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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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25%
permanent crops:
55%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
2%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to cyclones (October to
April); deforestation

*Tonga, People

Population:
103,949 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.8% (1993 est.)
Birth rate: 25.16 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.75 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-10.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.79 years
male:
65.5 years
female:
70.24 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.68 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tongan(s)
adjective:
Tongan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian, Europeans about 300
Religions:
Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages:
Tongan, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
57%
male:
60%
female:
60%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 70%, mining (600 engaged in mining)

*Tonga, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form:
Tonga
former:
Friendly Islands
Digraph:
TN
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital: Nuku alofa
Administrative divisions:
three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence:
4 June 1970 (from UK)
Constitution:
4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967
Legal system:
based on English law
National holiday:
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Reform Movement, 'Akilisi POHIVA; Christian Democratic Party,
leader NA
Suffrage:
all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held 3-4 February 1993); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3
traditionalist
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet), Privy Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister S.
Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
US diplomatic representation:
the US has no offices in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to
Tonga and makes periodic visits
Flag:
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner

*Tonga, Economy

Overview:
The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor
force and contributes 40% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are
the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a
high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing
sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard
currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid
and remittances to offset its trade deficit.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $92 million (FY90)
National product real growth rate:
0.4% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$900 (FY90)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (FY92 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $36.4 million; expenditures $68.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $33.2 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$18.8 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans,
fruits, vegetables, fish
partners:
Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY91)
Imports:
$68.3 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels,
chemicals
partners:
NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY91)
External debt:
$47.5 million (FY91)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.7% (FY90); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production;
vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $258 million
Currency:
1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti
Exchange rates:
pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.3996 (January 1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961 (1991),
1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

*Tonga, Communications

Highways:
198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vava'u); 94 km unsealed roads usable
only in dry weather
Ports:
Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,765 GRT/10,597 DWT; includes 1 cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 liquefied gas
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV sets; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no
FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Tonga, Defense Forces

Branches:
Tonga Defense Force, Tonga Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines, Royal
Tongan Guard, Police
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Trinidad and Tobago, Geography

Location:
in the extreme southeastern Caribbean Sea, 11 km off the coast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
5,130 km2
land area:
5,130 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline: 362 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
44%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
220 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

*Trinidad and Tobago, People

Population:
1,313,738 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.08 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.31 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.53 years
male:
67.91 years
female: 73.22 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective:
Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic divisions:
black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant 14%,
Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%
Languages:
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
95%
male:
97%
female:
93%
Labor force:
463,900
by occupation:
construction and utilities 18.1%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying
14.8%, agriculture 10.9%, other 56.2% (1985 est.)

*Trinidad and Tobago, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form:
Trinidad and Tobago
Digraph:
TD
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port-of-Spain
Administrative divisions:
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva,, Port-of-Spain*,,
Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San
Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria, Independence:
31 August 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
31 August 1976
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National Congress
(UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Carson
CHARLES; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH;
National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 16 December 1991 (next to be held by December 1996); results - PNM
32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%; seats - (36 total) PNM 21, UNC 13, NAR 2
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING (since 17 December 1991)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Corinne BAPTISTE
chancery:
1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 467-6490

*Trinidad and Tobago, Government

consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sally G. COWAL
embassy:
15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address:
P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone:
(809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX:
(809) 628-5462
Flag:
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

*Trinidad and Tobago, Economy

Overview:
Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy has begun to emerge from a
lengthy depression in the last few years. The economy fell sharply through
most of the 1980s, largely because of the decline in oil prices. This sector
accounts for 80% of export earnings and almost 20% of GDP. The government,
in response to the oil revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures
that pushed the unemployment rate as high as 22% in 1988. The economy showed
signs of recovery in 1990 and 1991, however, helped along by rising oil
prices. Agriculture employs only about 11% of the labor force and produces
about 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it has been unable to absorb
the large numbers of the unemployed. The government currently seeks to
diversify its export base.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
2.6% (1991)
National product per capita:
$3,800 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
18.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $1.6 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $158 million (1993 est.)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
includes reexports - petroleum and petroleum products 82%, steel products
9%, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1988)
partners:
US 49%, CARICOM 12%
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
raw materials and intermediate goods 48%, capital goods 29%, consumer goods
23% (1991)
partners:
US 39%, Venezuela 14%, UK 7%, CARICOM 5% (1991)
External debt:
$2.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3%, excluding oil refining (1986); accounts for 40% of GDP,
including petroleum
Electricity:
1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,480 million kWh produced, 2,680 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton
textiles
Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; highly subsidized sector; major crops - cocoa,
sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal protein; must
import large share of food needs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US

