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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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with runways over 3,659m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 570 lines (Majuro) and 186 (Ebeye); telex services;
islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government
purposes); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite communications system
on Kwajalein

*Marshall Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Martinique, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

*Martinique, Geography

Location:
in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
1,100 km2
land area:
1,060 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
290 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Natural resources:
coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
26%
Irrigated land:
60 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that result in an
average of one major natural disaster every five years

*Martinique, People

Population:
387,656 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.21% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.07 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.82 years
male:
74.68 years
female:
81.01 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective:
Martiniquais
Ethnic divisions:
African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture 90%, Caucasian 5%, East Indian,
Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
French, Creole patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
93%
male:
92%
female:
93%
Labor force:
100,000
by occupation:
service industry 31.7%, construction and public works 29.4%, agriculture
13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%, other 16.3%

*Martinique, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Martinique
conventional short form:
Martinique
local long form:
Departement de la Martinique
local short form:
Martinique
Digraph:
MB
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Fort-de-France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union for a Martinique of Progress (UMP);
Martinique Progressive Party (PPM); Socialist Federation of Martinique
(FSM); Martinique Communist Party (PCM); Martinique Patriots (PM); Union for
French Democracy (UDF)
Other political or pressure groups:
Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution
Group (GRS); Martinique Independence Movement (MIM); Caribbean Revolutionary
Alliance (ARC); Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc PULVAR;
Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1
French National Assembly:
last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1
General Council:
last held in 25 September and 8 October 1988 (next to be held by NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) number of seats by
party NA; note - a leftist coalition obtained a one-seat margin
Regional Assembly:
last held on NA March 1992 (next to be held by March 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) UMP 16
Executive branch:
government commissioner
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Martinique, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE (since 5 May 1989); President of
the General Council Emile MAURICE (since NA 1988)
Member of:
FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an overseas department of France, Martiniquais interests are represented
in the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General Raymond G. ROBINSON
embassy:
Consulate General at 14 Rue Blenac, Fort-de-France
mailing address:
B. P. 561, Fort-de-France 97206
telephone: [596] 63-13-03
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*Martinique, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light industry.
Agriculture accounts for about 10% of GDP and the small industrial sector
for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used
for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to
France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be
imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the
work force is employed in the service sector and in administration. Banana
workers launched protests late in 1992 because of falling banana prices and
fears of greater competition in the European market from other producers.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1988)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.9% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
32.1% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $268 million; expenditures $268 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$196 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners:
France 65%, Guadeloupe 24%, Germany (1987)
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles,
clothing and other consumer goods
partners:
France 65%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1987)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
113,100 kW capacity; 588 million kWh produced, 1,580 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 12% of GDP; principal
crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, sugarcane for
rum; dependent on imported food, particularly meat and vegetables
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$10.1 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)

*Martinique, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Martinique, Communications

Highways:
1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Fort-de-France
Airports:
total:
2
useable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones; interisland microwave
radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Martinique, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Mauritania, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the North Atlantic Ocean, between Western Sahara and
Senegal
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,030,700 km2
land area:
1,030,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 5,074 km, Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western
Sahara 1,561 km
Coastline:
754 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary with Senegal
Climate:
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Natural resources:
iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
38%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
120 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April;
desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

*Mauritania, People

Population:
2,124,792 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.14% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
47.97 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.54 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
87 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.59 years
male:
44.81 years
female:
50.48 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.05 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mauritanian(s)
adjective:
Mauritanian
Ethnic divisions:
mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%
Religions:
Muslim 100%
Languages:
Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official)
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
34%
male:
47%
female:
21%
Labor force:
465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation:
agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government 10%
note:
53% of population of working age (1985)

*Mauritania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form:
Mauritania local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form:
Muritaniyah
Digraph:
MR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Nouakchott
Administrative divisions:
12 regions(regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet
Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri,
Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note:
there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott
Independence:
28 November 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
12 July 1991
Legal system:
three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special courts, state security
courts (in the process of being eliminated)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 November (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however, politics continue to
be tribally based; emerging parties include Democratic and Social Republican
Party (PRDS), led by President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of
Democratic Forces - New Era (UFD/NE), headed by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly
for Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and
Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party for
Renewal (PMR), Hameida BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party (PAN), Khattry
Ould JIDDOU; Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center (PCDM), Bamba Ould
SIDI BADI
Other political or pressure groups:
Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held January 1992 (next to be held January 1998); results - President
Col. Maaouya Ould Sid 'Ahmed TAYA elected
Senate:
last held 3 and 10 April 1992 (one-third of the seats up for re-election in
1994)
National Assembly:
last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held March 1997)
Executive branch:
president
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature consists of an upper house or Senate (Majlis
al-Shuyukh) and a lower house or National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani)

