Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 31 out of 42

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Ethnic divisions:
Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola 9%, Mandingo 9%,
European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%
Religions:
Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages:
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
38%
male:
52%
female:
25%
Labor force:
2.509 million (77% are engaged in subsistence farming; 175,000 wage earners)
by occupation:
private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%
note:
52% of population of working age (1985)

*Senegal, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Senegal
conventional short form:
Senegal
local long form:
Republique du Senegal
local short form:
Senegal
Digraph:
SG
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Dakar
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack,
Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence:
20 August 1960 (from France; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on
12 December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be
known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)
Constitution:
3 March 1963, last revised in 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting office; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou DIOUF; Senegalese Democratic Party
(PDS), Abdoulaye WADE; 13 other small uninfluential parties
Other political or pressure groups:
students; teachers; labor; Muslim Brotherhoods
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA); results - Abdou DIOUF (PS)
58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%
National Assembly:
last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held NA May 1993); results - PS 71%,
PDS 25%, other 4%; seats - (120 total) PS 103, PDS 17
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)

*Senegal, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA
chancery:
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-0540 or 0541
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert J. KOTT
embassy:
Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address:
B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone:
[221] 23-42-96 or 23-34-24
FAX:
[221] 22-29-91
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a
small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Senegal, Economy

Overview:
The agricultural sector accounts for about 12% of GDP and provides
employment for about 80% of the labor force. About 40% of the total
cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. Another
principal economic resource is fishing, which brought in about 23% of total
foreign exchange earnings in 1990. Mining is dominated by the extraction of
phosphate, but production has faltered because of reduced worldwide demand
for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10 years tourism has become
increasingly important to the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.4 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$780 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million; including capital
expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$904 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
manufactures 30%, fish products 23%, peanuts 12%, petroleum products 16%,
phosphates 9%
partners:
France, other EC members, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, India
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer goods 17%, petroleum 12%,
capital goods 14%
partners:
France, other EC, Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan
External debt:
$2.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.7% (1989); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
215,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, petroleum refining,
building materials
Agriculture:
major products - peanuts (cash crop), millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton,
tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated two-thirds self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 354,000 metric tons in 1990
Illicit drugs:
increasingly active as a transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
moving to Europe and North America
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $5.23 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $295
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Senegal, Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June; in January 1993, Senegal will switch to a calendar year

*Senegal, Communications

Railroads:
1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km double track Dakar
to Thies
Highways:
14,007 km total; 3,777 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or improved earth
Inland waterways:
897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 112 km on the Saloum
Ports:
Dakar, Kaolack, Foundiougne, Ziguinchor
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT
Airports:
total:
25
usable:
19
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
above-average urban system, using microwave and cable; broadcast stations -
8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Senegal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,882,551; fit for military service 983,137; reach military
age (18) annually 91,747 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 2% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Serbia and Montenegro, Header

Note:
Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent
state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the
US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)
has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its
continuation

*Serbia and Montenegro, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Bulgaria
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
102,350 km2
land area:
102,136 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Kentucky
note:
Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 km2 making it slightly
larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 km2 and a land area
of 13,724 km2 making it slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 2,234 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with Motenegro),
Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro),
Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 239 km, Croatia (south) 15 km, Hungary 151
km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
note:
the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km
Coastline:
199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia -
Muslims seeking autonomy; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and awarded to the
former Yugoslavia by Treaty of Trianon in 1920; disputes with Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian minority in
Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic
Climate:
in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with
well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean
climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers
and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone
ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the
southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast; home of
largest lake in former Yugoslavia, Lake Scutari
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome
Land use:
arable land:
30%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
25%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
NA km2

*Serbia and Montenegro, Geography

Environment:
coastal water pollution from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related
areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial
cities; water pollution along Danube from industrial waste dumped into the
Sava which drains into the Danube; subject to destructive earthquakes
Note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the
Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

*Serbia and Montenegro, People

Population:
10,699,539 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
NA%
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective:
Serbian and Montenegrin
Ethnic divisions:
Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%
Religions:
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2,640,909
by occupation:
industry, mining 40%, agriculture 5% (1990)

