ukrainian Labor Party, Valentyn LANDIK, chairman;
Ukrainian Party of Justice, Mykhaylo HRECHKO, chairman; Ukrainian Peasants'
Democratic Party, Serhiy PLACHINDA, chairman; Ukrainian Republican Party,
Mykhaylo HORYN', chairman; Ukrainian National Conservative Party, Viktor
RADIONOV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Ukrainian People's Movement for Restructuring (Rukh); New Ukraine (Nova
Ukrayina); Congress of National Democratic Forces
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*Ukraine, Government

Elections:
President:
last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Leonid
KRAVCHUK 61.59%, Vyacheslav CHERNOVIL 23.27%, Levko LUKYANENKO 4.49%,
Volodymyr HRYNYOV 4.17%, Iher YUKHNOVSKY 1.74%, Leopold TABURYANSKYY 0.57%,
other 4.17%
Supreme Council:
last held 4 March 1990 (next scheduled for 1995, may be held earlier in late
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total) number of
seats by party NA
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council
Judicial branch:
being organized
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Leonid Makarovych KRAVCHUK (since 5 December 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Leonid Danilovych KUCHMA (since 13 October 1992); Acting
First Deputy Prime Minister Yukhym Leonidovych ZVYAHIL'SKYY (since 11 June
1993) and five deputy prime ministers
Member of:
BSEC, CBSS (observer), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT,
IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Oleh Hryhorovych BILORUS
chancery:
3350 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 333-0606
FAX:
(202) 333-0817
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roman POPADIUK
embassy:
10 Vul. Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 252053 Kiev 53
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
[7] (044) 244-7349
FAX:
[7] (044) 244-7350
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent
grainfields under a blue sky

*Ukraine, Economy

Overview:
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important
economic component of the former Soviet Union producing more than three
times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil
generated more than one fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms
provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain and vegetables to other
republics. Likewise, its well-developed and diversified heavy industry
supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other
regions of the former USSR. In 1992 the Ukrainian government liberalized
most prices and erected a legal framework for privatizing state enterprises
while retaining many central economic controls and continuing subsidies to
state production enterprises. In November 1992 the new Prime Minister KUCHMA
launched a new economic reform program promising more freedom to the
agricultural sector, faster privatization of small and medium enterprises,
and stricter control over state subsidies. Even so, the magnitude of the
problems and the slow pace in building new market-oriented institutions
preclude a near-term recovery of output to the 1990 level.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-13% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20%-30% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$13.5 billion to outside of the successor states of the former USSR (1990)
commodities:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery
and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners:
NA
Imports:
$16.7 billion from outside of the successor states of the former USSR (1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$12 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -9% (1992)
Electricity:
55,882,000 kW capacity; 281,000 million kWh produced, 5,410 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport
equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)
Agriculture:
grain, vegetables, meat, milk, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication program; used as transshipment points for illicit
drugs to Western Europe

*Ukraine, Economy

Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
Ukraine withdrew the Russian ruble from circulation on 12 November 1992 and
declared the karbovanets (plural karbovantsi) sole legal tender in Ukrainian
markets; Ukrainian officials claim this is an interim move toward
introducing a new currency - the hryvnya - possibly in late 1993
Exchange rates:
Ukrainian karbovantsi per $US1 - 3,000 (1 April 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Ukraine, Communications

