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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$198 million
Currency:
1 Saint Helenian pound (#S) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Saint Helenian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992),
0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the Saint
Helenian pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Saint Helena, Communications

Highways:
87 km paved roads and 20 km earth roads on Saint Helena; 80 km paved roads
on Ascension; 2.7 km paved roads on Tristan da Cunha
Ports:
Jamestown (Saint Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 550
telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension, then into
worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial submarine
cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Saint Helena, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Geography

Location: in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way between Puerto Rico
and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
269 km2
land area:
269 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
135 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature
variation; rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
volcanic with mountainous interiors
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
17%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
17%
other:
41%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (July to October)

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, People

Population:
40,407 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.59% (1993 est.)
Birth rate: 23.93 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.39 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
20.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.72 years
male:
62.78 years
female:
68.85 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.64 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective:
Kittsian, Nevisian
Ethnic divisions:
black African
Religions:
Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
20,000 (1981)

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form:
Saint Kitts and Nevis
former:
Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Digraph:
SC
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Basseterre
Administrative divisions: 14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint
George
Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John
Capesterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capesterre,
Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint
Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point
Independence:
19 September 1983 (from UK)
Constitution:
19 September 1983
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 19 September (1983)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Action Movement (PAM), Dr. Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and Nevis
Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party (NRP),
Simeon DANIEL; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 21 March 1989 (next to be held by 21 March 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total, 11 elected) PAM 6, SKNLP 2,
NRP 2, CCM 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983, previously
Governor General of the Associated State since NA November 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS (since 19 September 1983,
previously Premier of the Associated State since NA February 1980); Deputy
Prime Minister Sydney Earl MORRIS (since NA)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
INTERPOL, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission), Charge d'Affaires ad interim
Aubrey Eric HART
chancery:
Suite 608, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 833-3550
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Charge d'Affaires resides in Saint John's
(Antigua and Barbuda)
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing
two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper
triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically depended on the growing and processing of
sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In recent years, tourism
and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed larger roles.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $142 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
6.8% (1991)
National product per capita:
$3,500 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
12.2% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $85.7 million; expenditures $85.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $42.4 million (1993)
Exports:
$24.6 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
sugar, clothing, electronics, postage stamps
partners:
US 53%, UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 5%, OECS 5% (1988)
Imports:
$103.2 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels
partners:
US 36%, UK 17%, Trinidad and Tobago 6%, Canada 3%, Japan 3%, OECS 4% (1988)
External debt:
$37.2 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.8% (1988 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
15,800 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 1,120 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear,
beverages
Agriculture:
accounts for 7% of GDP; cash crop - sugarcane; subsistence crops - rice,
yams, vegetables, bananas; fishing potential not fully exploited; most food
imported
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $67 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Communications

Railroads:
58 km 0.760-meter gauge on Saint Kitts for sugarcane
Highways:
300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 km otherwise improved, 50 km unimproved
earth
Ports:
Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and international link via
Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin; 2,400 telephones; broadcast stations -
2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

*Saint Kitts and Nevis, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Saint Lucia, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about two-thirds of the way between Puerto
Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
620 km2
land area:
610 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
158 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to
April, rainy season from May to August
Terrain:
volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Natural resources:
forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal
potential
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
13%
other:
54%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity; deforestation; soil erosion

*Saint Lucia, People

Population:
144,337 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.52% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
23.97 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-12.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.26 years
male:
66.98 years
female:
71.69 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.62 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Lucian(s)
adjective:
Saint Lucian
Ethnic divisions:
African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian 3.2%, Caucasian 0.8%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1980)
total population:
67%
male:
65%
female:
69%
Labor force:
43,800
by occupation:
agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

*Saint Lucia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Lucia
Digraph:
ST
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Castries
Administrative divisions:
11 quarters; Anse La Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros Islet,
Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux Fort
Independence:
22 February 1979 (from UK)
Constitution:
22 February 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 February (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
United Workers' Party (UWP), John COMPTON; Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP),
Julian HUNTE; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George ODLUM
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 27 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) UWP 11, SLP 6
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Acting Governor
General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since 3 May 1982)
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS
chancery:
Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 30037
telephone:
(202) 463-7378 or 7379
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)

