Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 33 out of 42

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international
boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt does not coincide with
international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of
20,580 km2, the dispute over this area escalated in 1993
Climate:
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)
Terrain:
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west
Natural resources:
small reserves of petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten,
mica, silver
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
51%
Irrigated land:
18,900 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification
Note:
largest country in Africa

*Sudan, People

Population:
28,730,381 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.38% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
42.65 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
53.85 years
male:
53 years
female:
54.73 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.19 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Sudanese
Ethnic divisions:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in
south and Khartoum)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic,
Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note:
program of Arabization in process
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
27%
male:
43%
female:
12%
Labor force:
6.5 million
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%
note:
labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983 est.);
52% of population of working age (1985)

*Sudan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form:
Sudan
local long form:
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form:
As-Sudan
former:
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Digraph:
SU
Type:
military civilian government suspended and martial law imposed after 30 June
1989 coup
Capital:
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Wusta*,, Al Istiwa'iyah*,,
Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al, Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan
Independence:
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
Constitution:
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim
constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the
Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the six northern states
of Al Wusta, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah, Ash Sharqiyah, Darfur, and
Kurdufan; the council is still studying criminal provisions under Islamic
law; Islamic law will apply to all residents of the six northern states
regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned following 30 June 1989 coup
Other political or pressure groups:
National Islamic Front, Hasan al-TURABI
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Executive branch:
executive and legislative authority vested in a 10-member Revolutionary
Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts as prime minister; in July
1989, RCC appointed a predominately civilian 22-member cabinet to function
as advisers
note:
Lt. Gen. BASHIR's military government is dominated by members of Sudan's
National Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed from
the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI controls
Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies

*Sudan, Government

Legislative branch:
appointed 300-member Transitional National Assembly; note - as announced 1
January 1992 by RCC Chairman BASHIR, the Assembly assumes all legislative
authority for Sudan until the eventual, unspecified resumption of national
elections
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Revolutionary Command Council Chairman and Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Umar
Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989); Deputy Chairman of the Command
Council and Deputy Prime Minister Maj. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH Ahmed
(since 9 July 1989)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador 'Abdalla Ahmad 'ABDALLA
chancery:
2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 338-8565 through 8570
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald K. PETTERSON
embassy:
Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum
mailing address:
P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO AE 09829
telephone:
74700 or 74611
FAX:
Telex 22619
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

*Sudan, Economy

Overview:
Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse
weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances from abroad, and
counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated by
governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new investment. The
private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with
most private industrial investment predating 1980. The economy's base is
agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force. Industry mainly processes
agricultural items. Sluggish economic performance over the past decade,
attributable largely to declining annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per
capita income and consumption. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages
continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took
the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because of its nonpayment
of arrearages to the Fund. Despite subsequent government efforts to
implement reforms urged by the IMF and the World Bank, the economy remained
stagnant in FY91 as entrepreneurs lack the incentive to take economic risks.
Growth in 1992 was featured by the recovery of agricultural production in
northern Sudan after two years of drought.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.2 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
9% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$184 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
150% (FY92 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (FY92 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $505 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$315 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts
partners:
Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US 3%
(FY88)
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners:
Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)
External debt:
$15 billion (June 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.8%; accounts for 11% of GDP (FY92)
Electricity:
610,000 kW capacity; 905 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling,
shoes, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP and 80% of labor force; water shortages; two-thirds
of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock; major products -
cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally
self-sufficient in most foods

*Sudan, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $588
million
Currency:
1 Sudanese pound (#Sd) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 124 (January 1993), 90.1
(March 1992), 5.4288 (1991), 4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987);
note - free market rate 155 (January 1993)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Sudan, Communications

