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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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*Kuwait, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
3,900 km total; 3,000 km bituminous; 900 km earth, sand, light gravel
Pipelines:
crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165 km
Ports:
Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina' al 'Ahmadi
Merchant marine:
42 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,996,052 GRT/3,373,088 DWT; includes
7 cargo, 4 livestock carrier, 24 oil tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 3 container
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m: 0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
civil network suffered extensive damage as a result of Desert Storm and
reconstruction is still under way with some restored international and
domestic capabilities; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 0 FM, 3 TV; satellite
earth stations - destroyed during Persian Gulf War and not rebuilt yet;
temporary mobile satellite ground stations provide international
telecommunications; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia;
service to Iraq is nonoperational

*Kuwait, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 498,254; fit for military service 298,865; reach military
age (18) annually 14,459 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 7.3% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Kyrgyzstan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, between China and Kazakhstan
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
198,500 km2
land area:
191,300 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southern boundary in Isfara Valley
area
Climate:
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in south (Fergana
Valley)
Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and basins
encompass entire nation
Natural resources:
small amounts of coal, natural gas, oil, nepheline, rare earth metals,
mercury, bismuth, gold, lead, zinc, hydroelectric power
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
10,320 km2 (1990)
Environment:
NA
Note:
landlocked

*Kyrgyzstan, People

Population:
4,625,954 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.56% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.69 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
47.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.71 years
male:
63.47 years
female:
72.15 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.39 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kirghiz(s)
adjective:
Kirghiz
Ethnic divisions:
Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 21.5%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%,
other 8.3%
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%
Languages:
Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.748 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 33%, industry and construction 28%, other 39%
(1990)

*Kyrgyzstan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kyrgyzstan
conventional short form:
Kyrgyzstan
local long form:
Kyrgyzstan Respublikasy
local short form:
none
former:
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
KG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bishkek (Frunze)
Administrative divisions:
6 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Chu, Jalal-Abad, Ysyk-Kul', Naryn,
Osh, Talas
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted 5 May 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December
Political parties and leaders:
Kyrgyz Democratic Movement, Kazat AKMAKOV, chairman; Civic Accord, Coalition
representing nonnative minority groups; National Revived Asaba (Banner)
Party, Asan ORMUSHEV, chairman; Communist Party was banned but has
registered as political party 18 September 1992
Other political or pressure groups: National Unity Democratic Movement; Peasant Party; Council of
Free Trade
Unions; Union of Entrepreneurs
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 12 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Askar AKAYEV
won in uncontested election with 95% of vote with 90% of electorate voting;
note - president elected by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990, then by popular
vote 12 October 1991
Zhogorku Keneshom:
last held 25 February 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next to be held no later
than NA November 1994 for the Zhgorku Keneshom); results - Commnunists 90%;
seats - (350 total) Communists 310
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Zhogorku Keneshom
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990); Vice President Feliks KULOV
(since 12 October 1992)

*Kyrgyzstan, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Tursenbek CHYNGYSHEV (since 2 March 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Abdygani ERKEBAYEV; Supreme Soviet Chairman Medetkan SHERIMKULOV
(since NA)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDA, ILO, IMF, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roza OTUNBAYEVA
chancery:
1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC
telephone:
(202) 347-5029
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward HURWITZ
embassy:
(temporary) Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek
mailing address:
APO AE 09721
telephone:
7-3312 22-26-93, 22-35-51, 22-29-20
FAX:
7-3312 22-35-51
Flag:
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40
Krygyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the
reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two
sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the
traditional Kyrgyz yurt

