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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
50%
other:
5%
Irrigated land:
200 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
landlocked

*Malawi, People

Population:
9,831,935 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
51.1 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
22.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-37.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
141.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.48 years
male:
39.61 years
female:
41.37 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.5 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malawian(s)
adjective:
Malawian
Ethnic divisions:
Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian,
European
Religions:
Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional indigenous
beliefs
Languages:
English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important
regionally
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population:
22%
male:
34%
female:
12%
Labor force:
428,000 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services 15%, commerce 9%,
construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other permanently employed 6%
(1986)

*Malawi, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Malawi
conventional short form:
Malawi
former:
Nyasaland
Digraph:
MI
Type:
one-party republic
note:
a referendum to determine whether Malawi should remain a one-party state is
scheduled to be held on 14 June 1993
Capital:
Lilongwe
Administrative divisions:
24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga,
Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza,
Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima,
Thyolo, Zomba
Independence:
6 July 1964 (from UK)
Constitution:
6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1964)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Wadson DELEZA, administrative
secretary; John TEMBO, treasurer general; top party position of secretary
general vacant since 1983
Other political or pressure groups:
Alliance for Democracy (AFORD), Chakufwa CHIHANA; United Democratic Front
(UDF) Bakili MULUZI; Malawi Democratic People (MDP), leader NA
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
President BANDA sworn in as President for Life on 6 July 1971
National Assembly:
last held 26-27 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1997); results - MCP is
the only party; seats - (141 total, 136 elected) MCP 141
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as
President for Life 6 July 1971)

*Malawi, Government

Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA
chancery:
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-1007
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael T. F. PISTOR
embassy:
address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe
mailing address:
P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe
telephone:
[265] 730-166
FAX:
[265] 732-282
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant,
rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of
Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed
on the hoist side of the black and red bands

*Malawi, Economy

Overview:
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The
economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population
living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export
revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved
significantly in 1988-91 as a result of good weather and a broadly based
economic adjustment effort by the government. Drought cut overall output
sharply in 1992. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic
assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.9 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-7.7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$200 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $398 million; expenditures $510 million, including capital
expenditures of $154 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$400 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners:
US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, Germany
Imports:
$660 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation
equipment
partners:
South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe
External debt:
$1.8 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.0% (1990 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1988)
Electricity:
190,000 kW capacity; 620 million kWh produced, 65 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer
goods
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, and
corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses; livestock -
cattle, goats
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,150 million
Currency:
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala
Exchange rates:
Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 4.3418 (November 1992), 2.8033 (1991),
2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Malawi, Communications

Railroads:
789 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km
Ports:
Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota - all on Lake Nyasa (Lake
Malawi)
Airports:
total:
47
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
10
Telecommunications:
fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio communications
stations; 42,250 telephones; broadcast stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT
Note:
a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the Beira,
Nacala, and Limgogo railroads, but now most go through South Africa because
of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

*Malawi, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including
paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), paramilitary Malawi Young Pioneers
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,059,509; fit for military service 1,048,986 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Malaysia, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Vietnam and Indonesia
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
329,750 km2
land area:
328,550 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Coastline:
4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South
China Sea
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by
the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that
divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two
islands in dispute with Indonesia
Climate:
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to
February) monsoons
Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Natural resources:
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
63%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
3,420 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to flooding; air and water pollution
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

*Malaysia, People

Population:
18,845,340 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
28.93 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
26.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
68.82 years
male:
65.96 years
female:
71.81 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malaysian(s)
adjective:
Malaysian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%
Religions:
Peninsular Malaysia:
Muslim (Malays)
Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians)
Sabah:
Muslim 38%
Christian 17%, other 45%
Sarawak:
tribal religion 35%
Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%
Languages:
Peninsular Malaysia:
Malay (official)
English, Chinese dialects, Tamil
State of Sabah:
English
Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects
predominate)
State of Sarawak:
English
Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages,
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
78%
male:
86%
female:
70%
Labor force:
7.258 million (1991 est.)