*Saint Lucia, Government

Flag:
blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges
of the arrowhead have a white border

*Saint Lucia, Economy

Overview:
Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average annual growth rate of
almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist sectors. Saint Lucia
also possesses an expanding industrial base supported by foreign investment
in manufacturing and other activities, such as in data processing. The
economy, however, remains vulnerable because the important agricultural
sector is dominated by banana production, which is subject to periodic
droughts and/or tropical storms.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $250 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,650 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $131 million; expenditures $149 million, including capital
expenditures of $71 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$105 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
bananas 58%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil
partners:
UK 56%, US 22%,CARICOM 19%
Imports:
$267 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 21%, food and
live animals, chemicals, fuels
partners:
US 34%, CARICOM 17%, UK 14%, Japan 7%, Canada 4%
External debt:
$65.7 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
32,500 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated boxes,
tourism, lime processing, coconut processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP and 43% of labor force; crops - bananas, coconuts,
vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa; imports food for the tourist
industry
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$120 million
Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

*Saint Lucia, Communications

Highways:
760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 km otherwise improved
Ports:
Castries, Vieux Fort
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439:
1
Telecommunications:
fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones; direct microwave link
with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; interisland
troposcatter link to Barbados; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (cable)

*Saint Lucia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Header

Affiliation:
(territorial collectivity of France)

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, 25 km south of Newfoundland (Canada)
Map references:
North America
Area:
total area:
242 km2
land area:
242 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Terrain:
mostly barren rock
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
vegetation scanty

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, People

Population:
6,652 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.79% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.44 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.14 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.73 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.19 years
male:
73.56 years
female:
77.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective:
French
Ethnic divisions:
Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
2,850 (1988)
by occupation:
NA

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form:
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form:
Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form:
Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Digraph:
SB
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Saint-Pierre
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control
since 1763)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Party (PS), Albert PEN; Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS),
Gerard GRIGNON
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
French President:
last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - (second
ballot) Jacques CHIRAC 56%, Francois MITTERRAND 44%
French Senate:
last held NA September 1986 (next to be held NA September 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PS 1
French National Assembly:
last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA June 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) number of seats by party NA;
note - Saint Pierre and Miquelon elects 1 member each to the French Senate
and the French National Assembly who are voting members
General Council:
last held September-October 1988 (next to be held NA September 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) Socialist and
other left-wing parties 13, UDF and right-wing parties 6
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the Republic
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council
Judicial branch:
Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner of the Republic Kamel KHRISSATE (since NA); President of the
General Council Marc PLANTEGENET (since NA)

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Government

Member of:
FZ
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a territorial collectivity of France, local interests are represented in
the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by
servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The
economy has been declining, however, because the number of ships stopping at
Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the years. In March 1989, an
agreement between France and Canada set fish quotas for Saint Pierre's
trawlers fishing in Canadian and Canadian-claimed waters for three years.
The agreement settles a longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish
exports to a halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports
come primarily from Canada and France.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $60 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$9,500 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $18.3 million; expenditures $18.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $5.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$25.5 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners:
US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal
Imports:
$87.2 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
partners:
Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 3,840 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Agriculture:
vegetables, cattle, sheep, pigs for local consumption; fish catch of 20,500
metric tons (1989)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$500 million
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Communications

Highways:
120 km total; 60 km paved (1985)
Ports:
Saint Pierre
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
3,601 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 FM, no TV; radio
communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French
domestic satellite system

*Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea about three-fourths of the way between Puerto
Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
340 km2
land area:
340 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
84 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
38%
permanent crops:
12%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
41%
other:
3%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat
Note:
some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, People

Population:
114,562 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.76% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.86 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.39 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.72 years
male:
70.21 years
female:
73.28 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)
adjective:
Saint Vincentian or Vincentian
Ethnic divisions:
black African descent, white, East Indian, Carib Indian
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English, French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
96%
male:
96%
female:
96%
Labor force:
67,000 (1984 est.)
by occupation:
NA

