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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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restore suspended credit lines, and initiate selected military and civilian
purchases. In 1992 the government spurred economic development by loosening
controls on domestic and foreign investment while maintaining strict
political controls. For the long run, Syria's economy is still saddled with
a large number of poorly performing public sector firms and industrial and
agricultural productivity is poor. A major long-term concern is the
additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its vast dam and
irrigation projects are completed by mid-decade.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $30 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
9% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,300 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.7% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $5.4 billion; expenditures $7.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.9 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 45%, farm products 11%, textiles, phosphates 5% (1990)
partners:
USSR and Eastern Europe 44%, EC 34%, Arab countries 17%, US/Canada 1% (1990)
Imports:
$2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs and beverages 21%, machinery 15%, metal and metal products 15%,
textiles 7%, petroleum products (1990)
partners:
EC 42%, USSR and Eastern Europe 13%, other Europe 13%, US/Canada 11%, Arab
countries 6% (1990)
External debt:
$5.3 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (1991 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
3,205,000 kW capacity; 11,900 million kWh produced, 830 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops
(wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly on rain-watered
land causing wide swings in production; animal products - beef, lamb, eggs,
poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products

*Syria, Economy

Illicit drugs:
a transit country for Lebanese and Turkish refined cocaine going to Europe
and heroin and hashish bound for the Persian Gulf area
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western (non-US)
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.23 billion; OPEC bilateral
aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; former Communist countries (1970-89), $3.3
billion
Currency:
1 Syrian pound (#S) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Syrian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 22.0 (promotional rate since 1991), 22.0
(official rate since 1991), 42.0 (official parallel rate since 1991),
11.2250 (fixed rate 1987-90)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Syria, Communications

Railroads:
1,998 km total; 1,766 km standard gauge, 232 km 1.050-meter (narrow) gauge
Highways:
29,000 km total; 670 km expressways; 5,000 km main or national roads; 23,330
km secondary or regional roads (not including municipal roads); 22,680 km of
the total is paved (1988)
Inland waterways:
870 km; minimal economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,304 km, petroleum products 515 km
Ports:
Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas, Jablah
Merchant marine:
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,247 GRT/183,607 DWT; includes 36
cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 3 bulk
Airports:
total:
104
usable:
100
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
21
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital
upgrades, including fiber optic technology; 512,600 telephones (37
telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 9 AM, 1 FM, 17 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Intersputnik; 1
submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan,
Lebanon, and Turkey

*Syria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Air
Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,168,429; fit for military service 1,777,413; reach
military age (19) annually 151,102 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 6% of GDP (1992)

*Taiwan, Geography

Location:
East Asia, off the southeastern coast of China, between Japan and the
Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
35,980 km2
land area:
32,260 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland and Delaware combined
note:
includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by
China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August);
cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Terrain:
eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in
west
Natural resources:
small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
55%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to earthquakes and typhoons

*Taiwan, People

Population:
21,091,663 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.54 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.04 years
male:
71.84 years
female:
78.39 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%
Religions:
mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
Languages:
Madarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
86%
male:
93%
female:
79%
Labor force:
7.9 million
by occupation:
industry and commerce 53%, services 22%, agriculture 15.6%, civil
administration 7% (1989)

*Taiwan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form: Taiwan
local long form:
none
local short form:
T'ai-wan
Digraph:
TW
Type:
multiparty democratic regime; opposition political parties legalized in
March, 1989
Capital:
Taipei
Administrative divisions:
some of the ruling party in Taipei claim to be the government of all China;
in keeping with that claim, the central administrative divisions include 2
provinces (sheng, singular and plural) and 2 municipalities* (shih, singular, and plural) -
Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian Province
including Quemoy and Matsu), Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island, of Taiwan and the
Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced
administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties (hsien,
singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2, special
municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua,, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*,,
Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan,, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu,,
P'ing-tung,
T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**,, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and
Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at
Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note:
Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization
Constitution:
25 December 1947, presently undergoing revision
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the Revolution)
Political parties and leaders:
Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic
Progressive Party (DPP); China Social Democratic Party (CSDP); Labor Party
(LP)
Other political or pressure groups:
Taiwan independence movement, various environmental groups
note:
debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of
domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization and the increased
representation of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party in Taiwan's
legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity;
advocates of Taiwan independence, both within the DPP and the ruling
Kuomintang, oppose the ruling party's traditional stand that the island will
eventually unify with mainland China; the aims of the Taiwan independence
movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the
UN; other organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World
United Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation
Building