Railroads:
5,516 km total; 4,800 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km 1.6096-meter-gauge
plantation line
Highways:
20,703 km total; 2,000 km bituminous treated, 4,000 km gravel, 2,304 km
improved earth, 12,399 km unimproved earth and track
Inland waterways:
5,310 km navigable
Pipelines:
refined products 815 km
Ports:
Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,277 GRT/59,588 DWT; includes 3
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
total:
68
usable:
56
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
30
Telecommunications:
large, well-equipped system by African standards, but barely adequate and
poorly maintained by modern standards; consists of microwave radio relay,
cable, radio communications, troposcatter, and a domestic satellite system
with 14 stations; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations
for international traffic - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

*Sudan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,488,864; fit for military service 3,986,084; reach
military age (18) annually 301,573 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Suriname, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between French
Guiana and Guyana
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
163,270 km2
land area:
161,470 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:
total 1,707 km, Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and Riviere Marouini
(both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area in Guyana between New (Upper
Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp, bauxite, iron ore, and small
amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
97%
other:
3%
Irrigated land:
590 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
mostly tropical rain forest

*Suriname, People

Population:
416,321 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.54% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25.85 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate: -4.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
32.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.14 years
male:
66.65 years
female:
71.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Surinamer(s)
adjective:
Surinamese
Ethnic divisions:
Hindustani (East Indian) 37%, Creole (black and mixed) 31%, Javanese 15.3%,
Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, Europeans 1%, other 1.1%
Religions:
Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant 25.2%
(predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%
Languages:
Dutch (official), English widely spoken, Sranan Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes
called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much of the younger
population and is lingua franca among others, Hindi Suriname Hindustani (a
variant of Bhoqpuri), Javanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
95%
male:
95%
female:
95%
Labor force:
104,000 (1984)
by occupation:
NA

*Suriname, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Suriname
conventional short form:
Suriname
local long form:
Republiek Suriname
local short form:
Suriname
former:
Netherlands Guiana Dutch Guiana
Digraph:
NS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paramaribo
Administrative divisions:
10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne,
Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini,
Wanica
Independence:
25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)
Constitution:
ratified 30 September 1987
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
The New Front (NF), leader NA, a coalition of four parties (NPS, VHP, KTPI,
SPA); Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON; National Party of
Suriname (NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of National Unity and Solidarity
(KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor Party (SPA) Fred DARBY; Democratic
Alternative '91 (DA '91), Winston JESSURUN, a coalition of four parties (AF,
HPP, Pendawa Lima, BEP) formed in January 1991; Alternative Forum (AF),
Gerard BRUNINGS, Winston JESSURUN; Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalal
PARMESSAR; Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP), Cipriano
ALLENDY; Pendawa Lima, Marsha JAMIN; National Democratic Party (NDP), Desire
BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union (PALU), Ir Iwan
KROLIS, chairman; National Republic Party (PNR), Robin RAVALES
Other political or pressure groups:
Surinamese Liberation Army (SLA), Ronnie BRUNSWIJK, Johan "Castro" WALLY;
Union for Liberation and Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Saramaccaner Bosneger
Angula Movement, Carlos MAASSI; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement,
Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica, Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results - elected
by the National Assembly - Ronald VENETIAAN (NF) 80% (645 votes), Jules
WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans PRADE (DA '91) 6% (49 votes)
National Assembly:
last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 10, DA '91 9, Independent 2

*Suriname, Government

Executive branch:
president, vice president and prime minister, Cabinet of Ministers, Council
of State; note - Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains
significant power
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Ronald R. VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice President and
Prime Minister Jules R. AJODHIA (since 16 September 1991)
Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT
chancery:
Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492
consulate general:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John (Jack) P. LEONARD
embassy:
Dr. Sophie Redmonstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo
telephone:
[597] 472900, 477881, or 476459
FAX:
[597] 410025
Flag:
five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple
width), white, and green (double width); there is a large yellow
five-pointed star centered in the red band