*Malaysia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Malaysia
former:
Malayan Union
Digraph:
MY
Type:
constitutional monarchy
note:
Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the paramount
ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states -
hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are appointed by
Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are limited
by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20 seats in
House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security,
and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing
state within Malaysia, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with
foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to
federal government
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions:
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories*, (wilayah-wilayah
persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah,
Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau, Pinang, Sabah,
Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*, Independence:
31 August 1957 (from UK)
Constitution:
31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 31 August (1957)
Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia:
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by United
Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad;
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat
Malaysia, Datuk LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk S.
Samy VELLU
Sabah:
Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohammed NOOR Mansor; Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph
Pairin KITINGAN; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), leader NA
Sarawak:
coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra
Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud; Sarawak United
People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai; Sarawak National
Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk
Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM
Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal

*Malaysia, Government

Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by August 1995); results -
National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP
20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO
got 71 seats and MCA 18 seats
Executive branch:
paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime minister, deputy prime
minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an upper house or Senate (Dewan
Negara) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State: Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan Yusof Izzudin (since 26
April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26
April 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime
Minister Abdul GHAFAR Bin Baba (since 7 May 1986)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Abdul MAJID Mohamed
chancery:
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-2700
consulates general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John S. WOLF
embassy:
376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address:
P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur
telephone:
[60] (3) 248-9011
FAX:
[60] (3) 242-2207
Flag:
fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white
(bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a
yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the
star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of
the US

*Malaysia, Economy

Overview:
The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly managed
public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 8%-9% average growth in
1987-92. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in poverty and
a marked rise in real wages. Despite sluggish growth in the major world
economies in 1992, demand for Malaysian goods remained strong and foreign
investors continued to commit large sums in the economy. The government is
aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and is closely
monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $54.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita: $2,960 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $18.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $4.5 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
$39.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and petroleum products, wood and
wood products, rubber, textiles
partners:
Singapore 23%, US 18.6%, Japan 13.2%, UK 4%, Germany 4%
Imports:
$39.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, petroleum products, chemicals, capital equipment
partners:
Japan 26%, US 15.8%, Singapore 15.7%, Taiwan 5.6%, Germany 4.2%
External debt:
$25.7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
8,000,000 kW capacity; 30,000 million kWh produced, 1,610 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
Peninsular Malaysia:
rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing
industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing
timber
Sabah:
logging, petroleum production
Sarawak:
agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP
Peninsular Malaysia:
natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah:
mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice

*Malaysia, Economy

Sarawak:
rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas; fish catch of 608,000
metric tons in 1987
Illicit drugs:
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe,
and the Third World
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.7 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million
Currency:
1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.6238 (January 1993), 2.5475 (1992), 2.7501
(1991), 1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989), 2.6188 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Malaysia, Communications

Railroads:
Peninsular Malaysia:
1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track, government owned
Sabah:
136 km 1.000-meter gauge
Sarawak:
none
Highways:
Peninsular Malaysia:
23,600 km; 19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly bituminous surface treatment, and
4,248 km unpaved
Sabah:
3,782 km
Sarawak:
1,644 km
Inland waterways:
Peninsular Malaysia:
3,209 km
Sabah:
1,569 km
Sarawak:
2,518 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km
Ports:
Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Kelang,
Sandakan, Tawau
Merchant marine:
184 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,869,817 GRT/2,786,765 DWT; includes
1 passenger-cargo, 2 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 28 container, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1 livestock carrier, 38 oil tanker, 6 chemical
tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 27 bulk
Airports:
total:
111
usable:
102
with permanent-surface runways:
32
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave
radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah
and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good; good coverage by radio
and television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones (1984); broadcast stations -
28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM
submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations -
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

*Malaysia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal
Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,837,256; fit for military service 2,941,577; reach
military age (21) annually 181,435 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, about 5% of GDP (1992)

*Maldives, Geography

Location:
South Asia, in the Indian Ocean off the southwest coast of India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
300 km2
land area:
300 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
644 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
35-310 nm as defined by geographic coordinates; segment of zone coincides
with maritime boundary with India
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy,
southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
84%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls
Note:
archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in
Indian Ocean

*Maldives, People

Population:
243,094 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.64% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
44.34 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
57.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.86 years
male:
62.5 years
female:
65.28 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.36 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Maldivian(s)
adjective:
Maldivian
Ethnic divisions:
Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African
Religions:
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic), English spoken by
most government officials
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population:
92%
male:
92%
female:
92%
Labor force:
66,000 (est.)
by occupation:
fishing industry 25%