*Taiwan, Government

Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - President
LI Teng-hui was reelected by the National Assembly
Vice President:
last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - LI
Yuan-zu was elected by the National Assembly
Legislative Yuan:
last held 19 December 1992 (next to be held near the end of 1995); results -
KMT 60%, DPP 31%, independents 9%; seats - (304 total, 161 elected) KMT 96,
DPP 50, independents 15
National Assembly:
first National Assembly elected in November 1946 with a supplementary
election in December 1986; second and present National Assembly elected in
December 1991; seats - 403 total, KMT 318, DPP 75, other 10; (next election
to be held in 1997)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, premier of the Executive Yuan, vice premier of
the Executive Yuan, Executive Yuan
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Yuan and unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Judicial Yuan
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice President LI Yuan-zu
(since 20 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) LIEN Chan (since 23 February
1993); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) HSU Li-teh (since
23 February 1993)
Member of:
expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October 1971
and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated subsidiary organs;
expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980; seeking to join GATT;
attempting to retain membership in INTELSAT; suspended from IAEA in 1972,
but still allows IAEA controls over extensive atomic development, APEC,
AsDB, ICC, ICFTU, IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US
are maintained through a private instrumentality, the Coordination Council
for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with headquarters in Taipei and field
offices in Washington and 10 other US cities
US diplomatic representation:
unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are
maintained through a private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan
(AIT), which has offices in Taipei at #7, Lane 134, Hsiu Yi Road, Section 3,
telephone [886] (2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3d Road,
telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and the American Trade Center at
Room 3207 International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade Center, 333
Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2) 720-1550
Flag:
red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a
white sun with 12 triangular rays

*Taiwan, Economy

Overview:
Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government
guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government ownership of
some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP has averaged about
9% a year during the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster
and has provided the impetus for industrialization. Agriculture contributes
about 4% to GNP, down from 35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13
among major trading countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are
steadily being replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive
industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand,
Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. The tightening of labor markets
has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $209 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$10,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1.6% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $30.3 billion; expenditures $30.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$82.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
electrical machinery 18.5%, textiles 14.7%, general machinery and equipment
17.7%, footwear 4.5%, foodstuffs 1.1%, plywood and wood products 1.1% (1992
est.)
partners:
US 29.1%, Hong Kong 18.7%, EC countries 17.1% (1992 est.)
Imports:
$72.1 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 15.8%, chemicals 10.0%, crude oil 4.2%, foodstuffs
2.1% (1992 est.)
partners:
Japan 30.3%, US 21.9%, EC countries 17.1% (1992 est.)
External debt:
$620 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.5% (1992 est.); accounts for more than 40% of GDP
Electricity:
18,382,000 kW capacity; 98,500 million kWh produced, 4,718 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries: electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food processing, plywood, sugar
milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GNP and 16% of labor force (includes part-time farmers);
heavily subsidized sector; major crops - vegetables, rice, fruit, tea;
livestock - hogs, poultry, beef, milk; not self-sufficient in wheat,
soybeans, corn; fish catch increasing, reached 1.4 million metric tons in
1988
Illicit drugs:
an important heroin transit point; also a major drug money laundering center

*Taiwan, Economy

Economic aid:
US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $500 million
Currency:
1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 25.125 (1992 est.), 25.748 (1991), 27.108
(1990), 26.407 (1989) 28.589 (1988), 31.845 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Taiwan, Communications