*Mauritania, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, CEAO,
ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed Fall OULD AININA
chancery:
2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-5700
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gordon S. BROWN
embassy:
address NA, Nouakchott
mailing address:
B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone:
[222] (2) 526-60 or 526-63
FAX:
[222] (2) 525-89
Flag:
green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent;
the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green
are traditional symbols of Islam

*Mauritania, Economy

Overview:
A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for
a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers
were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50%
of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led
to cutbacks in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest
fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens
this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near
Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, the droughts, the endemic conflict with
Senegal, rising energy costs, and economic mismanagement have resulted in a
substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has begun the second
stage of an economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the
IMF, and major donor countries. But the reform process suffered a major
setback following the Gulf war of early 1991. Because of Mauritania's
support of SADDAM Husayn, bilateral aid from its two top donors, Saudi
Arabia and Kuwait, was suspended, and multilateral aid was reduced.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$555 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.2% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $280 million; expenditures $346 million, including capital
expenditures of $61 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$447 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
iron ore, processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic and gypsum; unrecorded
but numerically significant cattle exports to Senegal
partners:
EC 43%, Japan 27%, USSR 11%, Cote d'Ivoire 3%
Imports:
$385 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods
partners:
EC 60%, Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts for almost 33% of GDP
Electricity:
190,000 kW capacity; 135 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence farming and
nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river valley; crops -
dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products number-one export; large
food deficit in years of drought

*Mauritania, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.3 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $277
million; Arab Development Bank (1991), $20 million
Currency:
1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums
Exchange rates:
ouguiya (UM) per US$1 - 116.990 (February 1993), 87.082 (1992), 81.946
(1991), 80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mauritania, Communications

Railroads:
690 km 1.435-meter (standard) gauge, single track, owned and operated by
government mining company
Highways:
7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed stone, or otherwise
improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks
Inland waterways:
mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River
Ports:
Nouadhibou, Nouakchott
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT
Airports:
total:
29
usable:
29
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links,
and radio communications stations (improvements being made); broadcast
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with six planned

*Mauritania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National
Police, Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 452,008; fit for military service 220,717 (1993 est.);
conscription law not implemented
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 4.2% of GDP (1989)

*Mauritius, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 900 km east of Madagascar
Map references: Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,860 km2
land area:
1,850 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and
Rodrigues
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
177 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims UK-administered Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island
Climate:
tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to
November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Terrain:
small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central
plateau
Natural resources:
arable land, fish
Land use:
arable land:
54%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
170 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by
reefs

*Mauritius, People

Population:
1,106,516 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.67 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.24 years
male:
66.34 years
female:
74.3 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.23 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mauritian(s)
adjective:
Mauritian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Religions:
Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%), Muslim
16.6%, other 3.1%
Languages:
English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori
Literacy:
age 13 and over can read and write (1962)
total population:
61%
male:
72%
female:
50%
Labor force:
335,000
by occupation:
government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%, manufacturing 22%,
other 22%
note:
43% of population of working age (1985)

*Mauritius, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form:
Mauritius
Digraph:
MP
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Port Louis
Administrative divisions:
9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados, Carajos*, Flacq,
Grand, Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port
Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne, Independence:
12 March 1968 (from UK)
Constitution:
12 March 1968
Legal system:
based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in
certain areas
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 March (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
government coalition:
Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. JUGNAUTH
Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Paul BERENGER; Organization of the People
of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR; Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil
BAICHOO
opposition:
Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN
Socialist Workers Front, Sylvio MICHEL; Mauritian Social Democratic Party
(PMSD), X. DUVAL
Other political or pressure groups:
various labor unions
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be held by 15 September 1996);
results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%; seats - (70 total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM
alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26, OPR 2, MTD 2); MLP/PMSD 3
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992); Vice President Robin Dranooth
GHURBURRON (since 1 July 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June 1982); Deputy Prime
Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September 1990)

*Mauritius, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING
chancery:
Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 244-1491 or 1492
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador vacant
embassy:
4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address:
4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
telephone:
[230] 208-9763 through 208-9767
FAX:
[230] 208-9534
Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