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Digraph:
VC
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kingstown
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George,
Saint Patrick
Independence:
27 October 1979 (from UK)
Constitution:
27 October 1979
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son) MITCHELL; Saint Vincent Labor Party
(SVLP), Stanley JOHN; United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian SAUNDERS;
Movement for National Unity (MNU), Ralph GONSALVES; National Reform Party
(NRP), Joel MIGUEL
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 16 May 1989 (next to be held NA July 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (21 total; 15 elected representatives and 6
appointed senators) NDP 15
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
David JACK (since 29 September 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kingsley LAYNE
chancery:
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 102, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Government

Flag:
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green;
the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important sector of
the economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist
industry, is also important. The economy continues to have a high
unemployment rate of 35%-40% because of an overdependence on the
weather-plagued banana crop as a major export earner. Government progress
toward diversifying into new industries has been relatively unsuccessful.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $171 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35%-40% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $62 million; expenditures $67 million, including capital
expenditures of $21 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$65.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets
partners:
UK 43%, CARICOM 37%, US 15%
Imports:
$110.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and
fuels
partners:
US 42%, CARICOM 19%, UK 15%
External debt:
$50.9 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
16,600 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 555 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk of exports;
products - bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of
cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish catch used locally
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $81 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Communications

Highways:
1,000 km total; 300 km paved; 400 km improved; 300 km unimproved (est.)
Ports:
Kingstown
Merchant marine:
407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,388,427 GRT/5,511,325 DWT; includes
3 passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 222 cargo, 22 container, 19 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 24 oil tanker, 7 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied
gas, 73 bulk, 13 combination bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 1
specialized tanker; note - China owns 3 ships; a flag of convenience
registry
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
islandwide fully automatic telephone system; 6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF
interisland links from Saint Vincent to Barbados and the Grenadines; new SHF
links to Grenada and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV
(cable)

*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*San Marino, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
60 km2
land area:
60 km2
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 39 km, Italy 39 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain:
rugged mountains
Natural resources:
building stone
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA
Environment:
dominated by the Appenines
Note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and
Monaco

*San Marino, People

Population:
23,855 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.01% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.32 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
81.18 years
male:
77.09 years
female:
85.27 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Sammarinese
Ethnic divisions:
Sammarinese, Italian
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Italian
Literacy:
age 14 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
96%
male:
96%
female:
95%
Labor force:
4,300 (est.)
by occupation:
NA

*San Marino, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of San Marino
conventional short form:
San Marino
local long form:
Repubblica di San Marino
local short form:
San Marino
Digraph:
SM
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Marino
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore,
Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino,
Serravalle
Independence:
301 AD (by tradition)
Constitution:
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a
constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Piermarino MENICUCCI; San Marino
Democratic Progressive Party (PPDS) formerly San Marino Communist Party
(PCS), Gilberto GHIOTTI; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Remy GIACOMINI;
Unitary Socialst Party (PSU); Democratic Movement (MD), Emilio Della BALDA;
San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS), Augusto CASALI; San Marino
Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo BUSCARINI
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Great and General Council:
last held 29 May 1988 (next to be held by NA May 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7
Executive branch:
two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet); real executive power is
wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the secretary of
state for internal affairs
Legislative branch:
unicameral Great and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale)
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)
Leaders:
Co-Chiefs of State:
Captain Regent Patricia BUSIGNANI and Captain Regent Salvatore TONELLI (for
the period 1 April - 30 September 1993)
Head of Government:
Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986)
Member of:
CE, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM
(guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

*San Marino, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulates general:
Washington and New York
honorary consulate:
Detroit
US diplomatic representation:
no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy) is
accredited to San Marino
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national
coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield
(featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown
and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

*San Marino, Economy

Overview:
The tourist industry contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1991 over 3.1 million
tourists visited San Marino, 2.7 million of whom were Italians. The key
industries are wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural
products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard
of living are comparable to northern Italy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $465 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$20,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $300 million, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1991)
Exports:
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity trade
consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts,
wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer
manufactures
Imports:
see exports
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 42% of workforce
Electricity:
supplied by Italy
Industries:
wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourism
Agriculture:
employs 3% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes, maize, olives, meat,
cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses; depends on Italy for
food imports
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Italian currency is used; note - also mints its own coins
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,482.5 (January 1993), 1,232.4 (1992),
1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*San Marino, Communications