Railroads:
about 4,600 km total track with 1,075 km common carrier lines and 3,525 km
industrial lines; common carrier lines consist of the 1.067-meter gauge 708
km West Line and the 367 km East Line; a 98.25 km South Link Line connection
was completed in late 1991; common carrier lines owned by the government and
operated by the Railway Administration under Ministry of Communications;
industrial lines owned and operated by government enterprises
Highways:
20,041 km total; 17,095 km bituminous or concrete pavement, 2,371 km crushed
stone or gravel, 575 km graded earth
Pipelines:
petroleum products 615 km, natural gas 97 km
Ports:
Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung
Merchant marine:
223 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,761,609 GRT/9,375,677 DWT; includes
1 passenger-cargo, 43 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 85 container, 19 oil
tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 57 bulk, 1
roll-on/roll-off, 2 combination bulk, 1 chemical tanker
Airports:
total:
40
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
36 with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
16
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
best developed system in Asia outside of Japan; 7,800,000 telephones;
extensive microwave radio relay links on east and west coasts; broadcast
stations - 91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 repeaters); 8,620,000 radios; 6,386,000
TVs (5,680,000 color, 706,000 monochrome); satellite earth stations - 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cable links to
Japan (Okinawa), the Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia,
Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

*Taiwan, Defense Forces

Branches:
General Staff, Ministry of National Defense, Army, Navy (including Marines),
Air Force, Coastal Patrol and Defense Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command,
Military Police Command
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,095,857; fit for military service 4,731,172 (1993 est.);
about 184,740 currently reach military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $10.9 billion, 5.4% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

*Tajikistan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, between Uzbekistan and China
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
143,100 km2
land area:
142,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total 3,651 km, Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
boundary with China under dispute; territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on
northern boundary in Isfara Valley area; Afghanistan's support to Islamic
fighters in Tajikistan's civil war
Climate:
midlatitude; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
Pamir and Altay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in
north, Kafirnigan and Vakhsh Valleys in south or southwest
Natural resources:
significant hydropower potential, petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal,
lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
71%
Irrigated land:
6,940 km2 (1990)
Environment:
NA
Note:
landlocked

*Tajikistan, People

Population:
5,836,140 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.72% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.52 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.5 years
male:
65.66 years
female:
71.48 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tajik(s)
adjective:
Tajik
Ethnic divisions:
Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration),
other 6.6%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Languages:
Tajik (official)
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
99%
Labor force:
1.938 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 43%, industry and construction 22%, other 35%
(1990)

*Tajikistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form:
Tajikistan
local long form:
Respublika i Tojikiston
local short form:
none
former:
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
TI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dushanbe
Administrative divisions:
2 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and one autonomous oblast*;, Gorno-Badakhshan*;,
Khatlon, Leninabad (Khudzhand)
note:
the rayons around Dushanbe are under direct republic jurisdiction; an oblast
usually has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the
administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
as of mid-1993, a new constitution had not been formally approved
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday: NA
Political parties and leaders:
Tajik Democratic Party (TDP), Maksud IKRAMOV, Davia KOUDONAZAROV, Shodmon
YUSUPOV; Tajik Socialist Party (TSP), Rakhman NABIYEV, Kakhkhor MAKHKAMOV;
Islamic Revival Party (IRP), Mullah Mukhamedsharif KHIMATZODA, Daviat USMON
Other political or pressure groups:
Tajik People's Front
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Rakhman NABIYEV,
Communist Party 60%; Davlat KHUDONAZAROV, Democratic Party, Islamic Rebirth
Party and Rastokhoz Party 30%
Supreme Soviet:
last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA); results - Communist Party
99%, other 1%; seats - (230 total) Communist Party 227, other 3
note:
in May 1992, the Supreme Soviet was replaced by the transitional 80-member
Assembly (Majlis) and in November 1992 Emomili RAKHMANOV, chairman of the
Assembly, became Chief of State
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (Majlis)
Judicial branch:
NA

*Tajikistan, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Acting President and Assembly Chairman Emomili RAKHMANOV (since NA November
1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Abdumalik ABULAJANOV (since NA November 1992); First Deputy
Prime Minister Tukhtaboy GAFAROV (since NA November 1992)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
embassy:
(temporary) #39 Ainii Street, Dushanbe
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone: [7] (3772) 24-82-33
Flag:
NA