*Suriname, Economy

Overview:
The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for 15% of
GDP and about 70% of export earnings. The economy has been in trouble since
the Dutch ended development aid in 1982. A drop in world bauxite prices
which started in the late 1970s and continued until late 1986 was followed
by the outbreak of a guerrilla insurgency in the interior that crippled the
important bauxite sector. Although the insurgency has since ebbed and the
bauxite sector recovered, a military coup in December 1990 reflected
continued political instability and deterred investment and economic reform.
High inflation, high unemployment, widespread black market activity, and
hard currency shortfalls continue to mark the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.35 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-2.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,300 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
26% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
16.5% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $466 million; expenditures $716 million, including capital
expenditures of $123 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$417 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners:
Norway 36%, Netherlands 28%, US 11%, Japan 7%, Brazil 5%, UK 5% (1989)
Imports:
$514 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
partners:
US 41%, Netherlands 24%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Brazil 4% (1989)
External debt:
$138 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.0% (1991 est.); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
458,000 kW capacity; 2,018 million kWh produced, 4,920 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumbering, food processing,
fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 10.4% of GDP and 25% of export earnings; paddy rice planted on
85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm output; other products -
bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp
and forestry products of increasing importance; self-sufficient in most
foods
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion
Currency:
1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1 - 1.7850 (fixed rate
until October 1992), 25.04 (January 1992)

*Suriname, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Suriname, Communications

Railroads:
166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned, and 80 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track
Highways:
8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 5,400 km bauxite gravel, crushed stone, or
improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay
Inland waterways:
1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with drafts
ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways
Ports:
Paramaribo, Moengo, Nicuw Nickerie
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 container
Airports:
total:
46
usable:
39
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
international facilities good; domestic microwave system; 27,500 telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

*Suriname, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Army (including Navy which is company-size, small Air Force
element), Civil Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 111,716; fit for military service 66,429 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Svalbard, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

*Svalbard, Geography

Location:
in the Arctic Ocean where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and
Norwegian Sea meet, 445 km north of Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
62,049 km2
land area:
62,049 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note:
includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,587 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and
Russia
Climate:
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters;
North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen,
keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain:
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of
ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Natural resources:
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
great calving glaciers descend to the sea
Note:
northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands;
glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

*Svalbard, People

Population: 3,209 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-2.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Ethnic divisions:
Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Russian, Norwegian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Svalbard, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Svalbard
Digraph:
SV
Type:
territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through
a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9
February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Capital:
Longyearbyen
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)
Legal system:
NA
National holiday: NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Governor (vacant)
Member of:
none
Flag:
the flag of Norway is used

*Svalbard, Economy

Overview:
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9
February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights to
exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK,
Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies
still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are
essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs
nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local
services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some
trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
Budget:
revenues $13.3 million; expenditures $13.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Electricity:
21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 13,860 kWh per capita (1992)
Currency:
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.8774 (January 1993), 6.2145 (1992),
6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988)

*Svalbard, Communications

Ports:
limited facilities - Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations; local telephone service; broadcast stations
- 1 AM, 1 (2 repeaters) FM, 1 TV; satellite communication with Norwegian
mainland

*Svalbard, Defense Forces

Note:
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

*Swaziland, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
17,360 km2
land area:
17,200 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 535 km, Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Natural resources:
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and
diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
67%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

*Swaziland, People

Population:
906,932 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.22 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
95.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
55.94 years
male:
51.97 years
female:
60.03 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swazi(s)
adjective:
Swazi
Ethnic divisions:
African 97%, European 3%
Religions:
Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%
Languages:
English (official; government business conducted in English), siSwati
(official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
55%
male:
57%
female:
54%
Labor force:
195,000 (over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; about 92,000 wage
earners - many only intermittently)
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 36%, community and social service 20%,
manufacturing 14%, construction 9%, other 21%
note:
15,980 employed in South African gold and coal mines (1991)