*Kyrgyzstan, Economy

Overview:
Kyrgyzstan's small economy (less than 1% of the total for the former Soviet
Union) is oriented toward agriculture, producing mainly livestock such as
goats and sheep, as well as cotton, grain, and tobacco. Industry,
concentrated around Bishkek, produces small quantities of electric motors,
livestock feeding equipment, washing machines, furniture, cement, paper, and
bricks. Mineral extraction is small, the most important minerals being coal,
rare earth metals and gold. Kyrgyzstan is a net importer of many types of
food and fuel but is a net exporter of electricity. In 1992, the Kirghiz
leadership made progress on reform, primarily by privatizing business,
granting life-long tenure to farmers, and freeing most prices. Nonetheless,
in 1992 overall industrial and livestock output declined because of acute
fuel shortages and a widespread lack of spare parts.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-25% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
29% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.1% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes, machinery,
tobacco
partners:
Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery, textiles,
footwear
partners:
other CIS republics
External debt:
$650 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA% (1992)
Electricity:
4,100,000 kW capacity; 11,800 million kWh produced, 2,551 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes, sawn
logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare earth metals
Agriculture:
wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables, meat,
grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit
drugs to Western Europel
Economic aid:
$300 million official and commitments by foreign donors (1992)

*Kyrgyzstan, Economy

Currency:
introduced national currency, the som (10 May 1993)
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Kyrgyzstan, Communications

Railroads:
370 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
30,300 km total; 22,600 km paved or graveled, 7,700 km earth(1990)
Pipelines:
natural gas 200 km
Ports:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
52
useable:
27
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
13
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; 56 telephones per 1000 persons (December 1990);
connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave and with other
countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch;
satellite earth stations - Orbita and INTELSAT (TV receive only); new
intelsat earth station provide TV receive-only capability for Turkish
broadcasts

*Kyrgyzstan, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,093,694; fit for military service 890,961 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Laos, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, between Vietnam and Thailand
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
236,800 km2
land area:
230,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Utah
Land boundaries:
total 5,083 km, Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km, Thailand 1,754
km, Vietnam 2,130 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
boundary dispute with Thailand
Climate:
tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to
April)
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
58%
other:
35%
Irrigated land:
1,200 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods
Note:
landlocked

*Laos, People

Population:
4,569,327 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
15.22 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
104.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.18 years
male:
49.67 years
female:
52.77 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lao(s) or Laotian(s)
adjective:
Lao or Laotian
Ethnic divisions:
Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%, Meo, Hmong, Yao, and other
15%
Religions:
Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15%
Languages:
Lao (official), French, English
Literacy:
age 15-45 can read and write (1985)
total population:
84%
male:
92%
female:
76%
Labor force:
1-1.5 million
by occupation:
agriculture 85-90% (est.)

*Laos, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Lao People's Democratic Republic
conventional short form:
Laos
local long form:
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LA
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Vientiane
Administrative divisions:
16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (kampheng, nakhon, singular and
plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai, Champasak,
Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali,
Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane, Vientiane*, Xaignabouri,, Xiangkhoang
Independence:
19 July 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
promulgated August 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December (1975) (proclamation of the Lao People's Democratic
Republic)
Political parties and leaders:
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KHAMTAI Siphandon, party president;
includes Lao Front for National Construction (LFNC); other parties moribund
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Communist political groups moribund; most leaders fled the country in
1975
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Third National Assembly:
last held on 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (85 total) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
president, prime minister and two deputy prime ministers, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President NOUHAK Phoumsavan (since 25 November 1992)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Gen. KHAMTAI Siphandon (since 15 August 1991)
Member of:
ACCT (associate), AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

*Laos, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador HIEM Phommachanh
chancery:
2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-6416 or 6417
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles B. SALMON, Jr.
embassy:
Rue Bartholonie, Vientiane
mailing address:
B. P. 114, Vientiane, or AMEMB, Box V, APO AP 96546
telephone:
(856) 2220, 2357, 2384
FAX:
(856) 4675
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a
large white disk centered in the blue band