Highways:
104 km
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; 11,700
telephones; broadcast services from Italy; microwave and cable links into
Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

*San Marino, Defense Forces

Branches:
public security or police force
Manpower availability:
all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia that can serve as an army
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Sao Tome and Principe, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean, 340 km off the coast of Gabon
straddling the equator
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
960 km2
land area:
960 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
209 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
75%
other: 3%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion

*Sao Tome and Principe, People

Population:
133,225 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.63% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.39 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
64.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.02 years
male:
61.19 years
female:
64.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.6 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Sao Tomean(s)
adjective:
Sao Tomean
Ethnic divisions:
mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves), forros (descendents of
freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and
Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans
(primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
57%
male:
73%
female:
42%
Labor force:
21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture and
fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers; 56% of
population of working age (1983)

*Sao Tome and Principe, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form:
Sao Tome and Principe
local long form:
Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form:
Sao Tome e Principe
Digraph:
TP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Sao Tome
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Principe, Sao Tome
Independence:
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
5 November 1975, approved 15 December 1982
Legal system:
based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR), Daniel Lima Dos
Santos DAIO, secretary general; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and
Principe (MLSTP), Carlos da GRACA; Christian Democratic Front (FDC),
Alphonse Dos SANTOS; Democratic Opposition Coalition (CODO), leader NA;
other small parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 3 March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Miguel
TROVOADA was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's first multiparty
presidential election
National People's Assembly:
last held 20 January 1991 (next to be held NA January 1996); results -
PCD-GR 54.4%, MLSTP 30.5%, CODO 5.2%, FDC 1.5%, other 8.4%; seats - (55
total) PCD-GR 33, MLSTP 21, CODO 1; note - this was the first multiparty
election in Sao Tome and Principe
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Popular Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Noberto Jose D'Alva COSTA ALEGRE (since 16 May 1992)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

*Sao Tome and Principe, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joaquim Rafael BRANCO
chancery:
(temporary) 801 Second Avenue, Suite 603, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 697-4211
US diplomatic representation:
ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident
basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag:
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with
two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow
band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Sao Tome and Principe, Economy

Overview:
The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the country gained
independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa production has
gradually deteriorated because of drought and mismanagement, so that by 1987
output had fallen to less than 50% of its former levels. As a result, a
shortage of cocoa for export has created a serious balance-of-payments
problem. Production of less important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm
kernels, has also declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of
exports by a ratio of 4:1. The emphasis on cocoa production at the expense
of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import 90% of food needs.
It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured goods. Over the years,
Sao Tome has been unable to service its external debt, which amounts to
roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable potential exists for
development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to
expand facilities in recent years. The government also implemented a
Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to restructure the economy and reschedule
external debt service payments in cooperation with the International
Development Association and Western lenders.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $41.4 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$315 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
27% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $10.2 million; expenditures $36.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $22.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$5.5 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
cocoa 85%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners:
Germany, Netherlands, China
Imports:
$24.5 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment 54%, food products 23%, other 23%
partners:
Portugal, Germany, Angola, China
External debt:
$163.6 million (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.1% (1986)
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp processing
Agriculture:
dominant sector of economy, primary source of exports; cash crops - cocoa
(85%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee; food products - bananas, papaya,
beans, poultry, fish; not self-sufficient in food grain and meat
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $89 million

*Sao Tome and Principe, Economy

Currency:
1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
dobras (Db) per US$1 - 230 (1992), 260.0 (November 1991), 122.48 (December
1988), 72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Sao Tome and Principe, Communications

Highways:
300 km (two-thirds are paved); roads on Principe are mostly unpaved and in
need of repair
Ports:
Sao Tome, Santo Antonio
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways :
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
minimal system; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Sao Tome and Principe, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 31,326; fit for military service 16,507 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Saudi Arabia, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,960,582 km2
land area:
1,960,582 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 4,415 km, Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km,
Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km
Coastline:
2,640 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
large section of boundary with Yemen not defined; status of boundary with
UAE not final; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands is
disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature
Terrain:
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
59%
Irrigated land:
4,350 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing extensive coastal
seawater desalination facilities; desertification
Note:
extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on
shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

