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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Type:
republic
Capital:
Managua
Administrative divisions:
17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Boaco, Carazo,
Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua,
Masaya, Matagalpa, North Atlantic Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAN), Nueva
Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, South Atlantic Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAS)
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
January 1987
Legal system:
civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling coalition:
National Opposition Union (UNO) is a 10-party alliance - moderate parties:
National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS Lacayo, president;
Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto SOMARRIBA, Arnold
ALEMAN; Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis Humberto GUZMAN, Agustin
JARQUIN, Azucena FERREY, Roger MIRANDA, Francisco MAYORGA; National
Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ; National Action Party (PAN),
Duilio BALTODANO; NOU - hardline parties: Independent Liberal Party (PLI),
Wilfredo NAVARRO,Virgilio GODOY Reyes; Social Democratic Party (PSD),
Guillermo POTOY, Alfredo CESAR Aguirre, secretary general; Conservative
Popular Alliance Party (PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Communist Party of Nicaragua
(PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO Perez; Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA
Esquivel
opposition parties:
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Central American
Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS; Democratic Conservative Party of
Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES; Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN),
Eduardo CORONADO; Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco SAMPER;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ; Revolutionary Workers' Party
(PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando
AGUERRO; Popular Action Movement - Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ

*Nicaragua, Government

Other political or pressure groups:
National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor
unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC);
Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE);
National Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists
of Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers
(UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four
non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS);
Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent General
Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS);
Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union; Superior
Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of business groups
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN)
40.8%, other 4.5%
National Assembly:
last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February 1996); results - UNO
53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO 42, FSLN 39,
PSC 1, MUR 1, "Centrist" (Dissident UNO) 9
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice President
Virgilio GODOY Reyes (since 25 April 1990)
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roberto MAYORGA (since January 1993)
chancery:
1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-6570
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Ronald GODARD
embassy:
Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
mailing address:
APO AA 34021
telephone:
[505] (2) 666010 or 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032
through 34
FAX:
[505] (2) 666046

*Nicaragua, Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN
LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band

*Nicaragua, Economy

Overview:
Government control of the economy historically has been extensive, although
the CHAMORRO government has pledged to greatly reduce intervention. Four
private banks have been licensed, and the government has liberalized foreign
trade and abolished price controls on most goods. In early 1993, fewer than
50% of the agricultural and industrial firms remain state owned. Sandinista
economic policies and the war had produced a severe economic crisis. The
foundation of the economy continues to be the export of agricultural
commodities, largely coffee and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7%
in 1989 and 4% in 1990, and remained about even in 1991-92. The agricultural
sector employs 44% of the work force and accounts for 15% of GDP and 80% of
export earnings. Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and
contributes about 25% to GDP, showed a drop of 7% in 1989, fell slightly in
1990, and remained flat in 1991-92; output still is below pre-1979 levels.
External debt is one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis. In
1992 the inflation rate was 8%, down sharply from the 766% of 1991.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$425 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
13% underemployment 50% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $347 million; expenditures $499 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1991)
Exports:
$280 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat, chemicals
partners:
OECD 75%, USSR and Eastern Europe 15%, other 10%
Imports:
$720 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing
partners:
Latin America 30%, US 25%, EC 20%, USSR and Eastern Europe 10%, other 15%
(1990 est.)
External debt:
$10 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
434,000 kW capacity; 1,118 million kWh produced, 290 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum
refining and distribution, beverages, footwear
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash crops - coffee, bananas,
sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava, citrus fruit, beans;
variety of animal products - beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy; normally
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
minor transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US

*Nicaragua, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,381 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $3.5 billion
Currency:
1 cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 6 (10 January 1993), 25,000,000 (March 1992),
21,354,000 (1991), 15,655 (1989), 270 (1988), 102.60 (1987); note - new gold
cordoba issued in 1992
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Nicaragua, Communications

Railroads:
373 km 1.067-meter narrow gauge, government owned; majority of system not
operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not connect
with mainline)
Highways:
25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved, 2,170 km gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km
earth or graded earth, 14,335 km unimproved; Pan-American highway 368.5 km
Inland waterways:
2,220 km, including 2 large lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km
Ports:
Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161 GRT/2,500 DWT
Airports:
total:
226
usable:
151
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
low-capacity radio relay and wire system being expanded; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*Nicaragua, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 911,397; fit for military service 561,448; reach military
age (18) annually 44,226 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 2.7% of GDP (1992 budget)