*Mauritius, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles), and tourism.
Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for
40% of export earnings. The government's development strategy is centered on
industrialization (with a view to exports), agricultural diversification,
and tourism. Economic performance in FY91 was impressive, with 6% real
growth and low unemployment.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (FY91 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.1% (FY91 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,300 (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $557 million; expenditures $607 million, including capital
expenditures of $111 million (FY90)
Exports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%
partners:
EC and US have preferential treatment, EC 77%, US 15%
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum
products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners:
EC, US, South Africa, Japan
External debt:
$869 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
235,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced, 570 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel,
chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in sugarcane; other
products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats, fish; net
food importer, especially rice and fish
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76 million; Western (non-US)
countries (1970-89), $709 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $54
million
Currency:
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 16.982 (January 1993), 15.563 (1992),
15.652 (1991), 14.839 (1990), 15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988)

*Mauritius, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Mauritius, Communications

Highways:
1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth
Ports:
Port Louis
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 103,328 GRT/163,142 DWT; includes 3
cargo, 1 liquefied gas, 3 bulk
Airports: total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
small system with good service utilizing primarily microwave radio relay;
new microwave link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several
countries; over 48,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Mauritius, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Police Force (including the paramilitary Special Mobile Force
(SMF), Special Support Units (SSU), and National Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 312,056; fit for military service 159,408 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5 million, 0.2% of GDP (FY89)

*Mayotte, Header

Affiliation:
(territorial collectivity of France)

*Mayotte, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the northern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
375 km2
land area:
375 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline: 185.2 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Comoros
Climate:
tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon
(November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Terrain:
generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to cyclones during rainy season
Note:
part of Comoro Archipelago

*Mayotte, People

Population:
89,983 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.8% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
49.22 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.22 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
81.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.35 years
male:
55.23 years
female:
59.55 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.84 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mahorais (singular and plural)
adjective:
Mahoran
Ethnic divisions:
NA
Religions:
Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French
Literacy:
total population:
NA
male:
NA
female:
NA
Labor force:
NA

*Mayotte, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
conventional short form:
Mayotte
Digraph:
MF
Type:
territorial collectivity of France
Capital:
Mamoutzou
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the Mahoran
Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for the Republic
(RMPR), Mansour KAMARDINE; Union of the Center (UDC)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
General Council: last held March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (17 total) MPM 12, RPR 5
French Senate:
last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MPM 1
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) UDC 1
Executive branch:
government commissioner
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council (Conseil General)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner, Representative of the French Government Jean-Paul COSTE (since
NA 1991); President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since NA 1976)
Member of:
FZ
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a territorial collectivity of France, Mahoran interests are represented
in the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*Mayotte, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector, including
fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient and must
import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly from France. The
economy and future development of the island are heavily dependent on French
financial assistance.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1985)
Exports:
$4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
ylang-ylang, vanilla
partners: France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%
Imports:
$21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities:
building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour
partners:
France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita
Industries:
newly created lobster and shrimp industry
Agriculture:
most important sector; provides all export earnings; crops - vanilla,
ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food needs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$402 million
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mayotte, Communications

Highways:
42 km total; 18 km bituminous
Ports:
Dzaoudzi
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanet-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
small system administered by French Department of Posts and
Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links to Comoros and international communications; 450
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Mayotte, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Mexico, Geography

Location:
Central America, between Guatemala and the US
Map references:
North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,972,550 km2
land area:
1,923,040 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,538 km, Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km
Coastline:
9,330 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the natural prolongation of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Clipperton Island (French possession)
Climate:
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain:
high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert
Natural resources:
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
39%
forest and woodland:
24%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
51,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in
the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north,
inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast;
deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in
Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border
Note:
strategic location on southern border of US

*Mexico, People

Population:
90,419,606 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.97% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
27.67 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.82 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.55 years
male:
68.99 years
female:
76.3 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.25 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mexican(s)
adjective:
Mexican
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%,
Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%
Languages:
Spanish, various Mayan dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
87%
male:
90%
female:
85%
Labor force:
26.2 million (1990)
by occupation:
services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing 28%, commerce
14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%, transportation 4.7%, mining
and quarrying 1.5%