*Laos, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a Communist centrally
planned economy with government ownership and control of productive
enterprises of any size. In recent years, however, the government has been
decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise. Laos is a
landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure; that is, it has no
railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited external and internal
telecommunications, and electricity available in only a limited area.
Subsistence agriculture is the main occupation, accounting for over 60% of
GDP and providing about 85-90% of total employment. The predominant crop is
rice. For the foreseeable future the economy will continue to depend for its
survival on foreign aid from the IMF and other international sources; aid
from the former USSR and Eastern Europe has been cut sharply.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $900 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1991)
National product per capita:
$200 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
21% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $83 million; expenditures $188.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $94 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$72 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin
partners:
Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, USSR, US, China
Imports:
$238 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures
partners:
Thailand, USSR, Japan, France, Vietnam, China
External debt:
$1.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12% (1991 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1991 est.)
Electricity:
226,000 kW capacity; 990 million kWh produced, 220 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing,
construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force; subsistence
farming predominates; normally self-sufficient in nondrought years;
principal crops - rice (80% of cultivated land), sweet potatoes, vegetables,
corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton; livestock - buffaloes, hogs, cattle,
poultry
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, opium poppy for the international drug trade,
third-largest opium producer

*Laos, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $605 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million
Currency:
1 new kip (NK) = 100 at
Exchange rates:
new kips (NK) per US$1 - 710 (May 1992), 710 (December 1991), 700 (September
1990), 576 (1989), 385 (1988), 200 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Laos, Communications

Railroads:
none
Highways:
about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous treated; 7,451 km
gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km unimproved earth and
often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September
Inland waterways:
about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional
kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m
Pipelines:
petroleum products 136 km
Ports:
none
Airports:
total:
54
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
service to general public practically non-existant; radio communications
network provides generally erratic service to government users; 7,390
telephones (1986); broadcast stations - 10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite
earth station

*Laos, Defense Forces

Branches:
Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and militia elements),
Air Force, National Police Department
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 980,274; fit for military service 528,450; reach military
age (18) annually 43,849 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Latvia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering on the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area: 64,100 km2
land area:
64,100 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,078 km, Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217
km
Coastline:
531 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
to Russia in 1944
Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
low plain
Natural resources:
minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
160 km2 (1990)
Environment:
heightened levels of air and water pollution because of a lack of waste
conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River heavily polluted;
contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals and petroleum products
at military bases

*Latvia, People

Population:
2,735,573 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.5% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.73 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.23 years
male:
64.15 years
female:
74.55 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Latvian(s)
adjective:
Latvian
Ethnic divisions:
Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Belarusian 4.5%, Ukrainian 3.4%, Polish 2.3%,
other 4.2%
Religions:
Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages:
Latvian (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.407 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 16%, other 43%
(1990)

*Latvia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Latvia
conventional short form:
Latvia
local long form:
Latvijas Republika
local short form:
Latvija
former:
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
LG
Type: republic
Capital:
Riga
Administrative divisions:
none (all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted NA May 1922, considering rewriting constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 November (1918)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party of Latvia, Juris BOJARS, chairman; Inter-Front of the
Working People of Latvia, Igor LOPATIN, chairman (Inter-Front was banned
after the coup); Latvian National Movement for Independence, Eduards
BERKLAVS, chairman; Latvian Democratic Party, Janis DINEVICS, chairman;
Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party, Uldis BERZINS, chairman; Latvian
People's Front, Uldis AUGST-KALNS, chairman; Latvian Liberal Party, Georg
LANSMANIS, chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held October 1988 (next to be held NA); note - Anatolijs V. GORBUNOVS
elected by Supreme Soviet; elected to restyled post of Chairman of the
Supreme Council on 3 May 1990; new elections have not been scheduled
Supreme Council:
last held 18 March 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next to be held 5-6 June
1993 for the Saeima); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (234
total) Latvian Communist Party 59, Latvian Democratic Workers Party 31,
Social Democratic Party of Latvia 4, Green Party of Latvia 7, Latvian
Farmers Union 7, Latvian Popular Front 126; note - the Supreme Council is an
interim 201-seats legislative body; a new parliament or Saiema to be elected
in June 1993
Congress of Latvia:
last held April 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (231 total) number of seats by party NA; note - the
Congress of Latvia is a quasi-governmental structure
Executive branch:
Chairman of Supreme Council (president), prime minister, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council