*Niger, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Algeria and Nigeria
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.267 million km2
land area:
1,266,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,697 km, Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km,
Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger; demarcation of
international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border
incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon,
Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate:
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain:
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south;
hills in north
Natural resources:
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
88%
Irrigated land:
320 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recurrent drought and desertification severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked

*Niger, People

Population:
8,337,352 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.49% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
57.35 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
22.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.15 years
male:
42.6 years
female:
45.75 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nigerien(s)
adjective:
Nigerien
Ethnic divisions:
Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab,
Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 4,000 French expatriates
Religions:
Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians
Languages:
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
28%
male:
40%
female:
17%
Labor force:
2.5 million wage earners (1982)
by occupation:
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

*Niger, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Niger
conventional short form:
Niger
local long form:
Republique du Niger
local short form:
Niger
Digraph:
NG
Type:
transition government as of November 1991, appointed by national reform
conference; scheduled to turn over power to democratically elected
government in March 1993
Capital:
Niamey
Administrative divisions:
7 departments (departements, singular - departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso,
Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder
Independence:
3 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
December 1989 constitution revised November 1991 by National Democratic
Reform Conference
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Political parties and leaders:
National Movement of the Development Society (MNSD-NASSARA), Tandja MAMADOU;
Niger Progressive Party - African Democratic Rally (PPN-RDA), Harou KOUKA;
Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress (UDFP-SAWABA), Djibo
BAKARY; Niger Democratic Union (UDN-SAWABA), Mamoudou PASCAL; Union of
Patriots, Democrats, and Progressives (UPDP), Andre SALIFOU; other parties
forming
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
President Ali SAIBOU has been in office since December 1989, but the
presidency is now a largely ceremonial position
National Assembly:
last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - MNSD was the only
party; seats - (150 total) MNSD 150 (indirectly elected); note - Niger held
a national conference from July to November 1991 to decide upon a
transitional government and an agenda for multiparty elections
Executive branch:
president (ceremonial), prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal (Cour d'Apel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Brig. Gen. Ali SAIBOU (since 14 November 1987); ceremonial post
since national conference (1991)

*Niger, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Amadou CHEIFFOU (since NA November 1991)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adamou SEYDOU
chancery:
2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-4224 through 4227
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jennifer C. WARD
embassy: Avenue des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address:
B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone:
[227] 72-26-61 through 64
FAX:
[227] 73-31-67
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small
orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

*Niger, Economy

Overview:
About 90% of the population is engaged in farming and stock raising,
activities that generate almost half the national income. The economy also
depends heavily on exploitation of large uranium deposits. Uranium
production grew rapidly in the mid-1970s, but tapered off in the early 1980s
when world prices declined. France is a major customer, while Germany,
Japan, and Spain also make regular purchases. The depressed demand for
uranium has contributed to an overall sluggishness in the economy, a severe
trade imbalance, and a mounting external debt.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.3 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.9% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$290 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $193 million; expenditures $355 million, including capital
expenditures of $106 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$294 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
uranium ore 60%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners:
France 77%, Nigeria 8%, Cote d'Ivoire, Italy
Imports:
$346 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, electronic equipment,
cereals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemical products, foodstuffs
partners:
Germany 26%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, France 5%, Italy 4%, Nigeria 2%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.7% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity: 105,000 kW capacity; 230 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses, and a
few other small light industries; uranium mining began in 1971
Agriculture:
accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash crops -
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops - millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in drought
years
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,165 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $61
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Niger, Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Niger, Communications

Highways:
39,970 km total; 3,170 km bituminous, 10,330 km gravel and laterite, 3,470
km earthen, 23,000 km tracks
Inland waterways:
Niger River is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier
from mid-December through March
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
26
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
13
Telecommunications:
small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio relay links
concentrated in southwestern area; 14,260 telephones; broadcast stations -
15 AM, 5 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 3 domestic, with 1 planned

*Niger, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Police, Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,784,966; fit for military service 961,593; reach military
age (18) annually 87,222 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $27 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989)

*Nigeria, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Benin and
Cameroon
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
923,770 km2
land area:
910,770 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,047 km, Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
30 nm
International disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission, created with
Cameroon to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries, has not yet
convened
Climate:
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in
southeast, plains in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural
gas
Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
15%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
8,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural
activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid deforestation

*Nigeria, People

Population:
95,060,430 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.85 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
77.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.7 years
male:
53.54 years
female:
55.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.43 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nigerian(s)
adjective:
Nigerian
Ethnic divisions:
north:
Hausa and Fulani
southwest:
Yoruba
southeast:
Ibos
non-Africans 27,000
note:
Hausa and Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibos together make up 65% of population
Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages:
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
51%
male:
62%
female:
40%
Labor force:
42.844 million
by occupation:
agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 15%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

*Nigeria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form:
Nigeria
Digraph:
NI
Type:
military government since 31 December 1983; plans to turn over power to
elected civilians in August 1993
Capital:
Abuja
note:
on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos to Abuja;
many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion of facilities in
Abuja
Administrative divisions:
30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa, Ibom, Anambra,
Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo,
Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo,
Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
Independence:
1 October 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (SDP), Alhaji Baba Gana KINGIBE, chairman; National
Republican Convention (NRC), Chief Tom IKIMI, chairman
note:
these are the only two political parties, and they were established by the
government in 1989
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
first presidential elections since the 31 December 1983 coup scheduled for
June 1993
Senate:
last held 4 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (total 84) SDP 47, NRC 37
House of Representatives:
last held 4 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (total 577) SDP 310, NRC 267
Executive branch:
president, vice-president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA
(since 27 August 1985); Vice-President Admiral (Ret.) Augustus AIKHOMU
(since 30 August 1990)

*Nigeria, Government

Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Zubair Mahmud KAZAURE
chancery:
2201 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 822-1500
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William L. SWING
embassy:
2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos
mailing address:
P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone:
[234] (1) 610097
FAX:
[234] (1) 610257 branch office:
Abuja
consulate general:
Kaduna
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

*Nigeria, Economy

Overview:
Although Nigeria is Africa's leading oil-producing country, it remains poor
with a $300 per capita GDP. In 1991-92 massive government spending, much of
it to help ensure a smooth transition to civilian rule, ballooned the budget
deficit and caused inflation and interest rates to rise. The lack of fiscal
discipline forced the IMF to declare Nigeria not in compliance with an
18-month standby facility started in January 1991. Lagos has set ambitious
targets for expanding oil production capacity and is offering foreign
companies more attractive investment incentives. Government efforts to
reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil exports and to sustain noninflationary
growth, however, have fallen short because of inadequate new investment
funds and endemic corruption. Living standards remain below the level of the
early 1980s oil boom.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $35 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
28% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $9 billion; expenditures $10.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
oil 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners:
EC countries 43%, US 41%
Imports:
$7.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
consumer goods, capital equipment, chemicals, raw materials
partners:
EC countries 70%, US 16%
External debt:
$33.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.5% (1991); accounts for 8.5% of GDP
Electricity:
4,740,000 kW capacity; 8,300 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries: crude oil and mining - coal, tin, columbite; primary processing industries -
palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins; manufacturing
industries - textiles, cement, building materials, food products, footwear,
chemical, printing, ceramics, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 32% of GDP and half of labor force; inefficient small-scale
farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and now an importer;
cash crops - cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food crops - corn, rice,
sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited

*Nigeria, Economy

Illicit drugs:
passenger and cargo air hub for West Africa facilitates Nigeria's position
as a major transit country for heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest
Asia via Africa to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit
route for cocaine from South America intended for West European and North
American markets (some of that cocaine is also consumed in Nigeria)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.0 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion
Currency:
1 naira (N) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates:
naira (N) per US$1 - 19.661 (December 1992), 17.298 (1992), 9.909 (1991),
8.038 (1990), 7.3647 (1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Nigeria, Communications

Railroads:
3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly bituminous-surface treatment);
25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth; 52,560 km
unimproved
Inland waterways:
8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,042 km; natural gas 500 km; petroleum products 3,000 km
Ports:
Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele
Merchant marine:
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 418,046 GRT/664,949 DWT; includes 17
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 7 oil tanker, 1 chemical
tanker, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
76 usable:
63
with permanent-surface runways:
34
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
15
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
23
Telecommunications:
above-average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in
progress; radio relay microwave and cable routes; broadcast stations - 35
AM, 17 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 20 domestic stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

*Nigeria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, paramilitary Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 21,790,956; fit for military service 12,447,547; reach
military age (18) annually 1,297,790 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $172 million, about 1% of GDP (1992)

*Niue, Header

Affiliation:
(free association with New Zealand)

*Niue, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 460 km east of Tonga in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
260 km2
land area:
260 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
61%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
19%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons
Note:
one of world's largest coral islands

*Niue, People

Population:
1,977 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-3.66% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective:
Niuean
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)
Religions:
Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) 75% - a Protestant church closely related to
the London Missionary Society, Morman 10%, other 15% (mostly Roman
Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,000 (1981 est.)
by occupation:
most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government
service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

*Niue, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Niue
Digraph:
NE
Type:
self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand; Niue fully
responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
external affairs
Capital:
Alofi
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
19 October 1974 (became a self-governing territory in free association with
New Zealand on 19 October 1974)
Constitution:
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty)
Political parties and leaders:
Niue Island Party (NIP), Young VIVIAN
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (20 total, 6 elected) NIP 1, independents 5
Executive branch:
British monarch, premier, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by New Zealand
Representative John SPRINGFORD (since NA 1974)
Head of Government:
Acting Premier Young VIVIAN (since the death of Sir Robert R. REX on 12
December 1992)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPARTECA, SPC, SPF
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of
the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in
the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross

*Niue, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New Zealand. Government
expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall made up by grants
from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages to public employees. The
agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some
cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small
factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The
sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of
revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of
population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $2.1 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (1984)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $5.5 million; expenditures $6.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY85 est.)
Exports:
$175,274 (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw, root
crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners:
NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia
Imports:
$3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants,
chemicals, drugs
partners:
NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,500 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 1,490 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourist, handicrafts, coconut products
Agriculture:
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence crops - taro, yams,
cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $62
million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9486 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Niue, Communications

Highways:
123 km all-weather roads, 106 km access and plantation roads
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 1
Telecommunications:
single-line telephone system connects all villages on island; 383
telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1
FM, no TV

*Niue, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

*Norfolk Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Norfolk Island, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
34.6 km2
land area:
34.6 km2
comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
32 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons (especially May to July)

*Norfolk Island, People

Population:
2,665 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.69% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective:
Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic divisions:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander
Religions:
Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4% (1986)
Languages:
English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and ancient
Tahitian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male: NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Norfolk Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form:
Norfolk Island
Digraph:
NF
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine (commercial center)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Norfolk Island Act of 1957
Legal system:
wide legislative and executive responsibility under the Norfolk Island Act
of 1979; Supreme Court
National holiday:
Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 1989 (held every three years); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (9 total) percent of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Executive
Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Administrator A.
G. KERR (since NA 1990), who is appointed by the Governor General of
Australia
Head of Government:
Assembly President and Chief Minister John Terence BROWN (since NA)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large
green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band

*Norfolk Island, Economy

Overview:
The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought a level of
prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The number of
visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached 29,000 in FY89.
Revenues from tourism have given the island a favorable balance of trade and
helped the agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the production
of beef, poultry, and eggs.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $4.2 million, including capital expenditures of
$400,000 (FY89)
Exports:
$1.7 million (f.o.b., FY86)
commodities:
postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia Palm, small
quantities of avocados
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
Imports:
$15.6 million (c.i.f., FY86)
commodities:
NA
partners:
Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 3,160 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism
Agriculture:
Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit,
cattle, poultry
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Norfolk Island, Communications

Highways:
80 km of roads, including 53 km paved; remainder are earth formed or coral
surfaced
Ports:
none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways :
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service with Sydney; 987 telephones
(1983); broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Norfolk Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Northern Mariana Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(commonwealth in political union with the US)

*Northern Mariana Islands, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 5,635 km west-southwest of Honolulu, about
three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
477 km2
land area:
477 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,482 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal
temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to
October
Terrain:
southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs;
northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters (Mt. Okso'
Takpochao on Saipan)
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land:
5% on Saipan
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
active volcanos on Pagan and Agrihan; subject to typhoons (most during
August through November)
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

*Northern Mariana Islands, People

Population:
48,581 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.04% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.05 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.43 years
male:
65.53 years
female:
69.48 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.69 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians, Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese,
Korean
Religions:
Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and taboos
may still be found)
Languages:
English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note:
86% of population speaks a language other than English at home
Literacy:
age NA and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
96%
Labor force:
7,476 total indigenous labor force, 2,699 unemployed; 21,188 foreign workers
(1990)
by occupation:
NA