*Trinidad and Tobago, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518 million
Currency:
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 4.2500 (fixed rate since 1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Trinidad and Tobago, Communications

Railroads:
minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando
Highways:
8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unimproved
earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,032 km, petroleum products 19 km, natural gas 904 km
Ports:
Port-of-Spain, Pointe-a-Pierre, Scarborough
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,507 GRT/21,923 DWT
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados
and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2
AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Trinidad and Tobago, Defense Forces

Branches:
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and
Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 351,183; fit for military service 253,084 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $59 million, 1-2% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Tromelin Island, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Tromelin Island, Geography

Location:
in the western Indian Ocean, 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of
Reunion
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
1 km2
land area:
1 km2
comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3.7 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sandy
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (scattered bushes)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
wildlife sanctuary
Note:
climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

*Tromelin Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Tromelin Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tromelin Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Tromelin
Digraph:
TE
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic, resident in
Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Tromelin Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Tromelin Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
important meteorological station

*Tromelin Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Tunisia, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily, between
Algeria and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
163,610 km2
land area:
155,360 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Coastline:
1,148 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary disputes with Algeria
under discussion
Climate:
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in
south
Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the
Sahara
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
47%
Irrigated land:
2,750 km2 (1989)
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
strategic location in central Mediterranean

*Tunisia, People

Population:
8,570,868 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.04 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
35.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.54 years
male:
70.55 years
female:
74.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.02 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tunisian(s)
adjective:
Tunisian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%
Religions:
Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
65%
male:
74%
female:
56%
Labor force:
2.25 million
by occupation:
agriculture 32%
note:
shortage of skilled labor

*Tunisia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form:
Tunisia
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form:
Tunis
Digraph:
TS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tunis
Administrative divisions:
23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan,
Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul,
Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan
Independence:
20 March 1956 (from France)
Constitution:
1 June 1959
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
National holiday:
National Day, 20 March (1956)
Political parties and leaders:
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI (official
ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Mohammed MOUAADA;
five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party
Other political or pressure groups:
the Islamic fundamentalist party, An Nahda (Rebirth), is outlawed
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA March 1994); results - Gen. Zine
el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held NA April 1994); results - RCD 80.7%,
independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other 2.4%; seats - (141 total) RCD
141
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)

*Tunisia, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC (withdrew from
active membership in 1986), OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ismail KHELIL
chancery:
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 862-1850
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John T. McCARTHY
embassy:
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[216] (1) 782-566
FAX:
[216] (1) 789-719
Flag:
red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling
a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of
Islam

*Tunisia, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, tourism, and exports
of light manufactures. Following two years of drought-induced economic
decline, the economy came back strongly in 1990-92 as a result of good
harvests, continued export growth, and higher domestic investment. High
unemployment has eroded popular support for the government, however, and
forced Tunis to slow the pace of economic reform. Nonetheless, the
government appears committed to implementing its IMF-supported structural
adjustment program and to servicing its foreign debt.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $13.6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,650 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15.7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $4.3 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals
partners:
EC countries 74%, Middle East 11%, US 2%, Turkey, former USSR republics
Imports:
$6.1 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer
goods
partners:
EC countries 67%, US 6%, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Turkey, Algeria
External debt:
$7.7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for about 25% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
1,545,000 kW capacity; 5,096 million kWh produced, 600 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles,
footwear, food, beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to
severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops - olives,
dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets, wine grapes,
poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200
metric tons (1987)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.2 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $410
million
Currency:
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

*Tunisia, Economy

Exchange rates:
Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 0.9931 (February 1993), 0.8844 (1992),
0.9246 (1991), 0.8783 (1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Tunisia, Communications

Railroads:
2,115 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge; 1,650 km 1.000-meter
gauge
Highways:
17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and unimproved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 797 km, petroleum products 86 km, natural gas 742 km
Ports:
Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis
Merchant marine:
22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 161,661 GRT/221,959 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 6
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 6 bulk
Airports:
total:
29
usable:
26
with permanent-surface runways:
13
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
note:
a new airport opened 6 May 1993, length and type of surface NA
Telecommunications:
the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire
lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay; key centers are Sfax,
Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones (28 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 7 AM, 8 FM, 19 TV; 5 submarine cables;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with
back-up control station; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria
and Libya