*Latvia, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman Supreme Council Anatolijs V. GORBUNOVS (since NA October 1988)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ivars GODMANIS (since NA May 1990)
Member of:
CBSS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IOM (observer), ITU,
NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ojars KALNINS
chancery:
4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-8213 and 8214
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ints M, SILINS;
embassy:
Raina Boulevard 7, Riga 226050
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
0-11 [358] (49) 311-348 (cellular)
FAX:
[358] (49) 314-665 (cellular), (7) (01-32) 220-502
note:
dialing to the Baltics still requires use of an international operator,
unless you use the cellular phone lines
Flag:
two horizontal bands of maroon (top and bottom), white (middle, narrower
than other two bands)

*Latvia, Economy

Overview:
Latvia is in the process of reforming the centrally planned economy
inherited from the former USSR into a market economy. Prices have been
freed, and privatization of shops and farms has begun. Latvia lacks natural
resources, aside from its arable land and small forests. Its most valuable
economic asset is its work force, which is better educated and disciplined
than in most of the former Soviet republics. Industrial production is highly
diversified, with products ranging from agricultural machinery to consumer
electronics. One conspicuous vulnerability: Latvia produces only 10% of its
electric power needs. Latvia in the near term must retain key commercial
ties to Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine while moving in the long run toward
joint ventures with technological support from, and trade ties to the West.
Because of the efficiency of its mostly individual farms, Latvians enjoy a
diet that is higher in meat, vegetables, and dairy products and lower in
grain and potatoes than diets in the 12 non-Baltic republics of the former
USSR. Good relations with Russia are threatened by animosity between ethnic
Russians (34% of the population) and native Latvians. The cumulative
difficulties in replacing old sources of supply and old markets, together
with the phasing out of the Russian ruble as the medium of exchange, help
account for the sharp 30% drop in GDP in 1992.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-30% (1992)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
3.6% (March 1993); but large numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -35% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
2,140,000 kW capacity; 5,800 million kWh produced, 2,125 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
employs 33% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports for
energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses, vans,
street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery,
fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals,
processed foods, textiles

*Latvia, Economy

Agriculture:
employs 16% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock feeding;
products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables;
fishing and fish packing
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe; limited producer of illicit opium; mostly for domestic
consumption; also produces illicit amphetamines for export
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 lat = 100 NA; introduced NA March 1993
Exchange rates:
lats per US$1 - 1.32 (March 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Latvia, Communications

Railroads:
2,400 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
59,500 km total; 33,000 km hard surfaced 26,500 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
300 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 750 km, refined products 780 km, natural gas 560 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Riga, Ventspils, Liepaja; inland - Daugavpils
Merchant marine:
96 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 905,006 GRT/1,178,844 DWT; includes 14
cargo, 27 refrigerated cargo, 2 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 44 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
50
useable:
15
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
NMT-450 analog cellular network is operational covering Riga, Ventspils,
Daugavpils, Rezekne, and Valmiera; broadcast stations - NA; international
traffic carried by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway
switch and through new independent international automatic telephone
exchange in Riga and the Finnish cellular net

*Latvia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border
troops), Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 648,273; fit for military service 511,297; reach military
age (18) annually 18,767 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
176 million rubles, 3-5% of GDP; note - conversion of the military budget
into US$ using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

*Lebanon, Header

Note:
Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and
regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the devastating 16-year
civil war in October 1990. Under the Ta'if accord - the blueprint for
national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable
political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the
political process. Since December 1990, the Lebanese have formed three
cabinets and conducted the first legislative election in 20 years. Most of
the militias have been weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces
(LAF) has seized vast quantities of weapons used by the militias during the
war and extended central government authority over about one-half of the
country. Hizballah, the radical Sh'ia party, is the only significant group
that retains most of its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of
Lebanon. Israel continues to support a proxy militia, The Army of South
Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous to its border.
The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared security zone and about 20
kilometers north to the strategic town of Jazzine. As of December 1992,
Syria maintained about 30,000 troops in Lebanon. These troops are based
mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment
was legitimized by the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the
Ta'if accord. Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests,
and failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the
constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far refused to
withdraw its troops from Beirut.

