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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 27 out of 42

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Coastline:
2,092 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
to be defined
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
no defined boundary with most of UAE; Administrative Line with UAE in far
north; a treaty with Yemen to settle the Omani-Yemeni boundary was ratified
in December 1992
Climate:
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest
summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:
vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum,
natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
less than 2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
93%
Irrigated land:
410 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms in interior; sparse
natural freshwater resources
Note:
strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula controlling
Strait of Hormuz (17% of world's oil production transits this point going
from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

*Oman, People

Population:
1,643,579 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
40.56 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
38.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.32 years
male:
65.47 years
female:
69.27 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.58 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Omani(s)
adjective:
Omani
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Balochi, Zanzibari, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi)
Religions:
Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
Languages:
Arabic (official), English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
430,000
by occupation:
agriculture 40% (est.)

*Oman, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form:
Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form:
Uman
Digraph:
MU
Type:
absolute monarchy with residual UK influence
Capital:
Muscat
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 governorates (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat);
Musqat, Musandam, Zufar
Independence:
1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Constitution:
none
Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the sultan;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 18 November
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
outlawed Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in Yemen
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
elections scheduled for October 1992
Executive branch:
sultan, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil court system
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Sa'id Al Sa'id (since 23 July 1970)
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Awadh bin Badr AL-SHANFARI
chancery:
2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-1980 through 1982
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David DUNFORD

*Oman, Government

embassy:
address NA, Muscat
mailing address:
P. O. Box 50202 Madinat Qaboos, Muscat
telephone:
[968] 698-989
FAX:
[968] 604-316
Flag:
three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green (double
width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national
emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in
scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band

*Oman, Economy

Overview:
Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil industry.
Petroleum accounts for more than 85% of export earnings, about 80% of
government revenues, and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of
4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current rate
of extraction. Agriculture is carried on at a subsistence level and the
general population depends on imported food.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $10.2 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
7.4% (1991)
National product per capita:
$6,670 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $4.1 billion; expenditures $4.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1 billion (1991)
Exports:
$4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum 87%, reexports, fish, processed copper, textiles
partners:
UAE 30%, Japan 27%, South Korea 10%, Singapore 5%
Imports:
$3.0 billion (f.o.b, 1991)
commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock,
lubricants
partners:
Japan 20%, UAE 19%, UK 19%, US 7%
External debt:
$3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989), including petroleum sector
Electricity:
1,142,400 kW capacity; 5,100 million kWh produced, 3,200 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction,
cement, copper
Agriculture:
accounts for 6% of GDP and 40% of the labor force (including fishing); less
than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence farming (dates, limes,
bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not self-sufficient in food;
annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $148 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million
Currency:
1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza
Exchange rates:
Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Oman, Communications

Highways:
26,000 km total; 6,000 km paved, 20,000 km motorable track
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km
Ports:
Mina' Qabus, Mina' Raysut, Mina' al Fahl
Merchant marine:
1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT
Airports:
total:
138
usable:
130
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
74
Telecommunications:
modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radio communications
stations; limited coaxial cable; 50,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2
AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1
ARABSAT, and 8 domestic

*Oman, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 370,548; fit for military service 210,544; reach military
age (14) annually 20,810 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Header

Affiliation:
(UN trusteeship administered by the US)

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 850 km southeast of the Philippines
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
458 km2
land area:
458 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,519 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
wet season May to November; hot and humid
Terrain:
about 200 islands varying geologically from the high, mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier
reefs
Natural resources:
forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Land use: arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons from June to December; archipelago of six island groups
totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain
Note:
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock islands

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), People

Population:
16,071 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
22.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.01 years
male:
69.14 years
female:
73.02 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.96 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Palauan(s)
adjective:
Palauan
Ethnic divisions:
Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and Melanesian races
Religions:
Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the
Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day Saints), Modekngei
religion (one-third of the population observes this religion which is
indigenous to Palau)
Languages: English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese (official in the
state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state of Anguar), Tobi (in
the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13 states)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
92%
male:
93%
female:
91%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
NA

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
conventional short form:
none
note:
may change to Republic of Palau after independence; the native form of Palau
is Belau and is sometimes used incorrectly in English and other languages
Digraph:
NQ
Type:
UN trusteeship administered by the US
note:
constitutional government signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
on 10 January 1986, which was never approved in a series of UN-observed
plebiscites; until the UN trusteeship is terminated with entry into force of
the Compact, Palau remains under US administration as the Palau District of
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; administrative authority resides
in the Department of the Interior and is exercised by the Assistant
Secretary for Territorial and International Affairs through the Palau
Office, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, J. Victor HOBSON Jr.,
Director (since 16 December 1990)
Capital:
Koror
note:
a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern Babelthuap
Administrative divisions:
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 16 states: Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel,
Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard, Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar,
Ngerchelong, Ngiwal, Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi
Independence:
the last polity remaining under the US-administered UN trusteeship following
the departure of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States
of Micronesia, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas from the
trusteeship; administered by the Office of Territorial and International
Affairs, US Department of Interior
Constitution:
1 January 1981
Legal system:
based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common,
and customary laws
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
Kuniwo NAKAMURA 50.7%, Johnson TORIBIONG 49.3%
Senate:
last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14 total); number of seats by party NA
House of Delegates:
last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (16 total); number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
national president, national vice president

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK) consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Delegates
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, National Court, Court of Common Pleas
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993), Vice-President Tommy E.
REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer)
Diplomatic representation in US:
administrative officer:
Charles UONG,
address:
Palau Liaison Office, 444 North Capitol St., N.W., Suite 308, Washington, DC
20001
US diplomatic representation:
director:
US Liaison Officer Lloyd W. MOSS
liaison office:
US Liaison Office at Top Side, Neeriyas, Koror
mailing address:
P.O. Box 6028, Koror, PW 96940
telephone:
(680) 488-2920; (680) 488-2911
Flag:
light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted slightly
to the hoist side

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Economy

Overview:
The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture and fishing.
Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote location of
Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered development. The
government is the major employer of the work force, relying heavily on
financial assistance from the US.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $31.6 million (1986)
note:
GDP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,260 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
20% (1986)
Budget:
revenues $6.0 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1986)
Exports:
$0.5 million (f.o.b., 1986)
commodities:
NA
partners:
US, Japan
Imports:
$27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986)
commodities:
NA
partners:
US
External debt:
about $100 million (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
16,000 kW capacity; 22 million kWh produced, 1,540 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial fishing and
agriculture
Agriculture:
subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava, sweet potatoes
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2,560 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $92 million
Currency:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Communications

Highways:
22.3 km paved, some stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads (1991)
Ports:
Koror
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau), Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not change when the UN
trusteeship terminates if the Compact of Free Association with the US goes
into effect

*Pacific Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between the Western Hemisphere and Asia/Australia
Map references:
Asia, North America, Oceania, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
165.384 million km2
comparative area:
about 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean (followed by the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean); covers about
one-third of the global surface; larger than the total land area of the
world
note:
includes Arafura Sea, Banda Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering
Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Makassar Strait,
Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea,
Tasman Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
135,663 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer
months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a
dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian land
mass back to the ocean
Terrain:
surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise,
warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern
Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific sea
ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern
Pacific sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October;
the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific
Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the
world's deepest, the 10,924 meter Marianas Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, fish
Environment:
endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea;
dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the
southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in
southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to
October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and
September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from Antarctica;
occasional El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade
winds slacken and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, killing
the plankton that is the primary food source for anchovies; consequently,
the anchovies move to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds
to starve by the thousands because of their lost food source

*Pacific Ocean, Geography

Note:
the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait,
and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the
North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; ships subject to
superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May and in extreme
south from May to October; persistent fog in the northern Pacific from June
to December is a hazard to shipping; surrounded by a zone of violent
volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring
of Fire

*Pacific Ocean, Government

Digraph: ZN

*Pacific Ocean, Economy

Overview:
The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and
particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides
low-cost sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing
grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel for the
construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the world's total fish
catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where the fish
catch has increased every year since 1978. Exploitation of offshore oil and
gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of
Australia, New Zealand, China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering
offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil
since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new drillings.
Industries:
fishing, oil and gas production

*Pacific Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan
(South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China),
Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ),
Yokohama (Japan)
Telecommunications:
several submarine cables with network nodal points on Guam and Hawaii

*Pakistan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, along the Arabian Sea, between India and Afghanistan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
803,940 km2
land area:
778,720 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909
km
Coastline:
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
status of Kashmir with India; border question with Afghanistan (Durand
Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage) over the Indus with upstream
riparian India
Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan
plateau in west
Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal,
iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
64%
Irrigated land:
162,200 km2 (1989)
Environment:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west;
flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August); deforestation;
soil erosion; desertification; water logging
Note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between
Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

*Pakistan, People

Population:
125,213,732 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.87% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
42.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.6 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
103.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:
57.11 years
male:
56.54 years
female:
57.72 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Pakistani(s)
adjective:
Pakistani
Ethnic divisions:
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India
and their descendents)
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages:
Urdu (official), English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and
most government ministries, but official policies are promoting its gradual
replacement by Urdu), Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi
and other 9%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
35%
male:
47%
female:
21%
Labor force:
28.9 million
by occupation:
agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing 13%, services 33%, extensive
export of labor (1987 est.)

*Pakistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form:
Pakistan
former:
West Pakistan
Digraph:
PK
Type:
republic
Capital:
Islamabad
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally, Administered
Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West, Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note:
the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region
includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Independence:
14 August 1947 (from UK)
Constitution:
10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments, 30 December
1985
Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic)
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Mian Nawaz SHARIF; Jamhoori Watan
Party (JWP), Mohammad Akbar Khan BUGTI; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam (JUI),
Fazl-ur-REHMAN and Sami-ul-HAQ; Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul WALI
KHAN; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan-Niazi, Maulana Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI;
Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI
opposition:
Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO and Nusrat BHUTTO; Pakistan
Muslim League-Chattha (PML-C), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI),
Qazi Hussain AHMED; National People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI
(formerly the PNP); Tehrik-i-Istiqlal (TI), Air Marshal (Ret.) Mohammad
ASGHAR KHAN; Tehrik-i-Nifaz-i-Fiqah-i-Jafaria (TNFJ), Agha Hamid Ali MUSAVI;
Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan-Noorani (JUP-Noorani), Maulana Shah Ahmed NOORANI;
Mohajir Quami Mahaz-Haqiqi (MQM-H), Afaq AHMED
Other political or pressure groups:
military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners,
industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held by NA November 1993); results
- Ghulam ISHAQ KHAN was elected by Parliament and the four provincial
assemblies

*Pakistan, Government

Senate:
last held March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1994); seats - (87 total) PML
52, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, PPP 5, ANP 5, JWP 4, MQM 3,
PNP 2 (name later chaged to NPP), JI 2, JUP 2, JUI 2, PKMAP 1, independent 1
National Assembly:
last held on 24 October 1990 (next to be held by October 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217 total) number of seats by party
NA; note - President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan dismissed the National Assembly on 18
April 1993; it was reestablished, however, on 26 May 1993 by the Supreme
Court, which ruled the dismissal order unconstitutional
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) consists of an upper house or Senate
and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ghulam ISHAQ KHAN (since 13 December 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mian Nawaz SHARIF (since 6 November 1990); note - President
GHULAM ISHAQ Khan dismissed Prime Minister SHARIF on 18 April 1993, but he
was reinstated by the Supreme Court on 26 May 1993
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAS
(observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6200
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John MONJO
embassy:
Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Islamabad or APO AE 09812-2000
telephone:
[92] (51) 826161 through 79
FAX:
[92] (51) 822004
consulates general:
Karachi, Lahore
consulate:
Peshawar
Flag:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious
minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered
in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
symbols of Islam

*Pakistan, Economy

Overview:
Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual problems of
rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits, and heavy
dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support a large
military establishment. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in recent
years has helped the country to cope with these problems. Almost all
agriculture and small-scale industry is in private hands. In 1990, Pakistan
embarked on a sweeping economic liberalization program to boost foreign and
domestic private investment and lower foreign aid dependence. The SHARIF
government denationalized several state-owned firms and attracted some
foreign investment. Pakistan likely will have difficulty raising living
standards because of its rapidly expanding population. At the current rate
of growth, population would double in 25 years.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $48.3 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.4% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$410 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.7% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
10% (FY91 est.)
Budget:
revenues $9.4 billion; expenditures $10.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$6.8 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
cotton, textiles, clothing, rice
partners:
EC 35%, US 11%, Japan 8% (FY91)
Imports:
$9.1 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation, equipment,
vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners:
EC 29%, Japan 13%, US 12% (FY91)
External debt:
$16.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.7% (FY91); accounts for almost 20% of GNP
Electricity:
10,000,000 kW capacity; 43,000 million kWh produced, 350 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing,
paper products, shrimp
Agriculture:
25% of GNP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest contiguous irrigation
system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
livestock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs; self-sufficient in food grain
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade;
government eradication efforts on poppy cultivation of limited success;
largest producer of Southwest Asian heroin