*Tunisia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,164,686; fit for military service 1,244,683; reach
military age (20) annually 90,349 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $618 million, 3.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Turkey, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe/Southwest Asia, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and
Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Iran
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
780,580 km2
land area:
770,760 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia
252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline:
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former
USSR
territorial sea:
6 nm in the Aegean Sea,
12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea
International disputes:
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with
downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
Natural resources:
antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
30%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures: 12%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
22,200 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west;
air pollution; desertification
Note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

*Turkey, People

Population:
60,897,841 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.62 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.97 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.41 years
male:
68.11 years
female:
72.82 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Turk(s)
adjective:
Turkish
Ethnic divisions:
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (est.)
Religions:
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)
Languages:
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
81%
male:
90% female:
71%
Labor force:
20.7 million
by occupation:
agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15%
note:
about 1,800,000 Turks work abroad (1991)

*Turkey, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Turkey
conventional short form:
Turkey
local long form:
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form:
Turkiye
Digraph:
TU
Type:
republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ankara
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray,
Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik,
Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman
Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir,
Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir,
Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag,
Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
7 November 1982
Legal system:
derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Political parties and leaders:
Correct Way Party (DYP), Suleyman DEMIREL; Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut
YILMAZ; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal INONU; Refah Party
(RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN; Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT;
Nationalist Labor Party (MCP), Alpaslan TURKES; People's Labor Party (HEP),
Ahmet TURK; Socialist Unity Party (SBP), Saden AREN; Democratic Center Party
(DSP), Bedrettin DALAN; Republican People's Party (CHP), Deniz BAYKAL;
Workers' Party (IP), Dogu PERINCEK; National Party (MP), Aykut EDIBALI
Other political or pressure groups: Turkish Confederation of Labor (TURK-IS), Sevket YILMAZ
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
Grand National Assembly:
last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1996); results - DYP
27.03%, ANAP 24.01%, SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%,
independent 0.14%; seats - (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115, SHP 86, RP 40, MCP
19, DSP 7, other 5
Executive branch:
president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet Meclisi)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation

*Turkey, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since NA June 1993)
Member of:
AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, FAO,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC,
NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNRWA,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
chancery:
1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 659-8200
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY
embassy:
110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address:
PSC 88, Box 5000, Ankara, or APO AE 09823
telephone:
[90] (4) 426 54 70
FAX:
[90] (4) 467-0057 and 0019
consulates general:
Istanbul and Izmir
consulate:
Adana
Flag:
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist
side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

*Turkey, Economy

Overview:
After an impressive economic performance through most of the 1980s, Turkey
has experienced erratic rates of economic growth since 1988 - ranging from a
high of 9.2% in 1990 to a low of 0.9% in 1991. Strong consumer demand and
increased public investment led the way to a strong 5.9% growth in 1992.
Chronic high inflation is Turkey's most serious economic problem, leading to
high interest rates and the rapid depreciation of the Turkish lira. The huge
public sector deficit - about 12% of GDP - and the Treasury's heavy reliance
on Central Bank financing of the deficit are the major causes of Turkish
inflation. Meanwhile, wage increases in both the public and private sector
have outpaced productivity gains, limited the government's ability to reduce
current expenditures, and hindered the return to profitability of many
private companies. Agriculture remains an important economic sector,
employing about half of the work force, contributing 18% to GDP, and
accounting for about 20% of exports. The government has launched a
multibillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which
includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to
generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The Turkish
economy will probably continue to grow faster than the West European average
in 1993, but the shaky coalition government of Prime Minister DEMIREL -
which has seen its parliamentary majority shrink from 36 to 11 seats during
its first year in power - is unlikely to risk further erosion of its support
by implementing the belt-tightening measures necessary to substantially
reduce inflation.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $219 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
5.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
$3,670 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
70% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
11.1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $40.5 billion; expenditures $46.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $5.5 billion (1993)
Exports:
$13.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 69%, foodstuffs 22%, fuels 2%
partners:
EC countries 51%, US 7%, Iran 5%, former USSR 5%
Imports:
$21.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 61%, foodstuffs 8%, fuels 21%
partners: EC countries 44%, US 12%, former USSR 5%
External debt:
$48.7 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.2% (1991 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
14,400,000 kW capacity; 44,000 million kWh produced, 750 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals),
steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

*Turkey, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and employs about half of working force; products -
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety
of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years
Illicit drugs:
major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe
and the US via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other
international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul;
laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin have sprung up in
remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains
strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of
poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5
billion; note - aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies
(1991), $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion
Currency:
1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 8,814.3 (January 1993), 6,872.4 (1992),
4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Turkey, Communications

