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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991)

*Armenia, Government

Head of Government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since NA February 1993); Supreme Soviet
Chairman Babken ARARKTSYAN (since NA 1990)
Member of:
BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, IBRD, ICAO, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Rouben SHUGARIAN
chancery:
122 C Street NW, Suite 360, Washington, DC 20001
telephone:
(202) 628-5766
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Designate Harry GILMORE
embassy:
18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
(7) (885) 215-1122, 215-1144
FAX:
(7) (885) 215-1122
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

*Armenia, Economy

Overview:
Armenia under the old centrally planned Soviet system had built up textile,
machine-building, and other industries and had become a key supplier to
sister republics. In turn, Armenia had depended on supplies of raw materials
and energy from the other republics. Most of these supplies enter the
republic by rail through Azerbaijan (85%) and Georgia (15%). The economy has
been severely hurt by ethnic strife with Azerbaijan over control of the
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a mostly Armenian-populated enclave
within the national boundaries of Azerbaijan. In addition to outright
warfare, the strife has included interdiction of Armenian imports on the
Azerbaijani railroads and expensive airlifts of supplies to beleaguered
Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed
about one-tenth of industrial capacity and housing, the repair of which has
not been possible because the supply of funds and real resources has been
disrupted by the reorganization and subsequent dismantling of the central
USSR administrative apparatus. Among facilities made unserviceable by the
earthquake are the Yerevan nuclear power plant, which had supplied 40% of
Armenia's needs for electric power and a plant that produced one-quarter of
the output of elevators in the former USSR. Armenia has some deposits of
nonferrous metal ores (bauxite, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) that are
largely unexploited. For the mid-term, Armenia's economic prospects seem
particularly bleak because of ethnic strife and the unusually high
dependence on outside areas, themselves in a chaotic state of
transformation. The dramatic drop in output in 1992 is attributable largely
to the cumulative impact of the blockade; of particular importance was the
shutting off in the summer of 1992 of rail and road links to Russia through
Georgia due to civil strife in the latter republic.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-34% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
2% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of underemployed
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$30 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, light industrial products, processed food
items (1991)
partners:
NA
Imports:
$300 million from outside the successor statees of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
1992)
commodities:
machinery, energy, consumer goods (1991)
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -50% (1992 est.)

*Armenia, Economy

Electricity:
2,875,000 kW capacity; 9,000 million kWh produced, 2,585 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
diverse, including (in percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting
machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines (1.9%), electric motors
(9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk
fabric (0.8%), washing machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches,
instruments, and microelectronics (1990)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP; only 29% of land area is arable; employs 18%
of labor force; citrus, cotton, and dairy farming; vineyards near Yerevan
are famous for brandy and other liqueurs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
wheat from US, Turkey
Currency: retaining Russian ruble as currency (January 1993)
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Armenia, Communications

Railroads:
840 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
11,300 km total; 10,500 km hard surfaced, 800 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
natural gas 900 km (1991)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
12
useable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of facilities
for mobile cellular phone service remains in the negotiation phase for joint
venture agreement; Armenia has about 260,000 telephones, of which about
110,000 are in Yerevan; average telephone density is 8 per 100 persons;
international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by
landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by leased
connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; broadcast
stations - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs;
satellite earth station - INTELSAT

*Armenia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 848,223; fit for military service 681,058; reach military
age (18) annually 28,101 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

*Aruba, Header

Affiliation:
(part of the Dutch realm)

*Aruba, Geography

Location:
in the southern Caribbean Sea, 28 km north of Venezuela and 125 km east of
Colombia
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
193 km2
land area:
193 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
68.5 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources:
negligible; white sandy beaches
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

*Aruba, People

Population:
65,117 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.66% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.3 years
male:
72.65 years
female:
80.13 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Aruban(s)
adjective:
Aruban
Ethnic divisions:
mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish
Languages:
Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

*Aruba, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Aruba
Digraph:
AA
Type:
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986
upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital:
Oranjestad
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received from
the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give
independence to the island in 1996)
Constitution:
1 January 1986
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
Flag Day, 18 March
Political parties and leaders:
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP),
Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New
Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny
NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
(AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OLA), Glenbert
CROES
note:
governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislature:
last held 8 January 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP 9, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPA 1,
OLA 1, other 1
Executive branch:
Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral legislature (Staten)
Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February 1989)
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag:
blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and
a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