*Swaziland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form:
Swaziland
Digraph:
WZ
Type:
monarchy independent member of Commonwealth
Capital:
Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)
Administrative divisions:
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence:
6 September 1968 (from UK)
Constitution:
none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973; a new
constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been formally
presented to the people
Legal system:
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi
traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
direct legislative elections rescheduled for June 1993
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists of an upper house or Senate
and a lower house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Obed Mfanyana DLAMINI (since 12 July 1989)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-6683
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stephen H. ROGERS
embassy:
Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane

*Swaziland, Government

mailing address:
P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone:
[268] 46441 through 46445
FAX:
[268] 45959
Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red
band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white
shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all
placed horizontally

*Swaziland, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies most of the
labor force and contributes nearly 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which includes
a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another quarter of GDP.
Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore
deposits were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for
asbestos. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of
hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with
Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it
receives 75% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $700 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $342 million; expenditures $410 million, including capital
expenditures of $130 million (FY94 est.)
Exports:
$575 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit
partners:
South Africa 50% (est.), EC countries, Canada
Imports:
$730 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, chemicals
partners:
South Africa 75% (est.), Japan, Belgium, UK
External debt:
$290 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 26% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
60,000 kW capacity; 155 million kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence
agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, citrus
fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock - corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $142 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518 million
Currency:
1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
emalangeni (E) per US$1 -3.1576 (May 1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988); note - the Swazi emalangeni is
at par with the South African rand

*Swaziland, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Swaziland, Communications

Railroads:
297 km (plus 71 km disused), 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil, and 1,113 km improved earth
Airports:
total:
23
usable:
21
with permanent-surfaced runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m: 0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity
microwave links; 17,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Swaziland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 197,214; fit for military service 114,097 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, NA% of GDP (FY93/94)

*Sweden, Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Norway and Finland
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
449,964 km2
land area:
410,928 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
total 2,205 km, Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy
summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Natural resources:
zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
64%
other:
27%
Irrigated land:
1,120 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
water pollution; acid rain
Note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

*Sweden, People

Population:
8,730,286 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.58% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.96 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.08 years
male:
75.3 years
female:
81.02 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.04 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swede(s)
adjective:
Swedish
Ethnic divisions:
white, Lapp, foreign born or first-generation immigrants 12% (Finns,
Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5%
(1987)
Languages:
Swedish note:
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native
languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.552 million
by occupation:
community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and manufacturing
21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking, insurance 9.0%,
communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture, fishing, and forestry
3.2% (1991)

*Sweden, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form:
Sweden
local long form:
Konungariket Sverige
local short form:
Sverige
Digraph:
SW
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan,
Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan,
Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads
Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan,
Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan,
Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan,
Vastmanlands Lan
Independence:
6 June 1809 (constitutional monarchy established)
Constitution:
1 January 1975
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June
Political parties and leaders: ruling four-party coalition consists of Moderate Party
(conservative), Carl
BILDT; Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG; Center Party, Olof
JOHANSSON; and the Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON; Social
Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON; New Democracy Party, Count Ian
WACHTMEISTER; Left Party (VP; Communist), Gudrun SCHYMAN; Communist Workers'
Party, Rolf HAGEL; Green Party, no formal leader
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Riksdag:
last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held NA September 1994); results -
Social Democratic Party 37.6%, Moderate Party (conservative) 21.9%, Liberal
People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%, Christian Democrats 7.1%, New
Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist) 4.5%, Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%;
seats - (349 total) Social Democratic 138, Moderate Party (conservative) 80,
Liberal People's Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New
Democracy 25, Left Party (Communist) 16; note - the Green Party has no seats
in the Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Riksdag)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

*Sweden, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess
VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October 1991); Deputy Prime Minister
Bengt WESTERBERG (since NA)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
(cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTRC, NAM
(guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR,
UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carl Henrik LILJEGREN
chancery:
Suite 1200 and 715, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 944-5600
FAX:
(202) 342-1319
consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation: chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[46] (8) 783-5300
FAX:
[46] (8) 661-1964
Flag:
blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog
(Danish flag)