Railroads:
8,429 km 1.435-meter gauge (including 795 km electrified)
Highways:
320,611 km total; 138 km limited access expressways, 31,062 km national
(main) roads, 27,853 km regional (secondary) roads, 261,558 km local and
municipal roads; 45,526 km of hard surfaced roads (of which about 27,000 km
are paved and about 18,500 km are surfaced with gravel or crushed stone)
(1988 est.)
Inland waterways:
about 1,200 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,738 km, petroleum products 2,321 km, natural gas 708 km
Ports:
Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir
Merchant marine:
353 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,825,274 GRT/6,628,207 DWT; includes
7 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 189 cargo, 1 container, 6
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 39 oil
tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 9 combination ore/oil, 2
specialized tanker, 80 bulk, 3 combination bulk
Airports:
total:
110
usable:
102
with permanent-surface runways:
65
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay microwave
network; limited open wire network; 3,400,000 telephones; broadcast stations
- 15 AM; 94 FM; 357 TV; 1 satellite ground station operating in the INTELSAT
(2 Atlantic Ocean antennas) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine cable

*Turkey, Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast
Guard, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 15,691,874; fit for military service 9,579,453; reach
military age (20) annually 604,816 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.6 billion, 3.9% of GDP (1992)

*Turkmenistan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Uzbekistan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
488,100 km2
land area:
488,100 km2 comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Turkmenistan does border the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claims:
landlocked, but boundaries in the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan,
and Iran will have to be negotiated
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical desert
Terrain:
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; borders Caspian Sea in west
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
69%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
12,450 km2 (1990)
Environment:
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals,
pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation
methods
Note:
landlocked

*Turkmenistan, People

Population:
3,914,997 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.04% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
30.91 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
71.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.93 years
male:
61.4 years
female:
68.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.82 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Turkmen(s)
adjective:
Turkmen
Ethnic divisions:
Turkmen 73.3%, Russian 9.8%, Uzbek 9%, Kazakhs 2%, other 5.9%
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Eastern Orthodox 11%, unknown 2%
Languages:
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.542 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 42%, industry and construction 21%, other 37%
(1990)

*Turkmenistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Turkmenistan
conventional short form:
Turkmenistan
local long form:
Tiurkmenostan Respublikasy
local short form:
Turkmanistan
former:
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
TX
Type:
republic
Capital:
Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Administrative divisions: 5 velayets: Balkan (Nebit Dag), Doshkhovuz (formerly Tashauz), Lebap
(Charjev), Mary, Akhal (Ashgabat)
note:
all oblasts have the same name as their administrative center except Balkan
Oblast, centered at Nebit-Dag
Independence:
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Democratic Party (formerly Communist), chairman vacant
opposition:
Party for Democratic Development, Durdymurat HOJA-MUHAMMET, chairman

; Agzybirlik, Nurberdy NURMAMEDOV, cochairman, Hubayberdi HALLIYEV,
cochairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*Turkmenistan, Government

Elections:
President:
last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1997); results - Saparmurad
NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed)
Majlis:
last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) elections not officially by party, but
Communist Party members won nearly 90% of seats; note - seats to be reduced
to 50 at next election
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, nine deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
under 1992 constitution there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral
People's Council (Halk Maslahaty - having more than 100 members and meeting
infrequently) and a 50-member unicameral Assembly (Majlis)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since NA October 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Valery G. OCHERTSOV,
Orazgeldi AYDOGDYEV, Yagmur OVEZOV, Jourakuli BABAKULIYEV, Matkarim RAJAPOV,
Rejep SAPAROV, Boris SHIKHMURADOV (since NA); Chairman of the People's
Council Sakhat MURADOV (since NA)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph S. HULINGS III
embassy:
Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
[7] 36320 24-49-08
Flag:
green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a claret
veritcal stripe in between containing five white, black, and orange carpet
guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs) associated with five
different tribes; a white crescent and five white stars in the upper left
corner to the right of the carpet guls

