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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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75%
female:
50%
Labor force:
1 million includes about 280,000 resident foreigners
by occupation:
industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%

*Libya, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form:
Libya
local long form:
Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishirakiyah
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LY
Type:
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace
through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Capital:
Tripoli
Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al
'Aziziyah,
Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al
Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan,
Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq,
Yafran, Zlitan
Independence:
24 December 1951 (from Italy)
Constitution:
11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Legal system:
based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious
courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
various Arab nationalist movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection
(Ba'th) party with almost negligible memberships may be functioning
clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples' committees
Executive branch:
revolutionary leader, chairman of the General People's Committee (premier),
General People's Committee (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral General People's Congress
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu'ammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September
1969)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abu Zayd 'umar DURDA
(since 7 October 1990)

*Libya, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

*Libya, Economy

Overview:
The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil
sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about
one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the highest in Africa at
$5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate sharply in response
to changes in the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient
resource allocations have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs,
although the reopening of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the
Libyan-Egyptian border in December 1989 have eased shortages. Austerity
budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's
ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development
projects. Windfall revenues from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990
improved the foreign payments position and resulted in a current account
surplus for the first time in five years. The nonoil manufacturing and
construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from
processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron,
steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it
employs about 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils
severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food
requirements.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $26.1 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.2% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $9.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)
Exports:
$9.71 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners:
Italy, former USSR, Germany, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey
Imports:
$8.66 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners:
Italy, former USSR, Germany, UK, Japan, Korea
External debt:
$3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10.5%; accounts for 7.6% of GDP (not including oil) (1990)
Electricity:
4,935,000 kW capacity; 14,385 million kWh produced, 2,952 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Agriculture:
5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits,
peanuts; 75% of food is imported

*Libya, Economy

Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$242 million; no longer a recipient
Currency:
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams
Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.2998 (January 1993), 0.3013 (1992), 0.2684
(1991), 0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Libya, Communications

Railroads:
Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous systems
having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a standard gauge
(1.435 m) line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and Misratah, then
inland to Sabha, center of a mineral rich area, but there has been no
progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would establish a rail line
from As Sallum, Egypt to Tobruk with completion set for mid-1994, progress
unknown
Highways:
19,300 km total; 10,800 km bituminous/bituminous treated, 8,500 km crushed
stone or earth
Inland waterways:
none
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; petroleum products 443 km
(includes liquified petroleum gas 256 km)
Ports:
Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf, Ra's al
Unif
Merchant marine:
32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 694,883 GRT/1,215,494 DWT; includes 4
short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off, 10 oil tanker, 1 chemical
tanker, 2 liquefied gas
Airports:
total:
138
usable:
124
with permanent-surface runways:
56
with runways over 3,659 m: 9
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
27
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
47
Telecommunications:
modern telecommunications system using radio relay, coaxial cable,
tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations; 370,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14 domestic; submarine
cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric
scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite stations

*Libya, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (including Army, Navy, Air and
Air Defense Command)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,058,134; fit for military service 628,285; reach military
age (17) annually 50,997 (1993 est.); conscription now being implemented
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, 15% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Liechtenstein, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
160 km2
land area:
160 km2
comparative area:
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
claims 620 square miles of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family
in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before
February 1948, when the Communists seized power
Climate:
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to
moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Natural resources:
hydroelectric potential
Land use:
arable land:
25%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
38%
forest and woodland:
19%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Note:
landlocked

*Liechtenstein, People

Population:
29,894 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.15 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.62 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.29 years
male:
73.65 years
female:
80.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective:
Liechtenstein
Ethnic divisions:
Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)
Languages:
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
19,905 of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and
Switzerland to work each day
by occupation:
industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services 45%, agriculture, fishing,
forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)