Railroads:
22,800 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
273,700 km total (1990); 236,400 km hard surfaced, 37,300 km earth
Inland waterways:
1,672 km perennially navigable (Pripyat and Dnipro River)
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,010 km, petroleum products 1,920 km, natural gas 7,800 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k Kerch, Kherson, Mariupol' (formerly
Zhdanov), Mykolayiv, Odesa, Sevastopol', Pirdenne; inland - Kiev (Kyyiv)
Merchant marine:
394 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,952,328 GRT/5,262,161 DWT; includes
234 cargo, 18 container, 7 barge carriers, 55 bulk cargo, 10 oil tanker, 2
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 12 passenger, 5 passenger cargo, 9
short-sea passenger, 33 roll-on/roll-off, 2 railcar carrier, 1
multi-function-large-load-carrier, 5 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
694
useable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
111
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
81
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
78
Telecommunications:
international electronic mail system established in Kiev; Ukraine has about
7 million telephone lines (135 telephones for each 1000 persons); as of
mid-1992, 650 telephone lines per 1000 persons in Kiev with 15-20 digital
switches as of mid-1991; NMT-450 analog cellular network under construction
in Kiev; 3.56 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied as
of January 1990; international calls can be made via satellite, by landline
to other CIS countries, and through the Moscow international switching
center on 150 international lines; satellite earth stations employ INTELSAT,
INMARSAT, and Intersputnik; fiber optic cable installation (intercity)
remains incomplete; new international digital telephone exchange operational
in Kiev for direct communication with 167 countries

*Ukraine, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Airspace Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and
border troops), National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 12,070,775; fit for military service 9,521,697; reach
military age (18) annually 365,534 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
544,256 million karbovantsi, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange
rate could produce misleading results

*United Arab Emirates, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
75,581 km2
land area:
75,581 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
total 867 km, Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km
Coastline:
1,318 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm assumed for most of country,
12 nm for Ash Shariqah (Sharjah)
International disputes:
location and status of boundary with Saudi Arabia is not final; no defined
boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north; claims two
islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or
Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); claims island in
the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu
Musa); in 1992, the dispute over Abu Musa and the Tumb islands became more
acute when Iran unilaterally tried to control the entry of third country
nationals into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently
backed off in the face of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the
region
Climate:
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Terrain:
flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert
wasteland; mountains in east
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
50 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being
overcome by desalination plants; desertification

*United Arab Emirates, Geography

Note:
strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital
transit point for world crude oil

*United Arab Emirates, People

Population:
2,657,013 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
5.06% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
28.4 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
3.07 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
25.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
22.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72 years
male:
69.91 years
female:
74.2 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.67 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Emirian(s) adjective:
Emirian
Ethnic divisions:
Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates (includes
Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note:
less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)
Religions:
Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
68%
male:
70%
female:
63%
Labor force:
580,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 5%
note:
80% of labor force is foreign

*United Arab Emirates, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Arab Emirates
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Al Imarata al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form:
none
former:
Trucial States
Abbreviation:
UAE
Digraph:
TC
Type:
federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central government and
other powers reserved to member emirates
Capital:
Abu Dhabi
Administrative divisions:
7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al
Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy, Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn
Independence:
2 December 1971 (from UK)
Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)
Legal system:
secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in several
member emirates; Islamic law remains influential
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December (1971)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
a few small clandestine groups may be active
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers, prime minister, deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani Itihad)
Judicial branch:
Union Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN, (since 2 December 1971), ruler of
Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8
October 1990), ruler of Dubayy
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al NUHAYYAN (since
20 November 1990)

*United Arab Emirates, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn Al SHAALI
chancery:
Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 338-6500
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William RUGH
embassy:
Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address:
P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi
telephone:
[971] (2) 336691, afterhours 338730 FAX:
[971] (2) 318441
consulate general:
Dubayy (Dubai)
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a thicker
vertical red band on the hoist side

*United Arab Emirates, Economy

Overview:
The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest incomes per
capita outside the OECD nations. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and
the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities.
Since 1973, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an
impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a
high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude oil reserves
should last for over 100 years.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $34.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$13,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $4.3 billion; expenditures $4.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$21.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil 66%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates
partners:
Japan 39%, Singapore 5%, Korea 4%, Iran 4%, India
Imports:
$13.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
capital goods, consumer goods, food
partners:
Japan 15%, US 10%, UK 9%, Germany 7%, Korea 4%
External debt:
$11 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 30% (1990 est.); accounts for 56% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
6,090,000 kW capacity; 17,850 million kWh produced, 6,718 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat
building, handicrafts, pearling
Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP and 5% of labor force; cash crop - dates; food
products - vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only 25%
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries
(1979-89)
Currency:
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils
Exchange rates:
Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*United Arab Emirates, Communications