*Aruba, Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and oil
refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded rapidly
between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has
steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3% in 1991. The reopening
of the local oil refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign
exchange earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $900 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$14,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including capital
expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports:
$902.4 million, including oil re-exports (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
mostly petroleum products
partners:
US 64%, EC
Imports:
$1,311.3 million, including oil for processing and re-export (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products
partners:
US 8%, EC
External debt:
$81 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 14,610 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture:
poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Illicit drugs:
drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $220
million
Currency:
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Aruba, Communications

Highways:
NA km all-weather highways
Ports:
Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
note:
government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic flights
Telecommunications:
generally adequate; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links;
72,168 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 submarine cable
to Sint Maarten

*Aruba, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Geography

Location:
in the Indian Ocean, 320 km off the northwest coast of Australia, between
Australia and Indonesia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
5 km2
land area:
5 km2
comparative area:
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
74.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
low with sand and coral
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all grass and sand)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve
established in August 1983

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Digraph:
AT
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for Arts,
Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Legal system:
relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

*Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal
Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

*Atlantic Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa
Map references: Africa, Antarctic Region, Arctic Region, Central America and the Caribbean,
Europe, North America, South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
82.217 million km2
comparative area:
slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the
world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean
or Arctic Ocean)
note:
includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea,
Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
111,866 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape
Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from
May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Terrain:
surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and
Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre
in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin;
maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Environment:
endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles,
and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal
sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs
common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic from
February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the
Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern
Atlantic
Note:
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from October
to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be
a hazard to shipping from May to September; major choke points include the
Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals;
strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona
Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping
lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

*Atlantic Ocean, Government

Digraph: ZH

*Atlantic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural resources,
especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and crude oil and
natural gas production (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

*Atlantic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain),
Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen
(Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki
(Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon
(Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
(Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria),
Oslo (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm
(Sweden)
Telecommunications:
numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the UK,
North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links
across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network
Note:
Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

*Australia, Geography

Location:
Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
7,686,850 km2
land area:
7,617,930 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
note:
includes Macquarie Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
25,760 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrain:
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten,
mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
58%
forest and woodland:
14%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
18,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited
freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical,
invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along west coast in
summer; desertification
Note:
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

*Australia, People

Population:
17,827,204 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.43 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
7.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.36 years
male: 74.24 years
female:
80.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Australian(s)
adjective:
Australian
Ethnic divisions:
Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other 1%
Religions:
Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%
Languages:
English, native languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
8.63 million (September 1991)
by occupation:
finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%, wholesale
and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1%
(1987)

*Australia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form:
Australia
Digraph:
AS
Type:
federal parliamentary state
Capital:
Canberra
Administrative divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales,, Northern
Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria,, Western Australia
Dependent areas:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands,
Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Independence:
1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Legal system:
based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Australia Day, 26 January
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition:
Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER; Australian
Democratic Party, John COULTER
Other political or pressure groups:
Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party
splinter group)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80, Liberal-National 65,
independent 2
Senate:
last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1999); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) Liberal-National 36, Labor 30,
Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2, independents 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a
lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
High Court

*Australia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, COCOM,
CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. COOK
chancery:
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 797-3000
consulates general:
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American
Samoa), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
mailing address:
APO AP 96549
telephone:
[61] (6) 270-5000
FAX:
[61] (6) 270-5970
consulates general:
Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
consulate:
Brisbane
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a
representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small
five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

*Australia, Economy

Overview:
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per
capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries.
Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural
products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are
primary products, so that, as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world
commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is
pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $293.5 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
2.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$16,700 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.8% (September 1992)
Unemployment rate:
11.3% (December 1992)
Budget:
revenues $68.5 billion; expenditures $78.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY93)
Exports: $41.7 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
partners:
Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%, UK, Taiwan, Hong
Kong
Imports:
$37.8 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, crude oil
and petroleum products
partners:
US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)
External debt:
$130.4 billion (June 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000,000 kW capacity; 150,000 million kWh produced, 8,475 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals,
steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP and 37% of export revenues; world's largest exporter
of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters;
major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep,
poultry
Illicit drugs:
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products;
government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation
and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

*Australia, Economy

Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Australia, Communications

Railroads:
40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130 km electrified;
government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers of privately owned
track) (1985)
Highways:
837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km
Ports:
Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart,
Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine:
82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,347,271 GRT/3,534,926 DWT; includes
2 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle
carrier, 17 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 30 bulk, 2
combination bulk
Airports:
total:
481
usable:
439
with permanent-surface runways:
243
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
268
Telecommunications:
good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones; broadcast
stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service; satellite stations - 4
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Australia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,830,068; fit for military service 4,198,622; reach
military age (17) annually 135,591 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Austria, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Germany and Hungary
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area: 83,850 km2
land area:
82,730 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy
430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland
164 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands
and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and
northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Natural resources:
iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
copper, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
24%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
40 km2 (1989)
Environment:
population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor
soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Note:
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many
easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube

*Austria, People

Population:
7,915,145 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.55% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.42 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.4 years
male:
73.18 years
female:
79.8 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Austrian(s)
adjective:
Austrian
Ethnic divisions:
German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1974)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
3.47 million (1989)
by occupation:
services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry 8.1%
note:
an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries;
foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of labor force (1988)

*Austria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Austria
conventional short form:
Austria
local long form:
Republik Oesterreich
local short form:
Oesterreich
Digraph:
AU
Type: federal republic
Capital:
Vienna
Administrative divisions:
9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg,
Wien
Independence:
12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)
Legal system:
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts
by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme
courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 26 October (1955)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
Austrian People's Party (OVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party of
Austria (FPO), Jorg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPO), Walter
SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Johannes VOGGENHUBER,
chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation
(primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's
Party (OVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League
of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
organization, Catholic Action
Suffrage:
19 years of age, universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Elections:
President:
last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot -
Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
National Council:
last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - SPO 43%,
OVP 32.1%, FPO 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPO 0.7%, other 0.32%; seats - (183 total)
SPO 80, OVP 60, FPO 33, GAL 10
Executive branch:
president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) consists of an upper council
or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower council or National Council
(Nationalrat)

*Austria, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases,
Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases,
Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases
Leaders:
Chief of State: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
Head of Government:
Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor Erhard
BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM
(cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Friedrich HOESS
chancery:
3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone:
(202) 895-6700
FAX:
(202) 895-6750
consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roy Michael HUFFINGTON
chancery:
Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Unit 27937, Vienna
mailing address:
APO AE 09222
telephone:
[43] (1) 31-339
FAX:
[43] (1) 310-0682
consulate general:
Salzburg
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

*Austria, Economy

Overview:
Austria boasts a prosperous and stable socialist market economy with a
sizable proportion of nationalized industry and extensive welfare benefits.
Thanks to an excellent raw material endowment, a technically skilled labor
force, and strong links to German industrial firms, Austria occupies
specialized niches in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and
produces almost enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force
in agriculture. Increased export sales resulting from German unification,
continued to boost Austria's economy through 1991. However, Germany's
economic difficulties in 1992 slowed Austria's GDP growth to 2% from the 3%
of 1991. Austria's economy, moreover, is not expected to grow by more than
1% in 1993, and inflation is forecast to remain about 4%. Unemployment will
likely remain at current levels at least until 1994. Living standards in
Austria are comparable with the large industrial countries of Western
Europe. Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level
of subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
capabilities. The continued opening of Eastern European markets, however,
will increase demand for Austrian exports. Austria, a member of the European
Free Trade Association (EFTA), in 1992 ratified the European Economic Area
Treaty, which will extend European Community rules on the free movement of
people, goods, capital and services to the EFTA countries, and Austrians
plan to hold a national referendum within the next two years to vote on EC
membership.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $141.3 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
$18,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.4% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $47.8 billion; expenditures $53.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$43.5 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products,
chemicals
partners:
EC 65.8% (Germany 39%), EFTA 9.1%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 9.0%, Japan
1.7%, US 2.8% (1991)
Imports:
$50.7 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners:
EC 67.8% (Germany 43.0%), EFTA 6.9%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 6.0%, Japan
4.8%, US 3.9% (1991)
External debt:
$11.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.0% (1991)
Electricity:
17,600,000 kW capacity; 49,500 million kWh produced, 6,300 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Austria, Economy

Industries:
foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and
pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and animals -
grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle, pigs, poultry;
80-90% self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen
Exchange rates:
Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 11.363 (January 1993), 10.989 (1992),
11.676 (1991), 11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Austria, Communications

Railroads:
5,749 km total; 5,652 km government owned and 97 km privately owned (0.760-,
1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,394 km 1.435-meter standard gauge of which
3,154 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked; 339 km 0.760-meter
narrow gauge of which 84 km is electrified
Highways:
95,412 km total; 34,612 km are the primary network (including 1,012 km of
autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of provincial roads); of this
number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are unpaved; in addition, there
are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth)
Inland waterways:
446 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 554 km; natural gas 2,611 km; petroleum products 171 km
Ports:
Vienna, Linz (Danube river ports)
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 154,159 GRT/256,765 DWT; includes 23
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk
Airports:
total:
55
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
20
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV; satellite ground stations
for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