*Liechtenstein, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form:
Liechtenstein
local long form:
Furstentum Liechtenstein
local short form:
Liechtenstein
Digraph:
LS
Type:
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Vaduz
Administrative divisions:
11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin,
Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:
23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)
Constitution:
5 October 1921
Legal system:
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Assumption Day, 15 August
Political parties and leaders:
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP),
Emanuel VOGT; Free Electoral List (FL)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Diet:
last held on 7 February 1993 (next to be held by March 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) FBP 12, VU 11, FL 2
Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, head of government, deputy head of
government
Legislative branch:
unicameral Diet (Landtag)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases, Superior Court
(Obergericht) for civil cases
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26
August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11
June 1968)
Head of Government:
Markus BUECHEL (since 7 February 1993); Deputy Head of Government Dr.
Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)
Member of:
CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN,
UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the
Swiss Embassy

*Liechtenstein, Government

US diplomatic representation:
the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US
Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the
hoist side of the blue band

*Liechtenstein, Economy

Overview:
The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and
tourism. Industry accounts for 53% of total employment, the service sector
45% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 2%. The sale of
postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually. Low
business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules
have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to
establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated
solely for tax purposes, provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied
closely to Switzerland's economy in a customs union, and incomes and living
standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $630 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$22,300 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $259 million; expenditures $292 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$1.6 billion
commodities:
small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
partners:
EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), EC countries 42.7%, other 36.4%
(1990)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced, 5,230 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food
products, precision instruments, tourism
Agriculture:
livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.4781 (January 1993),
1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Liechtenstein, Communications

Railroads:
18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and
included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
Highways:
130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads
Airports:
none
Telecommunications:
limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay for international
telephone, radio, and TV services

*Liechtenstein, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is responsibility of Switzerland

*Lithuania, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
65,200 km2
land area:
65,200 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,273 km, Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline:
108 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over the position of the Neman
River border presently located on the Lithuanian bank and not in midriver as
by international standards
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Natural resources:
peat
Land use:
arable land:
49.1%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
22.2%
forest and woodland:
16.3%
other:
12.4%
Irrigated land:
430 km2 (1990)
Environment:
risk of accidents from the two Chernobyl-type reactors at the Ignalina
Nuclear Power Plant; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum
products and chemicals at military bases

*Lithuania, People

Population:
3,819,638 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.76% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.95 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.12 years
male:
66.39 years
female:
76.08 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.03 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lithuanian(s)
adjective:
Lithuanian
Ethnic divisions:
Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%, Belarusian 1.5%, other 2.1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Lutheran, other
Languages:
Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.836 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%
(1990)

*Lithuania, Government

Names: conventional long form:
Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form:
Lithuania
local long form:
Lietuvos Respublika
local short form:
Lietuva
former:
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
LH
Type:
republic
Capital:
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
NA districts
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party, Egidijus KLUMBYS, chairman; Democratic Labor
Party of Lithuania, Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman; Lithuanian
Democratic Party, Sauluis PECELIUNAS, chairman; Lithuanian Green Party,
Irena IGNATAVICIENE, chairwoman; Lithuanian Humanism Party, Vytautas
KAZLAUSKAS, chairman; Lithuanian Independence Party, Virgilijus CEPAITIS,
chairman; Lithuanian Liberty League, Antanas TERLECKAS; Lithuanian Liberal
Union, Vytautus RADZVILAS, chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union, Rimantas
SMETONA, chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party, Aloizas SAKALAS,
chairman; Union of the Motherland, Vytavtas LANDSBERGIS, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Sajudis; Lithuanian Future Forum; Farmers Union
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held NA); results - Algirdas
BRAZAUSKAS was elected
Seimas (parliament):
last held 26 October and 25 November 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
Democratic Labor Party 51%; seats - (141 total) Democratic Labor Party 73
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Seimas (parliament)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeals
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Seimas Chairman and Acting President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 15
November 1992); Deputy Seimas Chairmen Aloyzas SAKALAS (since NA December
1992) and Egidius BICKAUSKAS (since NA December 1992)