*Maldives, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Maldives
conventional short form:
Maldives
Digraph:
MV
Type:
republic
Capital:
Male
Administrative divisions:
19 districts (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu,
Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa,
Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu
Independence:
26 July 1965 (from UK)
Constitution:
4 June 1964
Legal system:
based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in
commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Political parties and leaders:
no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for the
past eight centuries
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September 1993); results -
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected
Citizens' Council:
last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held 7 December 1994); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (48 total, 40 elected)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978)
Member of:
AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
Maldives does not maintain an embassy in the US, but does have a UN mission
in New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic
visits there
consular agency:
Midhath Hilmy, Male

*Maldives, Government

telephone:
2581
Flag:
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

*Maldives, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Agriculture is
limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide only 10%
of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing 25% of the
work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is also an important
source of government revenue. During the 1980s tourism became one of the
most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1988 industry
accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real GDP is officially estimated to have
increased by about 10% annually during the period 1974-90.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $140 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$620 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues $52 million (excluding foreign transfers); expenditures $83
million, including capital expenditures of $39 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$53.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fish, clothing
partners:
US, UK, Sri Lanka
Imports:
$150.9 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products
partners:
Singapore, Germany, Sri Lanka, India
External debt:
$90 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 24.0% (1990); accounts for 6% of GDP
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, some coconut
processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope), handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing more important
than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; most
staple foods must be imported; fish catch of 67,000 tons (1990 est.)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $125 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million
Currency:
1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris
Exchange rates:
rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 10.506 (January 1993), 10.569 (1992), 10.253 (1991),
9.509 (1990), 9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Maldives, Communications

Highways:
Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city
Ports:
Male, Gan
Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,848 GRT/58,496 DWT; includes 12
cargo, 1 container, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
2
useable:
2 with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
minimal domestic and international facilities; 2,804 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Maldives, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Security Service (paramilitary police force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 53,730; fit for military service 30,014 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Mali, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Mauritania and Niger
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.24 million km2
land area:
1.22 million km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote
d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger
Climate:
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild
June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south,
rugged hills in northeast
Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore,
manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
66%
Irrigated land:
50 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dust-laden harmattan; haze common during dry seasons; desertification
Note:
landlocked

*Mali, People

Population:
8,868,617 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.66% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
51.73 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
20.81 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
108 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.45 years
male:
43.89 years
female:
47.06 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malian(s)
adjective:
Malian
Ethnic divisions:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%,
Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages:
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
32%
male:
41%
female:
24%
Labor force:
2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)
note:
50% of population of working age (1985)

*Mali, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Mali
conventional short form:
Mali
local long form:
Republique de Mali
local short form:
Mali
former:
French Sudan
Digraph:
ML
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bamako
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti,
Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:
22 September 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
new constitution adopted in constitutional referendum in January 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniverary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy (Adema), Alpha Oumar KONARE; National Committee for
Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese Union/African
Democratic Rally (US/RAD), Baba Hakib HAIDARA and Treoule Mamadon KONATE;
Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa; Rally
for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for Democracy and
Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for Democracy and Labor
(RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress (UFDP), Col. Youssouf TRAORE;
Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE; Malian Union for
Democracy and Development (UMDD)
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held in April 1992; Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against
Montaga TALL
National Assembly:
last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (total 116) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement
for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3,
UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1
Executive branch:
Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP) composed of 25
members, predominantly civilian
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

*Mali, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Younoussi TOURE (since 8 June 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Siragatou Ibrahim CISSE
chancery:
2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-2249 or 939-8950
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Herbert Donald GELBER
embassy:
Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako
mailing address:
B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone:
[223] 225470
FAX:
[233] 228059
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Mali, Economy

Overview:
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of its land
area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the
riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population live as
nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and
fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities.
In consultation with international lending agencies, the government has
adopted a structural adjustment program for 1992-95, aiming at GDP annual
growth of 4.6%, inflation of no more than 2.5% on average, and a substantial
reduction in the external current account deficit.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.3 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-0.2% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$265 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $329 million; expenditures $519 million, including capital
expenditures of $178 (1989 est.)
Exports:
$320 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
Imports:
$390 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 15.0% (1990 est.); accounts for 10.0% of GDP
Electricity:
260,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold,
fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms;
cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops -
millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,020 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $190
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)