*Serbia and Montenegro, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Serbia and Montenegro
local long form:
none
local short form:
Srbija-Crna Gora
Digraph:
SR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Belgrade
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 autonomous provinces*;, Kosovo*, Montenegro,,
Serbia, Vojvodina*, Independence: 11 April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
27 April 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
Serbian Socialist Party (SPS; former Communist Party), Slobodan MILOSEVIC;
Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Vojislav SESELJ; Serbian Renewal Party (SPO),
Vuk DRASKOVIC; Democratic Party (DS), Dragoljub MICUNOVIC; Democratic Party
of Serbia, Vojislav KOSTUNICA; Democratic Party of Socialists (DSSCG), Momir
BULATOVIC; People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Novak KILIBARDA; Liberal
Alliance of Montenegro, Slavko PEROVIC; Democratic Community of Vojvodina
Hungarians (DZVM), Agoston ANDRAS; League of Communists-Movement for
Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), Dragan ATANASOVSKI
Other political or pressure groups:
Serbian Democratic Movement (DEPOS; coalition of opposition parties)
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Elections:
President:
Federal Assembly elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
Chamber of Republics:
last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (40 total; 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin)
Chamber of Citizens:
last held 31 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of votes
by party NA; seats (138 total; 108 Serbian, 30 Montenegrin) - SPS 73, SRS
33, DSSCG 23, SK-PJ 2, DZVM 2, independents 2, vacant 3
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly consists of an upper house or Chamber of
Republics and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court

*Serbia and Montenegro, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of
Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro
(since 23 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since NA December 1992); Deputy Prime
Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Asim TELACEVIC (since NA March
1993), Lovre KOVILJKO (since NA March 1993)
Diplomatic representation in US:
US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the
Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to
function in the US
US diplomatic representation: chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
address NA, Belgrade
mailing address:
American Embassy Box 5070, Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5070
telephone:
[38] (11) 645-655
FAX:
[38] (11) 645-221
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red

*Serbia and Montenegro, Economy

Overview:
The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation has been followed by bloody
ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup
of important interrepublic trade flows. The situation in Serbia and
Montenegro remains fluid in view of the extensive political and military
strife. Serbia and Montenegro faces major economic problems. First, like the
other former Yugoslav republics, it depended on its sister republics for
large amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide
varieties in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the
republics accentuate this interdependence, as did the Communist practice of
concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The
breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial
plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in
the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the
republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and
Montenegro is the continuation in office of a Communist government that is
primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform.
A further complication is the imposition of economic sanctions by the UN.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $27-37 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,500-$3,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
81% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
25%-40% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 29%, manufactured goods 28.5%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 13.5%, chemicals 11%, food and live
animals 9%, raw materials 6%, fuels and lubricants 2%, beverages and tobacco
1%
partners:
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council trade
partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics; Italy,
Germany, other EC, the successor states of the former USSR, East European
countries, US
Imports:
$6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 26%, fuels and lubricants 18%,
manufactured goods 16%, chemicals 12.5%, food and live animals 11%,
miscellaneous manufactured items 8%, raw materials, including coking coal
for the steel industry, 7%, beverages, tobacco, and edible oils 1.5%
partners:
prior to the imposition of sanctions by the UN Security Council the trade
partners were principally the other former Yugoslav republics; the successor
states of the former USSR, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East
European countries, US
External debt:
$4.2 billion (may assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
growth rate -20% or greater (1991 est.)

*Serbia and Montenegro, Economy

Electricity:
8,850,000 kW capacity; 42,000 million kWh produced, 3,950 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles and
weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel,
aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining
(coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods
(textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum
products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Agriculture:
the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the
former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina
also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production;
Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long
growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock
production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces
fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous
pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry;
Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where
a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes, and
rice
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates:
Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 28.230 (December 1991), 15.162 (1990),
15.528 (1989), 0.701 (1988), 0.176 (1987)
Fiscal year: calendar year