Highways:
2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 830 km, natural gas, including natural gas liquids, 870 km
Ports:
Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid,
Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid
Merchant marine:
56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,197,306 GRT/2,153,673 DWT; includes
15 cargo, 8 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 23 oil tanker, 4 bulk, 1
refrigerated cargo, 1 liquified gas, 1 chemical tanker
Airports:
total:
37
usable:
34
with permanent-surface runways:
20
with runways over 3,659 m:
7
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
modern system consisting of microwave and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu
Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to
Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain;
microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 3 FM, 12
TV

*United Arab Emirates, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force
Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,008,076; fit for military service 550,965; reach military
age (18) annually 15,499 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.47 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

*United Kingdom, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea,
between Ireland and France
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
244,820 km2
land area:
241,590 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
note:
includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Land boundaries:
total 360 km, Ireland 360 km
Coastline:
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon
boundaries
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain;
Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego
Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute
involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica
(British Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic
Current; more than half of the days are overcast
Terrain:
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and
southeast
Natural resources:
coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk,
gypsum, lead, silica
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures:
48%
forest and woodland:
9%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
1,570 km2 (1989)

*United Kingdom, Geography

Environment:
pollution control measures improving air and water quality; because of
heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal
waters
Note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now
being linked by tunnel under the English Channel

*United Kingdom, People

Population:
57,970,200 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.29% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.58 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.5 years
male:
73.71 years
female:
79.43 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Briton(s), British (collective pl.)
adjective:
British
Ethnic divisions:
English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West
Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions: Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1 million,
Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu 350,000, Jewish
300,000 (1991 est.)
note:
the UK does not include a question on religion in its census
Languages:
English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of
Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
28.048 million
by occupation:
services 62.8%, manufacturing and construction 25.0%, government 9.1%,
energy 1.9%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1992)

*United Kingdom, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
conventional short form:
United Kingdom
Abbreviation:
UK
Digraph:
UK
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
London
Administrative divisions:
47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands
areas
England:
39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham,, Cambridge,
Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset,
Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater, Manchester*, Hampshire,,
Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle
of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk,, Northampton,
Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford,
Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and, Wear*, Warwick,,
West Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire, Northern Ireland:
26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge,
Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down,
Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt,
Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane
Scotland:
9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife,, Grampian, Highland,
Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside,, Western Isles*, Wales:
8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South
Glamorgan, West Glamorgan
Dependent areas:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands,
Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled
to become a Special Administrative Region of China on 1 July 1997), Jersey,
Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and
the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
Independence:
1 January 1801 (United Kingdom established)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no
judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June)

*United Kingdom, Government

Political parties and leaders:
Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR; Labor Party, John SMITH;
Liberal Democrats (LD), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party,
Alex SALMOND; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY; Ulster
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic Unionist
Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular Unionist Party
(Northern Ireland), James KILFEDDER; Social Democratic and Labor Party
(SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry
ADAMS
Other political or pressure groups:
Trades Union Congress; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers'
Union; Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Commons:
last held 9 April 1992 (next to be held by NA April 1997); results -
Conservative 41.9%, Labor 34.5%, Liberal Democratic 17.9%, other 5.7%; seats
- (651 total) Conservative 336, Labor 271, Liberal Democratic 20, other 24
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Lords and a
lower house or House of Commons
Judicial branch:
House of Lords
Leaders:
Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES
(son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTRC, NACC, NATO,
NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sir Robin RENWICK
chancery:
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-1340
FAX:
(202) 898-4255
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco,
consulates:
Dallas, Miami, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raymond G. H. SEITZ
embassy:
24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE

*United Kingdom, Government

mailing address:
PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone:
[44] (71) 499-9000
FAX:
[44] (71) 409-1637
consulates general:
Belfast and Edinburgh
Flag:
blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in
white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint
of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint
Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack;
the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a
number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and
others