*Turkmenistan, Economy

Overview:
Like the other 15 former Soviet republics, Turkmenistan faces enormous
problems of economic adjustment - to move away from Moscow-based central
planning toward a system of decisionmaking by private entrepreneurs, local
government authorities, and, hopefully, foreign investors. This process
requires wholesale changes in supply sources, markets, property rights, and
monetary arrangements. Industry - with 10% of the labor force - is heavily
weighted toward the energy sector, which produced 11% of the ex-USSR's gas
and 1% of its oil. Turkmenistan ranked second among the former Soviet
republics in cotton production, mainly in the irrigated western region,
where the huge Karakumskiy Canal taps the Amu Darya. The general decline in
national product accelerated in 1992, principally because of inability to
obtain spare parts and disputes with customers over the price of natural
gas.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
53% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
15%-20% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$100 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
natural gas, oil, chemicals, cotton, textiles, carpets
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$100 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
machinery and parts, plastics and rubber, consumer durables, textiles
partners:
mostly other than former Soviet Union
External debt:
$650 million (end 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -17% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
2,920,000 kW capacity; 13,100 million kWh produced, 3,079 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
oil and gas, petrochemicals, fertilizers, food processing, textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, fruits, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication program; used as transshipment points for illicit
drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$280 million offical aid commitments by foreign donors (1992)
Currency:
retaining Russian ruble as currency; planning to establish own currency, the
manat, but no date set (May 1993)

*Turkmenistan, Economy

Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Turkmenistan, Communications

Railroads:
2,120 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
23,000 km total; 18,300 km hard surfaced, 4,700 km earth (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km, natural gas 4,400 km
Ports:
inland - Krasnovodsk (Caspian Sea)
Airports:
total:
7
useable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; only 65 telephones per 1000 persons (1991); linked by
cable and microwave to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased
connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new direct
telephone link from Ashgabat (Ashkhabad) to Iran has been established;
satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 INTELSAT for TV receive-only
service; a newly installed satellite earth station provides TV receiver-only
capability for Turkish broadcasts

*Turkmenistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Joint
Command Turkmenistan/Russia (Ground, Navy or Caspian Sea Flotilla, Air, and
Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 933,285; fit for military service 765,824; reach military
age (18) annually 39,254 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Geography

Location:
in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 190 km north of the Dominican Republic
and southeast of The Bahamas
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
430 km2
land area:
430 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
389 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain:
low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Natural resources:
spiny lobster, conch
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

*Turks and Caicos Islands, People

Population:
13,137 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.97% (1993 est.)
Birth rate: 14.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
20.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.34 years
male:
73.41 years
female:
77.02 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.17 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
none
adjective:
none
Ethnic divisions:
African
Religions:
Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%,
other 19.9% (1980)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence
agriculture

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Turks and Caicos Islands
Digraph:
TK
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital: Grand Turk
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a Constitutional
Commission is currently reviewing its contents
Legal system:
based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from Jamaica
and The Bahamas
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive National Party (PNP), Washington MISSIC; People's Democratic
Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel
MISSICK
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held on 3 April 1991 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (20 total, 13 elected) PNP 8, PDM 5
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council, chief minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Michael
J. BRADLEY (since NA 1987)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Washington MISSIC (since NA 1991)
Member of:
CARICOM (associate), CDB
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of the Turks and Caicos
Islands are represented in the US by the UK
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow
and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Only
subsistence farming - corn, cassava, citrus, and beans - exists on the
Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be
imported.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $68.5 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$5,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
12% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $20.3 million; expenditures $44.0 million, including capital
expenditures of $23.9 million (1989)
Exports:
$4.1 million (f.o.b., 1987)
commodities:
lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners:
US, UK
Imports:
$33.2 million (c.i.f., FY84)
commodities:
foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials
partners:
US, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,050 kW capacity; 11.1 million kWh produced, 860 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, offshore financial services
Agriculture:
subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more
important than farming; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$110 million
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Communications

Highways:
121 km, including 24 km tarmac
Ports:
Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour
Airports:
total: 7
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Turks and Caicos Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Tuvalu, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
26 km2
land area:
26 km2
comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
24 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly
gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain:
very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
severe tropical storms are rare

*Tuvalu, People

Population:
9,666 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.74% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.79 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
26.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.64 years
male:
61.27 years
female:
63.82 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.11 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tuvaluans(s)
adjective:
Tuvaluan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian 96%
Religions:
Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i
1%, other 0.6%
Languages:
Tuvaluan, English
Literacy: total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

*Tuvalu, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tuvalu
former:
Ellice Islands
Digraph:
TV
Type:
democracy; began debating republic status in 1992; referendum expected in
1993
Capital:
Funafuti
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
1 October 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 October 1978
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1993); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (12 total)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Palamene)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Toaripi LAUTI (since NA 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October 1989); Deputy Prime
Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)
Member of:
ACP, C (special), ESCAP, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow
five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

*Tuvalu, Economy

Overview:
Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil.
The country has no known mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence
farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. The islands are too
small and too remote for development of a tourist industry. Government
revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker
remittances. Substantial income is received annually from an international
trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and
supported also by Japan and South Korea.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $4.6 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$530 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.9% (1984)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:

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