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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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dislocations in production, employment, and trade ties. For example, overall
industrial production fell 10% in 1991; particularly hard hit were the iron
and steel, machine-building, chemical, and textile industries. Meanwhile,
the continued fighting in other former Yugoslavian republics has led to
further destruction of long-established trade channels and to an influx of
tens of thousands of Croatian and Bosnian refugees. The key program for
breaking up and privatizing major industrial firms was established in late
1992. Bright spots for encouraging Western investors are Slovenia's
comparatively well-educated work force, its developed infrastructure, and
its Western business attitudes, but instability in Croatia is a deterrent.
Slovenia in absolute terms is a small economy, and a little Western
investment would go a long way.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$10,700 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.7% (September 1992)
Unemployment rate:
10% (April 1992)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$4.12 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 38%, other manufactured goods 44%,
chemicals 9%, food and live animals 4.6%, raw materials 3%, beverages and
tobacco less than 1%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics, Austria, and Italy
Imports:
$4.679 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactured goods 26.7%,
chemicals 14.5%, raw materials 9.4%, fuels and lubricants 7%, food and live
animals 6%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, successor states
of the former USSR, US, Hungary, Italy, and Austria
External debt:
$2.5 billion
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% per month (1991-92 est.)
Electricity:
2,900,000 kW capacity; 10,000 million kWh produced, 5,090 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Slovenia, Economy

Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled
products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military
electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles,
chemicals, machine tools
Agriculture:
dominated by stock breeding (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming; main crops
- potatoes, hops, hemp, flax; an export surplus in these commodities;
Slovenia must import many other agricultural products and has a negative
overall trade balance in this sector
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 tolar (SIT) = 100 NA
Exchange rates:
tolars (SIT) per US$1 - 112 (June 1993), 28 (January 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Slovenia, Communications

Railroads:
1,200 km, 1.435 m gauge (1991)
Highways:
14,553 km total; 10,525 km paved, 4,028 km gravel
Inland waterways:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 290 km, natural gas 305 km
Ports:
coastal - Koper
Merchant marine:
22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,784 GRT/596,740 DWT; includes 15
bulk, 7 cargo; all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines except
for 1 bulk under Liberian flag
Airports:
total:
13
useable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
130,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 7 TV; 370,000 radios;
330,000 TVs

*Slovenia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Slovene Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 512,186; fit for military service 410,594; reach military
age (19) annually 14,970 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
13.5 billion tolars, 4.5% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of the military
budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Solomon Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
28,450 km2
land area:
27,540 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
5,313 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
93%
other:
4%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive; geologically active
region with frequent earth tremors
Note:
located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

*Solomon Islands, People

Population:
372,746 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
39.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.76 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
29 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.13 years
male:
67.73 years
female:
72.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Solomon Islander(s)
adjective:
Solomon Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese
0.3%, other 0.4%
Religions:
Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other Protestant 5%
Languages:
Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca, English spoken by
1-2% of population
note:
120 indigenous languages
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
23,448 economically active
by occupation:
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 32.4%, services 25%, construction,
manufacturing, and mining 7.0%, commerce, transport, and finance 4.7% (1984)

*Solomon Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Solomon Islands
former:
British Solomon Islands
Digraph:
BP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Honiara
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira,, Malaita, Temotu,
Western
Independence:
7 July 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
7 July 1978
Legal system:
common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 July (1978)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP); United Party (UP), leader NA; Solomon Islands
Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU; Nationalist Front for Progress
(NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held 26 May 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2,
independents 9
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as governor general
since 7 July 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28 March 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since NA October 1990)
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
IOC, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission:
(vacant); ambassador traditionally resides in Honiara (Solomon Islands)
US diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Robert W. FARRAND
embassy:
Mud Alley, Honiara

*Solomon Islands, Government

mailing address:
American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara
telephone:
(677) 23890
FAX:
(677) 23488
Flag:
divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner;
the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars
arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