*Serbia and Montenegro, Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
46,019 km total (1990); 26,949 km paved, 10,373 km gravel, 8,697 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 415 km, petroleum products 130 km, natural gas 2,110 km
Ports:
coastal - Bar; inland - Belgrade
Merchant marine:
Montenegro:
40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 620,455 GRT/1,024,227 DWT; includes 17
cargo, 5 container, 17 bulk, 1 passenger ship; note - most under Maltese
flag except 2 bulk under Panamian flag
Serbia:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,631 GRT/451,843 DWT; includes 2
bulk, 2 conbination tanker/ore carrier; note - all under the flag of Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines
Airports:
total:
48
useable:
48
with permanent-surface runways:
16
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
9
Telecommunications:
700,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, 9 FM, 18 TV; 2,015,000
radios; 1,000,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*Serbia and Montenegro, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Army - Ground Forces (internal and border troops), Naval Forces,
Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil
Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,700,485; fit for military service 2,178,128; reach
military age (19) annually 83,783 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
245 billion dinars, 4-6% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Seychelles, Geography

Location:
in the western Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
455 km2
land area:
455 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to
September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Terrain:
Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are
coral, flat, elevated reefs
Natural resources:
fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
18%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
18%
other:
60%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts
possible; no fresh water - catchments collect rain; 40 granitic and about 50
coralline islands

*Seychelles, People

Population:
71,494 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.88% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
22.35 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.12 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.26 years
male:
65.56 years
female:
73.07 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.3 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective:
Seychelles
Ethnic divisions:
Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%
Languages:
English (official), French (official), Creole
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
58%
male:
56%
female:
60%
Labor force:
27,700 (1985)
by occupation:
industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government 20%, agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985)
note:
57% of population of working age (1983)

*Seychelles, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form:
Seychelles
Digraph:
SE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse
Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel
Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on
Praslin Island), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri,
Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Independence:
29 June 1976 (from UK)
Constitution:
5 June 1979
note:
new constitution now being drafted by multiparty conference, to take effect
in mid-1993
Legal system:
based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 5 June (1977) (anniversary of coup)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party - Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert
RENE; Democratic Party (DP), Sir James MANCHAM; Seychelles Party (PS), Wavel
RAMKALAWAN; Seychelles Democratic Movement (MSPD), Jacques HONDOUL;
Seychelles Liberal Party (SLP), Ogilvie BERLOUIS
Other political or pressure groups:
trade unions; Roman Catholic Church
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Elections:
note:
presidential and legislative elections are scheduled to be held once the
new, multiparty consititution is ratified later this year
President:
last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held NA 1993); results - President
France Albert RENE reelected without opposition
People's Assembly:
last held 5 December 1987 (next to be held mid-1993); results - SPPF was the
only legal party; seats - (25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Assemblee du Peuple)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977)

*Seychelles, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Second Secretary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Marc R. MARENGO
chancery:
(temporary) 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 687-9766
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Matthew F. MATTINGLY
embassy:
4th Floor, Victoria House, Victoria
mailing address:
Victoria House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe, or Box 148, Unit 62501, APO AE
09815-2501
telephone:
(248) 25256
FAX:
(248) 25189
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green; the white band
is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

*Seychelles, Economy

Overview:
In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist industry employs
about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency
earnings. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment
in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the
government has moved to reduce the high dependence on tourism by promoting
the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $350 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-4.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $180 million; expenditures $202 million, including capital
expenditures of $32 million (1989)
Exports:
$40 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products (reexports)
partners:
France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)
Imports:
$186 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages, machinery and transportation
equipment, petroleum products
partners:
UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, Yemen 13%, Singapore 8%, Japan 6%
(1987)
External debt:
$189 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1987); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, coir rope factory, boat
building, printing, furniture, beverage
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming; cash crops - coconuts,
cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes, cassava, bananas;
broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported; expansion of tuna
fishing under way
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-89), $315 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $60
million
Currency:
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.2545 (January 1993), 5.1220 (1992),
5.2893 (1991), 5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988)

*Seychelles, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Seychelles, Communications

Highways:
260 km total; 160 km paved, 100 km crushed stone or earth
Ports:
Victoria
Merchant marine:
1 refrigerated cargo totaling 1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT
Airports:
total:
14
usable:
14
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
direct radio communications with adjacent islands and African coastal
countries; 13,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 2 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