*Tajikistan, Economy

Overview:
Tajikistan has had the lowest living standards of the CIS republics and now
faces the bleakest economic prospects. Agriculture (particularly cotton and
fruit growing) is the most important sector, accounting for 38% of
employment (1990). Industrial production includes aluminum reduction,
hydropower generation, machine tools, refrigerators, and freezers.
Throughout 1992 bloody civil disturbances disrupted food imports and several
regions became desperately short of basic needs. Hundreds of thousands of
people were made homeless by the strife. In late 1992, one-third of industry
was shut down and the cotton crop was only one-half of that of 1991.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-34% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$100 million to outside successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
aluminum, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners:
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$100 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, foodstuffs
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -25% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
4,585,000 kW capacity; 16,800 million kWh produced, 2,879 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil,
metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, pigs, sheep and goats,
yaks
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication programs; used as transshipment points for illicit
drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$700 million offical and commitments by foreign donors (1992)
Currency:
retaining Russian ruble as currency (January 1993)
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations

*Tajikistan, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Tajikistan, Communications

Railroads:
480 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
29,900 km total (1990); 21,400 km hard surfaced, 8,500 km earth
Pipelines:
natural gas 400 km (1992)
Airports:
total:
58
useable:
30
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
13
Telecommunications:
poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the
national network; telephone density in urban locations is about 100 per 1000
persons; linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics, and by leased
connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth
stations - 1 orbita and 2 INTELSAT (TV receive-only; the second INTELSAT
earth station provides TV receive-only service from Turkey)

*Tajikistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (being formed), National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,313,676; fit for military service 1,079,935; reach
military age (18) annually 56,862 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Tanzania, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean between Kenya and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
945,090 km2
land area:
886,040 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of California
note:
includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Land boundaries:
total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756
km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline:
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint
in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the
indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones,
gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
47%
other:
7%
Irrigated land: 1,530 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected
marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

*Tanzania, People

Population:
27,286,363 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.56% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
19.02 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
110.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44 years
male:
42.19 years
female:
45.87 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.25 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Tanzanian(s)
adjective:
Tanzanian
Ethnic divisions:
mainland:
native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes)
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Zanzibar:
NA
Religions:
mainland:
Christian 40%, Muslim 33%, indigenous beliefs 25%
Zanzibar:
Muslim
Languages:
Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for communication
between ethnic groups and is used in primary education), English (official;
primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education)
note:
first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
46% male:
62%
female:
31%
Labor force:
732,200 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.)

*Tanzania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form:
Tanzania
former:
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Digraph:
TZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dar es Salaam
note:
some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as
the new national capital by the end of the 1990s
Administrative divisions:
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro,
Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South,
Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar
Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi
Independence:
26 April 1964 Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN
trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19
December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to
form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic
of Tanzania 29 October 1964
Constitution:
15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own constitution but remains subject to
provisions of the union constitution)
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to
matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Union Day, 26 April (1964)
Political parties and leaders:
Chama Chr Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI; Civic
United Front (CUF), James MAPALALA; National Committee for Constitutional
Reform (NCCK), Mabere MARANDO; Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD),
Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Democratic Party (DP), Christopher Mtikila
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections: President:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - Ali
Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
National Assembly:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - CCM
was the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168
Executive branch:
president, first vice president and prime minister of the union, second vice
president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court

*Tanzania, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice President
John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990); Second Vice President Salmin AMOUR
(since 9 November 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU
chancery:
2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6125
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS
embassy:
36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address:
P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone:
[255] (51) 66010/13
FAX:
[255] (51) 66701
Flag:
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is
blue

*Tanzania, Economy

Overview:
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is
heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 58% of GDP,
provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural
products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced
in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank, the
International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to
rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in
1991-92 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial
increase in output of minerals led by gold.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $7.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$260 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $495 million; expenditures $631 million, including capital
expenditures of $118 million (FY90)
Exports:
$422 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal
partners:
FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US
Imports:
$1.43 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece
goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners:
FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark
External debt:
$6.44 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
405,000 kW capacity; 600 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine),
diamond and gold mining, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood
products, fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for over 58% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit
cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops - coffee, sisal, tea,
cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco,
cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits,
vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient
in food grain production