*Lebanon, Geography

Location:
Middle East, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
10,400 km2
land area:
10,230 km2
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in southern
Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern
Lebanon since October 1976
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon
mountians experience heavy winter snows
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region
Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
9%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
8%
other:
61%
Irrigated land:
860 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous
factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity; deforestation; soil
erosion; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international
boundary

*Lebanon, People

Population:
3,552,369 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.81% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
27.86 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.66 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
41 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.01 years
male:
66.63 years
female:
71.52 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Lebanese
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Religions:
Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Alawite or Nusayri, Druze,
Isma'ilite, Shi'a, Sunni), Christian 30% (11 legally recognized Christian
groups - 4 Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1 Protestant), Judaism NEGL%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
80%
male:
88%
female:
73%
Labor force:
650,000
by occupation:
industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%, government 10% (1985)

*Lebanon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Lebanon
conventional short form:
Lebanon
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form:
none
Digraph:
LE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Beirut
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Biqa, 'Al Janub, Ash
Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan
Independence:
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French
administration)
Constitution:
26 May 1926 (amended)
Legal system:
mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no
judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Political parties and leaders:
political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines;
numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political
figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic
considerations
Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21
with elementary education
Elections:
National Assembly:
Lebanon's first legislative election in 20 years was held in the summer of
1992; the National Assembly is composed of 128 deputies, one-half Christian
and one-half Muslim; its mandate expires in 1996
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet; note - by custom, the president is a
Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of
the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee
Nationale)
Judicial branch:
four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and
one court for criminal cases)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 22 October 1992)

*Lebanon, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Simon KARAM
chancery:
2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6300
consulates general:
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER
mailing embassy:
Antelias, Beirut
address:
P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, or Box B, FPO AE 09836
telephone:
[961] 417774 or 415802, 415803, 402200, 403300
Flag:
three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a
green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

*Lebanon, Economy

Overview:
Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic
infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's
position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following October
1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the central government to begin
restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes, and regain access to key port
and government facilities. The battered economy has also been propped up by
a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale
manufacturers. Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and
farm exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are main
sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of 1991,
industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed substantial
gains. The further rebuilding of the war-ravaged country was delayed in 1992
because of an upturn in political wrangling. Hope for restoring economic
momentum in 1993 rests with the new, business-oriented Prime Minister
HARIRI.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.8 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$1,400 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
100% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $533 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$490 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious metals
and jewelry, metals and metal products
partners:
Saudi Arabia 21%, Switzerland 9.5%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 12%, US 5%
Imports:
$3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
Consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
partners:
Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%
External debt:
$400 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,300,000 kW capacity; 3,413 million kWh produced, 990 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals,
jewelry, some metal fabricating
Agriculture:
accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus fruits,
vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, goats; not
self-sufficient in grain

*Lebanon, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium, hashish, and heroin for the international drug
trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa almost completely eradicated this
year; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, Israel, US, the
Middle East, and South America
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $664 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $9
million
Currency:
1 Lebanese pound (#L) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 1,742.00 (April 1993), 1,712.80 (1992),
928.23 (1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Lebanon, Communications

Railroads:
system in disrepair, considered inoperable
Highways:
7,300 km total; 6,200 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone, 650 km
improved earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
Ports:
Beirut, Tripoli, Ra'Sil'ata, Juniyah, Sidon, Az Zahrani, Tyre, Jubayl,
Shikka Jadidah
Merchant marine:
63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,505 GRT/403,328 DWT; includes 39
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 1
container, 9 livestock carrier, 2 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 4
bulk, 1 combination bulk
Airports:
total:
9
usable:
8
with permanent-surface runways:
6
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding still
underway; 325,000 telephones (95 telephones per 1,000 persons); domestic
traffic carried primarily by microwave radio relay and a small amount of
cable; international traffic by satellite - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station (erratic operations),
coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond
Syria to Jordan, 3 submarine coaxial cables; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 3
FM, 13 TV (numerous AM and FM stations are operated sporadically by various
factions)

