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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-6960 through 6962
consulates general:
New Orleans and New York
consulate:
Houston
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jon David GLASSMAN
embassy:
1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion
mailing address:
C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO AA 34036-0001
telephone:
[595] (21) 213-715
FAX:
[595] (21) 213-728
Flag:
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem
centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on
each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of
arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at
the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of
Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

*Paraguay, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GDP, employs
about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay
lacks substantial mineral or petroleum resources but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined compared
with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an average annual
rate of nearly 11%. During the period 1982-86 real GDP fell in three of five
years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and foreign debt rose.
Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the economy were the
completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather for crops, and weak
international commodity prices for agricultural exports. In 1987 the economy
experienced a minor recovery because of improved weather conditions and
stronger international prices for key agricultural exports. The recovery
continued through 1990, on the strength of bumper crops in 1988-89. In a
major step to increase its economic activity in the region, Paraguay in
March 1991 joined the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), which includes
Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. In 1992, the government, through an
unorthodox approach, reduced external debt with both commercial and official
creditors by purchasing a sizable amount of the delinquent commercial debt
in the secondary market at a substantial discount. The government had paid
100% of remaining official debt arrears to the US, Germany, France, and
Spain. All commercial debt arrears have been rescheduled. For the long run,
the government must press forward with general, market-oriented economic
reforms.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $7.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $487 million (1991)
Exports:
$719 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee, tung oil, meat products
partners:
EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%
Imports:
$1.33 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and lubricants 19%, raw
materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco 10%
partners:
Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
5,257,000 kW capacity; 16,200 million kWh produced, 3,280 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Paraguay, Economy

Industries:
meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, other light
consumer goods, cement, construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 25% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash crops - cotton,
sugarcane; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, cassava, fruits,
vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus producer of
timber; self-sufficient in most foods
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; important
transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion
Currency:
1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
guaranies (G) per US$ - 1,637.6 (January 1993), 1,500.3 (1992), 447.5 (March
1992), 1,325.2 (1991), 1,229.8 (1990), 1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate
1986-February 1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Paraguay, Communications

Railroads:
970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km 1.000-meter gauge,
470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)
Highways:
21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and 19,698 km earth
Inland waterways:
3,100 km
Ports:
Asuncion, Villeta, Ciudad del Este
Merchant marine:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,747 GRT/19,865 DWT; includes 11
cargo, 2 oil tanker; note - 1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used
commercially
Airports:
total:
862
usable:
719
with permanent-surface runways:
7
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
64
Telecommunications:
principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity microwave net; 78,300
telephones; broadcast stations - 40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7 shortwave; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Paraguay, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,210,171; fit for military service 879,601; reach military
age (17) annually 51,361 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $84 million, 1.4% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Peru, Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and
Ecuador
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,285,220 km2
land area:
1.28 million km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia
2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute
Climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west
Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra),
eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate,
potash
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
21% forest and woodland:
55%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
12,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in
Lima
Note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with
Bolivia

*Peru, People

Population:
23,210,352 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.19 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.15 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
56.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.17 years
male:
63.02 years
female:
67.44 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.22 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Peruvian(s)
adjective:
Peruvian
Ethnic divisions:
Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white 15%,
black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
85%
male: 92%
female:
29%
Labor force:
8 million (1992)
by occupation:
government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988 est.)

*Peru, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Peru
conventional short form:
Peru
local long form:
Republica del Peru
local short form:
Peru
Digraph:
PE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lima
Administrative divisions:
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional
province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa,, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La, Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima,
Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura,
Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note:
the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990 mandate the
creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended to function
eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12
regions have been constituted from 23 existing departments - Amazonas (from
Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from
Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los
Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from
Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque,
Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali);
formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the
constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima;
because of inadequate funding from the central government, the regions have
yet to assume their responsibilities and at the moment coexist with the
departmental structure
Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution because the
Constituent Assembly met in 1979, but the Constitution actually took effect
the following year); suspended 5 April 1992; being revised or replaced
Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
New Majority/Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI; Popular Christian
Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Popular Action Party (AP), Eduardo CALMELL
del Solar; Liberty Movement (ML), Luis BUSTAMANTE; American Popular
Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Alan GARCIA; Independent Moralizing Front
(FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega; National Renewal, Rafael REY; Democratic
Coordinator, Jose Barba CAHALLERO; Democratic Left Movement, Gloria HOFLER
Other political or pressure groups:
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN (imprisoned);
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY
(imprisoned)

*Peru, Government

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995); results - Alberto
FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other 9.55%
Democratic Constituent Congress:
last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held NA); seats - (80 total) New
Majority/Change 90 44, Popular Christian Party 8, Independent Moralization
Front 7, Renewal 6, Movement of the Democratic Left 4, Democratic
Coordinator 4, others 7; several major parties (American Popular
Revolutionary Alliance, Popular Action) did not participate
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Oscar DE LA PUENTE Raygada (since 6 April 1992)
Member of:
AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG
(suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ricardo LUNA
chancery:
1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 833-9860 through 9869)
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles H. BRAYSHAW
embassy:
corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1991, Lima 1, or APO AA 34031
telephone:
[51] (14) 33-8000
FAX:
[51] (14) 31-6682
Flag:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield
bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow
cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

*Peru, Economy

Overview:
The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with a large
dose of government ownership remaining in mining, energy, and banking. In
the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita
output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World
Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity
program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in
July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic
activity, but the slide halted late that year, and output rose 2.4% in 1991.
After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government
price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and
by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima
obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September
1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By
working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and
arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993.
In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino
current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch. Meanwhile, revival of
growth in GDP continued to be restricted by the large amount of public and
private resources being devoted to strengthening internal security.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $25 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-2.8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
56.7% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992 est.); underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $2.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $300 million (1992 est.)
Exports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
copper, fishmeal, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined
silver, coffee, cotton
partners:
EC 28%, US 22%, Japan 13%, Latin America 12%, former USSR 2% (1991)
Imports:
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 32%, Latin America 22%, EC 17%, Switzerland 6%, Japan 3% (1991)
External debt:
$21 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5% (1992 est.); accounts for almost 24% of GDP
Electricity:
5,042,000 kW capacity; 17,434 million kWh produced, 760 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing,
cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

*Peru, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops -
coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains,
coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient
in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs:
world's largest coca leaf producer with about 121,000 hectares under
cultivation; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine
base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of
cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into
cocaine for the international drug market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.3 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million
Currency:
1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (S/. per US$1 - 1.690 (January 1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991),
0.187 (1990), 2.666 (1989), 0.129 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Peru, Communications

Railroads: 1,801 km total; 1,501 km 1.435-meter gauge, 300 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
69,942 km total; 7,459 km paved, 13,538 km improved, 48,945 km unimproved
earth
Inland waterways:
8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km, natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Ports:
Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara
Merchant marine:
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 194,473 GRT/307,845 DWT; includes 13
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 4 bulk;
note - in addition, 6 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used
commercially
Airports:
total:
228
usable:
199
with permanent-surface runways:
37
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
23
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
46
Telecommunications:
fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave system; 544,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 273 AM, no FM, 140 TV, 144 shortwave;
satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 12 domestic

*Peru, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea del Peru), National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,030,354; fit for military service 4,076,197; reach
military age (20) annually 241,336 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $500 million, about 2% of GDP (1991)

*Philippines, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, between Indonesia and China
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area: 300,000 km2
land area:
298,170 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898
treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South
China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
International disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah
Climate:
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon
(May to October)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
11%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
16,200 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six
cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active volcanoes,
destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

*Philippines, People

Population:
68,464,368 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.97% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
27.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
51.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.13 years
male:
62.59 years
female:
67.79 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Filipino(s)
adjective:
Philippine
Ethnic divisions:
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Languages:
Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
90%
Labor force:
24.12 million
by occupation:
agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%, government 10%,
other 9.5% (1989)