*Seychelles, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Marines, Coast Guard, Presidential Protection Unit,
Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 18,982; fit for military service 9,710 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12 million, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Sierra Leone, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea and
Liberia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
71,740 km2
land area:
71,620 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 958 km, Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry
season (December to April)
Terrain:
coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau,
mountains in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
31%
forest and woodland:
29%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
340 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea; deforestation; soil
degradation

*Sierra Leone, People

Population:
4,510,571 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.61% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.47 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
19.39 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
145 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.87 years
male:
43.1 years
female:
48.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.01 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective:
Sierra Leonean
Ethnic divisions:
13 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 39%), Creole,
European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%
Religions:
Muslim 30%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%, other or none 30%
Languages:
English (official; regular use limited to literate minority), Mende
principal vernacular in the south, Temne principal vernacular in the north,
Krio the language of the re-settled ex-slave population of the Freetown area
and is lingua franca
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write English, Merde, Temne, or Arabic (1990)
total population:
21%
male:
31%
female:
11%
Labor force:
1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)
note:
only about 65,000 wage earners (1985); 55% of population of working age

*Sierra Leone, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form:
Sierra Leone
Digraph:
SL
Type:
military government
Capital:
Freetown
Administrative divisions:
3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*, Independence:
27 April 1961 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 October 1991; amended September 1991
Legal system:
based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Republic Day, 27 April (1961)
Political parties and leaders:
status of existing political parties is unknown following 29 April 1992 coup
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
suspended after 29 April 1992 coup; Chairman STRASSER promises multi-party
elections sometime within three years
Executive branch:
National Provisional Ruling Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Chairman of the Supreme Council of State Capt. Valentine E. M. STRASSER
(since 29 April 1992)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-9261
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lauralee M. PETERS
embassy:
Walpole and Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[232] (22) 226-481

*Sierra Leone, Government

FAX:
[232] (22) 225-471
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue

*Sierra Leone, Economy

Overview:
The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed. Subsistence
agriculture dominates the economy, generating about one-third of GDP and
employing about two-thirds of the working population. Manufacturing, which
accounts for roughly 10% of GDP, consists mainly of the processing of raw
materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining
provides an important source of hard currency. The economy suffers from high
unemployment, rising inflation, large trade deficits, and a growing
dependency on foreign assistance. The government in 1990 was attempting to
get the budget deficit under control and, in general, to bring economic
policy in line with the recommendations of the IMF and the World Bank. Since
March 1991, however, military incursions by Liberian rebels in southern and
eastern Sierra Leone have severely strained the economy and have undermined
efforts to institute economic reforms.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$330 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $68 million; expenditures $118 million, including capital
expenditures of $28 million (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$75 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities:
rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%, coffee 3%
partners:
US, UK, Belgium, Germany, other Western Europe
Imports:
$62 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%, consumer goods 7%, light
industrial goods
partners:
US, EC countries, Japan, China, Nigeria
External debt:
$633 million (FY92 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
85,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 45 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale manufacturing (beverages,
textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery
Agriculture:
accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the labor force; largely
subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, palm kernels; harvests of
food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs; annual fish catch averages
53,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $848 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
million

*Sierra Leone, Economy

Currency:
1 leone (Le) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
leones (Le) per US$1 - 552.43 (January 1993), 499.44 (1992), 295.34 (1991),
144.9275 (1990), 58.1395 (1989), 31.2500 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Sierra Leone, Communications

Railroads:
84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a limited basis
because the mine at Marampa is closed
Highways:
7,400 km total; 1,150 km paved, 490 km laterite (some gravel), 5,760 km
improved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km; 600 km navigable year round
Ports:
Freetown, Pepel, Bonthe
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship totaling 5,592 GRT/9,107 DWT
Airports:
total:
11
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
marginal telephone and telegraph service; national microwave radio relay
system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones; broadcast stations - 1
AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Sierra Leone, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 983,281; fit for military service 475,855 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Singapore, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
632.6 km2
land area:
622.6 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons;
thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)
Terrain:
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and
nature preserve
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
84%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
mostly urban and industrialized
Note:
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

*Singapore, People

Population:
2,826,331 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.19% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.12 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.25 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.75 years
male:
73.07 years
female:
78.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Singaporean(s)
adjective:
Singapore
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%
Religions:
Buddhist (Chinese), Atheist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu,
Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Languages:
Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English
(official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
93%
female:
84%
Labor force:
1,485,800
by occupation:
financial, business, and other services 30.2%, manufacturing 28.4%, commerce
22.0%, construction 9.0%, other 10.4% (1990)