*Lebanon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; including Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 798,299; fit for military service 495,763 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of GDP (1992 budget)

*Lesotho, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
30,350 km2
land area:
30,350 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 909 km, South Africa 909 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains
Natural resources:
some diamonds and other minerals, water, agricultural and grazing land
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0% meadows and pastures:
66%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in
overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification
Note:
landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will
control, store, and redirect water to South Africa

*Lesotho, People

Population:
1,896,484 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.52% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
34.64 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
71.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
61.73 years
male:
59.91 years
female:
63.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.6 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective:
Basotho
Ethnic divisions:
Sotho 99.7%, Europeans 1,600, Asians 800
Religions:
Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
total population:
59%
male: 44%
female:
68%
Labor force:
689,000 economically active
by occupation:
86.2% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60%
of active male labor force works in South Africa

*Lesotho, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form:
Lesotho
former:
Basutoland
Digraph:
LT
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Maseru
Administrative divisions:
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek,
Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence:
4 October 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
4 October 1966, suspended January 1970
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of
legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Political parties and leaders:
Basotho National Party (BNP), Evaristus SEKHONYANA; Basutoland Congress
Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE; National Independent Party (NIP), A. C. MANYELI;
Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), Vincent MALEBO; United Democratic Party,
Charles MOFELI; Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL), JCOB M. KENA
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
dissolved following the military coup in January 1986; military has pledged
elections will take place in March 1993
Executive branch:
monarch, chairman of the Military Council, Military Council, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
none - the bicameral Parliament was dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; note - a National Constituent Assembly convened in June 1990
to rewrite the constitution and debate issues of national importance, but it
has no legislative authority
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990 following dismissal of his father,
exiled King MOSHOESHOE II, by Maj. Gen. LEKHANYA)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the Military Council Gen. Elias Phisoana RAMAEMA (since 30 April
1991)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

*Lesotho, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Designate Teboho KITLEI
chancery:
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-5534
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Leonard H.O. SPEARMAN, Sr.
embassy:
address NA, Maseru
mailing address:
P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100 Lesotho
telephone:
[266] 312-666
FAX:
(266) 310-116
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is white
bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and club;
the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner

*Lesotho, Economy

Overview:
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important natural
resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture, light
manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa ($439
million in 1991). The great majority of households gain their livelihoods
from subsistence farming and migrant labor. Manufacturing depends largely on
farm products to support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries;
other industries include textile, clothing, and construction (in particular,
a major water improvement project which will permit the sale of water to
South Africa). Industry's share of GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 15% in 1989.
Political and economic instability in South Africa raises uncertainty for
Lesotho's economy, especially with respect to migrant worker remittances -
recently the equivalent of nearly three-fourths of domestic output.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $620 million (1991 est.)
note:
GNP of $1.0 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.3% (1991 est.); GNP 2.2% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$340 (1991 est.); GNP $570 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
at least 55% among adult males (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $388 million; expenditures $399 million, including capital
expenditures of $132 million (FY93)
Exports:
$57 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets
partners:
South Africa 53%, EC 30%, North and South America 13% (1989)
Imports:
$805 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, medicines,
petroleum
partners:
South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1989)
External debt:
$358 million (for public sector) (December 1990/91 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.0% (1991 est.); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
power supplied by South Africa
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 19% of GDP (1990 est.) and employs 60-70% of all households;
exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and livestock; principal
crops corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268 million; US, $10.3 million
(1992), $10.1 million (1993 est.); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF
bilateral commitments (1970-89), $819 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$4 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $14 million

*Lesotho, Economy

Currency:
1 loti (L) = 100 lisente
Exchange rates:
maloti (M) per US$1 - 3.1576 (May 1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988); note - the Basotho loti is at
par with the South African rand
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Lesotho, Communications