*Philippines, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form:
Philippines
local long form:
Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form:
Pilipinas
Digraph: RP
Type:
republic
Capital:
Manila
Administrative divisions:
73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del, Sur, Aklan, Albay,
Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*,, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan,,
Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*,, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*,,
Cadiz*, Cagayan,, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur,,
Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu, City*, Cotabato*,,
Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del, Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*,,
Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*,, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur,,
Iloilo, Iloilo City*,, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte,,
Lanao
del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*,, Maguindanao, Mandaue*,,
Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro, Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental,
Misamis Oriental,
Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,, Northern Samar, Nueva
Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*,, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*,,
Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto, Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon,,
Roxas*, Samar, San, Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San,
Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan, Kudarat, Sulu,
Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*,, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac,, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*,, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte,
Zamboanga, del Sur
Independence:
4 July 1946 (from US)
Constitution:
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipinas, Laban),
Edgardo ESPIRITU; People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas
ng Edsa, NUCD and Partido Lakas Tao, Lakas/NUCD); Fidel V. RAMOS, President
of the Republic, Raul MANGLAPUS, Jose de VENECIA, secretary general;
Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC), Eduardo COJUANGCO; Liberal Party,
Jovito SALONGA; People's Reform Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New
Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista
Party (NP), Salvador H. LAUREL, president
Suffrage:
15 years of age; universal

*Philippines, Government

Elections:
President:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1998); results -
Fidel Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of votes, a narrow plurality
Senate:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP
66%, NPC 20%, Lakas-NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats - (24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5,
Lakas-NUCD 2, Liberal 1, Independent 1
House of Representatives:
last held 11 May 1992 (next election to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP
43.5%; Lakas-NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL 3%; seats - (200 total)
LDP 87, NPC 45, Lakas-NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP 6, KBL 3, Independent 3
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado)
and a lower house or House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992); Vice President Joseph
Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raul RABE
chancery:
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 483-1414
consulates general:
Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'affaires Donald WESTMORE
embassy:
1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
mailing address:
APO AP 96440
telephone:
[63] (2) 521-7116
FAX:
[63] (2) 522-4361
consulate general:
Cebu
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral
triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow
sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in
each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star

*Philippines, Economy

Overview:
Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy remained the same in
1992 as in 1991. Drought and power supply problems hampered production,
while inadequate revenues prevented government pump priming. Despite a flat
GDP performance, GNP mustered a small 0.6% expansion, attributable to
inflows of workers' remittances combined with smaller foreign interest
payments. A marked increase in capital goods imports, particularly power
generations equipment, telecommunications equipment, and electronic data
processors, contributed to a 20.5% import growth in 1992. Exports rose 11%,
led by earnings from the Philippines' two leading manufactures - electronics
and garments.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $54.1 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$860 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.9% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (1992 est.)
Budget:
$11.0 billion; expenditures $12.0 billion, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$9.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
electronics, textiles, coconut oil, copper
partners:
US 39%, EC, Japan, ASEAN
Imports:
$14.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
raw materials 45%, capital goods 26%, petroleum products 18%
partners:
US, Japan, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia
External debt:
$29.8 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1% (1992 est.); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
7,850,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced, 420 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing,
electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for about one-third of GNP and about 45% of labor force; major
crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangos; animal
products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2
million metric tons annually
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers are
producing more and better quality cannabis despite government eradication
efforts

*Philippines, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $7.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1975-89), $123
million
Currency:
1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 25.817 (April 1993), 25.512 (1992), 27.479
(1991), 24.311 (1990), 21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Philippines, Communications

Railroads:
378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)
Highways:
157,450 km total (1988); 22,400 km paved; 85,050 km gravel, crushed-stone,
or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels
Pipelines:
petroleum products 357 km
Ports:
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila, Subic Bay
Merchant marine:
562 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,282,936 GRT/13,772,023 DWT;
includes 1 passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 155 cargo,
27 refrigerated cargo, 25 vehicle carrier, 9 livestock carrier, 13
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 38 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3
liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil, 249 bulk, 8 combination bulk; note -
many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register for the
purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original owners who are
principally in Japan and Germany
Airports:
total:
270
usable:
238
with permanent-surface runways:
73
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
57
Telecommunications:
good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and
interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 267
AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine cables
extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 11
domestic

*Philippines, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 17,188,695; fit for military service 12,144,278; reach
military age (20) annually 716,881 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $915 million, 1.9% of GNP (1991)

*Pitcairn Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Pitcairn Islands, Geography

Location:
in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Peru and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
47 km2
land area:
47 km2
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
51 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season
(November to March)
Terrain:
rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Natural resources:
miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons (especially November to March)

*Pitcairn Islands, People

Population:
52 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective:
Pitcairn Islander
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers
Religions:
Seventh-Day Adventist 100%
Languages:
English (official), Tahitian/English dialect
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
no business community in the usual sense; some public works; subsistence
farming and fishing

*Pitcairn Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form:
Pitcairn Islands
Digraph:
PC
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Adamstown
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
Local Government Ordinance of 1964
Legal system:
local island by-laws
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June (1989) (second Saturday in
June)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal with three years residency
Elections:
Island Council:
last held NA (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, island magistrate
Legislative branch:
unicameral Island Council
Judicial branch:
Island Court
Leaders: Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Governor and
UK High Commissioner to New Zealand David Joseph MOSS (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since NA)
Member of:
SPC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a
yellow anchor

*Pitcairn Islands, Economy

Overview:
The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming. The fertile soil
of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including
citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an
important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of
postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY87 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
fruits, vegetables, curios
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced, 5,360 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
postage stamp sales, handicrafts
Agriculture:
based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of fruits and
vegetables grown; must import grain products
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9486 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Pitcairn Islands, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
6.4 km dirt roads
Ports:
Bounty Bay
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
24 telephones; party line telephone service on the island; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

*Pitcairn Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Poland, Geography

Location:
Central Europe, between Germany and Belarus
Map references:
Asia, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
312,680 km2
land area:
304,510 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km,
Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 444 km,
Ukraine 428 km
Coastline:
491 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent
precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain:
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Natural resources:
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use:
arable land:
46%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
1,000 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
plain crossed by a few north flowing, meandering streams; severe air and
water pollution in south
Note:
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of
natural barriers on the North European Plain

*Poland, People

Population:
38,519,486 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.59 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.2 years
male:
68.14 years
female:
76.51 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.97 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Pole(s)
adjective:
Polish
Ethnic divisions:
Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Belarusian 0.5% (1990 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and
other 5%
Languages:
Polish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population:
98%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
15.609 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 34.4%, agriculture 27.3%, trade, transport, and
communications 16.1%, government and other 22.2% (1991)

*Poland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Poland
conventional short form:
Poland
local long form:
Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form:
Polska
Digraph:
PL
Type:
democratic state
Capital:
Warsaw
Administrative divisions:
49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska,
Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag,
Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin,
Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn,
Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow,
Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg,
Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora
Independence:
11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)
Constitution:
interim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992 replacing the
Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; new democratic Constitution
being drafted
Legal system:
mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist legal
theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader
democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Political parties and leaders:
post-Solidarity parties:
Democratic Union (UD), Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI; Christian-National Union (ZCHN),
Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI; Centrum (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Liberal-Democratic
Congress, Donald TUSK; Peasant Alliance (PL), Gabriel JANOWSKI; Solidarity
Trade Union (NSZZ), Marian KRZAKLEWSKI; Union of Labor (UP), Ryszard BUGAJ;
Christian-Democratic Party (PCHD), Pawel LACZKOWSKI; Conservative Party,
Alexander HALL
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI; Polish
Economic Program (PPG), Janusz REWINSKI; Christian Democrats (CHD), Andrzej
OWSINSKI; German Minority (MN), Henryk KROL; Union of Real Politics (UPR),
Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE; Democratic Party (SD), Antoni MACKIEWICZ; Party X,
Stanislaw Tyminski
Communist origin or linked:
Social Democracy (SDRP, party of Poland), Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz; Polish
Peasants' Party (PSL), Waldemar PAWLAK
Other political or pressure groups:
powerful Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade
Union Alliance (OPZZ), populist program
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*Poland, Government

Elections:
president:
first round held 25 November 1990, second round held 9 December 1990 (next
to be held NA November 1995); results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%,
Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
Senat:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA October 1995);
seats - (100 total)
post-Solidarity bloc:
UD 21, NSZZ 11, ZCHN 9, PC 9, Liberal-Democratic Congress 6, PL 7, PCHD 3,
other local candidates 11;
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
KPN 4, CHD 1, MN 1, local candidates 5
Communist origin or linked:
PSL 8, SLD 4
Sejm:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held no later than NA October 1995);
seats - (460 total)
post-Solidarity bloc:
UD 62, ZCHN 49, PC 44, Liberal-Democratic Congress 37, PL 28, NSZZ 27, SP 4,
PCHD 4, RDS 1, Krackow Coalition in Solidarity with the President 1, Piast
Agreement 1, Bydgoszcz Peasant List 1, Solidarity 80 1
non-Communist, non-Solidarity:
KPN 46, PPPP 16, MN 7, CHD 5, Western Union 4, UPR 3, Autonomous Silesia 2,
SD 1, Orthodox Election Committee 1, Committee of Women Against Hardships 1,
Podhale Union 1, Wielkopolska Group 1, Wielkopolska and Lubuski Inhabitants
1, Party X 3
Communist origin or linked:
SLD 60, PSL 48
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) consists of an upper
house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or Diet (Sejm)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Hanna SUCHOCKA (since 10 July 1992)
Member of:
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kazimierz DZIEWANOWSKI
chancery:
2640 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX:
(202) 328-6271
consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

*Poland, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr. embassy:
Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
mailing address:
American Embassy Warsaw, Box 5010, Unit 25402, or APO AE 09213-5010
telephone:
[48] (2) 628-3041
FAX:
[48] (2) 628-8298
consulates general:
Krakow, Poznan
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of
Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

*Poland, Economy

Overview:
Poland is undergoing a difficult transition from a Soviet-style economy -
with state ownership and control of productive assets - to a market economy.
On January 1, 1990, the new Solidarity-led government implemented shock
therapy by slashing subsidies, decontrolling prices, tightening the money
supply, stabilizing the foreign exchange rate, lowering import barriers, and
restraining state sector wages. As a result, consumer goods shortages and
lines disappeared, and inflation fell from 640% in 1989 to 44% in 1992.
Western governments, which hold two-thirds of Poland's $48 billion external
debt, pledged in 1991 to forgive half of Poland's official debt by 1994. The
private sector accounted for 29% of industrial production and nearly half of
nonagricultural output in 1992. Production fell in state enterprises,
however, and the unemployment rate climbed steadily from virtually nothing
in 1989 to 13.6% in December 1992. Poland fell out of compliance with its
IMF program by mid-1991, and talks with commercial creditors stalled. The
increase in unemployment and the decline in living standards led to strikes
in the coal, auto, copper, and railway sectors in 1992. Large state
enterprises in the coal, steel, and defense sectors plan to halve employment
over the next decade, and the government expects unemployment to reach 3
million (16%) in 1993. A shortfall in tax revenues caused the budget deficit
to reach 6% of GDP in 1992, but industrial production began a slow, uneven
upturn. In 1993, the government will struggle to win legislative approval
for faster privatization and to keep the budget deficit within IMF-approved
limits.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $167.6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,400 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
44% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
13.6% (December 1992)
Budget:
revenues $17.5 billion; expenditures $22.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.5 billion (1992 est.)
Exports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery 22%, metals 16%, chemicals 12%, fuels and power 11%, food 10%
(1991)
partners:
Germany 28.0%, former USSR 11.7%, UK 8.8%, Switzerland 5.5% (1991)
Imports:
$12.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery 38%, fuels and power 20%, chemicals 13%, food 10%, light industry
6% (1991)
partners:
Germany 17.4%, former USSR 25.6%, Italy 5.3%, Austria 5.2% (1991)
External debt:
$48.5 billion (January 1992); note - Poland's Western government creditors
promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's official debt - currently $33
billion - immediately and to forgive another 20% in 1994, if Poland adheres
to its IMF program
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.5% (1992)

*Poland, Economy

Electricity:
31,530,000 kW capacity; 137,000 million kWh produced, 3,570 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of labor force; 75% of output from private
farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains low by European standards;
leading European producer of rye, rapeseed, and potatoes; wide variety of
other crops and livestock; major exporter of pork products; normally
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines for the
international market; emerging as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe
Economic aid:
donor - bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries, $2.2
billion (1954-89); the G-24 has pledged $8 billion in grants and credit
guarantees to Poland
Currency:
1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy
Exchange rates:
zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 15,879 (January 1993), 13,626 (1992), 10,576 (1991),
9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Poland, Communications

Railroads:
26,250 km total; 23,857 km 1.435-meter gauge, 397 km 1.520-meter gauge,
1,996 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double track; 11,510 km electrified;
government owned (1991)
Highways:
360,629 km total (excluding farm, factory and forest roads); 220 km limited
access expressways, 45,257 km main highways, 128,775 km regional roads,
186,377 urban or village roads (local traffic); 220,000 km are paved
(including all main and regional highways) (1988)
Inland waterways:
3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)
Pipelines:
natural gas 4,600 km, crude oil 1,986 km, petroleum products 360 km (1992)
Ports:
Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland ports are Gliwice on
Kana Gliwice, Wrocaw on the Oder, and Warsaw on the Vistula
Merchant marine:
209 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,747,631 GRT/3,992,053 DWT; includes
5 short-sea passenger, 76 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 11 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 9 container, 1 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 101 bulk, 1 passenger;
Poland owns 1 ship of 6,333 DWT operating under Liberian registry
Airports:
total:
163
usable:
163
with permanent-surface runways:
100
with runway over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
51
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
95
Telecommunications:
severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; cable, open wire and microwave;
phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents (October 1990); 3.6 million
telephone subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic (1991); broadcast
stations - 27 AM, 27 FM, 40 (5 Soviet repeaters) TV; 9.6 million TVs; 1
satellite earth station using INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, INMARSAT and Intersputnik

*Poland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 9,914,128; fit for military service 7,774,499; reach
military age (19) annually 304,956 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
30.8 trillion zlotych, 1.8% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Portugal, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean west of Spain
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
92,080 km2
land area:
91,640 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
note:
includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Land boundaries:
total 1,214 km, Spain 1,214 km
Coastline:
1,793 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Indonesia
Climate:
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain:
mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south
Natural resources:
fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
6,340 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Note:
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea
approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

*Portugal, People

Population:
10,486,140 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.36% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.77 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.89 years
male:
71.43 years
female:
78.56 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Portuguese
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands;
citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during
decolonization number less than 100,000
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Portuguese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
85%
male:
89%
female:
82%
Labor force:
4,605,700
by occupation:
services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture 20% (1988)

*Portugal, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form:
Portugal
local long form:
Republica Portuguesa
local short form:
Portugal
Digraph:
PO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Lisbon
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions*, (regioes autonomas,
singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*,, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco,
Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo,, Vila Real, Viseu
Dependent areas:
Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on 20
December 1999)
Independence:
1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
Constitution:
25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989
Legal system:
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality
of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva; Portuguese Socialist
Party (PS), Antonio GUTERRES; Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Pedro
CANAVARRO; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Carlos CARVALHAS; Social
Democratic Center (CDS), Manuel MONTEIRO; National Solidarity Party, Manuel
SERGIO; Center Democratic Party; United Democratic Coalition (CDU;
Communists)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results - Dr.
Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos
MARQUES 3%
Assembly of the Republic:
last held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - PSD
50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, Center Democrats 4.4%, National Solidarity Party
1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%; seats - (230 total) PSD 135, PS 72, CDU 17,
Center Democrats 5, National Solidarity Party 1
Executive branch:
president, Council of State, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council
of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica)
Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica)

*Portugal, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985)
Member of:
AfDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Francisco Jose Laco Treichler KNOPFLI
chancery:
2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-8610
consulates general:
Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
consulates:
Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode Island)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Everett Ellis BRIGGS
embassy:
Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address:
PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone:
[351] (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880
FAX:
[351] (1) 726-9109
consulate:
Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag:
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths)
with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

*Portugal, Economy

Overview:
Although Portugal has experienced strong growth since joining the EC in 1986
- at least 4% each year through 1990 - it remains one of the poorest
members. To prepare for the European single market, the government is
restructuring and modernizing the economy and in 1989 embarked on a major
privatization program. As of 1 January 1993, Lisbon has fully liberalized
its capital markets and most trade markets. The global slowdown and tight
monetary policies to counter inflation caused growth to slow in 1991 and
1992. Growth probably will remain depressed in 1993, but should pick up
again in 1994.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $93.7 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$9,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $27.3 billion; expenditures $33.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $4.5 billion (1991)
Exports:
$16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
cotton textiles, cork and paper products, canned fish, wine, timber and
timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
partners:
EC 75.4%, other developed countries 12.4%, US 3.8% (1991)
Imports:
$26.0 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals,
petroleum, textiles
partners:
EC 72%, other developed countries 10.9% less developed countries 12.9%, US
3.4%
External debt:
$16.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 9.1% (1990); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity:
6,624,000 kW capacity; 26,400 million kWh produced, 2,520 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil
refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 6.1% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small, inefficient farms;
imports more than half of food needs; major crops - grain, potatoes, olives,
grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy
products
Illicit drugs:
increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering
the European market
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.2 billion

*Portugal, Economy

Currency:
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 145.51 (January 1993), 135.00 (1992),
144.48 (1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Portugal, Communications

Railroads:
3,625 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates 2,858 km
1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double track), 755 km
1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified, double track,
privately owned
Highways:
73,661 km total; 61,599 km surfaced (bituminous, gravel, and crushed stone),
including 140 km of limited-access divided highway; 7,962 km improved earth;
4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)
Inland waterways:
820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by
shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity
Pipelines:
crude oil 11 km; petroleum products 58 km
Ports:
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas (Azores), Setubal,
Sines
Merchant marine:
51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 634,072 GRT/1,130,515 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 21 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk, 2
liquified gas; note - Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira
(MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing
benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship currently is known
to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely that a majority
of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this subregister in a few years
Airports:
total:
64
usable:
62
with permanent-surface runways:
36
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire and
microwave radio relay; 2,690,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 57 AM, 66
(22 repeaters) FM, 66 (23 repeaters) TV; 6 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT
earth stations (2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, domestic
satellite systems (mainland and Azores); tropospheric link to Azores

*Portugal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal
Guard, Public Security Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,696,325; fit for military service 2,188,041; reach
military age (20) annually 88,735 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1992)

*Puerto Rico, Header

Affiliation:
(commonwealth associated with the US)

*Puerto Rico, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, between the Dominican Republic and the Virgin
Islands group
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
9,104 km2
land area:
8,959 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
501 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to
sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Natural resources:
some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and offshore crude oil
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
41%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
390 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered;
south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
Note:
important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the
Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the
Caribbean

*Puerto Rico, People

Population:
3,797,082 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
16.93 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.88 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
14 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.84 years
male:
70.25 years
female:
77.61 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Puerto Rican(s)
adjective: Puerto Rican
Ethnic divisions:
Hispanic
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English widely understood
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
89%
male:
90%
female:
88%
Labor force:
1.17 million (1992)
by occupation:
government 20%, manufacturing 14%, trade 17%, construction 5%,
communications and transportation 5%, other 39% (1992)

*Puerto Rico, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form:
Puerto Rico
Digraph:
QR
Type:
commonwealth associated with the US
Capital:
San Juan
Administrative divisions:
none (commonwealth associated with the US), note: there are 78
municipalities
Independence:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Constitution:
ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25
July 1952
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil code
National holiday:
US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Party of Puerto Rico, Freddy VALENTIN; Popular
Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon; New Progressive Party (PNP),
Carlos ROMERO Barcelo; Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan MARI Bras
and Carlos GALLISA; Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS
Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown
Other political or pressure groups:
all have engaged in terrorist activities - Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do
not vote in US presidential elections
Elections:
Governor:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
Pedro ROSSELLO (PND) 50%, Victoria MUNOZ (PPD) 46%, Fernando MARTIN (PIP) 4%
Senate:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) seats by party NA; note -
Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US House of Representatives,
Carlos Romero BARCELO
House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) seats by party NA
Executive branch:
US president, US vice president, governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a
lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Puerto Rico, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
Head of Government:
Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since NA January 1993)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, IOC, WCL,
WFTU, WHO (associate), WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white;
a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white
five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

*Puerto Rico, Economy

Overview:
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region.
Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary sector of economic
activity and income. Encouraged by duty free access to the US and by tax
incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s.
US minimum wage laws apply. Important industries include pharmaceuticals,
electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed foods. Sugar production
has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main
source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been
an important source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of
nearly 3 million tourists in 1989.

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