*United Kingdom, Economy

Overview:
The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial centers, and
its economy ranks among the four largest in Europe. The economy is
essentially capitalistic; over the past thirteen years the ruling Tories
have greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social
welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient
by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the
labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves, and
primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares
of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while
industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only 25% of the
work force and generating 21% of GDP. The economy is emerging out of its
3-year recession with only weak recovery expected in 1993. Unemployment is
hovering around 10% of the labor force. The government in 1992 adopted a
pro-growth strategy, cutting interest rates sharply and removing the pound
from the European exchange rate mechanism. Excess industrial capacity
probably will moderate inflation which for the first time in a decade is
below the EC average. The major economic policy question for Britain in the
1990s is the terms on which it participates in the financial and economic
integration of Europe.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $920.6 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-0.6% (1992)
National product per capita:
$15,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $367.6 billion; expenditures $439.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $32.5 billion (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$187.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods,
transport equipment
partners:
EC countries 56.7% (Germany 14.0%, France 11.1%, Netherlands 7.9%), US 10.9%
Imports:
$210.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer
goods
partners:
EC countries 51.7% (Germany 14.9%, France 9.3%, Netherlands 8.4%), US 11.6%
External debt:
$16.2 billion (June 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.4% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
99,000,000 kW capacity; 317,000 million kWh produced, 5,480 kWh per capita
(1992)

*United Kingdom, Economy

Industries:
production machinery including machine tools, electric power equipment,
equipment for the automation of production, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and
paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer
goods
Agriculture:
accounts for only 1.5% of GDP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized and
efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products produced;
about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of 665,000
metric tons (1987)
Illicit drugs:
increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering
the European market
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $21.0 billion
Currency:
1 British pound (#) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
British pounds (#) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
(1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

*United Kingdom, Communications

Railroads:
UK, 16,914 km total; Great Britain's British Railways (BR) operates 16,584
km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge (including 4,545 km electrified and 12,591
km double or multiple track), several additional small standard-gauge and
narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland
Railways (NIR) operates 330 km 1.600-meter gauge (including 190 km double
track)
Highways:
UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (including 2,573 km
limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km (22,907 paved,
592 km gravel)
Inland waterways:
2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706 km;
other, 979 km
Pipelines:
crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km, petroleum products 2,993 km,
natural gas 12,800 km
Ports:
London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe,
Southampton
Merchant marine: 204 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,819,719 GRT/4,941,785 DWT; includes
7 passenger, 16 short-sea passenger, 37 cargo, 25 container, 14
roll-on/roll-off, 5 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 65 oil tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 22 bulk, 1
combination bulk, 1 passenger cargo
Airports:
total:
496
usable:
385
with permanent-surface runways:
249
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
134
Telecommunications:
technologically advanced domestic and international system; 30,200,000
telephones; equal mix of buried cables, microwave and optical-fiber systems;
excellent countrywide broadcast systems; broadcast stations - 225 AM, 525
(mostly repeaters) FM, 207 (3,210 repeaters) TV; 40 coaxial submarine
cables; 5 satellite ground stations operating in INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean
and 3 Indian Ocean), INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems; at least 8 large
international switching centers

*United Kingdom, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,445,998; fit for military service 12,084,913 (1993 est.);
no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $42.5 billion, 3.8% of GDP (FY92/93)

*United States, Geography

Location:
North America, between Canada and Mexico
Map references:
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,372,610 km2
land area:
9,166,600 km2
comparative area:
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about
one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil);
slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the size of
Western Europe
note:
includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Land boundaries:
total 12,248 km, Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Cuba 29
km (US naval base at Guantanamo), Mexico 3,326 km
Coastline:
19,924 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait
of Juan de Fuca); US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease;
Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica
(but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of
any other nation; Republic of Marshall Islands claims Wake Island
Climate:
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and arctic in Alaska,
semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River and arid in the
Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are
ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from
the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrain:
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east;
rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic
topography in Hawaii
Natural resources:
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron,
mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas,
timber
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
26%

*United States, Geography

forest and woodland:
29%
other:
25%
Irrigated land:
181,020 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
pollution control measures improving air and water quality; agricultural
fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water
resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake
activity around Pacific Basin; permafrost in northern Alaska is a major
impediment to development
Note:
world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China)