*Mexico, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
United Mexican States
conventional short form:
Mexico
local long form:
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form:
Mexico
Digraph:
MX
Type:
federal republic operating under a centralized government
Capital:
Mexico
Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito, federal);
Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche,
Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango,, Guanajuato, Guerrero,
Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit,
Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi,
Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence:
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
5 February 1917
Legal system:
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
(recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Fernando Ortiz
Arana; National Action Party (PAN), Carlos CASTILLO; Popular Socialist Party
(PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD),
Roberto ROBLES Garnica; Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction
Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes; Authentic Party of the Mexican
Revolution (PARM), Carlos Enrique CANTU Rosas; Democratic Forum Party (PFD),
Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican Ecologist Party (PEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres
Other political or pressure groups:
Roman Catholic Church; Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM); Confederation
of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of National Chambers of
Commerce (CONCANACO); National Peasant Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary
Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants
(CROC); Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM); Confederation of
Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX); National Chamber of
Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA); Coordinator for Foreign Trade
Business Organizations (COECE); Federation of Unions Provding Goods and
Services (FESEBES)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Elections:
President:
last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held August 1994); results - Carlos
SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%,
Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note - several of the smaller
parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National
Democratic Front (FDN)

*Mexico, Government

Senate:
last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held midyear 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate - (64 total) PRI 62, PRD
1, PAN 1
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 18 August 1991 (next to be held midyear 1994); results - PRI
53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%; seats -
(500 total) PRI 320, PAN 89, PRD 41, PFCRN 23, PARM 15, PPS 12
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (since 1 December 1988)
Member of:
AG (observer), CARICOM (observer), CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-6,
G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jorge MONTANO Martinez
chancery:
1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 728-1600
consulates general:
Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
consulates:
Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico
(California), Corpus Christi, Detroit, Fresno (California), Miami, Nogales
(Arizona), Philadelphia, Phoenix, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, Seattle
US diplomatic representation: chief of mission:
Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.
embassy:
Paseo de la Reforma 305, 06500 Mexico, D.F.
mailing address:
P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone:
[52] (5) 211-0042
FAX:
[52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373
consulates general:
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulates:
Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, Nuevo Laredo
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat
of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered
in the white band

*Mexico, Economy

Overview:
Mexico's economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial facilities (notably
oil), private manufacturing and services, and both large-scale and
traditional agriculture. In the 1980s, Mexico experienced severe economic
difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts as world petroleum
prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic food supply;
and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate became more acute.
Growth in national output, however, has recovered, rising from 1.4% in 1988
to 4% in 1990 and 3.6% in 1991 and coming in at 2.6% in 1992. The US is
Mexico's major trading partner, accounting for almost three-quarters of its
exports and imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and tourism are
the largest earners of foreign exchange. The government, in consultation
with international economic agencies, has been implementing programs to
stabilize the economy and foster growth. For example, it has privatized more
than two-thirds of its state-owned companies (parastatals), including banks.
In 1991-92 the government conducted negotiations with the US and Canada on a
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was still being discussed
by the three countries in early 1993. In January 1993, Mexico replaced its
old peso with a new peso, at the rate of 1,000 old to 1 new peso.
Notwithstanding the palpable improvements in economic performance in the
early 1990s, Mexico faces substantial problems for the remainder of the
decade - e.g., rapid population growth, unemployment, and serious pollution,
particularly in Mexico City.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $328 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.6% (1992)
National product per capita:
$3,600 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.9% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
14%-17% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $58.9 billion; expenditures $48.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $6.5 billion (1991); figures do not include state-owned
companies
Exports:
$27.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, motor vehicles, cotton,
consumer electronics
partners:
US 74%, Japan 8%, EC 4% (1992 est.)
Imports:
$48.1 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery,
electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor
vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners:
US 74%, Japan, 11%, EC 6% (1992)
External debt:
$104 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.5% (1991 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP
Electricity:
27,000,000 kW capacity; 120,725 million kWh produced, 1,300 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Mexico, Economy

Industries:
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining,
textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of small
farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat, rice, beans;
cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish catch of 1.4 million
metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of active
government eradication program; major supplier to the US market; continues
as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.7 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million
Currency:
1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 3.100 (January 1993), 3,198
(November 1992), 3,018.4 (1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989), 2,273.1
(1988); note - the new pesos replaced the old pesos on 1 January 1993; 1 new
pesos = 1,000 old pesos
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mexico, Communications

Railroads:
24,500 km total
Highways:
212,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or cobblestone,
62,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under construction, 55,000
km unimproved earth roads
Inland waterways:
2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals
Pipelines:
crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km;
petrochemical 1,400 km
Ports:
Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan,
Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Tuxpan, Veracruz
Merchant marine:
58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 858,162 GRT/1,278,488 DWT; includes 4
short-sea passenger, 2 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 31
oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 1 bulk, 5 container
Airports:
total:
1,841
usable:
1,478
with permanent-surface runways:
200
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
35
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
273
Telecommunications:
highly developed system with extensive microwave radio relay links;
privatized in December 1990; connected into Central America Microwave
System; 6,410,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22
shortwave; 120 domestic satellite terminals; earth stations - 4 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Mexico, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Defense (including Army and Air Force), Navy (including Marines)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 22,201,567; fit for military service 16,205,926; reach
military age (18) annually 1,049,729 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Geography

Location:
Oceania, in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between
Hawaii and Indonesia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
702 km2
land area:
702 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk), Yap, and Kosrae
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
6,112 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands;
located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe damage
Terrain:
islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral
atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk
Natural resources:
forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons from June to December; four major island groups totaling
607 islands

*Micronesia, Federated States of, People

Population:
117,588 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.37% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
28.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.46 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
37.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.45 years
male:
65.49 years
female:
69.44 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.04 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Micronesian(s)
adjective:
Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese
Ethnic divisions:
nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups
Religions:
Christian (divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant; other churches
include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist,
Latter-Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith)
Languages:
English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
85%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
two-thirds are government employees
note:
45,000 people are between the ages of 15 and 65

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form:
none
former:
Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)
Abbreviation:
FSM
Digraph:
FM
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of
Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986
Capital:
Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei)
note:
a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley
Administrative divisions:
4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap
Independence:
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)
Constitution:
10 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia, 10 May (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held ll May 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - President
Bailey OLTER elected president; Vice-President Jacob NENA
Congress:
last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (14 total)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Bailey OLTER (since 21 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA (since
21 May 1991)
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP, ICAO, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU
chancery:
1725 N St., NW, Washington, DC 20036

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Government

telephone:
(202) 223-4383
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL
embassy:
address NA, Kolonia
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941
telephone:
691-320-2187
FAX:
691-320-2186
Flag:
light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are
arranged in a diamond pattern

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The
islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade
phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness
of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development.
Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the
US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the l990s. Geographical
isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to
long-term growth.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $150 million (1989 est.)
note:
GNP numbers reflect US spending
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $165 million; expenditures $115 million, including capital
expenditures of $20 million (1988)
Exports:
$2.3 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
copra
partners:
NA
Imports:
$67.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
18,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced, 380 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls
Agriculture:
mainly a subsistence economy; black pepper; tropical fruits and vegetables,
coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide $1.3
billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Communications

Highways:
39 km of paved roads on major islands; also 187 km stone-, coral-, or
laterite-surfaced roads
Ports:
Colonia (Yap), Truk, Okat and Lelu (Kosrae)
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 960 telephone lines total at Kolonia and Truk; islands
interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government purposes);
16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987); broadcast stations - 5
AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Micronesia, Federated States of, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Midway Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Midway Islands, Geography

Location:
located in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,350 km west-northwest of Honolulu,
about one-third of the way between Honolulu and Tokyo
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
5.2 km2
land area:
5.2 km2
comparative area:
about nine times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Eastern Island and Sand Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
15 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth)
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds
Terrain:
low, nearly level
Natural resources:
fish, wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
0% permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
coral atoll
Note:
closed to the public

*Midway Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 453 US military personnel

*Midway Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Midway Islands
Digraph:
MQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy, under
command of the Barbers Point Naval Air Station in Hawaii and managed
cooperatively by the US Navy and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System;
legislation before Congress in 1990 proposed inclusion of territory within
the State of Hawaii
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Flag:
the US flag is used

*Midway Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on providing support services for US naval operations
located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by US Military

*Midway Islands, Communications

Highways:
32 km total
Pipelines:
7.8 km
Ports:
Sand Island
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

*Midway Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Moldova, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Ukraine and Romania
Map references:
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
33,700 km2
land area:
33,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii
Land boundaries:
total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
potential dispute with Ukraine over former southern Bessarabian areas;
northern Bukovina ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR
Climate:
mild winters, warm summers
Terrain:
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
50%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
41%
Irrigated land:
2,920 km2 (1990)
Environment:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as
DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive erosion from poor
farming methods
Note:
landlocked

*Moldova, People

Population:
4,455,645 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.4% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
16.15 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.01 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
30.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.92 years
male:
64.49 years
female:
71.53 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Moldovan(s)
adjective:
Moldovan
Ethnic divisions:
Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish
1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
note:
internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester region
and Gagauz Turks in the south
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members)
(1991)
note:
almost all churchgoers are ethnic Moldovan; the Slavic population are not
churchgoers
Languages:

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