*Singapore, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Singapore
conventional short form:
Singapore
Digraph:
SN
Type:
republic within Commonwealth
Capital: Singapore
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Constitution:
3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore
Constitution
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 9 August (1965)
Political parties and leaders:
government:
People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary general
opposition:
Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore Democratic Party (SDP),
CHIAM See Tong; National Solidarity Party (NSP), leader NA; Barisan Sosialis
(BS, Socialist Front), leader NA
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held NA August 1993); results -
President WEE Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without opposition
Parliament:
last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held 31 August 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total) PAP 77, SDP 3, WP 1
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime Minister
LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime Minister ONG Teng
Cheong (since 2 January 1985)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, COCOM (cooperating country), CP, ESCAP, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador S. R. NATHAN

*Singapore, Government

chancery:
1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone:
(202) 667-7555
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jon M. HUNTSMAN, Jr.
embassy:
30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
mailing address:
FPO AP 96534
telephone:
[65] 338-0251
FAX:
[65] 338-4550
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of
the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward
the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged
in a circle

*Singapore, Economy

Overview:
Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and
manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links derived from
its entrepot history. The economy appears to have pulled off a soft landing
from the 9% growth rate of the late 1980s, registering higher than expected
growth in 1992 while stemming inflation. Economic activity slowed early in
1992, primarily as a result of slackened demand in Singapore's export
markets. But after bottoming out in the second quarter, the economy picked
up in line with a gradual recovery in the United States. The year's best
performers were the construction and financial services industries and
manufacturers of computer-related components. Rising labor costs continue to
be a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, but there are indications that
productivity is catching up. Government surpluses and the rate of gross
national savings remain high. In technology, per capita output, and labor
discipline, Singapore is well on its way toward its goal of becoming a
developed country.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $45.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
5.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
$16,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
2.7% (June 1992)
Budget:
revenues $10.4 billion; expenditures $9.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$61.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum products,
telecommunications equipment
partners:
US 21%, Malaysia 13%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7%, Thailand 6%
Imports:
$66.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
Japan 21%, US 16%, Malaysia 14%, Taiwan 4%
External debt:
$0 Singapore is a net creditor
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
4,860,000 kW capacity; 18,000 million kWh produced, 6,420 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing
and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot
trade, financial services, biotechnology
Agriculture:
occupies a position of minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in
poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops - rubber,
copra, fruit, vegetables

*Singapore, Economy

Illicit drugs:
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe,
and the Third World; also a major money-laundering center
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.0 billion
Currency:
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.6531 (January 1993), 1.6290 (1992),
1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Singapore, Communications

Railroads:
38 km of 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
2,644 km total (1985)
Ports:
Singapore
Merchant marine:
492 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,763,511 GRT/15,816,384 DWT;
includes 1 passenger-cargo, 125 cargo, 72 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 18 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 165
oil tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 7 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 74 bulk, 3 combination bulk; note - many Singapore flag
ships are foreign owned
Airports:
total:
10
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and
television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13
AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular
Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Singapore, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 853,440; fit for military service 629,055 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Slovakia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Hungary and Poland
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
48,845 km2
land area:
48,800 km2
comparative area:
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
total 1,355 km, Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland
444 km, Ukraine 90 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none; landlocked
International disputes:
Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary; unresolved property issues
with Czech Republic over redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal
property; establishment of international border between the Czech Republic
and Slovakia
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Natural resources:
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore;
salt; gas
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
severe damage to forests from "acid rain" caused by coal-fired power
stations
Note:
landlocked

*Slovakia, People

Population:
5,375,501 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.51% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.47 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.39 years
male:
68.18 years
female:
76.85 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Slovak(s)
adjective:
Slovak
Ethnic divisions:
Slovak 85.6%, Hungarian 10.8%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures
underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or more),
Czech 1.1%, Ruthenian 15,000, Ukrainian 13,000, Moravian 6,000, German
5,000, Polish 3,000
Religions:
Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other
17.5%
Languages:
Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.484 million
by occupation:
industry 33.2%, agriculture 12.2%, construction 10.3%, communication and
other 44.3% (1990)