*United States, People

Population:
258,103,721 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.02% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.67 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.36 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.8 years
male:
72.49 years
female:
79.29 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.05 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
American(s)
adjective:
American
Ethnic divisions:
white 83.4%, black 12.4%, asian 3.3%, native american 0.8% (1992)
Religions:
Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10% (1989)
Languages:
English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
Literacy:
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1991)
total population:
97.9%
male:
97.9%
female:
97.9%
Labor force:
128.548 million (includes armed forces and unemployed; civilian labor force
126.982 million) (1992)
by occupation:
NA

*United States, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United States of America
conventional short form:
United States
Abbreviation:
US or USA
Digraph:
US
Type:
federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Capital:
Washington, DC
Administrative divisions:
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California,, Colorado,
Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia,, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri,
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areas:
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston
Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana
Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island
note:
since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with
three of the four political units; the Northern Mariana Islands is a
Commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986);
Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved
by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in
Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact
of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of
the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 21 October 1986)
Independence:
4 July 1776 (from England)
Constitution:
17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Haley BARBOUR, national committee chairman; Jeanie AUSTIN,
co-chairman; Democratic Party, David C. WILHELM, national committee
chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political significance
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results -
William Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party) 43.2%, George BUSH (Republican
Party) 37.7%, Ross PEROT (Independent) 19.0%, other 0.1%

*United States, Government

Senate:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994); results -
Democratic Party 53%, Republican Party 47%, other NEGL%; seats - (100 total)
Democratic Party 57, Republican Party 43
House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 8 November 1994); results -
Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 46%, other 2%; seats - (435 total)
Democratic Party 258, Republican Party 176, Independent 1
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, COCOM,
CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR,
NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag:
thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50
small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of
six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars
represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies;
known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number
of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

*United States, Economy

Overview:
The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced economy
in the world, with a per capita GDP of $23,400, the largest among major
industrial nations. The economy is market oriented with most decisions made
by private individuals and business firms and with government purchases of
goods and services made predominantly in the marketplace. In 1989 the
economy enjoyed its seventh successive year of substantial growth, the
longest in peacetime history. The expansion featured moderation in wage and
consumer price increases and a steady reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of
the labor force. In 1990, however, growth slowed to 1% because of a
combination of factors, such as the worldwide increase in interest rates,
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and
a general decline in business and consumer confidence. In 1991 output fell
by 1%, unemployment grew, and signs of recovery proved premature. Growth
picked up to 2.1% in 1992. Unemployment, however, remained at nine million,
the increase in GDP being mainly attributable to gains in output per worker.
Ongoing problems for the 1990s include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and trade
deficits.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $5.951 trillion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
2.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$23,400 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
7% (April 1993)
Budget:
revenues $1,092 billion; expenditures $1,382 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$442.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer
goods, agricultural products
partners:
Western Europe 27.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 12.1% (1989)
Imports:
$544.1 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer
goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages
partners:
Western Europe 21.5%, Japan 19.7%, Canada 18.8% (1989)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.5% (1992 est.); accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
780,000,000 kW capacity; 3,230,000 million kWh produced, 12,690 kWh per
capita (1992)
Industries:
leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified; petroleum, steel,
motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

*United States, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 2% of GDP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and soils
support a wide variety of crops and livestock production; world's second
largest producer and number one exporter of grain; surplus food producer;
fish catch of 4.4 million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987 production
estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the available marijuana;
ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not
reduced production
Economic aid:
donor - commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion
Currency:
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
British pounds:
(#) per US$ - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988)
Canadian dollars:
(Can$) per US$ - 1.2776 (January 1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668
(1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988)
French francs:
(F) per US$ - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Italian lire:
(Lit) per US$ - 1,482.5 (January 1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991),
1,198.1 (1990), 1.372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988)
Japanese yen:
(Y) per US$ - 125.01 (January 1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79
(1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988)
German deutsche marks:
(DM) per US$ - 1.6158 (January 1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157
(1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*United States, Communications

