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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 25 out of 42

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Area:
total area:
21 km2
land area:
21 km2
comparative area:
about one-tenth the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
30 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain:
sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate
plateau in center
Natural resources:
phosphates
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
only 53 km south of Equator
Note:
Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean
- the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French
Polynesia

*Nauru, People

Population:
9,882 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.42% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.92 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.68 years
male:
64.3 years
female:
69.18 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nauruan(s)
adjective:
Nauruan
Ethnic divisions:
Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Religions:
Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely
understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
by occupation:
NA

*Nauru, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
conventional short form:
Nauru
former:
Pleasant Island
Digraph:
NR
Type:
republic
Capital:
no official capital; government offices in Yaren
Administrative divisions:
14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu,
Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence:
31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia, New Zealand, and UK)
Constitution:
29 January 1968
Legal system:
own Acts of Parliament and British common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 19 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1995); results -
Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament
Parliament:
last held on 14 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1995); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total) independents 18
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 12 December 1989)
Member of:
AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
there is a Nauruan Consulate in Agana (Guam)
US diplomatic representation:
the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru
Flag:
blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large
white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates
the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and
the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru

*Nauru, Economy

Overview:
Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of which are
expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given Nauruans
one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World - $10,000 annually.
Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be imported, including
fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the
replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems.
Substantial amounts of phosphate income are invested in trust funds to help
cushion the transition.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $90 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$10,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
0%
Budget:
revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)
Exports:
$93 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
phosphates
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$73 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities:
food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners:
Australia, UK, NZ, Japan
External debt:
$33.3 million
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
14,000 kW capacity; 50 million kWh produced, 5,430 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products
Agriculture:
coconuts; other agricultural activity negligible; almost completely
dependent on imports for food and water
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $2 million
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2834 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Nauru, Communications

Railroads:
3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing
facilities on the southwest coast
Highways:
about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth
Ports:
Nauru
Merchant marine:
1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,426 GRT/5,750 DWT
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate local and international radio communications provided via
Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones; 4,000 radios; broadcast stations -
1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Nauru, Defense Forces

Branches:
Directorate of the Nauru Police Force
note:
no regular armed forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA - no formal defense structure

*Navassa Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Navassa Island, Geography

Location:
in the Caribbean Sea, 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo
(Cuba), between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
5.2 km2
land area:
5.2 km2
comparative area:
about nine times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Haiti
Climate:
marine, tropical
Terrain:
raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical
white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)
Natural resources:
guano
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense
stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus
Note:
strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

*Navassa Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the
island

*Navassa Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Navassa Island
Digraph:
BQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast Guard
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Navassa Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Navassa Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

*Navassa Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Nepal, Geography

Location:
South Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
140,800 km2
land area:
136,800 km2
comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries:
total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers
and mild winters in south
Terrain:
Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region,
rugged Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty, small
deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
33%
other:
37%
Irrigated land:
9,430 km2 (1989)
Environment:
contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks; deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India

*Nepal, People

Population:
20,535,466 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.43% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
37.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
13.66 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
85.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.98 years male:
51.84 years
female:
52.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nepalese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Nepalese
Ethnic divisions:
Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus,
Sherpas
Religions:
Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note:
only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between
many Hindu and Buddhist groups
Languages:
Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
26%
male:
38%
female:
13%
Labor force:
8.5 million (1991 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%
note:
severe lack of skilled labor

*Nepal, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Nepal
conventional short form:
Nepal
Digraph:
NP
Type:
parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991
Capital:
Kathmandu
Administrative divisions:
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri,
Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti,
Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)
Constitution:
9 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Party president Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI, Prime
Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA, Ganesh Man SINGH
center:
the NDP has two factions: National Democratic Party/Chand (NDP/Chand),
Lokendra Bahadur CHAND; and National Democratic Party/Thapa (NDP/Thapa),
Surya Bahadur THAPA; Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, Gayendra
Narayan SINGH
Communist:
Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan
ADIKHARY; United People's Front (UPF), N. K. PRASAI, Lila Mani POKHAREL;
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party, leader NA; Rohit Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE;
Democratic Party, leader NA
note:
the two factions of the NDP announced a merger in late 1991
Other political or pressure groups:
numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several small,
radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results - NCP 38%,
CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa 5%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana
Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%, independents 4%, other 7%; seats -
(205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69, UPF 9, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 6,
NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN (Democratic) 2, NDP/Thapa 1, independents 3; note
- the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a multiparty democracy
system for the first time in 32 years
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or National Council and a
lower house or House of Representatives

*Nepal, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January 1972, crowned King 24
February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son
of the King (born 21 June 1971)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 29 May 1991)
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Yog Prasad UPADHYAYA
chancery:
2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 667-4550
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH
embassy:
Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411604, 411613, 413890
FAX:
[977] (1) 419963
Flag:
red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right
triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the
larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

*Nepal, Economy

Overview:
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over
90% of the population and accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial activity is
limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute,
sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has
expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign exchange earnings in
FY91. Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural
resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production in the
late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of
2.6%. More than 40% of the population is undernourished partly because of
poor distribution. The top 10% of the population receives 47% of total
income, the bottom 20% less than 5% of the total. Since May 1991, the
government has been encouraging trade and foreign investment, e.g., by
eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order to
simplify domestic and foreign investment. The government also has been
cutting public expenditures by reducing subsides, privatizing state
industries, and laying off civil servants. Prospects for foreign trade and
investment in the 1990s remain poor, however, because of the small size of
the economy, its technological backwardness, and its remoteness.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion (FY92)
National product real growth rate:
3.1% (FY92)
National product per capita:
$170 (FY92)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14% (November 1992)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1987); underemployment estimated at 25-40%
Budget:
revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $672.0 million, including capital
expenditures of $396 million (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$313 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.) but does not include unrecorded border
trade with India
commodities:
carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners:
US, Germany, India, UK
Imports:
$751 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners:
India, Singapore, Japan, Germany
External debt:
$2 billion (FY92 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (FY91 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
300,000 kW capacity; 1,000 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile, carpet,
cement, and brick production; tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm products - rice, corn,
wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not self-sufficient in
food, particularly in drought years

*Nepal, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug
markets; probable transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $2,230 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $286
million
Currency:
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa
Exchange rates:
Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 43.200 (January 1993), 42.742 (1992),
37.255 (1991), 29.370 (1990), 27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988)
Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July

*Nepal, Communications

Railroads:
52 km (1990), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Terai close to Indian
border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned
Highways:
7,080 km total (1990); 2,898 km paved, 1,660 km gravel or crushed stone;
also 2,522 km of seasonally motorable tracks
Airports:
total:
37
usable:
37
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication and broadcast
service; international radio communication service is poor; 50,000
telephones (1990); broadcast stations - 88 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Nepal, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,849,109; fit for military service 2,517,385; reach
military age (17) annually 234,060 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 2% of GDP (FY91/92)

*Netherlands, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
37,330 km2
land area:
33,920 km2 comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,027 km, Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km
Coastline:
451 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil
Land use:
arable land:
26%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
32%
forest and woodland:
9%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
5,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
without an extensive system of dikes and dams, nearly one-half of the total
area would be inundated by sea water
Note:
located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse,
Schelde)

*Netherlands, People

Population:
15,274,942 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.63% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.81 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.55 years
male:
74.48 years
female:
80.78 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.59 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective:
Dutch
Ethnic divisions:
Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 36%, Protestant 27%, other 6%, unaffiliated 31% (1988)
Languages:
Dutch
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1979)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
5.3 million
by occupation:
services 50.1%, manufacturing and construction 28.2%, government 15.9%,
agriculture 5.8% (1986)