*Tanzania, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $614
million
Currency:
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 325.00 (November 1992), 219.16 (1991),
195.06 (1990), 143.38 (1989), 99.29 (1988), 64.26 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

*Tanzania, Communications

Railroads:
3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge (including the 962 km Tazara
Railroad); 2,595 km 1.000-meter gauge, including 6.4 km double track; 115 km
of 1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade
Highways:
81,900 km total, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed stone; 72,700 km
improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa
Pipelines:
crude oil 982 km
Ports:
Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on Lake
Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports
Merchant marine:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,185 GRT/22,916 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
103
usable:
92
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
40
Telecommunications:
fair system operating below capacity; open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1
Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Tanzania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army, Navy, and Air
Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,835,064; fit for military service 3,375,567 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Thailand, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Burma and Cambodia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
514,000 km2
land area:
511,770 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506
km
Coastline:
3,219 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam
Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry,
cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot
and humid
Terrain:
central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere
Natural resources:
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum,
lignite, fluorite
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
1% forest and woodland:
30%
other:
31%
Irrigated land:
42,300 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area
Note:
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

*Thailand, People

Population:
58,722,437 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.36% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.97 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.33 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
38.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.28 years
male:
65.05 years
female:
71.66 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Thai (singular and plural)
adjective:
Thai
Ethnic divisions:
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Religions:
Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6%
(1991)
Languages:
Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional
dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
93%
male:
96%
female: 90%
Labor force:
30.87 million
by occupation:
agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including government)
14% (1989 est.)

*Thailand, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form:
Thailand
Digraph:
TH
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Bangkok
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram,
Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Changwat Mukdahan, Chanthaburi, Chiang
Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi,
Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong
Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao,
Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,
Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi,
Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram,
Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri,
Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai
Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence:
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
Constitution:
22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June
1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23 February 1991
military coup
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)
Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party (DP), Chuan LIKPHAI; Thai Nation Pary (TNP or Chat Thai
Party), Praman ADIREKSAN; National Development Party (NDP or Chat Phattana),
Chatchai CHUNHAWAN; New Aspiration Party, Gen. Chawalit YONGCHAIYUT; Phalang
Tham (Palang Dharma), Bunchu ROTCHANASATIEN; Social Action Party (SAP),
Montri PHONGPHANIT; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham), Athit
URAIRAT; Solidarity Party (SP), Uthai PHIMCHAICHON; Mass Party (Muanchon),
Pol. Cpt. Choem YUBAMRUNG; Thai Citizen's Party (Prachakon Thai), Samak
SUNTHONWET; People's Party (Ratsadon), Chaiphak SIRIWAT; People's Force
Party (Phalang Prachachon), Col. Sophon HANCHAREON
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 13 September 1992 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (360 total) DP 79, TNP 77, NDP 60, NAP 51, Phalang
Tham 47, SAP 22, LDP 8, SP 8, Mass Party 4, Thai Citizen's Party 3, People's
Party 1, People's Force Party 0
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, four deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers
(cabinet), Privy Council

*Thailand, Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha) consists of an upper house or
Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or House of Representatives
(Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarndika)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 23 September 1992)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi
chancery:
2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-7200
consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON
embassy:
95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
mailing address:
APO AP 96546
telephone:
[66] (2) 252-5040
FAX:
[66] (2) 254-2990
consulate general:
Chiang Mai consulates:
Songkhla, Udorn
Flag:
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and
red