*Solomon Islands, Economy

Overview:
About 90% of the population depend on subsistence agriculture, fishing, and
forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Agriculture, fishing, and
forestry contribute about 70% to GDP, with the fishing and forestry sectors
being important export earners. The service sector contributes about 25% to
GDP. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The
islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc,
nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986
that caused widespread damage to the infrastructure.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $200 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$600 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.3% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $48 million; expenditures $107 million, including capital
expenditures of $45 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$74.2 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
fish 46%, timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%
partners:
Japan 51%, UK 12%, Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia 2%, US 2% (1985)
Imports:
$87.1 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
plant and machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%
partners:
Japan 36%, US 23%, Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia 4%, Hong Kong 4%,
China 3% (1985)
External debt:
$128 million (1988 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1987); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
21,000 kW capacity; 39 million kWh produced, 115 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish (tuna)
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 70% of GDP; mostly
subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels,
timber; other products - rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs;
not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total fish catch of 44,500
metric tons was exported (1988)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$250 million
Currency:
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 3.1211 (January 1993), 2.9281
(1992), 2.7148 (1991), 2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989), 2.0825 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Solomon Islands, Communications

Highways:
about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km paved, 290 km gravel, 980 km earth, 800
private logging and plantation roads of varied construction
Ports:
Honiara, Ringi Cove
Airports:
total:
30
usable:
29
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Solomon Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Somalia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern Indian Ocean, south of the
Arabian Peninsula
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
637,660 km2
land area:
627,340 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km
Coastline:
3,025 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative
Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden; possible claims to
Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya based on unification of ethnic
Somalis
Climate:
desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest monsoon
(May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods (tangambili)
between monsoons
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite,
copper, salt
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland: 14%
other:
38%
Irrigated land:
1,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el
Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

*Somalia, People

Population:
6,514,629 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
41.95 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
28.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
162.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
32.91 years
male:
32.86 years
female:
32.95 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Somali(s)
adjective:
Somali
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800
Religions:
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
24%
male:
36%
female:
14%
Labor force:
2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
by occupation:
pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts,
and other 30%
note:
53% of population of working age (1985)

*Somalia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Somalia
former:
Somali Republic
Digraph:
SO
Type:
none
Capital:
Mogadishu
Administrative divisions:
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari,
Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal,
Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi
Galbeed
Independence:
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent
from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became
independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to
form the Somali Republic)
Constitution:
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the former regime on 27 January
1991; formerly the only party was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party
(SRSP), headed by former President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj.
Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre
Other political or pressure groups:
numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held NA); results - President SIAD
was reelected without opposition
People's Assembly:
last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA); results - SRSP was the only
party; seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171; note - the United Somali
Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27
January 1991; the provisional government has promised that a democratically
elected government will be established
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga); non-functioning
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (non-functioning)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Interim President ALI MAHDI Mohamed (since 27 January 1991)

*Somalia, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister OMAR Arteh Ghalib (since 27 January 1991)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 342-1575
consulate general:
New York
note:
Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
US diplomatic representation:
the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in January
1991; United States Liaison Office (USLO) opened in December 1992
Flag:
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based
on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

*Somalia, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few
resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil
war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for
about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who
are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up more than half of
the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about
20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and
corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based
on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of
GDP. Greatly increased political turmoil in 1991-92 has resulted in a
substantial drop in output, with widespread famine.
National product:
$NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
bananas, livestock, fish, hides, skins
partners:
Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
partners:
US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%, accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
former public power capacity of 75,000 kW is completely shut down by the
destruction of the civil war; UN, relief organizations, and foreign military
units in Somalia use their own portable power systems
Industries:
a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum
refining; probably shut down by the widespread destruction during the civil
war
Agriculture:
dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats); crops -
bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food;
distribution of food disrupted by civil strife; fishing potential largely
unexploited
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $336
million

*Somalia, Economy

Currency:
1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 4,200 (December 1992), 3,800.00
(December 1990), 490.7 (1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Somalia, Communications