*Austria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Flying Division)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,016,464; fit for military service 1,694,140; reach
military age (19) annually 50,259 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Azerbaijan, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, between Armenia and Turkmenistan, bordering the Caspian
Sea
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle East, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
86,600 km2
land area:
86,100 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maine
note:
includes the Nakhichevan' Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast; region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijan Supreme
Soviet on 26 November 1991
Land boundaries:
total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km, Georgia
322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey
9 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
note:
Azerbaijan does border the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims:
NA
note:
Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10 nm fishing zone provided for
in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet Union and Iran
International disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with Armenia over status of
Nagorno-Karabakh, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan; some Azerbaijanis
desire absorption of and/or unification with the ethnically Azeri portion of
Iran; minor irredentist disputes along Georgia border
Climate:
dry, semiarid steppe; subject to drought
Terrain:
large, flat Kura-Aras Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great
Caucasus Mountains to the north, Karabakh Upland in west; Baku lies on
Aspheson Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
57%
Irrigated land:
14,010 km2 (1990)

*Azerbaijan, Geography

Environment:
local scientists consider Apsheron Peninsula, including Baku and Sumgait,
and the Caspian Sea to be "most ecologically devastated area in the world"
because of severe air and water pollution
Note:
landlocked

*Azerbaijan, People

Population:
7,573,435 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.5% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
35.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.6 years
male:
66.77 years
female:
74.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.76 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic divisions:
Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Daghestanis 3.2%, other 2.9%, note
- Armenian share may be less than 5.6% because many Armenians have fled the
ethnic violence since 1989 census
Religions:
Moslem 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8%
Languages:
Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
2.789 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42%
(1990)

*Azerbaijan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form:
Azerbaijan
local long form:
Azarbaijchan Respublikasy
local short form:
none
former:
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
AJ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baku (Baky)
Administrative divisions:
1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika); Nakhichevan (administrative
center at Nakhichevan)
note:
all rayons except for the exclave of Nakhichevan are under direct republic
jurisdiction; 1 autonomous oblast, Nagorno-Karabakh (officially abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991) has declared itself
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Independence:
30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
New Azerbaijan Party, ALIYEV; Musavat Party (Azerbaijan Popular Front -
APF), Isa GAMBAROV; National Independence Party (main opposition party),
Etibar MAMEDOV; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Zardusht Ali ZADE; Party of
Revolutionary Revival (successor to the Communist Party), Sayad Afes OGLV,
general secretary; Party of Independent Azerbaijan, SOVLEYMANOV
Other political or pressure groups:
self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Abdulfaz Ali ELCHIBEY,
won 60% of vote
National Council:
last held 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next
expected to be held late 1993 for the National Council); seats for Supreme
Soviet - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of
opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19 May 1992 the Supreme
Soviet was disbanded in favor of a Popular Front-dominated National Council;
seats - (50 total) 25 Popular Front, 25 opposition elements
Executive branch:
president, council of ministers
Legislative branch:
National Parliament (National Assembly or Milli Mejlis)

*Azerbaijan, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ebulfez ELCHIBEY (since 7 June 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Penah HUSEYNOV (since 29 April 1993; resigned 7 June 1993;
likely replacement - E'tibar MAMEDOV); National Parliament Chairman Isa
GAMBAROV (since 19 May 1992; resigned 13 June 1993; likely replacement
Geydar ALIYEV)
Member of:
BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDB, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, ITU, NACC, OIC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV
chancery:
1615 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILES
embassy:
Hotel Intourist, Baku
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
7-8922-91-79-56
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and
eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

*Azerbaijan, Economy

Overview:
Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia,
the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in
its majority Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low
standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are cotton, oil,
and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline
for several years. With foreign assistance, the oil industry might generate
the funds needed to spur industrial development. However, civil unrest,
marked by armed conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim
Azeris and Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
accounted for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former
Soviet Union. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet
republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but
its considerable energy resources brighten its propects somewhat. Old
economic ties and structures have yet to be replaced. A particularly galling
constraint on economic revival is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, said to
consume 25% of Azerbaijan's economic resources.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-25% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% per month (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
0.2% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$821 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
1992 est.)
commodities:
oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
partners:
mostly CIS and European countries
Imports:
$300 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
1992 est.)
commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
partners:
European countries
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -27% (1992)
Electricity:
6,025,000 kW capacity; 22,300 million kWh produced, 2,990 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel,
iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs,
sheep and goats

*Azerbaijan, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication program; used as transshipment points for illicit
drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
wheat from Turkey
Currency:
1 manat (abbreviation NA) = 10 Russian rubles; ruble still used
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Azerbaijan, Communications

Railroads:
2,090 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
36,700 km total (1990); 31,800 km hard surfaced; 4,900 km earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,130 km, petroleum products 630 km, natural gas 1,240 km
Ports:
inland - Baku (Baky)
Airports:
total:
65
useable:
33
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 8
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
23
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; 644,000
domestic telephone lines (density - 9 lines per 100 persons (1991)), 202,000
persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991); connections to
other former USSR republics by cable and microwave and to other countries
via the Moscow international gateway switch; INTELSAT earth station
installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish financial assistance with access
to 200 countries through Turkey; domestic and Russian TV programs are
received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an INTELSAT
satellite through a receive-only earth station

*Azerbaijan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Navy, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,842,917; fit for military service 1,497,640; reach
military age (18) annually 66,928 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
2,848 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

*The Bahamas, Geography

Location:
in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida and northwest of
Cuba
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
13,940 km2
land area:
10,070 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,542 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain:
long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources:
salt, aragonite, timber
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
32%
other:
67%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood
damage
Note:
strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

*The Bahamas, People

Population:
268,726 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.62% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.97 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.15 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
31.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.02 years
male:
68.19 years
female:
75.96 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bahamian(s) adjective:
Bahamian
Ethnic divisions:
black 85%, white 15%
Religions:
Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God
6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%
Languages:
English, Creole, among Haitian immigrants
Literacy:
age 15 and over but definition of literacy not available (1963)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
89%
Labor force:
127,400
by occupation:
government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1989)

*The Bahamas, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
The Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form:
The Bahamas
Digraph:
BF
Type:
commonwealth
Capital:
Nassau
Administrative divisions:
21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma,
Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island,
High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New
Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy
Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay
Independence:
10 July 1973 (from UK)
Constitution:
10 July 1973
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
National Day, 10 July (1973)
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM; Vanguard Nationalist and
Socialist Party (VNPS), Lionel CAREY, chairman; People's Democratic Force
(PDF), Fred MITCHELL
Other political or pressure groups:
Vanguard Nationalist and Socialist Party (VNSP), a small leftist party
headed by Lionel CAREY; Trade Union Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington
MILLER
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held by August 1997); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (49 total) FNM 32, PLP 17
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an appointed upper house or Senate and a
directly elected lower house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hubert INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992)
Member of:
ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

*The Bahamas, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON
chancery:
2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 319-2660
consulates general:
Miami and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Chic HECHT
embassy:
Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address:
P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau
telephone:
(809) 322-1181 or 328-2206
FAX:
(809) 328-7838
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine with
a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

*The Bahamas, Economy

Overview:
The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income, developing nation whose economy is
based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000 people or
40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in recent years, as
the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed. Nonetheless, per
capita GDP is one of the highest in the region.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991)
National product per capita:
$10,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $627.5 million; expenditures $727.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $100 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$306 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish
partners:
US 41%, Norway 30%, Denmark 4%
Imports:
$1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels, crude oil
partners:
US 35%, Nigeria 21%, Japan 13%, Angola 11%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
424,000 kW capacity; 929 million kWh produced, 3,599 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt production,
rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers; principal
products-citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1.0 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345 million
Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1-1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*The Bahamas, Communications

Highways:
2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel
Ports:
Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine:
853 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,136,078 GRT/33,119,750 DWT;
includes 53 passenger, 18 short-sea passenger, 159 cargo, 40
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 48 container, 6 vehicle carrier, 181 oil tanker, 14
liquefied gas, 22 combination ore/oil, 43 chemical tanker, 1 specialized
tanker, 159 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 102 refrigerated cargo; note-a flag of
convenience registry
Airports:
total:
60
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
31
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3, 659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally automatic system;
tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida; broadcast
stations-3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*The Bahamas, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 68,020; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion-$65 million, 2.7% of GDP (1990)

*Bahrain, Geography

Location: Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and Qatar
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
620 km2
land area:
620 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary
with Qatar
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Natural resources:
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires development of
desalination facilities); dust storms; desertification
Note:
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in
Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to
reach open ocean

*Bahrain, People

Population: 568,471 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.01% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.89 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
3.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
7.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
20.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.12 years
male:
70.72 years
female:
75.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.99 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bahraini(s)
adjective:
Bahraini
Ethnic divisions:
Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%
Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Languages:
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
77%
male:
82%
female:
69%
Labor force:
140,000
by occupation:
industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982)
note:
42% of labor force is Bahraini

*Bahrain, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Bahrain
conventional short form:

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