*Thailand, Economy

Overview:
Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political unrest in May 1992
to post an impressive 7% growth rate for the year. Thailand, one of the more
advanced developing countries in Asia, depends on exports of manufactures
and the development of the service sector to fuel the country's rapid
growth. The trade and current account deficits fell in 1992; much of
Thailand's recent imports have been for capital equipment suggesting that
the export sector is poised for further growth. With foreign investment
slowing, Bangkok is working to increase the generation of capital
domestically. Prime Minister CHUAN's government - Thailand's fifth
government in less than two years - is pledged to continue Bangkok's
probusiness policies, and the return of a democratically elected government
has improved business confidence. Nevertheless, CHUAN must overcome
divisions within his ruling coalition to complete much needed infrastructure
development programs if Thailand is to remain an attractive place for
business investment. Over the longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college
graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue
its rapid economic development.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $103 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.7% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $21.36 billion; expenditures $22.40 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6.24 billion (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$32.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and manufactures 76.9%, agricultural products 14.9%, fisheries
products 5.9% (1992)
partners:
US 21.6%, Japan 18.0%, Singapore 8.7%, Hong Kong 4.8%, Germany 4.4%,
Netherlands 4.2%, UK 3.4%, Malaysia, France, China (1992 est.)
Imports:
$41.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 41.4%, intermediate goods and raw materials 32.8%, consumer
goods 10.4%, oil 8.2%
partners:
Japan 29.3%, US 11.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, Germany 5.4%, South
Korea 4.6%, Malaysia 4.2%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, UK (1992 est.)
External debt:
$33.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 18% (1990); accounts for about 26% of GDP
Electricity:
10,000,000 kW capacity; 43,750 million kWh produced, 760 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Thailand, Economy

Industries:
tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments,
agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing,
such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits,
furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and
third-largest tin producer
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and
exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops - rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from
Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication
efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some
production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been
affected by eradication efforts; also a major drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $8.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million
Currency:
1 baht (B) = 100 satang
Exchange rates:
baht (B) per US$1 - 25.280 (April 1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517 (1991),
25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 October-30 September

*Thailand, Communications

Railroads:
3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track
Highways:
77,697 km total; 35,855 km paved (including 88 km expressways), 14,092 km
gravel or other stabilization, 27,750 km mostly dirt and other (1988)
Inland waterways:
3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or
more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by
shallow-draft native craft
Pipelines:
natural gas 350 km, petroleum products 67 km
Ports:
Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha
Merchant marine:
169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 752,055 GRT/1,166,136 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 91 cargo, 12 container, 40 oil tanker, 9 liquefied gas,
2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk, 6 refrigerated cargo, 2 combination bulk, 1
passenger
Airports:
total:
106
usable:
95
with permanent-surface runways:
51
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
14
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
28
Telecommunications:
service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government
activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network;
739,500 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11
TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic satellite system being
developed

*Thailand, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal
Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 16,685,044; fit for military service 10,148,786; reach
military age (18) annually 616,042 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion, about 2% of GNP (FY92/93 est.)

*Togo, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean beween Benin and Ghana
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
56,790 km2
land area:
54,390 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,647 km, Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
56 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
30 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low
coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
42%
Irrigated land:
70 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent
droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

*Togo, People

Population:
4,104,657 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.61% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
47.87 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
91.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.46 years
male:
54.45 years female:
58.53 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.96 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Togolese
Ethnic divisions:
37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye, European and
Syrian-Lebanese under 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe (one of the two major
African languages in the south), Mina (one of the two major African
languages in the south), Dagomba (one of the two major African languages in
the north), Kabye (one of the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
43%
male:
56%
female:
31%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 78%, industry 22%
note:
about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private
sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)

*Togo, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Togo
conventional short form:
Togo
local long form:
Republique Togolaise
local short form:
none
former:
French Togo
Digraph:
TO
Type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Lome
Administrative divisions:
21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular - circonscription); Amlame
(Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar
(Bassari), Dapango (Tone), Kande (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Pagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse
(Haho), Pagouda, Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Nyala, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo)
note:
the 21 units may now be called prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are included in
parentheses
Independence:
27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
Constitution:
1980 constitution nullified during national reform conference; transition
constitution adopted 24 August 1991; multiparty draft constitution sent to
High Council of the Republic for approval in November 1991; adopted by
public referendum September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the only
party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991;
transition regime in place since August 1991
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
President:
last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held 1993); results - Gen. EYADEMA
was reelected without opposition
National Assembly:
last held 4 March 1990; dissolved during national reform conference (next to
be held 1993); results - RPT was the only party; seats - (77 total) RPT 77;
interim legislative High Council of the Republic (HCR) in place since August
1991
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Togo, Government