*Lithuania, Government

Head of Government:
Premier Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS (since NA)
Member of:
CBSS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NACC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Stasys LOZORAITIS, Jr.
chancery:
2622 16th St. NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-5860, 2639
FAX:
(202) 328-0466
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Darryl N. JOHNSON
embassy:
Akmenu 6, Vilnius 232600
mailing address:
APO AE 09723
telephone:
011 [7] (012-2) 222-031
FAX:
011 [7] (012-2) 222-779
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

*Lithuania, Economy

Overview:
Lithuania is striving to become an independent privatized economy. Although
it was substantially above average in living standards and technology in the
old USSR, Lithuania historically lagged behind Latvia and Estonia in
economic development. The country has no important natural resources aside
from its arable land and strategic location. Industry depends entirely on
imported materials that have come from the republics of the former USSR.
Lithuania benefits from its ice-free port at Klaipeda on the Baltic Sea and
its rail and highway hub at Vilnius, which provides land communication
between Eastern Europe and Russia, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus. Industry
produces a small assortment of high-quality products, ranging from complex
machine tools to sophisticated consumer electronics. Because of nuclear
power, Lithuania is presently self-sufficient in electricity, exporting its
surplus to Latvia and Belarus; the nuclear facilities inherited from the
USSR, however, have come under world scrutiny as seriously deficient in
safety standards. Agriculture is efficient compared with most of the former
Soviet Union. Lithuania held first place in per capita consumption of meat,
second place for eggs and potatoes, and fourth place for milk and dairy
products. Grain must be imported to support the meat and dairy industries.
Lithuania is pressing ahead with plans to privatize at least 60% of
state-owned property (industry, agriculture, and housing), having already
sold almost all housing and many small enterprises using a voucher system.
Other government priorities include encouraging foreign investment by
protecting the property rights of foreign firms and redirecting foreign
trade away from Eastern markets to the more competitive Western markets. For
the moment, Lithuania will remain highly dependent on Russia for energy, raw
materials, grains, and markets for its products. In 1992, output plummeted
by 30% because of cumulative problems with inputs and with markets, problems
that were accentuated by the phasing out of the Russian ruble as the medium
of exchange.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-30% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10%-20% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
1% (February 1993); but large numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $258.5 million; expenditures $270.2 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
electronics 18%, petroleum products 5%, food 10%, chemicals 6% (1989)
partners:
Russia 40%, Ukraine 16%, other former Soviet republics 32%, West 12%
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA% (1989)
partners:
Russia 62%, Belarus 18%, former Soviet republics 10%, West 10%
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -50% (1992 est.)

*Lithuania, Economy

Electricity:
5,925,000 kW capacity; 25,000 million kWh produced, 6,600 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
employs 25% of the labor force; shares in the total production of the former
USSR are: metal-cutting machine tools 6.6%; electric motors 4.6%; television
sets 6.2%; refrigerators and freezers 5.4%; other branches: petroleum
refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food
processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment,
electronic components, computers, and amber
Agriculture:
employs around 20% of labor force; sugar, grain, potatoes, sugarbeets,
vegetables, meat, milk, dairy products, eggs, fish; most developed are the
livestock and dairy branches, which depend on imported grain; net exporter
of meat, milk, and eggs
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe; limited producer of illicit opium; mostly for domestic
consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
using talonas as temporary currency (March 1993), but planning introduction
of convertible litas (late 1993)
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Lithuania, Communications

Railroads:
2,100 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
44,200 km total 35,500 km hard surfaced, 8,700 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 105 km, natural gas 760 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Klaipeda; inland - Kaunas
Merchant marine:
46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 282,633 GRT/332,447 DWT; includes 31
cargo, 3 railcar carrier, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 11 combination bulk
Airports:
total:
96
useable:
19
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
5
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
11
Telecommunications:
better developed than in most other former USSR republics; operational
NMT-450 analog cellular network in Vilnius; fiber optic cable installed
beween Vilnius and Kaunas; 224 telephones per 1000 persons; broadcast
stations - 13 AM, 26 FM, 1 SW, 1 LW, 3 TV; landlines or microwave to former
USSR republics; leased connection to the Moscow international switch for
traffic with other countries; satellite earth stations - (8 channels to
Norway); new international digital telephone exchange in Kaunas for direct
access to 13 countries via satellite link out of Copenhagen, Denmark