*Mali, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Mali, Communications

Railroads:
642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes
Highways:
about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km paved, 3,670 km gravel and improved earth,
10,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,815 km navigable
Airports:
total:
34
usable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
10
Telecommunications:
domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service with radio
relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of radio relay in
progress; 11,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT

*Mali, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police (Surete
Nationale)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,749,662; fit for military service 995,554 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)

*Malta, Geography

Location:
in the central Mediterranean Sea, 93 km south of Sicily (Italy), 290 km
north of Libya
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
320 km2
land area:
320 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
140 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
25 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Natural resources:
limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land:
38%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
59%
Irrigated land: 10 km2 (1989)
Environment:
numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very scarce; increasing
reliance on desalination
Note:
the country comprises an archipelago, with only the 3 largest islands
(Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited

*Malta, People

Population:
363,791 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.52 years
male:
74.32 years
female:
78.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.97 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Maltese
Ethnic divisions:
Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
Maltese (official), English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population:
84%
male:
86%
female:
82%
Labor force:
127,200
by occupation:
government (excluding job corps) 37%, services 26%, manufacturing 22%,
training programs 9%, construction 4%, agriculture 2% (1990)

*Malta, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Malta
conventional short form:
Malta
Digraph:
MT
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Valletta
Administrative divisions:
none (administration directly from Valletta)
Independence:
21 September 1964 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September
Political parties and leaders:
Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP), Alfred
SANT
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 22 February 1992 (next to be held by February 1997); results -
NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats - (usually 65 total) MLP 36, NP 29; note -
additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to
ensure a legislative majority; current total 69 (MLP 33, NP 36 after
adjustment)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy
Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987)
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Albert BORG OLIVIER DE PUGET
chancery:
2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-3611 or 3612
FAX:
(202) 387-5470

*Malta, Government

consulate:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta
mailing address:
P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone:
[356] 240424, 240425, 243216, 243217, 243653, 223654
FAX:
same as telephone numbers
Flag:
two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

*Malta, Economy

Overview:
Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location, and a
productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has
limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources.
Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and services.
Manufacturing and tourism are the largest contributors to the economy.
Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of GDP, with the electronics and
textile industries major contributors and the state-owned Malta drydocks
employing about 4,300 people. In 1991, about 900,000 tourists visited the
island. Per capita GDP at $7,600 places Malta in the middle-income range of
the world's nations.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.9% (1991)
National product per capita:
$7,600 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
3.6% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $161 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$l.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
clothing, textiles, footwear, ships
partners:
Italy 30%, Germany 22%, UK 11%
Imports:
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners:
Italy 30%, UK 16%, Germany 13%, US 4%
External debt:
$127 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 19.0% (1990); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced, 3,000 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction, food manufacturing,
textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of GDP and 2.5% of the work force (1992); overall, 20%
self-sufficient; main products - potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat,
barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs;
generally adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork products;
seasonal or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder, fruits, other basic
foodstuffs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $336 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $48
million
Currency:
1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

*Malta, Economy

Exchange rates:
Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3687 (January 1993), 0.3178 (1992), 0.3226
(1991), 0.3172 (1990), 0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Malta, Communications

Highways:
1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or gravel, 35
km improved and unimproved earth
Ports:
Valletta, Marsaxlokk
Merchant marine:
789 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,059,874 GRT/18,758,969 DWT;
includes 6 passenger, 17 short-sea passenger, 272 cargo, 26 container, 2
passenger-cargo, 20 roll-on/roll-off, 2 vehicle carrier, 3 barge carrier, 17
refrigerated cargo, 19 chemical tanker, 15 combination ore/oil, 3
specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 131 oil tanker, 223 bulk, 26
combination bulk, 3 multifunction large load carrier, 1 railcar carrier;
note - a flag of convenience registry; China owns 2 ships, Russia owns 52
ships, Cuba owns 10, Vietnam owns 6, Croatia owns 37, Romania owns 3
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
automatic system satisfies normal requirements; 153,000 telephones;
excellent service by broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, and 2 TV; submarine
cable and microwave radio relay between islands; international service by 1
submarine cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Malta, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 97,446; fit for military service 77,481 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Man, Isle of, Header

Affiliation:
(British crown dependency)

*Man, Isle of, Geography

Location:
in the Irish Sea, between Ireland and Great Britain
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
588 km2
land area:
588 km2
comparative area:
nearly 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
113 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
hills in north and south bisected by central valley
Natural resources:
lead, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (extensive arable land and forests)
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
strong westerly winds prevail
Note:
one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird
sanctuary

*Man, Isle of, People

Population:
71,263 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.57 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.87 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate: 9.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.98 years
male:
73.25 years
female:
78.92 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Manxman, Manxwoman
adjective:
Manx
Ethnic divisions:
Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of
Friends
Languages:
English, Manx Gaelic
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
25,864 (1981)
by occupation:
NA

*Man, Isle of, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Isle of Man
Digraph:
IM
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Douglas
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act
Legal system:
English law and local statute
National holiday:
Tynwald Day, 5 July
Political parties and leaders:
there is no party system and members sit as independents
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Keys:
last held in 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote NA;
no party system; seats - (24 total) independents 24
Executive branch:
British monarch, lieutenant governor, president, prime minister, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Tynwald consists of an upper house or Legislative Council and a
lower house or House of Keys
Judicial branch:
Court of Tynwald
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three
legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes
pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used

*Man, Isle of, Economy

Overview:
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy.
The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology companies
and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in expanding
employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture
and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their
shares of GNP. Banking now contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing
about 15%. Trade is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access
to European Community markets.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $490 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita: $7,500 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, meat
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
timber, fertilizers, fish
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced, 2,965 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
an important offshore financial center; financial services, light
manufacturing, tourism
Agriculture:
cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 Manx pound (#M) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Manx pounds (#M) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
(1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); the Manx pound is at
par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Man, Isle of, Communications

Railroads:
60 km; 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track
Highways:
640 km motorable roads
Ports:
Douglas, Ramsey, Peel
Merchant marine:
59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,363,502 GRT/2,363,502 DWT; includes
10 cargo, 6 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 14 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
4 liquefied gas, 12 bulk; note - a captive register of the United Kingdom,
although not all ships on the register are British owned
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
24,435 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

*Man, Isle of, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Marshall Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between
Hawaii and Papua New Guinea
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
181.3 km2
land area:
181.3 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note:
includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetok, and Kwajalein
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
370.4 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims US territory of Wake Island
Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Terrain:
low coral limestone and sand islands
Natural resources:
phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
60%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic island chains of 30
atolls and 1,152 islands
Note:
Bikini and Eniwetok are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous
World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

*Marshall Islands, People

Population:
51,982 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.87% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
46.65 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
50.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.79 years
male:
61.27 years
female:
64.38 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.99 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Marshallese
Ethnic divisions: Micronesian
Religions:
Christian (mostly Protestant)
Languages:
English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major
Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
93%
male:
100%
female:
88%
Labor force:
4,800 (1986)
by occupation:
NA

*Marshall Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form:
Marshall Islands
former:
Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Digraph:
RM
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of
Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986
Capital:
Majuro
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Constitution:
1 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties; President KABUA is chief political (and traditional)
leader
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 6 January 1992 (next to be held NA; results - President Amata
KABUA was reelected
Parliament:
last held 18 November 1991 (next to be held November 1995); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (33 total)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Nitijela (parliament)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Amata KABUA (since 1979)
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL
chancery:
2433 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-5414
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David C. FIELDS

*Marshall Islands, Government

embassy:
NA address, Majuro
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379
telephone:
(011) 692-4011
FAX:
(011) 692-4012
Flag:
blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange
(top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small
rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

*Marshall Islands, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural
production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial
crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle ranches
supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to
handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary
source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The
islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987
the US Government provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese
budget of $55 million.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $63 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $55 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1987 est.)
Exports:
$2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities:
copra, copra oil, agricultural products, handicrafts
partners:
NA
Imports:
$29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, building materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
42,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,840 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearls; offshore
banking (embryonic)
Agriculture:
coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to provide
approximately $40 million in aid annually
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Marshall Islands, Communications

Highways:
paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-,
or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks
Ports: Majuro
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,786,070 GRT/3,498,895 DWT; includes
2 cargo, 1 container, 9 oil tanker, 15 bulk carrier, 2 combination ore/oil;
note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
16
with permanent-surface runways:
4

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