*Northern Mariana Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form:
Northern Mariana Islands
Digraph:
CQ
Type:
commonwealth in political union with the US; self-governing with locally
elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature; federal funds to the
Commonwealth administered by the US Department of the Interior, Office of
Territorial and International Affairs
Capital:
Saipan
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
Constitution:
Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the constitution of the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Legal system:
based on US system except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and taxation
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Governor Lorenzo GUERRERO; Democratic Party, Carlos SHODA,
chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do
not vote in US presidential elections
Elections:
Governor:
last held in NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO, Republican Party, was elected governor
Senate:
last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) Republicans 6, Democrats 3
House of Representatives:
last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) Republicans 10, Democrats 6,
Independent 2
US House of Representatives:
the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in Congress; instead, it
has an elected official "resident representative" located in Washington, DC;
seats - (1 total) Republican (Juan N. BABAUTA)
Executive branch:
US president; governor, lieutenant governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislature consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Commonwealth Supreme Court, Superior Court, Federal District Court
Leaders: Chief of State:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President
Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)

*Northern Mariana Islands, Government

Head of Government:
Governor Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO (since 9 January 1990); Lieutenant
Governor Benjamin T. MANGLONA (since 9 January 1990)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), SPC
Flag:
blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray silhouette of a
latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building) in the center

*Northern Mariana Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the US.
The rate of funding has declined as locally generated government revenues
have grown. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitled the islands to
$228 million for capital development, government operations, and special
programs. A rapidly growing major source of income is the tourist industry,
which now employs about 50% of the work force. Japanese tourists
predominate. The agricultural sector is made up of cattle ranches and small
farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Industry is
small scale, mostly handicrafts and light manufacturing.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $541 million (1992)
note:
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$11,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5-7.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $147.0 million; expenditures $127.7 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$263.4 million (f.o.b. 1991 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, garments, bread, pastries, concrete blocks, light iron
work
partners:
NA
Imports:
$392.4 million (c.i.f. 1991 est.)
commodities: food, construction, equipment, materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
25,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced, 740 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coconuts, fruits, cattle, vegetables
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Northern Mariana Islands, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
381.5 km total; 134.5 km primary, 55 km secondary, 192 km local (1991)
Inland waterways:
none
Ports:
Saipan, Tinian
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM (1984), 1 TV, 2 cable TV stations; 2 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Northern Mariana Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Norway, Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
324,220 km2
land area:
307,860 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km
Coastline:
21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords,
numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
10 nm
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); dispute between Denmark
and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Jan
Mayen is before the Interntional Court of Justice; maritime boundary dispute
with Russia over portion of Barents Sea
Climate:
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior;
rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain:
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile
valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords;
arctic tundra in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish,
timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
70%
Irrigated land: 950 km2 (1989)
Environment:
air and water pollution; acid rain; note - strategic location adjacent to
sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest
coastlines in world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land
boundary with Russia

*Norway, Geography

Note:
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented
coastline

*Norway, People

Population:
4,297,436 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.54 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.16 years
male:
73.79 years
female:
80.73 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Norwegian(s)
adjective:
Norwegian
Ethnic divisions:
Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps 20,000
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)
Languages:
Norwegian (official)
note:
small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.004 million (1992)
by occupation:
services 39.1%, commerce 17.6%, mining, oil, and manufacturing 16.0%,
banking and financial services 7.6%, transportation and communications 7.8%,
construction 6.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5% (1989)

*Norway, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form:
Norway
local long form:
Kongeriket Norge
local short form:
Norge
Digraph:
NO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Oslo
Administrative divisions:
19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud,
Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag,
Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark,
Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Independence:
26 October 1905 (from Sweden)
Constitution:
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Legal system:
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions;
Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Political parties and leaders:
Labor Party, Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND; Conservative Party, Kaci Kullmann FIVE;
Center Party, Anne ENGER LAHNSTEIN; Christian People's Party, Kjell Magne
BONDEVIK; Socialist Left, Eric SOLHEIM; Norwegian Communist, Ingre IVERSEN;
Progress Party, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar DORUM; Finnmark List,
leader NA
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Storting:
last held on 11 September 1989 (next to be held 6 September 1993); results -
Labor 34.3%, Conservative 22.2%, Progress 13.0%, Socialist Left 10.1%,
Christian People's 8.5%, Center Party 6.6%, Finnmark List 0.3%, other 5%;
seats - (165 total) Labor 63, Conservative 37, Progress 22, Socialist Left
17, Christian People's 14, Center Party 11, Finnmark List 1
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, State Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Storting) with an Upper Chamber (Lagting) and a Lower
Chamber (Odelsting)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hoyesterett)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON
MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)

*Norway, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990)
Member of:
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kjeld VIBE
chancery:
2720 34th Street NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-6000
FAX:
(202) 337-0870
consulates general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
consulate:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2
mailing address:
PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone:
[47] (2) 44-85-50
FAX: [47] (2) 43-07-77
Flag:
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

*Norway, Economy

Overview:
Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market activity
and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the
vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises) and
extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and areas with sparse
resources. Norway also maintains an extensive welfare system that helps
propel public sector expenditures to slightly more than 50% of the GDP and
results in one of the highest average tax burdens in the world (54%). A
small country with a high dependence on international trade, Norway is
basically an exporter of raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an
abundance of small- and medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major
shipping nations. The country is richly endowed with natural resources -
petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent
on its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Although one of the
government's main priorities is to reduce this dependency, this situation is
not likely to improve for years to come. The government also hopes to reduce
unemployment and strengthen and diversify the economy through tax reform and
a series of expansionary budgets. The budget deficit is expected to hit a
record 8% of GDP because of welfare spending and bail-outs of the banking
system. Unemployment continues at record levels of over 10% - including
those in job programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside the
oil sector. Overall economic growth is expected to be around 2% in 1993
while inflation is likely to rise slightly to 4%. Oslo, a member of the
European Free Trade Area, has applied for EC membership and continues to
deregulate and harmonize with EC regulations to prepare for the European
Economic Area (EEA) - which creates an EC/EFTA market with free movement of
capital, goods, services, and labor - to take effect in late 1993 and its EC
bid.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $76.1 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
2.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
$17,700 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.3% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (excluding people in job-training programs) (1992)
Budget:
revenues $50.6 billion; expenditures $57.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$35.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 37.8%, metals and products 10.7%, natural
gas 7.3%, fish 6.6%, chemicals 6.3%, ships 5.4%
partners:
EC 67%, Nordic countries 18.2%, developing countries 7.9%, US 5.1%, Japan
1.6% (1992)
Imports:
$26.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, fuels and lubricants, transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, clothing, ships
partners:
EC 48.7%, Nordic countries 26.8%, developing countries 9.3%, US 8.6%, Japan
6.3% (1992)
External debt:
$6.5 billion (1992 est.)

*Norway, Economy

Industrial production:
growth rate 7.3% (1992)
Electricity:
26,900,000 kW capacity; 111,000 million kWh produced, 25,850 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products,
metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 2.6% of GDP and 5.5% of labor force; among world's top 10
fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half of food
needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989
Illicit drugs:
increasingly used as transshipment point for Latin American cocaine to
Europe and gateway for Asian heroin shipped via the CIS and Baltic states
for the European market
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion
Currency:
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 re
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.8774 (January 1993), 6.2145 (1992),
6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Norway, Communications

Railroads:
4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB) operates
4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4 km other
Highways:
79,540 km total; 38,580 km paved; 40,960 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Inland waterways:
1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum
Pipelines: refined products 53 km
Ports:
Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
829 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,312,412 GRT/38,532,109 DWT;
includes 13 passenger, 20 short-sea passenger, 106 cargo, 2 passenger-cargo,
19 refrigerated cargo, 15 container, 49 roll-on/roll-off, 23 vehicle
carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 174 oil tanker, 91 chemical tanker, 82 liquefied
gas, 25 combination ore/oil, 201 bulk, 8 combination bulk; note - the
government has created a captive register, the Norwegian International Ship
Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS
enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience and do not have to be crewed by
Norwegians; the majority of ships (777) under the Norwegian flag are now
registered with the NIS
Airports:
total:
103
usable:
102
with permanent-surface runways:
63
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
12
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and telex
services; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 3,102,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 46 AM, 350 private and 143 government FM, 54 (2,100 repeaters)
TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 3 communications satellite earth stations
operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and
domestic systems

*Norway, Defense Forces

Branches:
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,120,744; fit for military service 934,968; reach military
age (20) annually 31,903 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1992)

*Oman, Geography

Location:
Middle East, along the Arabian Sea, between Yemen and the United Arab
Emirates
Map references: Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
212,460 km2
land area:
212,460 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
total 1,374 km, Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

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