*Lithuania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), National Guard (Skat)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 933,245; fit for military service 739,400; reach military
age (18) annually 27,056 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, 5.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Luxembourg, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between Belgium and Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,586 km2
land area:
2,586 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
total 359 km, Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to
slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in
the southeast
Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited)
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
landlocked

*Luxembourg, People

Population:
398,220 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.04% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.96 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.56 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.43 years
male:
72.71 years
female:
80.3 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.63 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Luxembourger(s)
adjective:
Luxembourg
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, and
European (guest and worker residents)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%
Languages:
Luxembourgisch, German, French, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
100%
male: 100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
177,300 one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from Portugal,
Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany
by occupation:
services 65%, industry 31.6%, agriculture 3.4% (1988)

*Luxembourg, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form:
Luxembourg
local long form:
Grand-Duche de Luxembourg
local short form:
Luxembourg
Digraph:
LU
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Luxembourg
Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:
1839
Constitution:
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of the Grand Duke's
birthday)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER; Socialist Workers Party
(LSAP), Jacques POOS; Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH; Communist (KPL), Andre
HOFFMANN; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS
Other political or pressure groups:
group of steel companies representing iron and steel industry; Centrale
Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor
unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994); results - CSV
31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%, other 4.1%;
seats - (60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1
Executive branch:
grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes); note - the Council of
State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views are considered by the
Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de Justice)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of
Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Vice Prime Minister
Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

*Luxembourg, Government

Member of:
ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alphonse BERNS
chancery:
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-4171
FAX:
(202) 328-8270
consulates general:
New York and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL
embassy:
22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address:
PSC 11, APO AE 09132-5380
telephone:
[352] 460123
FAX:
[352] 461401
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to
the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design
was based on the flag of France

*Luxembourg, Economy

Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and negligible
unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but highly productive
family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by
steel, has become increasingly more diversified, particularly toward
high-technology firms. During the past decade, growth in the financial
sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services,
especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy.
Luxembourg participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most
financial matters and is also closely connected economically to the
Netherlands.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $8.5 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
2.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$21,700 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
1.4% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $3.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other
industrial products
partners:
EC 76%, US 5%
Imports:
$8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners:
Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%
External debt:
$131.6 million (1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.5% (1990); accounts for 25% of GDP
Electricity:
1,238,750 kW capacity; 1,375 million kWh produced, 3,450 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products,
engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal products -
barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle raising
widespread
Illicit drugs:
money-laundering hub
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

*Luxembourg, Economy

Exchange rates:
Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 33.256 (January 1993), 32.150 (1992),
34.148 (1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988); note - the
Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely
in Luxembourg
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Luxembourg, Communications

Railroads:
Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 272 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge; 178 km double track; 178 km electrified
Highways:
5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km
limited access divided highway
Inland waterways:
37 km; Moselle River
Pipelines:
petroleum products 48 km
Ports:
Mertert (river port)
Merchant marine:
53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,570,466 GRT/2,614,154 DWT; includes
2 cargo, 5 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 6 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
combination ore/oil, 8 liquefied gas, 2 passenger, 8 bulk, 6 combination
bulk, 4 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried
cables; 230,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV; 3
channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable; 1 direct-broadcast
satellite earth station; nationwide mobile phone system

*Luxembourg, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 103,607; fit for military service 86,003; reach military age
(19) annually 2,227 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.2% of GDP (1992)

*Macau, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas territory of Portugal)

*Macau, Geography

Location:
East Asia, 27 km west-southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of China
bordering the South China Sea
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
16 km2
land area:
16 km2
comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 0.34 km, China 0.34 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
not specified
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrain:
generally flat
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other: 100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to
the peninsula on mainland

*Macau, People

Population:
477,850 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.44% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.64 years
male:
77.24 years
female:
82.17 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Macanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Macau
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2%
(1981)
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Cantonese is the language of commerce
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
90%
male:
93%
female:
86%
Labor force:
180,000 (1986)
by occupation:
NA

*Macau, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Macau
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ilha de Macau
Digraph:
MC
Type:
overseas territory of Portugal scheduled to revert to China in 1999
Capital:
Macau
Administrative divisions:
2 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau
Independence:
none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13
April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint
declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic
systems and lifestyle for 50 year after transition)
Constitution:
17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by
Beijing awaiting final approval
Legal system:
Portuguese civil law system
National holiday:
Day of Portugal, 10 June
Political parties and leaders:
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group
to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group
Other political or pressure groups:
wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy
pro-Communist merchants representing China's interests; in January 1967 the
Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over
administration
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held on 10 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(23 total; 8 elected by universal suffrage, 8 by indirect suffrage, and 7
appointed by the governor) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
president of Portugal, governor, Consultative Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders: Chief of State:
President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986)
Head of Government:
Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20 March 1991)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), GATT, IMO (associate), WTO (associate)

*Macau, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration, Macanese interests in
the US are represented by Portugal
US diplomatic representation:
the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US
Consulate General in Hong Kong
Flag:
the flag of Portugal is used

*Macau, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and
fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small
industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector
has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided
about two-thirds of export earnings; the gambling industry represented well
over 40% of GDP in 1992. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh
water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
3.1% (1991)
National product per capita:
$6,700 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.2% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
textiles, clothing, toys
partners:
US 36%, Hong Kong 13%, Germany 12%, France 8% (1991)
Imports:
$2.0 billion (1992 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners:
Hong Kong 35%, China 22%, Japan 17% (1991)
External debt:
$91 million (1985)
Industrial production:
NA
Electricity:
258,000 kW capacity; 855 million kWh produced, 1,806 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism
Agriculture:
rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables, meat; depends mostly on
imports for food requirements
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 pataca (P) = 100 avos
Exchange rates:
patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991), 8.024 (1990), 8.030 (1989), 8.044
(1988), 7.993 (1987); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of
1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Macau, Communications

Highways:
42 km paved
Ports:
Macau
Airports:
none useable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station
Telecommunications:
fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and
international services; 52,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 3 FM,
no TV (TV programs received from Hong Kong); 115,000 radio receivers (est.);
international high-frequency radio communication facility; access to
international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Macau, Defense Forces

Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 137,738; fit for military service 77,159 (1993 est.)
Note:
defense is responsibility of Portugal

*Macedonia, Header

Macedonia has proclaimed independent statehood but has not been formally
recognized as a state by the United States.

*Macedonia, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
25,333 km2
land area:
24,856 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Greece claims republic's name implies territorial claims against Aegean
Macedonia
Climate:
hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain:
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three
large lakes, each divided by a frontier line
Natural resources:
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore,
asbestos, sulphur, timber
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
40%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
Macedonia suffers from high seismic hazard; air pollution from metallurgical
plants
Note:
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to
Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

*Macedonia, People

Population:
2,193,951 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.91% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.91 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.79 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.19 years
male:
71.15 years
female:
75.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Macedonian(s)
adjective:
Macedonian
Ethnic divisions:
Macedonian 67%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, other 6%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 59%, Muslim 26%, Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 10%
Languages:
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
507,324
by occupation:
agriculture 8%, manufacturing and mining 40% (1990)

*Macedonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form:
Macedonia local long form:
Republika Makedonija
local short form:
Makedonija
Digraph:
MK
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Skopje
Administrative divisions:
34 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar,
Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani,
Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep,
Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos,
Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole,
Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica
Independence:
20 November 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
Social-Democratic League of Macedonia (SDSM; former Communist Party), Branko
CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity in Macedonia (PDPM),
Nevzat HALILI, president; National Democratic Party (PDP), Ilijas HALINI,
president; Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia (SRSM), Stojan ANDOV,
president; Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM), Kiro POPOVSKI, president;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for
Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party
of Yugoslavs in Macedonia (SJM), Milan DURCINOV, president
Other political or pressure groups:
Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK); League for Democracy; Albanian
Democratic Union-Liberal Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 27 January 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Kiro GLIGOROV was
elected by the Assembly
Assembly:
last held 11 and 25 November and 9 December 1990 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) VMRO-DPMNE 37,
SDSM 31, PDPM 25, SRSM 17, SJM 1, SPM 5, others 4
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (Sobranje)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic

*Macedonia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since NA September 1992), Deputy Prime
Ministers Jovan ANDONOV (since NA March 1991), Stevo CRVENKOVSKI (since NA
September 1992), and Becir ZUTA (since NA March 1991)
Member of:
EBRD, ICAO, IMF, UN, UNCTAD, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none; US does not recognize Macedonia
US diplomatic representation:
none; US does not recognize Macedonia
Flag:
16-point gold sun (Vergino, Sun) centered on a red field

*Macedonia, Economy

Overview:
Macedonia, although the poorest among the six republics of a dissolved
Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own
agricultural and coal resources. It will, however, move down toward a bare
subsistence level of life unless economic ties are reforged or enlarged with
its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria. The
economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and its modern
machinery and parts. Continued political turmoil, both internally and in the
region as a whole, prevents any swift readjustments of trade patterns and
economic programs. Inflation in early 1992 was out of control, the result of
fracturing trade links, the decline in economic activity, and general
uncertainties about the future status of the country; prices rose 38% in
March 1992 alone. In August 1992, Greece, angry at the use of "Macedonia" as
the republic's name, imposed a partial blockade for several months. This
blockade, combined with the effects of the UN sanctions on Serbia and
Montenegro, cost the economy approximately $1 billion in 1992 according to
official figures. Macedonia's geographical isolation, technological
backwardness, and potential political instability place it far down the list
of countries of interest to Western investors. Resolution of the dispute
with Greece and an internal commitment to economic reform would help to
encourage foreign investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the
worst scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its
borders.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $7.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-18% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,110 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
114.9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1991 est.)
Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$578 million (1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%, miscellaneous
manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food (rice) and live animals
5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals 4.7%
partners:
principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav republics,
Germany, Greece, Albania
Imports:
$1,112 million (1990)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and transport
equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%, raw materials
10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5%
partners:
other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria
External debt:
$845.8 million
Industrial production:
growth rate -18% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
1,600,000 kw capacity; 6,300 million kWh produced, 2,900 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Macedonia, Economy

Industries:
low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by distillation
only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, and
ferronickel; light industry produces basic textiles, wood products, and
tobacco
Agriculture:
provides 12% of GDP and meets the basic need for food; principal crops are
rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton, sesame,
mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; Macedonia is one of the seven
legal cultivators of the opium poppy for the world pharmaceutical industry,
including some exports to the US; agricultural production is highly labor
intensive
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$10 million from the US for humanitarian and technical assistance; EC
promised a 100 ECU million economic aid package
Currency:
1 denar (abbreviation NA) = 100 NA
Exchange rates:
denar per US$1 - 240 (January 1991)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Macedonia, Communications

Railroads:
NA
Highways:
10,591 km total (1991); 5,091 km paved, 1,404 km gravel, 4,096 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
17
useable:
17
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
125,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 2 FM, 5 (2 relays) TV;
370,000 radios, 325,000 TV; satellite communications ground stations - none

*Macedonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 597,024; fit for military service 484,701; reach military
age (19) annually 18,979 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the military
budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Madagascar, Geography

Location:
in the western Indian Ocean, 430 km east of Mozambique in Southern Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
587,040 km2
land area:
581,540 km2 comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4,828 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Climate:
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Natural resources:
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious
stones, mica, fish
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
58%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
11%
Irrigated land:
9,000 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
Note:
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

*Madagascar, People

Population:
13,005,989 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.2% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
13.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
91 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
53.52 years
male:
51.65 years
female:
55.45 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.75 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective:
Malagasy
Ethnic divisions:
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African,
Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka,
Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
80%
male:
88%
female:
73%
Labor force:
4.9 million 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence
agriculture; 175,000 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 26%, domestic service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%,
construction 11%, services 9%, transportation 6%, other 2%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

*Madagascar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form:
Madagascar
local long form:
Republique de Madagascar
local short form:
Madagascar
former:
Malagasy Republic
Digraph:
MA
Type:
republic
Capital:
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces - Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina,
Toliary
Independence:
26 June 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
12 September 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
some 30 political parties now exist in Madagascar, the most important of
which are Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier
RATSIRAKA; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM),
RAKOTOVAO-ANDRIATIANA; Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama
RAZANABAHINY; Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert
ANDRIAMORASATA; Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime
(MFM), Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA; National Movement for the Independence of
Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja JAONA; National Union for the Defense of
Democracy (UNDD), Albert ZAFY
Other political or pressure groups:
National Council of Christian Churches (FFKM), leader NA; Federalist
Movement, leader NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 10 February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - Albert ZAFY
(UNDD), 67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
Popular National Assembly:
last held on 28 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - AREMA 88.2%,
MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, other 0.8%; seats - (137 total) AREMA 120,
MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

*Madagascar, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire); note -
the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 and early
1993 in preparation for new legislative elections. In its place, an interim
High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery Council have been
established
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour
Constitutionnelle)
Leaders: Chief of State:
President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Guy RAZANAMASY (since 8 August 1991)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
chancery:
2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-5525 or 5526
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Douglas BARRETT
embassy:
14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address:
B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone:
[261] (2) 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18
FAX:
261-234-539
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band
of the same width on hoist side

*Madagascar, Economy

Overview:
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture,
including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting
for over 30% of GDP and contributing to more than 70% of total export
earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural
products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted for only 13% of
GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that
stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased
production for exports, and reduced energy imports. After mid-1991, however,
output dropped sharply because of protracted antigovernment strikes and
demonstrations for political reform.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$200 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget:
revenues $250 million; expenditures $265 million, including capital
expenditures of $180 million (1991)
Exports:
$312 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products
partners:
France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US
Imports:
$350 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer
goods 14%, food 13%
partners:
France, Germany, UK, other EC, US
External debt:
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
125,000 kW capacity; 450 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries,
tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries
(textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves,
cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising
widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for
domestic consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,125 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million

*Madagascar, Economy

Currency:
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,910.2 (December 1992), 1,867.9 (1992),
1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988),
1,069.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Madagascar, Communications

Railroads:
1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved earth (est.)
Inland waterways:
of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des
Pangalanes
Ports:
Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara
Merchant marine:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,359 GRT/48,772 DWT; includes 6
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1
liquefied gas
Airports:
total:
146
usable:
103
with permanent-surface runways:
30
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
36
Telecommunications:
above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay,
and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations
- 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 1 (36
repeaters) TV

*Madagascar, Defense Forces

Branches:
Popular Armed Forces (including Intervention Forces, Development Forces,
Aeronaval Forces - including Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential
Security Regiment
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,826,018; fit for military service 1,681,553; reach
military age (20) annually 118,233 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1991 est.)

*Malawi, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and Zambia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
118,480 km2
land area:
94,080 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 2,881 km, Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain:
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Natural resources:
limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use:
arable land:
25%

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