*Pakistan, Economy

Economic aid:
(including Bangladesh prior to 1972) US commitments, including Ex-Im
(FY70-89), $4.5 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-89), $9.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion
Currency:
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 25.904 (January 1993), 25.083 (1992),
23.801 (1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Pakistan, Communications

Railroads:
8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km 1-meter gauge, and 610 km less
than 1-meter gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km electrified;
all government owned (1985)
Highways:
101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km gravel, 29,000 km
improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand tracks (1985)
Pipelines:
crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,044 km; petroleum products 885 km (1987)
Ports:
Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 350,916 GRT/530,855 DWT; includes 3
passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
111
usable:
104
with permanent-surface runways:
75
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
31
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
42
Telecommunications:
the domestic telephone system is poor, adequate only for government and
business use; about 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; the system for
international traffic is better and employs both microwave radio relay and
satellites; satellite ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT; broadcast stations - 19 AM, 8 FM, 29 TV

*Pakistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 28,657,084; fit for military service 17,585,542; reach
military age (17) annually 1,337,352 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, 6% of GNP (FY91/92)

*Palmyra Atoll, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Palmyra Atoll, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu, almost
halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
11.9 km2
land area:
11.9 km2
comparative area:
about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
14.5 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial, hot, and very rainy
Terrain:
low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use: arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
100%
other:
0%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like
trees up to 30 meters tall

*Palmyra Atoll, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Palmyra Atoll, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Palmyra Atoll
Digraph:
LQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Palmyra Atoll, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Palmyra Atoll, Communications

Ports:
the main harbor is West Lagoon, which is entered by a channel on the
southwest side of the atoll; both the channel and harbor will accommodate
vessels drawing 4 meters of water; much of the road and many causeways built
during the war are unserviceable and overgrown
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

*Palmyra Atoll, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Panama, Geography

Location:
extreme southern Central America, between Colombia and Costa Rica
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
78,200 km2
land area:
75,990 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 555 km, Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km
Coastline:
2,490 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short
dry season (January to May)
Terrain:
interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains;
coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Natural resources:
copper, mahogany forests, shrimp
Land use: arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
54%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
320 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
dense tropical forest in east and northwest
Note:
strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting
North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic
Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

*Panama, People

Population:
2,579,047 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.98% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25.08 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.56 years
male:
71.99 years
female:
77.27 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.9 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Panamanian(s)
adjective:
Panamanian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%, West Indian 14%, white
10%, Indian 6%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English 14% note:
many Panamanians bilingual
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
88%
male:
88%
female:
88%
Labor force:
921,000 (1992 est.)
by occupation:
government and community services 31.8%, agriculture, hunting, and fishing
26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%, manufacturing and mining
9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and communications 6.2%, finance,
insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note:
shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

*Panama, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Panama
conventional short form:
Panama
local long form:
Republica de Panama
local short form:
Panama
Digraph:
PM
Type:
centralized republic
Capital:
Panama
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca);, Bocas del Toro,
Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama,
San Blas*, Veraguas, Independence:
3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November
1821)
Constitution:
11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1903)
Political parties and leaders:
government alliance: Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista Party (PA),
Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER
other parties:
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ricardo ARIAS Calderon; Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo GONZALEZ; Agrarian Labor Party (PALA),
Nestor Tomas GUERRA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta; Doctrinaire
Panamenista Party (PPD), Jose Salvador MUNOZ; Papa Egoro Movement, Ruben
BLADES; Renovacion Civilista, Manuel BURGOS; Civic Renewal Party (PRC),
Tomas HERRERA; National Integration Movement (MINA), Arrigo GUARDIA;
National Unity Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel PAREDES; Independent
Democratic Union Party (UDI), leader NA; Popular Nationalist Party (PNP),
leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
National Council of Organized Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private
Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE);
National Civic Crusade; National Committee for the Right to Life; Chamber of
Commerce; Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP); Workers Confederation of
the Republic of Panama (CTRP)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld (next to be held May
1994); results - anti-NORIEGA coalition believed to have won about 75% of
the total votes cast

*Panama, Government

Legislative Assembly:
last held on 27 January 1991 (next to be held NA May 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (67 total)
progovernment parties:
PDC 28, MOLIRENA 15, PA 8, PLA 4
opposition parties:
PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1; note - the PDC went into opposition after President
Guillermo ENDARA ousted the PDC from the coalition government in April 1991
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), 5 superior courts, 3
courts of appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Guillermo ENDARA (since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Guillermo FORD Boyd (since 24 December 1992); Second
Vice President (vacant)
Member of:
AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jaime FORD
chancery:
2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-1407;
note:
the status of the consulates general and consulates has not yet been
determined
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Deane R. HINTON
embassy:
Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address:
Box E, APO AA 34002
telephone:
(507) 27-1777
FAX:
(507) 27-1713
Flag:
divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white with a blue
five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the bottom
quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star
in the center

*Panama, Economy

Overview:
GDP expanded by roughly 8% in 1992, following growth of 9.3% in 1991. The
economy thus continues to recover from the crisis that preceded the ouster
of Manuel NORIEGA, even though the government's structural adjustment
program has been hampered by a lack of popular support and a passive
administration. Public investment has been limited as the administration has
kept the fiscal deficit below 3% of GDP. Unemployment and economic reform
are the two major issues the government must face in 1993-94.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,400 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $200 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$486 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%
partners:
US 38%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1992 est.)
Imports:
$2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
US 36%, Japan, EC, Central America and Caribbean, Mexico, Venezuela (1992
est.)
External debt:
$5.2 billion (year-end 1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.); accounts for about 9% of GDP
Electricity:
1,584,000 kW capacity; 4,360 billion kWh produced, 1,720 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining, brewing,
cement and other construction material, sugar milling
Agriculture:
accounts for 10.5% of GDP (1992 est.), 27% of labor force (1992); crops -
bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer of food
grain, vegetables
Illicit drugs:
major cocaine transshipment point and drug money laundering center
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $582 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million
Currency:
1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos
Exchange rates:
balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

*Panama, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Panama, Communications

Railroads:
238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or crushed stone, 2,515 km
improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal
Pipelines:
crude oil 130 km
Ports:
Cristobal, Balboa, Bahia Las Minas
Merchant marine:
3,244 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,353,963 GRT/82,138,537 DWT;
includes 22 passenger, 26 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,091
cargo, 246 refrigerated cargo, 196 container, 63 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 121
vehicle carrier, 9 livestock carrier, 5 multifunction large-load carrier,
403 oil tanker, 180 chemical tanker, 26 combination ore/oil, 121 liquefied
gas, 9 specialized tanker, 688 bulk, 34 combination bulk, 1 barge carrier;
note - all but 5 are foreign owned and operated; the top 4 foreign owners
are Japan 36%, Greece 8%, Hong Kong 8%, and Taiwan 5%; (China owns at least
131 ships, Vietnam 3, Croatia 3, Cuba 4, Cyprus 6, and Russia 16)
Airports:
total:
112
usable:
104
with permanent-surface runways:
39
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
domestic and international facilities well developed; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 220,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite ground stations -
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*Panama, Defense Forces

Branches:
the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist as a military
institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama on 20 December
1989; President ENDARA has restructured the forces, under the new name of
Panamanian Public Forces (PPF) and worked to assert civilian control over
them; the PPF is divided into the National Police, Maritime Service, and
National Air Service; the Judicial Technical Police serve under the Attorney
General; the Council of Public Security and National Defense under Menalco
SOLIS in the Office of the President is analogous to the US National
Security Council; the Institutional Protection Service under Carlos BARES is
attached to the presidency
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 671,059; fit for military service 461,471 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
expenditures for the Panamanian Public Forces for internal security amounted
to $104.7 million, 1.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Papua New Guinea, Geography

Location: Southeast Asia, just north of Australia, between Indonesia and the Solomon
Islands
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
461,690 km2
land area:
451,710 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 820 km, Indonesia 820 km
Coastline:
5,152 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to
October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Natural resources:
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil potential
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
71%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast; some active volcanos;
frequent earthquakes
Note:
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia

*Papua New Guinea, People

Population: 4,100,714 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
64.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
56.02 years
male:
55.19 years
female:
56.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.75 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective:
Papua New Guinean
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary
Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%,
other Protestant sects 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Languages:
English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua
region
note:
715 indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
52%
male:
65%
female:
38%
Labor force:
NA

*Papua New Guinea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form:
Papua New Guinea
Digraph:
PP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East
Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New
Ireland, Northern, North Solomons, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western,
Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence:
16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian administration)
Constitution:
16 September 1975
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Jack GENIA; People's Democratic
Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI; People's Action Party (PAP), Akoka DOI;
People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN; United Party (UP), Paul
TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA; National Party (NP), Paul PORA;
Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent by
party NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10,
independents 30, others 18 (association with political parties is fluid)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
National Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament (sometimes referred to as the House of
Assembly)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Wiwa KOROWI (since NA November 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Paias WINGTI (since 17 July 1992)
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR

*Papua New Guinea, Government

chancery:
3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 745-3680
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert W. FARRAND
embassy:
Armit Street, Port Moresby
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, or APO AE 96553
telephone:
[675] 211-455 or 594, 654
FAX:
[675] 213-423
Flag:
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red
with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black
with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation
centered

*Papua New Guinea, Economy

Overview:
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation
has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost of developing an
infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the
population. Mining of numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts
for about 60% of export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and
development aid under World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy.
Robust growth in 1991-92 was led by the mining sector; the opening of a
large new gold mine helped the advance.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
8.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$850 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1992-93)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $1.33 billion; expenditures $1.49 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
gold, copper ore, coffee, logs, palm oil, cocoa, lobster
partners:
FRG, Japan, Australia, UK, Spain, US
Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, food, fuels, chemicals, consumer goods
partners:
Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK
External debt:
$2.2 billion (April 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity:
400,000 kW capacity; 1,600 million kWh produced, 400 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip
production, mining of gold, silver, and copper, construction, tourism
Agriculture:
one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile soils and
favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of crops; cash crops -
coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other products - tea, rubber, sweet
potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork; net importer of food for urban
centers
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $6.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million
Currency:
1 kina (K) = 100 toea
Exchange rates:
kina (K) per US$1 - 1.0065 (January 1993), 1.0367 (1992), 1.0504 (1991),
1.0467 (1990), 1.1685 (1989), 1.1538 (1988)

*Papua New Guinea, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Papua New Guinea, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
10,940 km
Ports:
Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,523 GRT/24,774 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 combination ore/oil, 2 bulk, 1 container
Airports:
total:
504 usable:
457
with permanent-surface runways:
18
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
39
Telecommunications:
services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiobroadcast,
radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and
international radiocommunication services; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Guam; more than 70,000 telephones (1987); broadcast stations -
31 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Papua New Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,046,929; fit for military service 582,685 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.8% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Paracel Islands, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea, about
one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total area:
NA km2
land area:
NA km2
comparative area:
NA
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
518 km
Maritime claims:
NA
International disputes:
occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons

*Paracel Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered Chinese garrisons

*Paracel Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Paracel Islands
Digraph:
PF

*Paracel Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Paracel Islands, Communications

Ports:
small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island currently
under expansion
Airports:
1 on Woody Island

*Paracel Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
occupied by China

*Paraguay, Geography

Location:
Central South America, between Argentina and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
406,750 km2
land area:
397,300 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
total 3,920 km, Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of Guaira Falls on the
Rio Parana) has not been determined
Climate:
varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west
Terrain:
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west
of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and
thorny scrub elsewhere
Natural resources:
hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
5%
Irrigated land:
670 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains
may become boggy (early October to June)
Note:
landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

*Paraguay, People

Population:
5,070,856 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.8% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
32.61 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.58 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
26.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.98 years
male:
71.42 years
female:
74.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.37 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Paraguayan(s)
adjective:
Paraguayan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant denominations
Languages:
Spanish (official), Guarani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
90%
male:
92%
female:
88%
Labor force:
1.641 million (1992 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture, industry and commerce, services, government (1986)

*Paraguay, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Paraguay conventional short form:
Paraguay
local long form:
Republica del Paraguay
local short form:
Paraguay
Digraph:
PA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Asuncion
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto
Parana, Amambay, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Chaco,
Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion,
Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Independence:
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Constitution:
25 August 1967; Constituent Assembly rewrote the Constitution that was
promulgated on 20 June 1992
Legal system:
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)
Political parties and leaders:
Colorado Party, Blas N. RIQUELME, president; Authentic Radical Liberal Party
(PLRA), Domingo LAINO; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jose Angel BURRO;
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEUEDO; Popular Democratic
Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER; National Encounter (EN), Guillermo Caballero
VARGAS
Other political or pressure groups:
Confederation of Workers (CUT); Roman Catholic Church
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60
Elections:
President:
last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held 9 May 1993); results - Gen. RODRIGUEZ
75.8%, Domingo LAINO 19.4%
Chamber of Senators:
last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by 9 May 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF
1
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by 9 May 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2,
PDC 1, other 2
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of
Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)

*Paraguay, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Gen. Andres RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
MERCOSUR, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Juan Esteban Aguirre MARTINEZ
chancery:

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