Railroads:
240,000 km of mainline routes, all standard 1.435 meter track, no government
ownership (1989)
Highways:
7,599,250 km total; 6,230,000 km state-financed roads; 1,369,250 km
federally-financed roads (including 71,825 km interstate limited access
freeways) (1988)
Inland waterways:
41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes (est.)
Pipelines:
petroleum 276,000 km (1991), natural gas 331,000 km (1991)
Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville,
Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco,
Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington
Merchant marine:
385 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,567,000 GRT/19,511,000 DWT;
includes 3 passenger-cargo, 36 cargo, 23 bulk, 169 tanker, 13 tanker
tug-barge, 13 liquefied gas, 128 intermodal; in addition, there are 219
government-owned vessels
Airports:
total:
14,177
usable:
12,417
with permanent-surface runways:
4,820
with runways over 3,659 m:
63
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
325
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2,524
Telecommunications:
126,000,000 telephone access lines; 7,557,000 cellular phone subscribers;
broadcast stations - 4,987 AM, 4,932 FM, 1,092 TV; about 9,000 TV cable
systems; 530,000,000 radio sets and 193,000,000 TV sets in use; 16
satellites and 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite ground stations - 45
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT (1990)

*United States, Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine Corps),
Department of the Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 66.826 million; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $315.5 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1992)

*Uruguay, Geography

Location:
Eastern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Argentina
and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
176,220 km2
land area:
173,620 km2 comparative area:
slightly smaller than Washington State
Land boundaries:
total 1,564 km, Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Coastline:
660 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections
of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute - Arroyo de la Invernada (Arroio
Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the
Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay
Climate:
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain:
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Natural resources:
soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
78%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
1,100 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

*Uruguay, People

Population:
3,175,050 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.75% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.74 years
male:
70.52 years
female:
77.11 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.46 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Uruguayan(s)
adjective:
Uruguayan
Ethnic divisions:
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 66% (less than half adult population attends church
regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
96%
male:
97%
female:
96%
Labor force:
1.355 million (1991 est.)
by occupation:
government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%, commerce 12%, utilities,
construction, transport, and communications 12%, other services 21% (1988
est.)

*Uruguay, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form:
Uruguay
local long form:
Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form:
Uruguay
Digraph:
UY
Type:
republic
Capital:
Montevideo
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones,
Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado,
Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano,
Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence:
25 August 1828 (from Brazil)
Constitution:
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new
constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 August (1828)
Political parties and leaders:
National (Blanco) Party, Carlos CAT; Colorado Party, Secretary General
(vacant); Broad Front Coalition, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera - includes PSU, PCU,
MLN, MRO, PVP; Uruguayan Socialist Party (PSU), Jose Pedro CARDOSO, and;
Communist Party (PCU), Marina ARISMENDI; National Liberation Movement (MLN)
or Tupamaros, Eleuterio FERNANDEZ Huidobro; Oriental Rvolutionary Movement
(MRO), Walter ARTOLA; Party for the Victory of the Poor (PVP), Hugo CORES;
New Space Coalition consists of PGP, PDC, and Civic Union, Hugo BATALLA;
People's Government Party (PGP), Hugo BATALLA, secretary general; Christian
Democratic Party (PDC), Carlos VASSALLO, secretary general; Civic Union,
Humberto CIGANDA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (Colorado)
29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%
Chamber of Senators:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%; seats - (30 total)
Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2
Chamber of Representatives:
last held NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, other 1%; seats -
(99 total) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Uruguay, Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General) consists of an upper chamber
or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
of Representatives (Camera de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo
AGUIRRE Ramirez (since 1 March 1990)
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTAC,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLYCUDDY
chancery:
1918 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316
consulates general:
Los Angeles, Miami, and New York,
consulate:
New Orleans
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard C. BROWN
embassy:
Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address:
APO AA 34035
telephone:
[598] (2) 23-60-61 or 48-77-77
FAX:
[598] (2) 48-86-11
Flag:
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with
blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow
sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately

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