Legislative branch:
National Assembly dissolved during national reform conference; 79-member
interim High Council for the Republic (HCR) formed to act as legislature
during transition to multiparty democracy; legislative elections scheduled
to be held in 1993
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)
Head of Government:
interim Prime Minister Joseph Kokou KOFFIGOH (since 28 August 1991)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS
chancery:
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-4212 or 4213
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY
embassy:
Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome
mailing address:
B. P. 852, Lome
telephone:
[228] 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-77-17
FAX:
[228] 21-79-52
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with
yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper
hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Togo, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which accounts
for about 33% of GDP and provides employment for 78% of the labor force.
Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together
account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in
basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial sector
phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate
exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings. Togo
serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government, over the
past decade, with IMF and World Bank support, has been implementing a number
of economic reform measures to encourage foreign investment and bring
revenues in line with expenditures. Political unrest, including private and
public sector strikes throughout 1991 and 1992, has jeopardized the reform
program and has disrupted vital economic activity.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$400 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $284.8 million; expenditures $407 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$512 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
phosphates, cotton, cocoa, coffee
partners:
EC 40%, Africa 16%, US 1% (1990)
Imports:
$583 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemical products
partners:
EC 57%, Africa 17%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1990)
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.0% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
179,000 kW capacity; 209 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles,
beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 33% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops -
yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock production not
significant; annual fish catch, 10,000-14,000 tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $142 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $51
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Togo, Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Togo, Communications

Railroads:
570 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads
Inland waterways: 50 km Mono River
Ports:
Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)
Merchant marine:
2 roll-on/roll-off ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,118 GRT/20,529 DWT
Airports:
total:
9
usable:
9
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
fair system based on network of radio relay routes supplemented by open wire
lines; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

*Togo, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 862,427; fit for military service 452,974 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $43 million, about 3% of GDP (1989)

*Tokelau, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of New Zealand)

*Tokelau, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
10 km2
land area:
10 km2 comparative area:
about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
101 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
Terrain:
coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
lies in Pacific typhoon belt

*Tokelau, People

Population:
1,544 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-1.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Tokelauan(s)
adjective:
Tokelauan
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian
Religions:
Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2%
note:
on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all
Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational
Christian Church predominant
Languages:
Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Tokelau, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Tokelau
Digraph:
TL
Type:
territory of New Zealand
Capital:
none; each atoll has its own administrative center
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Independence:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Constitution:
administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970
Legal system:
British and local statutes
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty over New Zealand)
Political parties and leaders: NA
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs
in New Zealand), official secretary
Legislative branch:
unicameral Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll
Judicial branch:
High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator Graham ANSELL (since NA 1990); Official Secretary Casimilo J.
PEREZ (since NA), Office of Tokelau Affairs; Tokelau's governing Council
will elect its first head of government in 1993
Member of:
SPC, WHO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of New Zealand)
Flag:
the flag of New Zealand is used

*Tokelau, Economy

Overview:
Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly restrain
economic development and confine agriculture to the subsistence level. The
people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain public services, annual
aid being substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue
come from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts.
Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$800 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including capital expenditures
of $37,300 (FY87)
Exports:
$98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities:
stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners:
NZ
Imports:
$323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities:
foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners:
NZ
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
200 kW capacity; 300,000 kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft
goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Agriculture:
coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit, papaya, bananas;
pigs, poultry, goats
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $24
million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9486 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
l.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

*Tokelau, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa
Telecommunications:
radiotelephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

*Tokelau, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

*Tonga, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of the
way between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
748 km2
land area:
718 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
419 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool
season (May to December)
Terrain:
most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation;
others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Natural resources:
fish, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land:

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