*Sweden, Economy

Overview:
Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through
World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a
mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has
a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external
communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore
constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward
foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial
output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and
exports. In the last few years, however, this extraordinarily favorable
picture has been clouded by inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual
loss of competitiveness in international markets. Although Prime Minister
BILDT'S center-right minority coalition had hoped to charge ahead with
free-market-oriented reforms, a skyrocketing budget deficit - almost 13% of
GDP in FY94 projections - and record unemployment have forestalled many of
the plans. Unemployment in 1993 is forecast at around 7% with another 5% in
job training. Continued heavy foreign exchange speculation forced the
government to cooperate in late 1992 with the opposition Social Democrats on
two crisis packages - one a severe austerity pact and the other a program to
spur industrial competitiveness - which basically set economic policy
through 1997. In November 1992, Sweden broke its tie to the EC's ECU, and
the krona has since depreciated around 2.5% against the dollar. The
government hopes the boost in export competitiveness from the depreciation
will help lift Sweden out of its 3-year recession. To curb the budget
deficit and bolster confidence in the economy, BILDT continues to propose
cuts in welfare benefits, subsidies, defense, and foreign aid. Sweden
continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of the EC in
preparation for concluding its EC membership bid by 1995.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $145.6 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-1.7% (1992)
National product per capita:
$16,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 5.3% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $70.4 billion; expenditures $82.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$56 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel
products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners:
EC 55.8% (Germany 15%, UK 9.7%, Denmark 7.2%, France 5.8%), EFTA 17.4%
(Norway 8.4%, Finland 5.1%), US 8.2%, Central and Eastern Europe 2.5% (1992)
Imports:
$51.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles,
foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners:
EC 53.6% (Germany 17.9%, UK 6.3%, Denmark 7.5%, France 4.9%), EFTA (Norway
6.6%, Finland 6%), US 8.4%, Central and Eastern Europe 3% (1992)
External debt:
$19.5 billion (1992 est.)

*Sweden, Economy

Industrial production:
growth rate -3.0% (1992)
Electricity:
39,716,000 kW capacity; 142,500 million kWh produced, 16,560 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts,
armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for
37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100%
self-sufficient in grains and potatoes; Sweden is about 50% self-sufficient
in most products; farming accounted for 1.2% of GDP and 1.9% of jobs in 1990
Illicit drugs:
increasingly used as transshipment point for Latin American cocaine to
Europe and gateway for Asian heroin shipped via the CIS and Baltic states
for the European market
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion
Currency:
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 6.8812 (December 1992), 5.8238 (1992),
6.0475 (1991) 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Sweden, Communications

Railroads:
12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ) - 10,819 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km
0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately-owned railways - 511
km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified) and 371 km 0.891-meter
gauge (all electrified)
Highways:
97,400 km total; 51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km unimproved
earth
Inland waterways:
2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges
Pipelines:
natural gas 84 km
Ports:
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm; numerous
secondary and minor ports
Merchant marine:
179 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,473,769 GRT/3,227,366 DWT; includes
10 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 43 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13
vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 32 oil tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 4
specialized tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 10 bulk, 1
combination bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
253
usable:
250
with permanent-surface runways:
139
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
12
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
94
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones;
mainly coaxial and multiconductor cables carry long-distance network;
parallel microwave network carries primarily radio, TV and some telephone
channels; automatic system; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 360 (mostly
repeaters) FM, 880 (mostly repeaters) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT

*Sweden, Defense Forces

Branches:
Swedish Army, Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,156,720; fit for military service 1,884,121; reach
military age (19) annually 57,383 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6.7 billion, 3.8% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Switzerland, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between France and Austria
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
41,290 km2
land area:
39,770 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein
41 km, Germany 334 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool
to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau
of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, timber, salt
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
250 km2 (1989)
Environment:
dominated by Alps
Note:
landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with
southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest elevations in
Europe

*Switzerland, People

Population:
6,986,621 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.24 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.99 years
male:
74.6 years
female:
81.54 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective:
Swiss
Ethnic divisions:
total population:
German 65%
French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
Swiss nationals:
German 74%
French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)
Languages:
German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4%
note:
these are figures for Swiss nationals only -
German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
3.31 million (904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation:
services 50%, industry and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and
forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)

*Switzerland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Swiss Confederation
conventional short form:
Switzerland
local long form:
Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German) Confederation Suisse (French)
Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form:
Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian)
Digraph:
SZ
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Bern
Administrative divisions:
26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular -
cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau,
Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino,
Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
Independence:
1 August 1291
Constitution:
29 May 1874
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative
acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory
character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)
Political parties and leaders:
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president; Social Democratic
Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman; Christian Democratic People's Party
(CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER, chairman; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans
UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS), Peter SCHMID, president; Automobile
Party (AP), DREYER; Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER,
president; Swiss Democratic Party (SD), NA; Evangelical People's Party
(EVP), Max DUNKI, president; Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean
SPIELMANN, general secretary; Ticino League, leader NA; Liberal Party (LPS),
Gilbert COUTAU, president
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Council of States:
last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP 18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3,
LdU 1, Ticino League 1
National Council:
last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP
25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other
2
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French -
Conseil Federal, Italian - Consiglio Federale)

*Switzerland, Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (German - Bundesversammlung, French - Assemblee
Federale, Italian - Assemblea Federale) consists of an upper council or
Council of States (German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian -
Consiglio degli Stati) and a lower council or National Council (German -
Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio Nazionale)
Judicial branch:
Federal Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Adolf OGI (1993 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice
President Otto STICH (term runs concurrently with that of president)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
(coopeating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTRC, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER
chancery:
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 745-7900
FAX:
(202) 387-2564
consulates general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph B. GILDENHORN
embassy:
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[41] (31) 437-011
FAX:
[41] (31) 437-344
branch office:
Geneva
consulate general:
Zurich
Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not
extend to the edges of the flag

*Switzerland, Economy

Overview:
Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and stable in the world -
is nonetheless undergoing a painful adjustment after both the inflationary
boom of the late-1980s and the electorate's rejection late last year of
membership in the European Economic Area. Stubborn inflation and a soft
economy have afflicted Switzerland. Despite slow growth in 1991-92, the
Swiss central bank had been unable to ease monetary policy in the past three
years because of the threat to the Swiss franc posed by high German interest
rates. As a result, unemployment is forecast to rise from 3% in 1992 to more
than 4% in 1993, with inflation moving down from 4% to 3%. The voters'
rejection in December 1992 of a referendum on membership in the EEA which
was supported by most political, business, and financial leaders has raised
doubts that the country can maintain its preeminent prosperity and
leadership in commercial banking in the 21st century. Despite these
problems, Swiss per capita output, general living standards, education and
science, health care, and diet remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has
few natural resources except for the scenic natural beauty that has made it
a world leader in tourism. Management-labor relations remain generally
harmonious.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $152.3 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-0.6% (1992)
National product per capita:
$22,300 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $24.0 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$62.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs,
textiles and clothing
partners:
Western Europe 64% (EC countries 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%
Imports:
$68.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
textiles, construction materials
partners:
Western Europe 78% (EC countries 71%, other 7%), US 6%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production: growth rate 0.4% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
17,710,000 kW capacity; 56,000 million kWh produced, 8,200 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments
Agriculture:
dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient in food; must
import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs,
fruits, vegetables, meat

*Switzerland, Economy

Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion
Currency:
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.4781 (January 1993),
1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Switzerland, Communications

Railroads:
4,418 km total; 3,073 km are government owned and 1,345 km are nongovernment
owned; the government network consists of 2,999 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99%
electrified; the nongovernment network consists of 510 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, and 835 km 1.000-meter gauge, 100% electrified
Highways:
62,145 km total (all paved); 18,620 km are canton, 1,057 km are national
highways (740 km autobahn), 42,468 km are communal roads
Inland waterways:
65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12 navigable
lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 314 km, natural gas 1,506 km
Ports:
Basel (river port)
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 308,725 GRT/548,244 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 8
bulk, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
66
usable:
65
with permanent-surface runways:
42 with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,890,000
telephones; extensive cable and microwave networks; broadcast stations - 7
AM, 265 FM, 18 (1,322 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth station
operating in the INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean) system

*Switzerland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Air Force is part of the Army), Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,852,213; fit for military service 1,590,308; reach
military age (20) annually 44,124 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, 1.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Syria, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Turkey and Lebanon
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
185,180 km2
land area:
184,050 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than North Dakota
note:
includes 1,295 km2 of Israeli-occupied territory
Land boundaries:
total 2,253 km, Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km,
Turkey 822 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
41 nm
territorial sea:
35 nm
International disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is Israeli
occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq over
Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Syrian troops in northern
Lebanon since October 1976
Climate:
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy
winters (December to February) along coast
Terrain:
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in
west
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock
salt, marble, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
28%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
6,700 km2 (1989)
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
there are 38 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

*Syria, People

Population:
14,338,527 (July 1993 est.)
note:
in addition, there are at least 14,500 Druze and 14,000 Jewish settlers in
the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.76% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
44.08 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
43.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.12 years
male:
65.07 years
female:
67.22 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.75 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Syrian(s)
adjective:
Syrian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian
(various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and
Aleppo)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French widely
understood
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
64%
male:
78%
female:
51%
Labor force:
2.951 million (1989)
by occupation:
miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture 32%, industry and
construction 32%; note - shortage of skilled labor (1984)

*Syria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form:
Syria
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form:
Suriyah
former:
United Arab Republic (with Egypt)
Digraph:
SY
Type:
republic under leftwing military regime since March 1963
Capital:
Damascus
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah,
Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab,
Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus
Independence:
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Constitution: 13 March 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 17 April (1946)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba'th) Party; the
Progressive National is dominated by Ba'thists but includes independents and
members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP); Arab Socialist Union
(ASU); Syrian Communist Party (SCP); Arab Socialist Unionist Movement; and
Democratic Socialist Union Party
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence; Communist party
ineffective; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held December 1998); results -
President Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected for a fourth seven-year term with
99.98% of the vote
People's Council:
last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be held NA May 1994); results - Ba'th
53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%,
Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%, independents 33.6%; seats - (250
total) Ba'th 134, ASU 8, SCP 8, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5,
Democratic Socialist Union Party 4, independents 84; note - the People's
Council was expanded to 250 seats total prior to the May 1990 election
Executive branch:
president, three vice presidents, prime minister, three deputy prime
ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab)

*Syria, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of Cassation,
State Security Courts
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971 see note); Vice Presidents
'Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Rif'at al-ASAD, and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since
11 March 1984); note - President ASAD seized power in the November 1970
coup, assumed presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed as
president in the 12 March 1971 national elections
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mahmud ZU'BI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime Minister
Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Salim
YASIN (since NA December 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Rashid AKHTARINI
(since 4 July 1992)
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Walid MOUALEM
chancery:
2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-6313
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS
embassy:
Abu Rumaneh, Al Mansur Street No. 2, Damascus
mailing address:
P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone:
[963] (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315, 714108, 337178, 333232
FAX:
[963] (11) 718687
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two small
green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band and of Iraq,
which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal
line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which
has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

*Syria, Economy

Overview:
Syria's state-dominated Ba'thist economy has benefited from the Gulf war,
increased oil production, good weather, and economic deregulation. Economic
growth averaged nearly 12% annually in 1990-91, buoyed by increased oil
production and improved agricultural performance. The Gulf war of early 1991
provided Syria an aid windfall of nearly $5 billion dollars from Arab,
European, and Japanese donors. These inflows more than offset Damascus's
war-related costs and will help Syria cover some of its debt arrears,

Book of the day: