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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Moldovan (official); note - virtually the same as the Romanian language,
Russian
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
99%
Labor force:
2.095 million
by occupation:
agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)

*Moldova, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Moldova
conventional short form:
Moldova
local long form:
Republica Moldoveneasca
local short form:
none
former:
Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Digraph:
MD
Type:
republic
Capital:
Chisinau (Kishinev)
Administrative divisions:
previously divided into 40 rayons; to be divided into fewer, larger
districts at some future point
Independence:
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
as of mid-1993 the new constitution had not been adopted; old constitution
(adopted NA 1979) is still in effect but has been heavily amended during the
past few years
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and CSCE documents
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August 1991
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Popular Front (formerly Moldovan Popular Front), Ivrie
ROSCA, chairman; Yedinstvo Intermovement, V. YAKOVLEV, chairman; Social
Democratic Party, Oazul NANTOI, chairman, two other chairmen; Agrarian
Democratic Party, Valery CHEBOTARV, leader; Democratic Party, Gheorghe
GHIMPU, chairman; Democratic Labor Party, Alexandru ARSENI, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
United Council of Labor Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman; The
Ecology Movement of Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK, chairman; The Christian
Democratic League of Women of Moldova (CDLWM), L. LARI, chairman; National
Christian Party of Moldova (NCPM), D. TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders;
The Peoples Movement Gagauz Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The Democratic
Party of Gagauzia (DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The Alliance of Working
People of Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president; Christian Alliance for
Greater Romania; Women's League; Stefan the Great Movement
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR
ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote
Parliament:
last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (350 total) Christian Democratic Popular Front 50;
Club of Independent Deputies 25; Agrarian Club 90; Social Democrats 60-70;
Russian Conciliation Club 50; 60-70 seats belong to Dniester region deputies
who usually boycott Moldovan legislative proceedings; the remaining seats
filled by independents; note - until May 1991 was called Supreme Soviet

*Moldova, Government

Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mircea Ivanovich SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990)
Head of Legislature:
Chairman of the Parliament Petru LUCINSCHI (since 4 February 1993); Prime
Minister Andrei SANGHELI (since 1 July 1992)
Member of:
BSEC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Permanent Representative to the UN Tudor PANTIRU (also acts as
representative to US)
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON
embassy:
Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
7-0422-23-37-72 or 23-34-94
FAX:
7-0422-23-34-94
Flag:
same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold
outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its
beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in
its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over
blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined
yellow

*Moldova, Economy

Overview:
Moldova, the next-to-smallest of the former Soviet republics in area, is the
most densely inhabited. Moldova has a little more than 1% of the population,
labor force, capital stock, and output of the former Soviet Union. Living
standards have been below average for the European USSR. The country enjoys
a favorable climate, and economic development has been primarily based on
agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Industry
accounts for 20% of the labor force, whereas agriculture employs more than
one-third. Moldova has no major mineral resources and has depended on other
former Soviet republics for coal, oil, gas, steel, most electronic
equipment, machine tools, and major consumer durables such as automobiles.
Its industrial and agricultural products, in turn, have been exported to the
other republics. Moldova has freed prices on most goods and has legalized
private ownership of property. Moldova's near-term economic prospects are
dimmed, however, by the difficulties of moving toward a market economy, the
political problems of redefining ties to the other former Soviet republics
and Romania, and the ongoing separatist movements in the Dniester and Gagauz
regions. In 1992, national output fell substantially for the second
consecutive year - down 22% in the industrial sector and 20% in agriculture.
The decline is mainly attributable to the drop in energy supplies.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-26% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.7% (includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
100 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals
(1991)
partners:
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania
Imports:
100 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer
durables
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania
External debt:
$100 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -22% (1992)
Electricity:
3,115,000 kW capacity; 11,100 million kWh produced, 2,491 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
key products (with share of total former Soviet output in parentheses where
known): agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and
freezers (2.7%), washing machines (5.0%), hosiery (2.0%), refined sugar
(3.1%), vegetable oil (3.7%), canned food (8.6%), shoes, textiles

*Moldova, Economy

Agriculture:
Moldova's principal economic activity; products (shown in share of total
output of the former Soviet republics): Grain (1.6%), sugar beets (2.6%),
sunflower seed (4.4%), vegetables (4.4%), fruits and berries (9.7%), grapes
(20.1%), meat (1.7%), milk (1.4%), eggs (1.4%)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and cannabis; mostly for CIS consumption;
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
IMF credit, $18.5 million (1992); EC agricultural credit, $30 million
(1992); US commitments, $10 million for grain (1992); World Bank credit, $31
million
Currency:
plans to introduce the Moldovan lei in 1993 or 1994, until then retaining
Russian ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Moldova, Communications

Railroads:
1,150 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
20,000 km total; 13,900 km hard-surfaced, 6,100 km earth (1990)
Pipelines:
natural gas 310 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
26
useable:
15
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
poorly supplied with telephones (as of 1991, 494,000 telephones total, with
a density of 111 lines per 1000 persons); 215,000 unsatisfied applications
for telephone installations (31 January 1990); connected to Ukraine by
landline and to countries beyond the former USSR through the international
gateway switch in Moscow

*Moldova, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defence Force, Security Forces (internal and
border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,082,562; fit for military service 859,948; reach military
age (18) annually 35,769 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Monaco, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, in southern France near the
border with Italy
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
1.9 km2
land area:
1.9 km2
comparative area:
about three times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 4.4 km, France 4.4 km
Coastline:
4.1 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
hilly, rugged, rocky
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
almost entirely urban
Note:
second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See)

*Monaco, People

Population:
31,008 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.93% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
10.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
10.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:
77.5 years
male:
73.7 years
female:
81.49 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s)
adjective:
Monacan or Monegasque
Ethnic divisions:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Monaco, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Monaco
conventional short form:
Monaco
local long form:
Principaute de Monaco
local short form:
Monaco
Digraph:
MN
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Monaco
Administrative divisions:
4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine,
Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence:
1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)
Constitution:
17 December 1962
Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 19 November
Political parties and leaders:
National and Democratic Union (UND); Democratic Union Movement (MUD); Monaco
Action; Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)
Suffrage:
25 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Council:
last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24 January 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) UND 18
Executive branch:
prince, minister of state, Council of Government (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council (Conseil National)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Prince RAINIER III (since NA November 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT
Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
Head of Government:
Minister of State Jacques DUPONT (since NA)
Member of:
ACCT, CSCE, IAEA, ICAO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
honorary consulates:
Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington
US diplomatic representation:
no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille, France, is
accredited to Monaco

*Monaco, Government

Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of
Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and
red

*Monaco, Economy

Overview:
Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort,
attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has
successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added,
nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes
and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established
residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices.
About 50% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels,
banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism.
Living standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to those in
prosperous French metropolitan suburbs.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $475 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$16,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues $424 million; expenditures $376 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs
union with France
Imports:
$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates
Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs
union with France
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
10,000 kW standby capacity (1992); power imported from France
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Monaco, Communications

Railroads:
1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
none; city streets
Ports:
Monaco
Merchant marine:
1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT
Airports:
1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways
Telecommunications:
served by cable into the French communications system; automatic telephone
system; 38,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; no
communication satellite earth stations

*Monaco, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Mongolia, Geography

Location:
East Central Asia, between China and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.565 million km2
land area:
1.565 million km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi
Desert in southeast
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc,
wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
79%
forest and woodland:
10%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
770 km2 (1989)
Environment:
harsh and rugged
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

*Mongolia, People

Population:
2,367,054 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.62% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.41 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.16 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
44.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.77 years
male:
63.53 years
female:
68.13 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.41 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mongolian(s)
adjective:
Mongolian
Ethnic divisions:
Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note:
previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime
Languages:
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
primarily herding/agricultural
note:
over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large
percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

*Mongolia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Mongolia
local long form:
none
local short form:
Mongol Uls
former:
Outer Mongolia
Digraph:
MG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Ulaanbaatar
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud,, singular - hot);
Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*,, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan,
Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd,, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov,
Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs, Independence:
13 March 1921 (from China)
Constitution:
adopted 13 January 1992
Legal system:
blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional
provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 11 July (1921)
Political parties and leaders:
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON,
presidium chairman; Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP), Erdenijiyn BAT-UUL,
general coordinator; National Progress Party (NPP), S. BYAMBAA and
Luusandambyn DASHNYAM, leaders; Social Democratic Party (SDP), BATBAYAR and
Tsohiogyyn ADYASUREN, leaders; Mongolian Independence Party (MIP), D.
ZORIGT, leader; United Party of Mongolia (made up of the MDP, SDP, and NPP);
Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP; merger of the MDP, United Party,
Renaissance Party, and PNP), D. GANBOLD
note:
opposition parties were legalized in May 1990; additional parties exist: The
Mongolian Green Party, The Buddhist Believers' Party, The Republican Party,
Mongolian People's Party, and United Herdsmen and Farmers Party (MHFUP),
Mongolian Bourgeois Party (BP), Mongolian Private Property Owners Party,
Mongolian Workers Party
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 3 September 1990 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results -
Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT elected by the People's Great Hural; other candidate
Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
State Great Hural:
first time held 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - MPRP 56.9%;
seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, MDP/PNP 3, SDP 1, independent 1
note:
the People's Small Hural no longer exists

*Mongolia, Government

Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, first deputy prime minister,
cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral State Great Hural
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts,
but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); Vice President
Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (since 7 September 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992); First Deputy Prime
Minister Puntsagiyn JASRAY (since NA)
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAGIV
chancery:
NA
telephone:
(301) 983-1962
FAX:
(301) 983-2025
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE
embassy:
address NA, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address:
Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region II, Big Rind Road;
PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone:
[976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX:
Telex 080079253 AMEMB MH
Flag:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on
the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a
columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun,
moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

*Mongolia, Economy

Overview:
Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of
unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity
traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock -
Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person in the world. In
recent years extensive mineral resources have been developed with Soviet
support. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin,
tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber
and fishing are also important sectors. In 1992 the Mongolian leadership
continued its struggle with severe economic dislocations, mainly
attributable to the crumbling of the USSR, by far Mongolia's leading trade
and development partner. Moscow cut almost all aid in 1991, and little was
provided in 1992. Industry in 1992 was hit hard by energy shortages, mainly
due to disruptions in coal production and shortfalls in petroleum imports.
By the end of the year, the country was perilously close to a complete
shutdown of its centralized energy supply system, due to critical coal
shortages. The government is moving away from the Soviet-style, centrally
planned economy through privatization and price reform.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
325% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991 est.)
Budget:
deficit of $67 million (1991)
Exports:
$347 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other
nonferrous metals
partners:
USSR 75%, China 10%, Japan 4%
Imports:
$501 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods,
chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners:
USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5%
External debt:
$16.8 billion (yearend 1990); 98.6% with USSR
Industrial production:
growth rate -15% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
1,248,000 kW capacity; 3,740 million kWh produced, 1,622 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of the
population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and goats, but
also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

*Mongolia, Economy

Economic aid:
about $300 million in trade credits and $34 million in grant aid from USSR
and other CEMA countries, plus $7.4 million from UNDP (1990); in 1991, $170
million in grants and technical assistance from Western donor countries,
including $30 million from World Bank and $30 million from the IMF; over
$200 million from donor countries projected in 1992
Currency:
1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos
Exchange rates:
tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 40 (1992), 7.1 (1991), 5.63 (1990), 3.00 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mongolia, Communications

Railroads:
1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1988)
Highways:
46,700 km total; 1,000 km hard surface; 45,700 km other surfaces (1988)
Inland waterways:
397 km of principal routes (1988)
Airports:
total:
81
usable:
31
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
fewer than 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
fewer than 20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
63,000 telephones (1989); broadcast stations - 12 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with 18
provincial repeaters); repeat of Russian TV; 120,000 TVs; 220,000 radios; at
least 1 earth station

*Mongolia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier
Guards), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 569,135; fit for military service 371,162; reach military
age (18) annually 25,406 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million of GDP, 1% of GDP (1992)

*Montserrat, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Montserrat, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 400 km southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
100 km2
land area:
100 km2
comparative area:
about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to severe hurricanes from June to November
Note:
located 400 km east southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

*Montserrat, People

Population:
12,661 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.36% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
16.35 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.77 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.76 years
male:
74 years
female:
77.56 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.11 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Montserratian(s)
adjective:
Montserratian
Ethnic divisions:
black, Europeans
Religions:
Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist,
other Christian denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
5,100
by occupation:
community, social, and personal services 40.5%, construction 13.5%, trade,
restaurants, and hotels 12.3%, manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 8.8%, other 14.4% (1983 est.)

*Montserrat, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Montserrat
Digraph:
MH
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Plymouth
Administrative divisions:
3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 January 1960
Legal system:
English common law and statute law
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday of June)
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party (NPP) Reuben T. MEADE; People's Liberation
Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National Development Party (NDP), Bertrand
OSBORNE; Independent (IND), Ruby BRAMBLE
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held on 8 October 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP 1, PLM 1, independent 1
Executive branch:
monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet), chief minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor David
TAYLOR (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since October 1991)
Member of:
CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, OECS, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat
of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a
black cross

*Montserrat, Economy

Overview:
The economy is small and open with economic activity centered on tourism and
construction. Tourism is the most important sector and accounts for roughly
one-fifth of GDP. Agriculture accounts for about 4% of GDP and industry 10%.
The economy is heavily dependent on imports, making it vulnerable to
fluctuations in world prices. Exports consist mainly of electronic parts
sold to the US.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $73 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
13.5% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,800 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $12.1 million; expenditures $14.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $3.2 million (1988)
Exports:
$1.6 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
electronic parts, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle
partners:
NA
Imports:
$31.0 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods,
fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$2.05 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.1% (1986); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
5,271 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced, 950 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism; light manufacturing - rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food crops - tomatoes, onions,
peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially livestock products
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $90
million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Montserrat, Communications

Highways:
280 km total; about 200 km paved, 80 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Plymouth
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways 1,036 m:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

*Montserrat, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Morocco, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea,
between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references: Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
446,550 km2
land area:
446,300 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total 2,002 km, Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km
Coastline:
1,835 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved; the UN
is attempting to hold a referendum; the UN-administered cease-fire has been
currently in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the
coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas
Climate:
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with rich coastal plains
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
28%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
41%
Irrigated land:
12,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes;
desertification
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

*Morocco, People

Population:
27,955,090 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.16% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
29.23 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.56 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
53.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.5 years
male:
65.7 years
female:
69.4 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.96 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Moroccan(s)
adjective:
Moroccan
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business,
government, and diplomacy
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
50%
male:
61%
female:
38%
Labor force:
7.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)

*Morocco, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form:
Al Maghrib
Digraph:
MO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Rabat
Administrative divisions:
37 provinces and 5 municipalities* (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Agadir, Al, Hoceima, Azilal,
Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen,, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er
Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Fes*, Figuig,, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga,
Laayoune, Larache,
Marrakech, Marrakech*, Meknes, Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda,, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat,,
Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate,
Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
Independence:
2 March 1956 (from France)
Constitution:
10 March 1972, revised in September 1992
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
National holiday:
National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King Hassan II's accession to
the throne)
Political parties and leaders:
Morocco has 15 political parties; the major ones are Constitutional Union
(UC), Maati BOUABID; National Assembly of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
Popular Movement (MP), Mohamed LAENSER; National Popular Movement (MPN),
Mahjoubi AHARDANE; Istiqlal, M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Socialist Union of Popular
Forces (USFP); National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI;
Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali YATA
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
Chamber of Representatives:
last held on 14 September 1984 (were scheduled for September 1990, but
postponed until June 1993 when 27 new seats will be added); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (306 total, 206 elected) UC 83, RNI 61,
MP 47, Istiqlal 41, USFP 36, PND 24, other 14
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mohamed KARIM-LAMRANI (since October 1992)

*Morocco, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS
(observer), NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed BELKHAYAT
chancery:
1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009;
telephone:
(202) 462-7979
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address:
P. O. Box 120, Rabat, or PSC 74, APO AE 09718
telephone:
[212] (7) 76-22-65
FAX:
[212] (7) 76-56-61
consulate general:
Casablanca
Flag:
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's
seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam

*Morocco, Economy

Overview:
The economy had recovered moderately in 1990 because of: the resolution of a
trade dispute with India over phosphoric acid sales, a rebound in textile
sales to the EC, lower prices for food imports, a sharp increase in worker
remittances, increased Arab donor aid, and generous debt rescheduling
agreements. Economic performance in 1991 was mixed. A record harvest helped
real GDP advance by 4.2%. Inflation accelerated slightly as easier financial
policies triggered rapid credit and monetary growth. Despite recovery of
domestic demand, import volume growth slowed while export volume was
adversely affected by phosphate marketing difficulties. In January 1992,
Morocco reached a new 12-month standby arrangement for $129 million with the
IMF. In February 1992, the Paris Club rescheduled $1.4 billion of Morocco's
commercial debt. This is thought to be Morocco's last rescheduling. By 1993
the Moroccan authorities hope to be in a position to meet all debt service
obligations without additional rescheduling. Servicing this large debt, high
unemployment, and Morocco's vulnerability to external economic forces remain
severe long-term problems. In 1992 Morocco embarked on a program to
privatize 112 state-owned companies. A severe winter drought in 1991/92 cut
back agricultural output in 1992.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $28.1 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,060 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
19% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $7.5 billion; expenditures $7.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.9 billion (1992)
Exports:
$4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%,
phosphates 17%
partners:
EC 58%, India 7%, Japan 5%, former USSR 3%, US 2%
Imports:
$7.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and
lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9%
partners:
EC 53%, US 11%, Canada 4%, Iraq 3%, former USSR 3%, Japan 2%
External debt:
$20 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.4%; accounts for 27% of GDP (1990)
Electricity:
2,384,000 kW capacity; 8,864 million kWh produced, 317 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods,
textiles, construction, tourism

*Morocco, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP, 50% of employment, and 30% of export value; not
self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising predominate;
barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; fish catch of 491,000
metric tons in 1987
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic
and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to
Western Europe; occasional transit point for cocaine from South America
destined for Western Europe.
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion and an additional
$123.6 million for 1992; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $7.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.5 billion; $2.8 billion debt
canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby agreement worth $13 million;
World Bank, $450 million (1991)
Currency:
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.207 (February 1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707
(1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Morocco, Communications

Railroads:
1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974 km
electrified)
Highways:
59,198 km total; 27,740 km paved, 31,458 km gravel, crushed stone, improved
earth, and unimproved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km; natural gas 241 km
Ports:
Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Safi,
Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Merchant marine:
50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 305,758 GRT/484,825 DWT; 10 cargo, 2
container, 11 refrigerated cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 4 oil tanker, 11
chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 2 short-sea passenger
Airports:
total:
73
usable:
65
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
good system composed of wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links;
principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers are Fes,
Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones (10.5 telephones
per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations - 20 AM, 7 FM, 26 TV and 26
repeaters; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and
Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave to Algeria; microwave radio
relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and
Morocco

*Morocco, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force, Royal
Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,852,698; fit for military service 4,355,670; reach
military age (18) annually 309,666 (1993 est.); limited conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3.8% of GDP (1993 budget)

*Mozambique, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa and
Tanzania opposite the island of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
801,590 km2
land area:
784,090 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km,
Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest,
mountains in west
Natural resources:
coal, titanium
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
56%
forest and woodland: 20%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
1,150 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
severe drought and floods occur in south; desertification

*Mozambique, People

Population:
16,341,777 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
6.06% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.35 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
31.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
131.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.03 years
male:
46.22 years
female:
49.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.31 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mozambican(s)
adjective:
Mozambican
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous tribal groups, Europeans about 10,000, Euro-Africans 35,000,
Indians 15,000
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
33%
male:
45%
female:
21%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation: 90% engaged in agriculture

*Mozambique, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form:
Mozambique
local long form:
Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form:
Mocambique
Digraph:
MZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Maputo
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza,
Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
30 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO,
chairman; formerly a Marxist organization with close ties to the USSR;
FRELIMO was the only legal party before 30 November 1990, when the new
Constitution went into effect establishing a multiparty system
note:
the government plans multiparty elections as early as 1993; 14 parties,
including the Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO), the Mozambique
National Union (UNAMO), the Mozambique National Movement (MONAMO), and the
Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO, Alfonso DHLAKAMA, president), have
already emerged
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
draft electoral law provides for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly
elections
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

*Mozambique, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hipolito PATRICIO
chancery:
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 293-7146
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Townsend B. FRIEDMAN, Jr.
embassy:
Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo
mailing address:
P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone:
[258] (1) 49-27-97, 49-01-67, 49-03-50
FAX:
[258] (1) 49-01-14
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in
white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a
crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

*Mozambique, Economy

Overview:
One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit the
economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and
transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and
investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of
internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing
foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic
reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic growth in the late
1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989. Agricultural output,
nevertheless, is at about only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be
imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy depends
heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. The continuation of civil
strife has dimmed chances of foreign investment, and growth was a mere 0.3%
in 1992. Living standards, already abysmally low, fell further in 1991-92.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.75 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$115 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
50% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $252 million; expenditures $607 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$162 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
partners:
US, Western Europe, Germany, Japan
Imports:
$899 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners:
US, Western Europe, USSR
External debt:
$5.4 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5% (1989 est.)
Electricity:
2,270,000 kW capacity; 1,745 million kWh produced, 115 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products,
textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbestos), tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash crops - cotton,
cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops - cassava, corn, rice,
tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $890
million
Currency:
1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

*Mozambique, Economy

Exchange rates:
meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 2,74.15 (January 1993), 2,433.34 (1992), 1,434.47
(1991), 929.00 (1990), 800.00 (1989), 528.60 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mozambique, Communications

Railroads:
3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge;
Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are subject to
closure because of insurgency
Highways:
26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed stone, stabilized
soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
about 3,750 km of navigable routes
Pipelines:
crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km
Ports:
Maputo, Beira, Nacala
Merchant marine:
4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,686 GRT/9,742 DWT
Airports:
total:
194
usable:
131
with permanent-surface runways:
25
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
26
Telecommunications:
fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay; broadcast
stations - 29 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
3 domestic Indian Ocean INTELSAT

*Mozambique, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,675,189; fit for military service 2,110,489 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $118 million, 8% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Namibia, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Angola and South
Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
824,290 km2
land area:
823,290 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 3,935 km, Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 966 km,
Zambia 233 km
Coastline:
1,489 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; disputed island with
Botswana in the Chobe River; quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
is in disagreement; claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands
administered by South Africa; Namibia and South Africa have agreed to
jointly administer the area for an interim period; the terms and dates to be
covered by joint administration arrangements have not been established at
this time, and Namibia will continue to maintain a claim to sovereignty over
the entire area; recent dispute with Botswana over uninhabited Kasikili
(Sidudu) Island in the Linyanti River
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain:
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt,
vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural gas, coal,
iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
64%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
40 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
inhospitable with very limited natural water resources; desertification
Note:
Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

*Namibia, People

Population:
1,541,321 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.13 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
63.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
61.2 years
male:
58.57 years
female:
63.91 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.46 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Namibian(s)
adjective:
Namibian
Ethnic divisions:
black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
note:
about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the
Kavangos tribe
Religions:
Christian
Languages:
English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population
and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
total population:
38%
male:
45%
female:
31%
Labor force:
500,000
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services 8%, government 7%,
mining 6% (1981 est.)

*Namibia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Namibia
conventional short form:
Namibia
Digraph:
WA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Windhoek
Administrative divisions:
13 districts; Erango, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Liambezi, Ohanguena,
Okarango, Omaheke, Omusat, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa
note:
the 26 districts were Bethanien, Boesmanland, Caprivi Oos, Damaraland,
Gobabis, Grootfontein, Hereroland Oos, Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg,
Karibib, Kavango, Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland,
Okahandja, Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund,
Tsumeb, Windhoek
Independence:
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
Constitution:
ratified 9 February 1990
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; DTA of Namibia
(DTA; formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia), Dirk MUDGE; United
Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB; Action Christian National (ACN),
Kosie PRETORIUS; National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA; Federal
Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans DIERGAARDT; Namibia National Front (NNF),
Vekuii RUKORO
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 16 February 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results - Sam
NUJOMA was elected president by the Constituent Assembly (now the National
Assembly)
National Assembly:
last held on 7-11 November 1989 (next to be held by November 1994); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4,
ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1
National Council:
last held 30 November-3 December 1992 (next to be held by December 1998);
seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature consists of an upper house or National Council and a
lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Namibia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990)
Member of:
ACP, C, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH
chancery:
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009 (mailing address is PO Box
34738, Washington, DC 20043)
telephone:
(202) 986-0540
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Marshall MCCAULEY
embassy:
Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
mailing address:
P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek 9000
telephone:
[264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680
FAX:
[264] (61) 229-792
Flag:
a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section,
and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the
triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow
white-edge borders

*Namibia, Economy

Overview:
The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to extract and
process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP. Namibia
is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's
fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond deposits are among the
richest in the world, making Namibia a primary source for gem-quality
diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver,
and tungsten. More than half the population depends on agriculture (largely
subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood.

National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1992) in urban area
Unemployment rate:
25-35% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $864 million; expenditures $1,112 million, including capital
expenditures of $144 million (FY 92)
Exports:
$1.184 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, processed fish, karakul
skins
partners:
Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, Japan
Imports:
$1.238 billion (f.o.b., 1991)

*Namibia, Economy

commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment
partners:
South Africa, Germany, US, Switzerland
External debt:
about $220 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1991); accounts for 35% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
490,000 kW capacity; 1,290 million kWh produced, 850 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper, lead, zinc,
diamond, uranium)
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising major
source of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch
potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled, 1988 catch
reaching only 384,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$47.2 million
Currency:
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.1576 (May 1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653
(1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Namibia, Communications

Railroads:
2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km earth roads and tracks
Ports:
Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South Africa)
Airports:
total:
137
usable:
112
with permanent-surface runways:
21
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
62
Telecommunications:
good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects major towns, wires
extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones; broadcast stations -
4 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

*Namibia, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense Force (Army), Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 324,599; fit for military service 192,381 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY92)

*Nauru, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 500 km north-northeast of Papua New Guinea
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World

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