*Netherlands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form:
Netherlands
local long form:
Koninkrijk de Nederlanden
local short form:
Nederland
Digraph:
NL
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland,
Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland,
Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland
Dependent areas:
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Independence:
1579 (from Spain)
Constitution:
17 February 1983
Legal system:
civil law system incorporating French penal theory; judicial review in the
Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather than Acts of the States
General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Willem van VELZEN; Labor (PvdA), Wim KOK;
Liberal (VVD), Frederick BOLKSTEIN; Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans van MIERIO; a
host of minor parties
Other political or pressure groups:
large multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement
(comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade
union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the
nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch
Peace Council (IKV)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
First Chamber:
last held on 9 June l991 (next to be held 9 June 1995); results - elected by
the country's 12 provincial councils; seats - (75 total) percent of seats by
party NA
Second Chamber:
last held on 6 September 1989 (next to be held in May 1994); results - CDA
35.3%, PvdA 31.9%, VVD 14.6%, D'66 7.9%, other 10.3%; seats - (150 total)
CDA 54, PvdA 49, VVD 22, D'66 12, other 13
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet, Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal) consists of an upper chamber or
First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and a lower chamber or Second Chamber (Tweede
Kamer)

*Netherlands, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent
WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born 27 April
1967)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ruud (Rudolph) F. M. LUBBERS (since 4 November 1982); Vice
Prime Minister Willem (Wim) KOK (since 2 November 1989)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest),
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Johan Hendrick MEESMAN
chancery:
4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-5300
FAX:
(202) 362-3430
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific
Islands), New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Thomas H. GEWECKE
embassy:
Lange Voorhout 102, The Hague
mailing address:
PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715
telephone:
[31] (70) 310-9209
FAX:
[31] (70) 361-4688
consulate general:
Amsterdam
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the
flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer

*Netherlands, Economy

Overview:
This highly developed and affluent economy is based on private enterprise.
The government makes its presence felt, however, through many regulations,
permit requirements, and welfare programs affecting most aspects of economic
activity. The trade and financial services sector contributes over 50% of
GDP. Industrial activity provides about 25% of GDP and is led by the
food-processing, oil-refining, and metalworking industries. The highly
mechanized agricultural sector employs only 5% of the labor force, but
provides large surpluses for export and the domestic food-processing
industry. Unemployment and a sizable budget deficit are currently the most
serious economic problems. Many of the economic issues of the 1990s will
reflect the course of European economic integration.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $259.8 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.6% (1992)
National product per capita:
$17,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.3% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $109.9 billion; expenditures $122.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$128.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
agricultural products, processed foods and tobacco, natural gas, chemicals,
metal products, textiles, clothing
partners:
EC 77% (Germany 27%, Belgium-Luxembourg 15%, UK 10%), US 4% (1991)
Imports:
$117.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods, transportation
equipment, crude oil, food products
partners:
EC 64% (Germany 26%, Belgium-Luxembourg 14%, UK 8%), US 8% (1991)
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.6% (1992 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
22,216,000 kW capacity; 63,500 million kWh produced, 4,200 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and
equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction, microelectronics
Agriculture:
accounts for 4.6% of GDP; animal production predominates; crops - grains,
potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain, fats, and
oils
Illicit drugs:
transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries;
European producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4 billion

*Netherlands, Economy

Currency:
1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.8167 (January
1993), 1.7585 (1992), 1.8697 (1991), 1.8209 (1990), 2.1207 (1989), 1.9766
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Netherlands, Communications

Railroads:
2,828 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by Netherlands Railways (NS)
(includes 1,957 km electrified and 1,800 km double track)
Highways:
108,360 km total; 92,525 km paved (including 2,185 km of limited access,
divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, crushed stone
Inland waterways:
6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity or
larger
Pipelines:
crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km
Ports:
coastal - Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Ijmuiden,
Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen; inland - 29 ports
Merchant marine:
344 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,762,000 GRT/3,675,649 DWT; includes
3 short-sea passenger, 193 cargo, 30 refrigerated cargo, 26 container, 13
roll-on/roll-off, 1 livestock carrier, 11 multifunction large-load carrier,
23 oil tanker, 22 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 6
bulk, 4 combination bulk; note - many Dutch-owned ships are also registered
on the captive Netherlands Antilles register
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
20
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
11
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
highly developed, well maintained, and integrated; extensive redundant
system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave radio relay
microwave links; 9,418,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 (3 relays) AM,
12 (39 repeaters) FM, 8 (7 repeaters) TV; 5 submarine cables; 1
communication satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean
and 2 Atlantic Ocean antenna) and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide mobile phone
system

*Netherlands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including Naval Air Service
and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,183,167; fit for military service 3,677,445; reach
military age (20) annually 104,263 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $7.8 billion, 3% of GDP (1992)

*Netherlands Antilles, Header

Affiliation:
(part of the Dutch realm)

*Netherlands Antilles, Geography

Location:
two island groups - Curacas and Bonaire in the southern Caribbean Sea are
about 70 km north of Venezuela near Aruba and the rest of the country is
about 800 km to the northeast about one-third of the way between Antigua and
Barbuda and Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
960 km2
land area:
960 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch
part of the island of Saint Martin)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
364 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
generally hilly, volcanic interiors
Natural resources:
phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0% forest and woodland:
0%
other:
92%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt, so rarely
threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes
from July to October

*Netherlands Antilles, People

Population:
184,990 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.4% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.23 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.69 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.73 years
male:
73.55 years
female:
78.03 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.99 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective:
Netherlands Antillean
Ethnic divisions:
mixed African 85%, Carib Indian, European, Latin, Oriental
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Dutch (official), Papiamento a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect
predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
94%
male:
94%
female:
93%
Labor force:
89,000
by occupation:
government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

*Netherlands Antilles, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Netherlands Antilles
local long form:
none
local short form:
Nederlandse Antillen
Digraph:
NA
Type:
part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954
Capital:
Willemstad
Administrative divisions:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm)
Constitution:
29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)
Political parties and leaders:
political parties are indigenous to each island
Bonaire:
Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic Party of Bonaire
(PDB), Franklin CRESTIAN
Curacao:
National People's Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement
(MAN), Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson
(Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson MONTE;
Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos Patria, Chin BEHILIA
Saba:
Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will JOHNSON; Saba
Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity Party, Carmen SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius:
Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), K. Van PUTTEN; Windward
Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius Alliance (SEA), Ralph BERKEL
Sint Maarten:
Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Claude WATHEY; Patriotic
Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections: Staten:
last held on 16 March 1990 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (22 total) PNP 7, FOL-SI 3, UPB 3, MAN 2,
DP-St. M 2, DP 1, SPM 1, WIPM 1, DP-St. E 1, Nos Patria 1; note - the
government of Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS is a coalition of several
parties
Executive branch:
Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, vice prime minister, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral legislature (Staten)

*Netherlands Antilles, Government

Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS (since 17 May 1988, previously served
from September 1984 to November 1985)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO
(associate), UPU, WMO, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an autonomous part of the Netherlands, Netherlands Antillean interests in
the US are represented by the Netherlands
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General Bernard J. WOERZ
consulate general:
Saint Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao
mailing address:
P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone:
[599] (9) 613066
FAX:
[599] (9) 616489
Flag:
white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical
red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are arranged in an
oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the
five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten

*Netherlands Antilles, Economy

Overview:
Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the
economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed
infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Unlike many
Latin American countries, the Netherlands Antilles has avoided large
international debt. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
the US being the major supplier.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$8,700 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $209 million; expenditures $232 million, including capital
expenditures of $8 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$200 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products 98%
partners:
US 40%, UK 7%, Guadeloupe 5%
Imports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners:
Venezuela 42%, US 21%, Netherlands 8%
External debt:
$701 million (December 1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
125,000 kW capacity; 365 million kWh produced, 1,980 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum
transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing
(Curacao)
Agriculture:
hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief products - aloes,
sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not self-sufficient in
food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$513 million
Currency:
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins (NAf.) per US$1 - 1.79
(fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate 1971-88)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Netherlands Antilles, Communications

Highways:
950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk
Merchant marine:
89 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 781,646 GRT/962,138 DWT; includes 4
passenger, 29 cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 7 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off,
12 multifunction large-load carrier, 5 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 2
bulk, 1 oil tanker, 1 railcar carrier, 1 combination ore/oil; note - all but
a few are foreign owned, mostly in the Netherlands
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland microwave radio relay
links; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Netherlands Antilles, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air Force, National
Guard, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 48,965; fit for military service 27,531; reach military age
(20) annually 1,638 (1993 est.)
Note:
defense is responsibility of the Netherlands

*New Caledonia, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

*New Caledonia, Geography

Location:
in the South Pacific Ocean, 1,750 km east of Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
19,060 km2
land area:
18,760 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,254 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains with interior mountains
Natural resources:
nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
14%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
typhoons most frequent from November to March

*New Caledonia, People

Population:
178,056 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
22.7 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.01 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.22 years
male:
69.92 years
female:
76.7 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.67 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
New Caledonian(s)
adjective:
New Caledonian
Ethnic divisions:
Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%,
Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%
Languages:
French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
91%
male:
91%
female:
90%
Labor force:
50,469 foreign workers for plantations and mines from Wallis and Futuna,
Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)
by occupation:
NA

*New Caledonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form:
New Caledonia
local long form:
Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form:
Nouvelle-Caledonie
Digraph:
NC
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1956
Capital:
Noumea
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named
Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on independence will be
held in 1998)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands;
formerly under French law
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique (RPCR),
conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR - affiliated to France's Rassemblement pour la
Republique (RPR); Melanesian proindependence Kanaka Socialist National
Liberation Front (FLNKS), Paul NEAOUTYINE; Melanesian moderate Kanak
Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish NAISSELINE; National Front (FN), extreme
right, Guy GEORGE; Caledonie Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT; Union
Oceanienne (UO), conservative, Michel HEMA; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak
(FULK), proindependence, UREGEI; Union Caledonian (UC), Francois BURCK
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
French Senate:
last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 2001); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPCR 1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held 21 and 28 March 1993); results
- RPR 83.5%, FN 13.5%, other 3%; seats - (2 total) RPCR 2
Territorial Assembly:
last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held 1993); results - RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS
28.5%, FN 7%, CD 5%, UO 4%, other 11%; seats - (54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19,
FN 3, other 5; note - election boycotted by FULK
Executive branch:
French president, high commissioner, Consultative Committee (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal

*New Caledonia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
High Commissioner and President of the Council of Government Alain
CHRISTNACHT (since 15 January 1991)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US: as an overseas territory of France, New Caledonian interests are
represented
in the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*New Caledonia, Economy

Overview:
New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known nickel resources. In
recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed international
demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings. Only a
negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts
for about 25% of imports.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.4% (1988)
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
16% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $224.0 million; expenditures $211.0 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1985)
Exports:
$671 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
nickel metal 87%, nickel ore
partners:
France 52.3%, Japan 15.8%, US 6.4%
Imports:
$764 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners:
France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced, 12,790 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
nickel mining and smelting
Agriculture:
large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn, wheat, vegetables; 60%
self-sufficient in beef
Illicit drugs:
illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal source of income for
some families
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$4,185 million
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais duPacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 99.65 (January
1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
(1988); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*New Caledonia, Communications

Highways:
6,340 km total; only about 10% paved (1987)
Ports:
Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio
Airports:
total:
29
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
32,578 telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV; 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*New Caledonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*New Zealand, Geography

Location:
Oceania, southeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
268,680 km2
land area:
268,670 km2
comparative area:
about the size of Colorado
note:
includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell
Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
15,134 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Climate:
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Natural resources:
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
53%
forest and woodland:
38%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
2,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

*New Zealand, People

Population:
3,368,774 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.61% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.93 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.11 years
male:
72.46 years
female:
79.95 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.07 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
New Zealander(s)
adjective:
New Zealand
Ethnic divisions:
European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist
2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 9% (1986)
Languages:
English (official), Maori
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,603,500 (June 1991)
by occupation:
services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%, primary production 9.3% (1987)

*New Zealand, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
New Zealand
Abbreviation:
NZ
Digraph:
NZ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Wellington
Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri,,
Ashburton,
Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha,
Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston,
Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*,, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui,, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood,
Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton,, Matamata, Mount
Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*,, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea,
Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*,, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda,,
Silverpeaks, Southland,
Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo,
Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,, Waikato, Waikohu,
Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa,
Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*,, Waitotara, Wallace,
Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei,, Whangaroa, Woodville
Dependent areas:
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Independence:
26 September 1907 (from UK)
Constitution:
no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including
certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986
was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted
Legal system:
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for
Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty)
Political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP; opposition), Michael MOORE; NewLabor Party (NLP), Jim ANDERTON;
Democratic Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE
and Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official leader; Mana Motuhake, Martin
RATA; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS
note:
the New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a coalition
called the Alliance Party, Jim ANDERTON, president, in September 1991; the
Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*New Zealand, Government

Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 27 October 1990 (next to be held NA November 1993); results -
NP 49%, NZLP 35%, Green Party 7%, NLP 5%; seats - (97 total) NP 67, NZLP 29,
NLP 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly called Parliament)
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990); Deputy Prime Minister
Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990)
Member of:
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM (cooperating country), EBRD, ESCAP,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR,
NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Denis Bazely Gordon McLEAN
chancery:
37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-4800
consulates general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001
telephone:
[64] (4) 722-068
FAX:
[64] (4) 723-537
consulate general:
Auckland
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red
five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag;
the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

*New Zealand, Economy

Overview:
Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent
on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy that can
compete on the global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth
would boost real incomes, broaden and deepen the technological capabilities
of the industrial sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the
expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is
down from double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in 1988-91, and
unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since May
1991. In 1992, growth picked up to 3%, a sign that the new economic approach
is beginning to pay off.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $49.8 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$14,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
10.1% (September 1992)
Budget:
revenues $14.0 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$3.65 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures, chemicals,
forestry products
partners:
EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%, China 3.6%, South Korea
3.1%
Imports:
$3.99 billion (f.o.b., FY92)
commodities:
petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment
partners:
Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%, Taiwan 3.0%
External debt:
$38.5 billion (September 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
8,000,000 kW capacity; 31,000 million kWh produced, 9,250 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP and about 10% of the work force; livestock
predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export earners; crops - wheat,
barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; surplus producer of farm
products; fish catch reached a record 503,000 metric tons in 1988
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

*New Zealand, Economy

Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9486 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*New Zealand, Communications

Railroads:
4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km
electrified; over 99% government owned
Highways:
92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or crushed stone
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; of little importance to transportation
Pipelines:
natural gas 1,000 km; petroleum products 160 km; condensate (liquified
petroleum gas - LPG) 150 km
Ports:
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 182,206 GRT/246,446 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 4 oil tanker, 1 liquefied gas,
5 bulk
Airports:
total:
120
usable:
120
with permanent-surface runways:
33
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
42
Telecommunications:
excellent international and domestic systems; 2,110,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend to
Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*New Zealand, Defense Forces

Branches:
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 878,028; fit for military service 741,104; reach military
age (20) annually 29,319 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $792 million, 2% of GDP (FY90/91)

*Nicaragua, Geography

Location:
Central America, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
129,494 km2
land area:
120,254 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New York State
Land boundaries:
total 1,231 km, Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Coastline:
910 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain)
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; International Court of Justice (ICJ)
referred the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca to an
earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite
resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be
required
Climate:
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Terrain:
extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains;
narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Natural resources:
gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
43%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
850 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasional
severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

*Nicaragua, People

Population:
3,987,240 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.74% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.61 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
54.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.5 years
male:
60.7 years
female:
66.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.48 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Nicaraguan(s)
adjective:
Nicaraguan
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%
Languages:
Spanish (official)
note:
English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
57%
male:
57%
female:
57%
Labor force:
1.086 million
by occupation:
service 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)

*Nicaragua, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form:
Nicaragua
local long form:
Republica de Nicaragua
local short form:
Nicaragua
Digraph:
NU

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