*Slovakia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Slovak Republic
conventional short form:
Slovakia
local long form:
Slovenska Republika
local short form:
Slovensko
Digraph:
LO
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Bratislava
Administrative divisions:
4 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) Bratislava,
Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky
Independence:
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
Constitution:
ratified 3 September 1992; fully effective 1 January 1993
Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the
obligations of Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and
to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
National holiday:
Slovak National Uprising, August 29 (1944)
Political parties and leaders:
Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, Vojtech BUGAR; Christian Democratic
Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Vladimir
MECIAR, chairman; Party of the Democratic Left, Peter WEISS, chairman;
Slovak National Party, Ludovit CERNAK, chairman; Coexistence, Miklos DURAY,
chairman; Party of Conservative Democrats, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Green Party; Democratic Party; Social Democratic Party in Slovakia; Movement
for Czech-Slovak Accord; Freedom Party; Slovak Christian Union; Hungarian
Civic Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - Michal KOVAC
elected by the National Council
National Council:
last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1996); results - Movement
for a Democratic Slovakia 37%, Party of the Democratic Left 15%, Christian
Democratic Movement 9%, Slovak National Party 8%, Hungarian Christian
Democratic Movement/Coexistence 7%; seats - (150 total) Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia, 74, Party of the Democratic Left 29, Christian
Democratic Movement 18, Slovak National Party 15, Hungarian Christian
Democratic Movement/Coexistence 14
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council (Narodni Rada)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Slovakia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since NA), Deputy Prime Minister Roman KOVAC
(since NA)
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN (as of 8
January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Dr. Milan ERBAN chancery:
3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 363-6315 or 6316
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Elect Eleanor SUTTER
embassy:
Hviczdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
427 330 861
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with
a crest with a white double cross on three blue mountains

*Slovakia, Economy

Overview:
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent states - the Czech
Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated the task of moving
toward a more open and decentralized economy. The old Czechoslovakia, even
though highly industrialized by East European standards, suffered from an
aging capital plant, lagging technology, and a deficiency in energy and many
raw materials. In January 1991, approximately one year after the end of
communist control of Eastern Europe, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
launched a sweeping program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and
controlled economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and the
setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost in
inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a whole
inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992 in Slovakia,
inflation slowed to an estimated 8.7% and the estimated fall in GDP was a
more moderate 7%. In 1993 the government anticipates up to a 7% drop in GDP,
with the disruptions from the separation from the Czech lands probably
accounting for half the decline; inflation, according to government
projections, may rise to 15-20% and unemployment may reach 12-15%. The
Slovak government is moving ahead less enthusiastically than the Czech
government in the further dismantling of the old centrally controlled
economic system. Although the governments of Slovakia and the Czech Republic
had envisaged retaining the koruna as a common currency at least in the
short run, the two countries ended the currency union in February 1993.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $32.1 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.3% (1992 est.)
Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment; chemicals; fuels, minerals, and metals;
agricultural products
partners:
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy,
France, US, UK
Imports:
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment; fuels and lubricants; manufactured goods;
raw materials; chemicals; agricultural products
partners:
Czech Republic, CIS republics, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland,
Hungary, UK, Italy
External debt:
$1.9 billion hard currency indebtedness (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
6,800,000 kW capacity; 24,000 million kWh produced, 4,550 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Slovakia, Economy

Industries:
brown coal mining, chemicals, metal-working, consumer appliances,
fertilizer, plastics, armaments
Agriculture:
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs:
the former Czechoslavakia was a transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and was emerging as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
(1992)
Economic aid:
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to
non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency:
1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 28.59 (December 1992), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Slovakia, Communications

Railroads: 3,669 km total (1990)
Highways:
17,650 km total (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
natural gas 2,700 km; petroleum products NA km
Ports:
maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia (Rijeka),
Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river ports are
Komarno on the Danube and Bratislava on the Danube
Merchant marine:
the former Czechoslovakia had 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,185
GRT/437,291 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 9 bulk; may be shared with the Czech
Republic
Airports:
total:
34
usable:
34
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
NA