*Saudi Arabia, People

Population:
17,615,310 (July 1993 est.)
note:
the population figure is consistent with a 3.3% growth rate; a 1992 census
gives the number of Saudi citizens as 12,304,835 and the number of residents
who are not citizens as 4,624,459
Population growth rate:
3.3% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
38.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
55.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.32 years male:
65.71 years
female:
69.01 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saudi(s)
adjective:
Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Religions:
Muslim 100%
Languages:
Arabic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
62%
male:
73%
female:
48%
Labor force:
5 million
by occupation:
government 34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%, agriculture 16%

*Saudi Arabia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form:
Saudi Arabia
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al 'Arabiyah as Su'udiyah
local short form:
Al 'Arabiyah as Su'udiyah
Digraph:
SA
Type:
monarchy
Capital:
Riyadh
Administrative divisions:
14 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah,
Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, 'Asir,
Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
Independence:
23 September 1932 (unification)
Constitution: none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial
disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Political parties and leaders:
none allowed
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Executive branch:
monarch and prime minister, crown prince and deputy prime minister, Council
of Ministers
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
King and Prime Minister FAHD bin 'Abd al-'Aziz Al Sa'ud (since 13 June
1982); Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister 'ABDALLAH bin 'Abd al-'Aziz Al
Sa'ud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan
chancery:
601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 342-3800

*Saudi Arabia, Government

consulates general:
Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires C. David Welch
embassy:
Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address:
American Embassy, Unit 61307, Riyadh; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309,
Riyadh 11693; or APO AE 09803-1307
telephone:
[966] (1) 488-3800
FAX:
Telex 406866 consulates general:
Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
Flag:
green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no
God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal
saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of
Islam

*Saudi Arabia, Economy

Overview:
The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35% of
GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves
of petroleum in the world, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and
plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the government intends to
encourage private economic activity and to foster the gradual process of
turning Saudi Arabia into a modern industrial state that retains traditional
Islamic values. Four million foreign workers play an important role in the
Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and banking sectors.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $111 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $45.1 billion; expenditures $52.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$48.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 92%
partners:
US 21%, Japan 18%, Singapore 6%, France 6%, Korea 5%
Imports:
$26.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
food stuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, chemical
products, textiles
partners:
US 21%, UK 13%, Japan 12%, Germany 8%, France 6%
External debt:
$18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.1% (1989 est.); accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
28,554,000 kW capacity; 63,000 million kWh produced, 3,690 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, two
small steel-rolling mills, construction, fertilizer, plastics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; subsidized by government;
products - wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton,
chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in food
Illicit drugs:
death penalty for traffickers
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $64.7 billion in bilateral aid (1979-89)
Currency:
1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalas
Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986), 3.7033
(1986)

*Saudi Arabia, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Saudi Arabia, Communications

Railroads:
1390 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 448 km are double tracked
Highways:
74,000 km total; 35,000 km paved, 39,000 km gravel and improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,400 km, petroleum products 150 km, natural gas 2,200 km,
includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km
Ports:
Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu al Bahr, Yanbu al
Sinaiyah
Merchant marine:
77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 860,818 GRT/1,219,345 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 6 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
container, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 livestock carrier, 23 oil tanker, 6
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
213
usable:
193
with permanent-surface runways:
71
with runways over 3,659 m:
14
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
36
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
107
Telecommunications:
modern system with extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic cable
systems; 1,624,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 43 AM, 13 FM, 80 TV;
microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and
Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti,
Egypt and Bahrain; earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT

*Saudi Arabia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Coast
Guard, Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,650,492; fit for military service 3,128,620; reach
military age (17) annually 140,283 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $16.5 billion, 13% of GDP (1993 budget)

*Senegal, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Guinea-Bissau and
Mauritania
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
196,190 km2
land area:
192,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total 2,640 km, The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali
419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite; the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 12 November 1991 rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor of Senegal
- that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau; boundary with Mauritania
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong southeast
winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry harmattan wind
Terrain:
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
1,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
Note:
The Gambia is almost an enclave

*Senegal, People

Population:
8,463,225 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.42 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
77.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.01 years
male:
54.59 years
female:
57.48 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.15 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Senegalese

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