Highways:
22,500 km total; including 2,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, and 16,800 km
improved earth or stabilized soil (1992)
Pipelines:
crude oil 15 km
Ports:
Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Bender Cassim (Boosaaso)
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,913 GRT/8,718 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
69
usable:
48
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled
by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own
private systems (1993)

*Somalia, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,596,380; fit for military service 897,660 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*South Africa, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, at the extreme southern tip of the continent
Map references: Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,221,040 km2
land area:
1,221,040 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
note:
includes Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island
Land boundaries:
total 4,973 km, Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km,
Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
Coastline:
2,881 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay exclave and 12 offshore islands administered
by South Africa; South Africa and Namibia have agreed to jointly administer
the area for an interim period; the terms and dates to be covered by joint
administration arrangements have not been established at this time; and
Namibia will continue to maintain a claim to sovereignty over the entire
area
Climate:
mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrain:
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates,
tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
65%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
11,280 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water
conservation and control measures
Note:
Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia; South Africa completely
surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

*South Africa, People

Population:
42,792,804 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.63% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.65 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
48.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.81 years
male:
62.07 years
female:
67.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
South African(s)
adjective:
South African
Ethnic divisions:
black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%
Religions:
Christian (most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks), Hindu (60% of
Indians), Muslim 20%
Languages:
Afrikaans (official), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa, North Sotho, South
Sotho, Tswana, and many other vernacular languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
76%
male:
78%
female:
75%
Labor force:
13.4 million economically active (1990)
by occupation:
services 55%, agriculture 10%, industry 20%, mining 9%, other 6%

*South Africa, Government

Names: conventional long form:
Republic of South Africa
conventional short form:
South Africa
Abbreviation:
RSA
Digraph:
SF
Type:
republic
Capital:
Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judicial)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; there are 10
homelands not recognized by the US - 4 independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei,
Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu,
Lebowa, QwaQwa)
Independence:
31 May 1910 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 September 1984
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Republic Day, 31 May (1910)
Political parties and leaders:
white political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP), Frederik W. DE KLERK (majority party); Conservative
Party (CP), leader NA (official opposition party); Democratic Party (DP),
Zach DE BEER; Afrikaner Volksunie (AVU), Andries BEYERS
Colored political parties and leaders (see Note):
Labor Party (LP), Allan HENDRICKSE (majority party); National Party (NP);
Democratic Party (DP); Freedom Party
Indian political parties and leaders:
Solidarity, J. N. REDDY (majority party); National People's Party (NPP),
Amichand RAJBANSI; Merit People's Party
note:
the Democratic Reform Party (DRP) and the United Democratic Party (UDP) were
disbanded in May 1991
Other political or pressure groups:
African National Congress (ANC), Nelson MANDELA, president; Inkatha Freedom
Party (IFP), Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president; Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC),
Clarence MAKWETU, president
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, but voting rights are racially based
Elections:
House of Assembly (whites):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held by NA March 1995); results - NP
58%, CP 23%, DP 19%; seats - (178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;
note - by February 1992, because of byelections, splits, and defections,
changes in number of seats held by parties were as follows: NP 102, CP 36,
DP 28, AVU 5, independent 7

*South Africa, Government

House of Representatives (Coloreds):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held no later than March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (85 total, 80 elected) LP 69,
DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1, independents 2; note - by October 1992 many
representatives had changed their allegiance causing the following changes
in seating: NP 44, LP 27, DP 6, Freedom Party 1, independents 6, vacant 1
House of Delegates (Indians):
last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held no later than March 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total, 40 elected)
Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's Party 3, independents 6, other 6; note
- due to delegates changing party affiliation, seating as of October 1992
is as follows: Solidarity 25, NPP 7, Merit People's Party 2, other 8,
independents 3
note:
tentative agreement to hold national election open to all races for a
400-seat constitutient assembly on 27 April 1994
Executive branch:
state president, Executive Council (cabinet), Ministers' Councils (from the
three houses of Parliament)
Legislative branch:
tricameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of the House of Assembly
(Volksraad; whites), House of Representatives (Raad van Verteenwoordigers;
Coloreds), and House of Delegates (Raad van Afgevaardigdes; Indians)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
State President Frederik Willem DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)
Member of:
BIS, CCC, ECA, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO (suspended), ICC, IDA, IFC, IMF,
INTELSAT, ISO, ITU (suspended), LORCS, SACU, UN, UNCTAD, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO (suspended)
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harry SCHWARZ
chancery:
3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-4400
consulates general:
Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, Houston, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Princeton N. LYMAN
embassy:
Thibault House, 225 Pretorius Street, Pretoria
telephone:
[27] (12) 28-4266
FAX:
[27] (12) 21-9278
consulates general:
Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag:
actually four flags in one - three miniature flags reproduced in the center
of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three
equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags
are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal
flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old
Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

*South Africa, Economy

Overview:
Many of the white one-seventh of the South African population enjoy incomes,
material comforts, and health and educational standards equal to those of
Western Europe. In contrast, most of the remaining population suffers from
the poverty patterns of the Third World, including unemployment and lack of
job skills. The main strength of the economy lies in its rich mineral
resources, which provide two-thirds of exports. Economic developments in the
1990s will be driven partly by the changing relations among the various
ethnic groups. The shrinking economy in recent years has absorbed less than
10% of the more than 300,000 workers entering the labor force annually.
Local economists estimate that the economy must grow between 5% and 6% in
real terms annually to absorb all of the new entrants.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $115 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-2% (1992)
National product per capita:
$2,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13.9% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
45% (well over 50% in some homeland areas) (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $28 billion; expenditures $36 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3 billion (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$23.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
gold 27%, other minerals and metals 20-25%, food 5%, chemicals 3%
partners:
Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EC countries, Hong Kong
Imports:
$18.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%, oil, textiles,
scientific instruments
partners:
Germany, Japan, UK, US, Italy
External debt:
$18 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 40% of GDP
Electricity:
46,000,000 kW capacity; 180,000 million kWh produced, 4,100 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile
assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemical,
fertilizer, foodstuffs
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified
agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products - cattle, poultry, sheep,
wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 rand (R) = 100 cents

*South Africa, Economy

Exchange rates:
rand (R) per US$1 - 3.1576 (May 1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863
(1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*South Africa, Communications

Railroads:
20,638 km route distance total; 20,324 km of 1.067-meter gauge trackage
(counts double and multiple tracking as single track); 314 km of 610 mm
gauge; substantial electrification of 1.067 meter gauge
Highways:
188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed stone, gravel, or
improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 931 km, petroleum products 1,748 km, natural gas 322 km
Ports:
Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha, Mosselbaai,
Walvis Bay
Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 213,708 GRT/201,043 DWT; includes 4
container, 1 vehicle carrier
Airports:
total:
899
usable:
713
with permanent-surface runways:
136
with runways over 3,659 m:
5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
221
Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern, and has the highest capacity
in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables,
radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and radiocommunication stations; key
centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth,
and Pretoria; over 4,500,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 286 FM,
67 TV; 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*South Africa, Defense Forces

Branches:
South African Defense Force (SADF; including Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical
Services), South African Police (SAP)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 10,294,211; fit for military service 6,279,190; reach
military age (18) annually 425,477 (1993 est.); obligation for service in
Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; black and white volunteers for
service in permanent force must be 17; national service obligation for white
conscripts is one year; figures include the so-called homelands not
recognized by the US
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.9 billion, about 2.5% of GDP (FY93 budget)

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Geography

Location:
in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the south Argentine coast, southeast of the
Falkland Islands
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
4,066 km2
land area:
4,066 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
note:
includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
NA km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
International disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year, interspersed with
periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Terrain:
most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and
mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered
mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some
active volcanoes
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation
consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia; weather
conditions generally make it difficult to approach the South Sandwich
Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism
Note:
the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good
anchorage

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous population; there is a small military garrison on South
Georgia, and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird
Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
conventional short form:
none
Digraph:
SX
Type: dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Executive branch:
British monarch, commissioner
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Commissioner
David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992; resident at Stanley, Falkland
Islands)

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Economy

Overview:
Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of
income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from
postage stamps produced in the UK.
Budget:
revenues $291,777; expenditures $451,011, including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY88 est.)
Electricity:
900 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1992)

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Communications

Highways:
NA
Ports:
Grytviken on South Georgia
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast stations

*South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Spain, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Portugal and France
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
504,750 km2
land area:
499,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
note:
includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - Ceuta, Mellila,
Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Land boundaries:
total 1,903.2 km, Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal
1,214 km
Coastline:
4,964 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves
of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of
Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
Climate:
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along
coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in
north
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc,
lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
31%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
21%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
33,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation; air pollution
Note:
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

*Spain, People

Population:
39,207,159 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.24% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
10.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.76 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.51 years
male:
74.22 years
female:
81.04 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.38 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Spaniard(s)
adjective:
Spanish
Ethnic divisions:
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Religions:
Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%
Languages:
Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
95%
male:
97%
female:
93%
Labor force:
14.621 million
by occupation:
services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%, construction 9% (1988)

*Spain, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form:
Spain
local short form:
Espana
Digraph:
SP
Type:
parliamentary monarchy
Capital:
Madrid
Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad
autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La
Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencia, Extremadura,
Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco
note:
there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco (Ceuta,
Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la
Gomera) with administrative status unknown
Independence:
1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)
Constitution:
6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Legal system:
civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 12 October
Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left:
Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria AZNAR; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Rafael
Calvo ORTEGA; Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe GONZALEZ
Marquez, secretary general; Socialist Democracy Party (DS), Ricardo Garcia
DAMBORENEA; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio ANGUITA; United Left (IU) a
coalition of parties including the PCE, a branch of the PSOE, and other
small parties, leader NA
chief regional parties:
Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley, in Catalonia; Basque
Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos
GARAICOETXEA Urizza; Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon IDIGORAS; Basque Left
(EE), Juan Maria BANDRES; Basque Socialist Party (PSE); coalition of the
PSE, EE, and PSOE, Jose Maria BANEGAS; Euskal Ezkerra (EUE), Xabier
GURRUTXAGA; Andalusian Party (PA), Pedro PACHECO; Independent Canary Group
(AIC), leader NA; Aragon Regional Party (PAR), leader NA; Valencian Union
(UV), leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First
of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the
government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the
Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union
of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO);
the Catholic Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university
students
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*Spain, Government

Elections:
Senate:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA October 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (208 total) PSOE 106, PP 79, CiU 10,
PNV 4, HB 3, AIC 1, other 5
Congress of Deputies:
last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held NA October 1993); results - PSOE
39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, IU 9%, CiU 5%, PNV 1.2%, HB 1%, PA 1%, other 8.4%;
seats - (350 total) PSOE 175, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5, HB 4,
other 11
Executive branch:
monarch, president of the government (prime minister), deputy prime
minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State
Legislative branch:
bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales)
consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Congress
of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2 December 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Narcis SERRA y Serra (since 13 March 1991)
Member of:
AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
EBRD, AfDB, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MTRC, NACC,
NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM
II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jaime De OJEDA y Eiseley
chancery:
2700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 265-0190 or 0191
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard G. CAPEN, Jr.
embassy:
Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address:
PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone:
[34] (1) 577-4000
FAX:
[34] (1) 577-5735
consulate general:
Barcelona
consulate:
Bilbao

*Spain, Government

Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the
national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms
includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two
promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the
Strait of Gibraltar

*Spain, Economy

Overview:
Spain has done well since joining the EC in 1986. Foreign and domestic
investments have spurred GDP growth at an annual average of more than 4% in
1986-91. As of 1 January 1993, Spain has wholly liberalized its trade and
capital markets to EC standards, including integrating agriculture two years
ahead of schedule. Beginning in 1989, Madrid implemented a tight monetary
policy to fight 7% inflation. As a result of this action and the worldwide
decline in economic growth, Spain's growth rate declined to 1% in 1992.
Spain faces a likely recession in first half 1993. The government expects a
recovery in the second half, but this depends on stepped-up growth in
Germany and France. The slowdown in growth - along with displacements caused
by structural adjustments in preparation for the EC single market - has
pushed an already high unemployment rate up to 19%. However, many people
listed as unemployed work in the underground economy. If the government can
stick to its tough economic policies and push further structural reforms,
the economy will emerge stronger at the end of the 1990s.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $514.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$13,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
19% (yearend 1992)
Budget:
revenues $122.9 billion; expenditures $140.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$62 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
EC 71.0%, US 4.9%, other developed countries 7.9% (1991)
Imports:
$100 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
EC 60.0%, US 8.0%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle East 2.6% (1991)
External debt:
$67.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
46,600,000 kW capacity; 157,000 million kWh produced, 4,000 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and
metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products - grain,
vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork,
poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million
metric tons is among top 20 nations

*Spain, Economy

Illicit drugs:
key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545.0 million; not
currently a recipient
Currency: 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 114.59 (January 1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91
(1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Spain, Communications

Railroads:
15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 12,691 km (all
1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track); FEVE
(government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km (predominantly
1.000-meter gauge, 441 km electrified); privately owned railways operate 918
km (predominantly 1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km double
track)
Highways:
150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km limited-access
divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km intermediate
bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km provincial or local
roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone block)
Inland waterways:
1,045 km, but of minor economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 265 km, petroleum products 1,794 km, natural gas 1,666 km
Ports:
Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon
de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo, Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La
Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa
Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports
Merchant marine:
242 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,394,175 GRT/4,262,868 DWT; includes
2 passenger, 8 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 12 refrigerated cargo, 12
container, 32 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 41 oil tanker, 14
chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 3 specialized tanker, 36 bulk
Airports:
total:
105
usable:
99
with permanent-surface runways:
60
with runways over 3,659 m:
4
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
22
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,350,464 telephones; broadcast
stations - 190 AM, 406 (134 repeaters) FM, 100 (1,297 repeaters) TV; 22
coaxial submarine cables; 2 communications satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean); MARECS, INMARSAT,
and EUTELSAT systems; tropospheric links

*Spain, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal Civil
Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 10,299,960; fit for military service 8,341,046; reach
military age (20) annually 338,231 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $9.6 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1992)

*Spratly Islands, Geography

Location:
in the South China Sea, between Vietnam and the Philippines
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
NA km2 but less than 5 km2
land area:
less than 5 km2
comparative area:
NA
note:
includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over the
South China Sea
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
926 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts
of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei
established an exclusive economic zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef, but
has not publicly claimed the island
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
flat
Natural resources:
fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0% forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and
coral reefs
Note:
strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central
South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

*Spratly Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered garrisons

*Spratly Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Spratly Islands
Digraph:
PG

*Spratly Islands, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing; proximity to nearby oil-
and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the potential for oil and gas
deposits, but the region is largely unexplored, and there are no reliable
estimates of potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be
developed.
Industries:
none

*Spratly Islands, Communications

Ports:
no natural harbors
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4 with permanent-surfaced runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0

*Spratly Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

*Sri Lanka, Geography

Location:
South Asia, 29 km southeast of India across the Palk Strait in the Indian
Ocean
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
65,610 km2
land area:
64,740 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,340 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon
(June to October)
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Natural resources:
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay
Land use: arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
37%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
5,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil erosion
Note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

*Sri Lanka, People

Population:
17,838,190 (July 1993 est.)
note:
since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil
separatists in the mid 1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have
fled the island; as of late 1992, nearly 115,000 were housed in refugee
camps in south India, another 95,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and
more than 200,000 Tamils have sought political asylum in the West; fewer
than 10,000 Tamils have been successfully repatriated to Sri Lanka
Population growth rate:
1.11% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.71 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.84 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
22.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.51 years
male:
68.94 years
female:
74.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.13 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sri Lankan(s)
adjective:
Sri Lankan
Ethnic divisions:
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%
Religions:
Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%
Languages:
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%
note:
English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about 10% of the
population
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
93%
female:
84%
Labor force:
6.6 million
by occupation:
agriculture 45.9%, mining and manufacturing 13.3%, trade and transport
12.4%, services and other 28.4% (1985 est.)

*Sri Lanka, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form:
Sri Lanka
former:
Ceylon
Digraph:
CE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Colombo
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western,
Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western
Independence:
4 February 1948 (from UK)
Constitution:
31 August 1978
Legal system:
a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim,
Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)
Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA; Sri Lanka Freedom
Party (SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H.
M. ASHRAFF; All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar PONNAMBALAM; People's
United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna), Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Eelam
Democratic Front (EDF), Edward SEBASTIAN PILLAI; Tamil United Liberation
Front (TULF), leader NA; Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students
(EROS), Velupillai BALAKUMARAN; New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama
Samaja Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA; Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP,
or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin R. DE SILVA; Sri Lanka People's Party
(SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie ABEYGUNASEKERA; Communist Party,
K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic
United National Front (DUNF), Lalith ATHULATHMUDALI and Gamini DISSANAYAKE
note:
the United Socialist Alliance (USA) includes the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and
CP/B
Other political or pressure groups:
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist
groups; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front and
several other radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups); Buddhist clergy;
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%, Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%, other 5%;
note - following the assassination of President PREMADASA on 1 May 1993,
Prime Minister WIJETUNGA became acting president; on 7 May 1993, he was
confirmed by a vote of Parliament to finish out the term of the assassinated
president

*Sri Lanka, Government

Parliament:
last held 15 February 1989 (next to be held by NA February 1995); results -
UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%, MEP 1%, other 3%;
seats - (225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA (since 7 May 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 7 May 1993)
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ananda GURUGE
chancery:
2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 483-4025 through 4028
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Teresita C. SCHAFFER
embassy:
210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address:
P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone:
[94] (1) 44-80-07
FAX:
[94] (1) 43-73-45
Flag:
yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical
bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red
rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf
in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the
entire flag and extends between the two panels

*Sri Lanka, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy, employing half of
the labor force and accounting for one quarter of GDP. The plantation crops
of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about one-third of export earnings. The
economy has been plagued by high rates of unemployment since the late 1970s.
Economic growth, which has been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in
1991-92 as domestic conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign
investment brightened.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $7.75 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$440 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $500 million (1992)
Exports:
$2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles and garments, teas, petroleum products, coconuts, rubber, other
agricultural products, gems and jewelry, marine products, graphite
partners:
US 27.4%, Germany, Japan, UK, Belgium, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China
Imports:
$3.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: food and beverages, textiles and textile materials, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery and equipment
partners:
Japan, Iran, US 5.7%, India, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, UK
External debt:
$5.7 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
1,300,000 kW capacity; 3,600 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities;
cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most important
staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops - sugarcane, grains, pulses,
oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products
- milk, eggs, hides, meat; not self-sufficient in rice production
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $369
million
Currency:
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 46.342 (January 1993), 43.687 (1992),
41.372 (1991), 40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988)

*Sri Lanka, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Sri Lanka, Communications

Railroads:
1,948 km total (1990); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km double track; no
electrification; government owned
Highways:
75,749 km total (1990); 27,637 km paved (mostly bituminous treated), 32,887
km crushed stone or gravel, 14,739 km improved earth or unimproved earth;
several thousand km of mostly unmotorable tracks (1988 est.)
Inland waterways:
430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)
Ports:
Colombo, Trincomalee
Merchant marine:
27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 276,074 GRT/443,266 DWT; includes 12
cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 3 oil tanker, 3 bulk
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
very inadequate domestic service, good international service; 114,000
telephones (1982); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine cables
extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Sri Lanka, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,779,221; fit for military service 3,730,737; reach
military age (18) annually 178,032 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $365 million, 4.7% of GDP (1992)

*Sudan, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Red Sea, between Egypt and Ethiopia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,505,810 km2
land area:
2.376 million km2
comparative area:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 7,697 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt
1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km,
Zaire 628 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:

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