*Slovakia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,407,908; fit for military service 1,082,790; reach
military age (18) annually 47,973 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
8.2 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Slovenia, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
20,296 km2 land area:
20,296 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 999 km, Austria 262 km, Croatia 455 km, Italy 199 km, Hungary 83 km
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
dispute with Croatia over fishing rights in the Adriatic and over some
border areas; the border issue is currently under negotiation; small
minority in northern Italy seeks the return of parts of southwestern
Slovenia
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot
summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to
Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
45%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; heavy metals and
toxic chemicals along coastal waters; near Koper, forest damage from air
pollutants originating at metallurgical and chemical plants; subject to
flooding and earthquakes

*Slovenia, People

Population:
1,967,655 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.93 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74 years
male:
70.08 years
female:
78.13 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.68 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Slovene(s)
adjective:
Slovenian
Ethnic divisions:
Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 96% (including 2% Uniate), Muslim 1%, other 3%
Languages:
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
786,036
by occupation:
agriculture 2%, manufacturing and mining 46%

*Slovenia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form:
Slovenia
local long form:
Republika Slovenije
local short form:
Slovenija
Digraph:
SI
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:
60 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina) Ajdovscina, Brezice, Celje,
Cerknica, Crnomelj, Dravograd, Gornja Radgona, Grosuplje, Hrastnik Lasko,
Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola, Jesenice, Kamnik, Kocevje, Koper, Kranj,
Krsko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana-Bezigrad, Ljubljana-Center,
Ljubljana-Moste-Polje, Ljubljana-Siska, Ljubljana-Vic-Rudnik, Ljutomer,
Logatec, Maribor, Metlika, Mozirje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto,
Ormoz Pesnica, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radlje Ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne Na
Koroskem, Ribnica, Ruse, Sentjur Pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skofja Loka,
Slovenj Gradec, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje Pri Jelsah,
Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Velenje, Vrhnika, Zagorje Ob Savi, Zalec
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 25 June
Political parties and leaders:
Slovene Christian Democratics (SKD), Lozje PETERLE, chairman; Liberal
Democratic (LDS), Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman; Social-Democratic Party of
Slovenia (SDSS), Joze PUCNIK, chairman; Socialist Party of Slovenia (SSS),
Viktor ZAKELJ, chairman; Greens of Slovenia (ZS), Dusan PLUT, chairman;
National Democratic, Rajko PIRNAT, chairman; Democratic Peoples Party,
Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman; Reformed Socialists (former Communist Party),
Ciril RIBICIC, chairman; United List (former Communists and allies); Slovene
National Party, leader NA; Democratic Party, Igor BAVCAR; Slovene People's
Party (SLS), Ivan OMAN
note:
parties have changed as of the December 1992 elections
Other political or pressure groups:
none
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Elections:
President:
last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Milan KUCAN
reelected by direct popular vote
State Assembly:
last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (total 90) LDS 22, SKD 15, United List (former
Communists and allies) 14, Slovene National Party 12, SN 10, Democratic
Party 6, ZS 5, SDSS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1

*Slovenia, Government

State Council:
will become operational after next election in 1996; in the election of 6
December 1992 40 members were elected to represent local and socio-economic
interests
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime ministers, cabinet
Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly; consists of the State Assembly and the State
Council; note - State Council will become operational after next election
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
Member of:
CE, CEI, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IOM (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ernest PETRIC
chancery:
(temporary) 1300 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 828-1650
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador E. Allen WENDT
embassy:
P.O. Box 254; Cankarjeva 11, 61000 Ljubljana
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
[38] (61) 301-427/472
FAX:
[38] (61) 301-401
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with the
Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white against a blue
background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas
and rivers, and around it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an
inverted triangle); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag
centered in the white and blue bands

*Slovenia, Economy

Overview:
Slovenia was by far the most prosperous of the former Yugoslav republics,
with a per capita income more than twice the Yugoslav average, indeed not
far below the levels in neighboring Austria and Italy. Because of its strong
ties to Western Europe and the small scale of damage during its fight for
independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia has the brightest prospects among the
former Yugoslav republics for economic recovery over the next few years. The
dissolution of Yugoslavia, however, has led to severe short-term

Book of the day: