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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 29 out of 42

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National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $22.8 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
2.2% (FY90)
National product per capita:
$6,200 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (October 1990-91)
Unemployment rate:
17% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $5.8 billion; expenditures $5.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $258 million (FY89)
Exports:
20.4 billion (1990)
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage
concentrates, medical equipment, instruments
partners:
US 87.8% (1990)
Imports:
16.2 billion (1990)
commodities:
chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners:
US 66.6% (1990)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (FY92)
Electricity:
5,040,000 kW capacity; 16,100 million kWh produced, 4,260 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
manufacturing accounts for 55.5 % of GDP: manufacturing of pharmaceuticals,
electronics, apparel, food products, instruments; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for only 3% of labor force and less than 2% of GDP: crops -
sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock - cattle,
chickens; imports a large share of food needs (1992)
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Puerto Rico, Communications

Railroads:
96 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger
railroads
Highways:
13,762 km paved (1982)
Ports:
San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo
Airports:
total:
30
usable:
23
with permanent-surface runways:
19
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
modern system, integrated with that of the US by high capacity submarine
cable and INTELSAT with high-speed data capability; digital telephone system
with about 1 million lines; cellular telephone service; broadcast stations -
50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV; cable television available with US programs (1990)

*Puerto Rico, Defense Forces

Branches:
paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 830,133; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Qatar, Geography

Location:
Middle East, peninsula jutting into the central Persian Gulf, between Iran
and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
11,000 km2
land area:
11,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 60 km, Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline:
563 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary
with Bahrain
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer
Terrain:
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited freshwater resources mean
increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Note:
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

*Qatar, People

Population:
499,115 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.61 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
3.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
12.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
22.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:
72.25 years
male:
69.73 years
female:
74.68 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Qatari(s)
adjective:
Qatari
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions:
Muslim 95%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population:
76%
male:
77%
female:
72%
Labor force:
104,000 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)

*Qatar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Qatar
conventional short form:
Qatar
local long form:
Dawlat Qatar
local short form:
Qatar
Digraph:
QA
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Doha
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Rayyan,
Al Wakrah, Ash Shamal, Jarayan al Batnah, Umm Salal
Independence:
3 September 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970
Legal system:
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are
being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
Advisory Council:
constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no
elections have been held; seats - (30 total)
Executive branch:
amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Amir and Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani (since 22 February 1972);
Crown Prince HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir)
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador 'Abd al-Rahman bin Sa'ud ALTHANI
chancery:
Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 338-0111

*Qatar, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenton W. KEITH
embassy:
149 Ali Bin Ahmed St., Farig Bin Omran (opposite the television station),
Doha
mailing address:
P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone:
(0974) 864701 through 864703
FAX:
(0974) 861669
Flag:
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist
side

*Qatar, Economy

Overview:
Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more than 85% of export
earnings and roughly 75% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.3
billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for about
25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP of about $17,000, comparable
to the leading industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas is
becoming increasingly important.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $8.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$17,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $440 million (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers
partners:
Japan 61%, Brazil 6%, South Korea 5%, UAE 4%
Imports:
$1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners:
France 13%, Japan 12%, UK 11%, Germany 9%
External debt:
$1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.6% (1987); accounts for 64% of GDP, including oil
Electricity:
1,596,000 kW capacity; 4,818 million kWh produced, 9,655 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel (rolls
reinforcing bars for concrete construction), cement
Agriculture:
farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP; agricultural area
is small and government-owned; commercial fishing increasing in importance;
most food imported
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed countries (1979-88)
Currency:
1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams
Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Qatar, Communications

Highways:
1,500 km total; 1,000 km paved, 500 km gravel or natural surface (est.)
Pipelines:
crude oil 235 km, natural gas 400 km
Ports:
Doha, Umm Sa'id, Halul Island
Merchant marine:
20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 390,072 GRT/593,508 DWT; includes 13
cargo, 4 container, 2 oil tanker, 1 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones; tropospheric scatter to
Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to
Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV

*Qatar, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 214,977; fit for military service 113,514; reach military
age (18) annually 3,578 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA%, of GDP

*Reunion, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

*Reunion, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 750 km east of Madagascar
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
2,510 km2
land area:
2,500 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
201 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November,
hot and rainy from November to April
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
39%
Irrigated land:
60 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
periodic devastating cyclones

*Reunion, People

Population:
639,622 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25.64 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.68 years
male:
70.61 years
female:
76.91 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.81 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Reunionese
Ethnic divisions:
French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%
Languages:
French (official), Creole widely used
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
69%
male:
67%
female:
74%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)
note:
63% of population of working age (1983)

*Reunion, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Reunion
conventional short form:
Reunion
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile de la Reunion
Digraph:
RE
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Saint-Denis
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Paul VERGES;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON; Socialist Party (PS),
Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social Democrats (CDS); other small parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
General Council:
last held 22 March 1991 (next to be held March 1997); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (44 total)
Regional Council:
last held 28 March 1992 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - UDF
25.6%, PRC 17.9%, PS 10.5%, Independent 30.7%, other 15.3%; seats - (45
total) Independent 17, UDF 14, PRC 9, PS 5
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA September 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent
1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held NA June 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA
1; note - Reunion elects 3 members to the French Senate and 5 members to the
French National Assembly who are voting members
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the Republic
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)

*Reunion, Government

Head of Government:
Commissioner of the Republic Jacques DEWATRE (since NA July 1991)
Member of:
FZ
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an overseas department of France, Reunionese interests are represented in
the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*Reunion, Economy

Overview:
The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been
the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it accounts for
85% of exports. The government has been pushing the development of a tourist
industry to relieve high unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third
of the labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is
extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The white and
Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments of the
population, often approaching European standards, whereas indigenous groups
suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the
African continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991
illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic
well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from
France.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.37 billion (1987 est.)
National product real growth rate:
9% (1987 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1987 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
35% (February 1991)
Budget:
revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1986)
Exports:
$166 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, lobster 3%, vanilla and
tea 1%
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation
equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners:
France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production: growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
245,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 1,230 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing handicraft items
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy; cash crops -
sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops - tropical fruits, vegetables, corn;
imports large share of food needs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$14.8 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

*Reunion, Economy

Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Reunion, Communications

Highways:
2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized
earth
Ports:
Pointe des Galets
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runway 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runway 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate system; modern open-wire and microwave network; principal center
Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new
microwave route to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
13 FM, 1 (18 repeaters) TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Reunion, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 167,925; fit for military service 86,764; reach military age
(18) annually 5,975 (1993 est.)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Romania, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea between Bulgaria and the
Ukraine
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
237,500 km2
land area:
230,340 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south)
169 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers
with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of Moldavia on the
east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on
the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves being exhausted), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
salt
Land use:
arable land:
43%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
34,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure
and climate promote landslides; air pollution in south
Note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova,
and Ukraine

*Romania, People

Population:
23,172,362 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.02% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.17 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.25 years
male:
68.32 years
female:
74.34 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Romanian(s)
adjective:
Romanian
Ethnic divisions:
Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat,
Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%
Religions:
Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate),
Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%
Languages:
Romanian, Hungarian, German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
98%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
10,945,700
by occupation:
industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)

*Romania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Romania
local long form:
none
local short form:
Romania
Digraph:
RO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bucharest
Administrative divisions:
40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu);, Alba, Arad, Arges,
Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov,
Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati,
Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi,
Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence:
1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
Constitution:
8 December 1991
Legal system:
former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory that
increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being revised
National holiday:
National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
National Salvation Front (FSN), Petre ROMAN; Democratic National Salvation
Front (DNSF), Oliviu GHERMAN; Magyar Democratic Union (UDMR), Geza DOMOKOS;
National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants'
Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National
Unity Party (PUNR), Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie
VERDET; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The
Democratic Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM),
Corneliu Vadim TUDOR
note: there are dozens of smaller parties; although the Communist Party has ceased
to exist, small proto-Communist parties, notably the Socialist Labor Party,
have been formed
Other political or pressure groups:
various human right and professional associations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 27 September 1992 - with runoff between top two candidates on 11
October 1992 (next to be held NA 1998); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil
CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
Senate:
last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1998); results - DFSN 27.5%,
CDR 22.5%, FSN 11%, others 39%; seats - (143 total) DFSN 49, CDR 34, FSN 18,
PUNR 14, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5

*Romania, Government

House of Deputies:
last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1998); results - DFSN 27.5%,
CDR 22.5%, FSN 11%, others 38.5%; seats - (341 total) DFSN 117, CDR 82, FSN
43, PUNR 30, UDMR 27, PRM 16, PSM 13, other 13
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a
lower house or House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of
Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)
Member of:
BIS, BSEC, CCC, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aurel-Dragos MUNTEANU
chancery:
1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-4747, 6634, 5693
FAX:
(202) 232-4748
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr.
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address:
AmConGen (Buch), Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5260
telephone:
[40] (0) 10-40-40
FAX:
[40] (0) 12-03-95
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been
removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

*Romania, Economy

Overview:
Industry, which accounts for about one-third of the labor force and
generates over half the GDP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. The year 1991 witnessed a 17% drop in
industrial production because of energy and input shortages and labor
unrest. In recent years the agricultural sector has had to contend with
flooding, mismanagement, shortages of inputs, and disarray caused by the
dismantling of cooperatives. A shortage of inputs and a severe drought in
1991 contributed to a poor harvest, a problem compounded by corruption and
an obsolete distribution system. The new government has instituted moderate
land reforms, with more than one-half of cropland now in private hands, and
it has liberalized private agricultural output. Private enterprises form an
increasingly important portion of the economy largely in services,
handicrafts, and small-scale industry. Little progress on large scale
privatization has been made since a law providing for the privatization of
large state firms was passed in August 1991. Most of the large state firms
have been converted into joint-stock companies, but the selling of shares
and assets to private owners has been delayed. While the government has
halted the old policy of diverting food from domestic consumption to hard
currency export markets, supplies remain scarce in some areas. The new
government continues to impose price ceilings on key consumer items. In 1992
the economy muddled along toward the new, more open system, yet output and
living standards continued to fall.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $63.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,700 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
200% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9% (January 1993)
Budget:
revenues $19 billion; expenditures $20 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.1 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 29.3%, fuels, minerals and metals 32.1%,
manufactured consumer goods 18.1%, agricultural materials and forestry
products 9.0%, other 11.5% (1989)
partners:
USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)
Imports:
$5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fuels, minerals, and metals 56.0%, machinery and equipment 25.5%,
agricultural and forestry products 8.6%, manufactured consumer goods 3.4%,
other 6.5% (1989)
partners:
Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)
External debt:
$3 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -17% (1991 est.); accounts for 48% of GDP
Electricity:
22,500,000 kW capacity; 59,000 million kWh produced, 2,540 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Romania, Economy

Industries:
mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine
building, food processing, petroleum production and refining
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn
producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk,
eggs, meat, grapes
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
donor - $4.4 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
1 leu (L) = 100 bani
Exchange rates:
lei (L) per US$1 - 470.10 (January 1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991),
22.432 (1990), 14.922 (1989), 14.277 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Romania, Communications

Railroads:
11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter gauge, 370 km narrow gauge, 45 km
broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km double track; government owned
(1987)
Highways:
72,799 km total; 35,970 km paved; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and other
stabilized surfaces; 9,100 km unsurfaced roads (1985)
Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,800 km, petroleum products 1,429 km, natural gas 6,400 km (1992)
Ports:
Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu, Drobeta-Turnu
Severin, Orsova
Merchant marine:
249 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,882,727 GRT/4,463,879 DWT; includes
1 passenger-cargo, 170 cargo, 2 container, 1 rail-car carrier, 9
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 15 oil tanker, 51 bulk
Airports:
total:
158
usable:
158
with permanent-surface runways:
27
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
21
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
poor service; about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89% of phone network is
automatic; cable and open wire; trunk network is microwave; present phone
density is 9.85 per 100 residents; roughly 3,300 villages with no service
(February 1990); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 13 TV (1990); 1 satellite
ground station using INTELSAT

*Romania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,846,332; fit for military service 4,942,746; reach
military age (20) annually 185,714 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
137 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1993); note - conversion of defense expenditures
into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading
results

*Russia, Geography

Location:
Europe/North Asia, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States,
Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Standard Time Zones of
the World
Area:
total area: 17,075,200 km2
land area:
16,995,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 20,139 km, Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605
km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km,
Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania
(Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167 km, Poland
(Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline:
37,653 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
inherited disputes from former USSR including: sections of the boundary with
China; boundary with Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia; Etorofu, Kunashiri, and
Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group occupied by the Soviet Union
in 1945, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of the
Barents Sea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved
the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation
Climate:
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of
European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north;
winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers
vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain:
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra
in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Natural resources:
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas,
coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
note:
formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation
of natural resources
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%

*Russia, Geography

other: NA%
note:
agricultural land accounts for 13% of the total land area
Irrigated land:
61,590 km2 (1990)
Environment:
despite its size, only a small percentage of land is arable and much is too
far north for cultivation; permafrost over much of Siberia is a major
impediment to development; catastrophic pollution of land, air, water,
including both inland waterways and sea coasts
Note:
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in
relation to major sea lanes of the world

*Russia, People

Population:
149,300,359 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.21% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.73 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
27.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.69 years
male:
63.59 years
female:
74.04 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Russian(s)
adjective:
Russian
Ethnic divisions:
Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%
Religions:
Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
Languages:
Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male: 100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
75 million (1993 est.)
by occupation:
production and economic services 83.9%, government 16.1%

*Russia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Russian Federation
conventional short form:
Russia
local long form:
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form:
Rossiya
former:
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Digraph:
RS
Type:
federation
Capital:
Moscow
Administrative divisions:
21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - avtomnaya
respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia (Ulan-Ude),
Chechenia, Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay
(Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik), Kalmykia
(Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia (Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk), Khakassia
(Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordvinia (Saransk),
North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz; formerly Ordzhonikidze), Tatarstan (Kazan'),
Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk), Yakutia (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey,
singular - oblast'); Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan',
Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad,
Kaluga, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma,
Kurgan, Kursk, St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow,
Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod (formerly Gor'kiy), Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk,
Orel, Orenburg, Penza, Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin
(Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara (formerly Kuybyshev), Saratov, Smolensk,
Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver' (formerly Kalinin),
Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'; 6
krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar,
Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol'
note:
the autonomous republics of Chechenia and Ingushetia were formerly the
automous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between Chechenia and
Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities of Moscow and St.
Petersburg have oblast status; an administrative division has the same name
as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses); 4 more administrative divisions may be added
Independence:
24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted in 1978; a new constitution is in the process of being drafted
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, June 12

*Russia, Government

Political parties and leaders:
proreformers:
Christian Democratic Party, Aleksandr CHUYEV; Christian Democratic Union of
Russia, Aleksandr OGORODNIKOV; Democratic Russia Movement, pro-government
faction, Lev PONOMAREV, Gleb YAKUNIN, Vladimir BOKSER; Democratic Russia
Movement, radical-liberal faction, Yuriy AFANAS'YEV, Marina SAL'YE; Economic
Freedom Party, Konstantin BOROVOY, Svyatoslav FEDOROV; Free Labor Party,
Igor' KOROVIKOV; Party of Constitutional Democrats, Viktor ZOLOTAREV;
Republican Party of Russia, Vladimir LYSENKO, Vyacheslav SHOSTAKOVSKIY;
Russian Democratic Reform Movement, Gavriil POPOV; Social Democratic Party,
Boris ORLOV; Social Liberal Party, Vladimir FILIN
moderate reformers:
All-Russian Renewal Union (member Civic Union), Arkadiy VOL'SKIY, Aleksandr
VLADISLAVLEV; Democratic Party of Russia (member Civic Union), Nikolay
TRAVKIN, Valeriy KHOMYAKOV; People's Party of Free Russia (member Civic
Union), Aleksandr RUTSKOY, Vasiliy LIPITSKIY; Russian Union of
Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY, Aleksandr VLADISLAVLEV
antireformers:
Communists and neo-Communists have 7 parties - All-Union Communist Party of
Bolsheviks, Nina ANDREYEVA; Labor Party, Boris KAGARLITSKIY; Russian
Communist Worker's Party, Viktor ANPILOV, Gen. Albert MAKASHOV; Russian
Party of Communists, Anatoliy KRYUCHKOV; Socialist Party of Working People,
Roy MEDVEDEV; Union of Communists, Aleksey PRIGARIN; Working Russia
Movement, Viktor ANPILOV; National Patriots have 6 parties - Constitutional
Democratic Party, Mikhail ASTAF'YEV; Council of People and Patriotic Forces
of Russia, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV; National Salvation Front, Mikhail ASTAF'YEV,
Sergey BABURIN, Vladimir ISAKOV, Il'ya KONSTANTINOV, Aleksandr STERLIGOV;
Russian Christian Democratic Movement, Viktor AKSYUCHITS; Russian National
Assembly, Aleksandr STERLIGOV; Russian National Union, Sergey BABURIN,
Nikolay PAVLOV; extremists have 5 parties - Liberal Democratic Party,
Vladimir ZHIRNOVKSKIY; Nashi Movement, Viktor ALKSNIS; National Republican
Party of Russia, Nikolay LYSENKO; Russian Party, Viktor KORCHAGIN; Russian
National Patriotic Front (Pamyat), Dmitriy VASIL'YEV
Other political or pressure groups:
Civic Union, Aleksandr RUTSKOY, Nikolay TRAVKIN, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY, chairmen
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA%
Congress of People's Deputies: last held March 1990 (next to be held 1995); results - percent of
vote by
party NA%; seats - (1,063 total) number of seats by party NA; election held
before parties were formed
Supreme Soviet:
last held May 1990 (next to be held 1995); results - percent of vote by
party NA%; seats - (252 total) number of seats by party NA; elected from
Congress of People's Deputies
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Security Council, Presidential Administration,
Council of Ministers, Group of Assistants, Council of Heads of Republics
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of People's Deputies, bicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court

*Russia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991); Vice President
Aleksandr Vladimirovich RUTSKOY (since 12 June 1991); Chairman of the
Supreme Soviet Ruslan KHASBULATOV (28 October 1991)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN (since
NA December 1992); First Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
Vladimir SHUMEYKO (since 9 June 1992), Oleg LOBW (since NA April 1993), Oleg
SOSKOVETS (since NA April 1993)
Member of:
BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CERN (observer), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NACC, NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN
Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Vladimir Petrovich LUKIN
chancery:
1125 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 628-7551 and 8548
consulates general:
New York and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Ulitsa Chaykovskogo 19/21/23, Moscow
mailing address:
APO AE 09721
telephone:
[7] (095) 252-2450 through 2459
FAX:
[7] (095) 255-9965
consulates: St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Vladivostok
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

*Russia, Economy

*Russia, Economy

Overview:
Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural resources and a diverse
industrial base, continues to experience great difficulties in moving from
its old centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. President
YEL'TSIN's government made significant strides toward a market economy in
1992 by freeing most prices, slashing defense spending, unifying foreign
exchange rates, and launching an ambitious privatization program. At the
same time, GDP fell 19%, according to official statistics, largely
reflecting government efforts to restructure the economy, shortages of
essential imports caused by the breakdown in former Bloc and interstate
trade, and reduced demand following the freeing of prices in January. The
actual decline, however, may have been less steep, because industrial and
agricultural enterprises had strong incentives to understate output to avoid
taxes, and official statistics may not have fully captured the output of the
growing private sector. Despite the large drop in output, unemployment at
yearend stood at an estimated 3%-4% of Russia's 74-million-person labor
force; many people, however, are working shortened weeks or are on forced
leave. Moscow's financial stabilization program got off to a good start at
the beginning of 1992 but began to falter by midyear. Under pressure from
industrialists and the Supreme Soviet, the government loosened fiscal
policies in the second half. In addition, the Russian Central Bank relaxed
its tight credit policy in July at the behest of new Acting Chairman, Viktor
GERASHCHENKO. This loosening of financial policies led to a sharp increase
in prices during the last quarter, and inflation reached about 25% per month
by yearend. The situation of most consumers worsened in 1992. The January
price liberalization and a blossoming of private vendors filled shelves
across the country with previously scarce food items and consumer goods, but
wages lagged behind inflation, making such goods unaffordable for many
consumers. Falling real wages forced most Russians to spend a larger share
of their income on food and to alter their eating habits. Indeed, many
Russians reduced their consumption of higher priced meat, fish, milk,
vegetables, and fruit, in favor of more bread and potatoes. As a result of
higher spending on food, consumers reduced their consumption of nonfood
goods and services. Despite a slow start and some rough going, the Russian
government by the end of 1992 scored some successes in its campaign to break
the state's stranglehold on property and improve the environment for private
businesses. More peasant farms were created than expected; the number of
consumers purchasing goods from private traders rose sharply; the portion of
the population working in the private sector increased to nearly one-fifth;
and the nine-month-long slump in the privatization of small businesses was
ended in the fall. Although the output of weapons fell sharply in 1992, most
defense enterprises continued to encounter numerous difficulties developing
and marketing consumer products, establishing new supply links, and securing
resources for retooling. Indeed, total civil production by the defense
sector fell in 1992 because of shortages of inputs and lower consumer demand
caused by higher prices. Ruptured ties with former trading partners, output
declines, and sometimes erratic efforts to move to world prices and
decentralize trade - foreign and interstate - took a heavy toll on Russia's
commercial relations with other countries. For the second year in a row,
foreign trade was down sharply, with exports falling by as much as 25% and
imports by 21%. The drop in imports would have been much greater if foreign
aid - worth an estimated $8 billion - had not allowed the continued inflow
of essential products. Trade with the other former Soviet republics
continued to decline, and support for the ruble as a common currency eroded
in the face of Moscow's loose monetary policies and rapidly rising prices
throughout the region. At the same time, Russia paid only a fraction of the
$20 billion due on the former USSR's roughly $80 billion debt; debt
rescheduling remained hung up because of a dispute between Russia and
Ukraine over division of the former USSR's assets. Capital flight also
remained a serious problem in 1992. Russia's economic difficulties did not

*Russia, Economy

abate in the first quarter of 1993. Monthly inflation remained at
double-digit levels and industrial production continued to slump. To reduce
the threat of hyperinflation, the government proposed to restrict subsidies
to enterprises; raise interest rates; set quarterly limits on credits, the
budget deficit, and money supply growth; and impose temporary taxes and cut
spending if budget targets are not met. But many legislators and Central
Bank officials oppose various of these austerity measures and failed to
approve them in the first part of 1993.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-19% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25% per month (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
3%-4% of labor force (1 January 1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$39.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products,
metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
partners:
Europe
Imports:
$35.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, consumer goods, grain, meat, sugar,
semifinished metal products
partners:
Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba
External debt:
$80 billion (yearend 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -19% (1992)
Electricity:
213,000,000 KW capacity; 1,014.8 billion kWh produced, 6,824 kWh per capita
(1 January 1992)
Industries:
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas,
chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to
high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; ship- building; road and rail
transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery,
tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and
transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer
durables
Agriculture:
grain, sugar beet, sunflower seeds, meat, milk, vegetables, fruits; because
of its northern location does not grow citrus, cotton, tea, and other warm
climate products
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
government has active eradication program; used as transshipment point for
illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1990-92), $9.0 billion; other countries,
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1988-92), $91 billion

*Russia, Economy

Currency:
1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Russia, Communications

Railroads:
158,100 km all 1.520-meter broad gauge; 86,800 km in common carrier service,
of which 48,900 km are diesel traction and 37,900 km are electric traction;
71,300 km serves specific industry and is not available for common carrier
use (31 December 1991)
Highways:
893,000 km total, of which 677,000 km are paved or gravelled and 216,000 km
are dirt; 456,000 km are for general use and are maintained by the Russian
Highway Corporation (formerly Russian Highway Ministry); the 437,000 km not
in general use are the responsibility of various other organizations
(formerly ministries); of the 456,000 km in general use, 265,000 km are
paved, 140,000 km are gravelled, and 51,000 km are dirt; of the 437,000 km
not in general use, 272,000 km are paved or gravelled and 165,000 are dirt
(31 December 1991)
Inland waterways:
total navigable routes 102,000 km; routes with navigation guides serving the
Russian River Fleet 97,300 km (including illumination and light reflecting
guides); routes with other kinds of navigational aids 34,300 km; man-made
navigable routes 16,900 km (31 December 1991)
Pipelines:
crude oil 72,500 km, petroleum products 10,600 km, natural gas 136,000 km
(1992)
Ports:
coastal - St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Petropavlovsk,
Arkhangel'sk, Novorossiysk, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Kholmsk, Korsakov,
Magadan, Tiksi, Tuapse, Vanino, Vostochnyy, Vyborg; inland - Astrakhan',
Nizhniy Novgorod (Gor'kiy), Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Samara
(Kuybyshev), Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd
Merchant marine:
865 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,073,954 GRT/11,138,336 DWT;
includes 457 cargo, 82 container, 3 multi-function large load carrier, 2
barge carrier, 72 roll-on/roll-off, 124 oil tanker, 25 bulk cargo, 9
chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 16 combination ore/oil, 5 passenger
cargo, 18 short-sea passenger, 6 passenger, 28 combination bulk, 16
refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
2,550
useable:
964
with permanent surface runways:
565
with runways over 3,659 m:
19
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
275
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
426

*Russia, Communications

Telecommunications:
NMT-450 analog cellular telephone networks are opertional in Moscow and St.
Petersburg; expanding access to international E-mail service via Sprint
networks; the inadequacy of Russian telecommunications is a severe handicap
to the economy, especially with respect to international connections; total
installed telephones 24,400,000, of which in urban areas 20,900,000 and in
rural areas 3,500,000; of these, total installed in homes 15,400,000; total
pay phones for long distant calls 34,100; telephone density is about 164
telephones per 1,000 persons; international traffic is handled by an
inadequate system of satellites, land lines, microwave radio relay and
outdated submarine cables; this traffic passes through the international
gateway switch in Moscow which carries most of the international traffic for
the other countries of the Confederation of Independent States; a new
Russian Raduga satellite will soon link Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome
from whence calls will be relayed to destinations in Europe and overseas;
satellite ground stations - INTELSAT, Intersputnik, Eutelsat (Moscow),
INMARSAT, Orbita; broadcast stations - 1,050 AM/FM/SW (reach 98.6% of
population), 7,183 TV; receiving sets - 54,200,000 TV, 48,800,000 radio
receivers; intercity fiberoptic cables installation remains limited

*Russia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Strategic Rocket
Forces, Command and General Support, Security Forces
note:
strategic nuclear units and warning facilities are under joint CIS control;
Russian defense forces will be comprised of those ground-, air-, and
sea-based conventional assets currently on Russian soil and those still
scheduled to be withdrawn from other countries
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 37,092,361; fit for military service 29,253,668; reach
military age (18) annually 1,082,115 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Rwanda, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
26,340 km2
land area:
24,950 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild
in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west
Natural resources:
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas,
hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops: 11%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
10%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
40 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
landlocked

*Rwanda, People

Population:
8,139,272 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
49.92 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
20.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
119.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
41.23 years
male:
40.2 years
female:
42.28 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
8.27 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Rwandan(s)
adjective:
Rwandan
Ethnic divisions:
Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and other
25%
Languages:
Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used in commercial
centers
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
50% male:
64%
female:
37%
Labor force:
3.6 million
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

*Rwanda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form:
Rwanda
local long form:
Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form:
Rwanda
Digraph:
RW
Type:
republic; presidential system
note:
a new, all-party transitional government is to assume office later this
year, replacing the current MRND-dominated coalition
Capital:
Kigali
Administrative divisions:
10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural - NA,
singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro,
Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
18 June 1991
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican National Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND), President
HABYARIMANA's political movement, remains the dominant party; significant
independent parties include: Democratic Republican Movement (MDR), Faustin
TWAGIRAMUNGU; Liberal Party (PL), Justin MUGENZI; Democratic and Socialist
Party (PSD), Frederic NZAMURAMBAHO; Coalition for the Defense of the
Republic (CDR), Martin BUCYANA; Party for Democracy in Rwanda (PADER), Jean
NTAGUNGIRA; Christian Democratic Party (PDL), Nayinzira NEPOMUSCENE
note: formerly a one-party state, Rwanda legalized independent parties in
mid-1991; since then, at least 10 new political parties have registered
Other political or pressure groups:
since October 1990, Rwanda has been involved in a low-intensity conflict
with the Rwandan Patriotic Front/Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPF/RPA)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
President:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
President Juvenal HABYARIMANA reelected
National Development Council:
last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA December 1993); results -
MRND was the only party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Development Council (Conseil National de Developpement)

*Rwanda, Government

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of
State in joint session)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Juvenal HABYARIMANA (since 5 July 1973)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dismas NSENGIYAREMYE (since NA April 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA
chancery:
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 232-2882
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert A. FLATEN
embassy:
Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address:
B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone:
[250] 75601 through 75603
FAX:
[250] 72128
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a
large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a
plain yellow band

*Rwanda, Economy

Overview:
Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea make up
80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and
deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The industrial sector
in Rwanda is small, contributing only 17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses
mainly on the processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy
remains dependent on coffee exports and foreign aid. Weak international
prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to
decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in
October 1990. An outbreak of insurgency, also in October 1990, has dampened
prospects for economic improvement.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.35 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$290 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $350 million; expenditures $453.7 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$66.6 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee 85%, tea, tin, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners:
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US
Imports:
$259.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners:
US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan
External debt:
$911 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1988); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement,
agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture,
shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash crops
- coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums); main food
crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency
declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up
with a 3.8% annual growth in population

*Rwanda, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $58
million; note - in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment
Program with the IMF; since September 1991, the EC has given $46 million and
the US $25 million in support of this program
Currency:
1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 146.34 (January 1993), 133.35 (1992), 125.14
(1991), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Rwanda, Communications

Highways:
4,885 km total; 460 km paved, 1,725 km gravel and/or improved earth, 2,700
km unimproved
Inland waterways:
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Airports:
total:
8
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
fair system with low-capacity radio relay system centered on Kigali;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 (7 repeaters) FM, no TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

*Rwanda, Defense Forces

Branches: Army (including Air Wing), Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,675,160; fit for military service 853,467 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Saint Helena, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Saint Helena, Geography

Location:
in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1,920 km west of Angola, about two-thirds of
the way between South America and Africa
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
410 km2
land area:
410 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island,
and Tristan da Cunha
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
60 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds
Terrain:
rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Natural resources:
fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns, no
minerals
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0% meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
83%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
very few perennial streams
Note:
Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial; harbors at least 40 species
of plants unknown anywhere else in the world

*Saint Helena, People

Population:
6,720 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
9.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.67 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
38.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.43 years
male:
72.36 years
female:
76.27 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Saint Helenian(s)
adjective:
Saint Helenian
Ethnic divisions:
NA
Religions:
Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population:
98%
male:
97% female:
98%
Labor force:
2,516
by occupation:
professional, technical, and related workers 8.7%, managerial,
administrative, and clerical 12.8%, sales people 8.1%, farmer, fishermen,
etc. 5.4%, craftspersons, production process workers 14.7%, others 50.3%
(1987)

*Saint Helena, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Saint Helena
Digraph:
SH
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Jamestown
Administrative divisions:
1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*; Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan, da Cunha*,
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 January 1989
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June 1989 (second Saturday in
June)
Political parties and leaders:
Saint Helena Labor Party; Saint Helena Progressive Party
note:
both political parties inactive since 1976
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held October 1984 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor commander-in-chief, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) Head of Government:
Governor A. N. HOOLE (since NA)
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Saint
Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield features
a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

*Saint Helena, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends primarily on financial assistance from the UK. The local
population earns some income from fishing, the raising of livestock, and
sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a large proportion of the
work force has left to seek employment overseas.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.1% (1986)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $3.2 million; expenditures $2.9 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1984)
Exports:
$23,900 (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners:
South Africa, UK
Imports:
$2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor
vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners:
UK, South Africa
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,800 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 1,390 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing
Agriculture:
maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being developed; crawfishing
on Tristan da Cunha

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