Railroads:
2.6 km; owned, operated by, and included in the statistics of South Africa
Highways:
7,215 km total; 572 km paved; 2,337 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil; 1,806 km improved earth, 2,500 km unimproved earth
Airports:
total:
28
usable:
28
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
rudimentary system consisting of a few landlines, a small microwave system,
and minor radio communications stations; 5,920 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Lesotho, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; including Army, Air Wing), Royal Lesotho
Mounted Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 422,802; fit for military service 228,102 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 13% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Liberia, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Cote d'Ivoire and
Sierra Leone
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
111,370 km2
land area:
96,320 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,585 km, Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone 306 km
Coastline:
579 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights;
wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low
mountains in northeast
Natural resources:
iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
39%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to deforestation

*Liberia, People

Population:
2,874,881 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.37% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 115.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.28 years
male:
54.88 years
female:
59.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.42 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Liberian(s)
adjective:
Liberian
Ethnic divisions:
indigenous African tribes 95% (including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo,
Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella), Americo-Liberians
5% (descendants of repatriated slaves)
Religions:
traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%
Languages:
English 20% (official), Niger-Congo language group about 20 local languages
come from this group
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
40%
male:
50%
female:
29%
Labor force:
510,000 including 220,000 in the monetary economy
by occupation:
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other 14.2%
note:
non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and
engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

*Liberia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Liberia
conventional short form:
Liberia
Digraph:
LI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Monrovia
Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand
Kru,
Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, Sinoe
Independence:
26 July 1847
Constitution:
6 January 1986
Legal system:
dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the
modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for
indigenous sector
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1847)
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman; Unity Party (UP),
Carlos SMITH, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus
MATTHEWS, chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - Gen. Dr. Samuel
Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP) 26.4%, other 22.7%; note -
President Doe was killed by rebel forces on 9 September 1990
Senate:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, UPP 1
House of Representatives:
last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, UPP 2
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
interim President Dr. Amos SAWYER (since 15 November 1990)
note:
this is an interim government appointed by the Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS) that will be replaced after elections are held under
a West African-brokered peace plan; a rebel faction led by Charles TAYLOR is
challenging the SAWYER government's legitimacy; former president, Gen. Dr.
Samuel Kanyon DOE, was killed on 9 September 1990 by Prince Y. JOHNSON

*Liberia, Government

Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission:
Ambassador James TARPEH
chancery:
5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 723-0437 through 0440
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William H. TWADDELL
embassy:
111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia
mailing address:
P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO AE 09813
telephone:
[231] 222991 through 222994
FAX:
(231) 223710
Flag:
11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white;
there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side
corner; the design was based on the US flag

*Liberia, Economy

Overview:
Civil war since 1990 has destroyed much of Liberia's economy, especially the
infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Businessmen have fled the country,
taking capital and expertise with them. Many will not return. Richly endowed
with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to
agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic products,
while local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope.
Political instability threatens prospects for economic reconstruction and
repatriation of some 750,000 Liberian refugees who have fled to neighboring
countries. The political impasse between the interim government and rebel
leader Charles Taylor has prevented restoration of normal economic life,
including the re-establishment of a strong central government with effective
economic development programs.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $988 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1988)
National product per capita:
$400 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
43% urban (1988)
Budget:
revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)
Exports:
$505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee
partners:
US, EC, Netherlands
Imports:
$394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.)
commodities:
rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, other
foodstuffs
partners:
US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS
External debt:
$1.6 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
410,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 275 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture, palm
oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)
Agriculture:
accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal
products - rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava, palm oil,
sugarcane, bananas, sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in food, imports 25%
of rice consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $870 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $77
million

*Liberia, Economy

Currency:
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate since 1940); unofficial
parallel exchange rate of L$7 = US$1, January 1992
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Liberia, Communications

Railroads:
480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km 1.067-meter narrow
gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated by foreign
steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian Government
Highways:
10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km all weather, 4,313 km
dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private, laterite-surfaced roads
open to public use, owned by rubber and timber companies
Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)
Merchant marine:
1,618 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 57,769,476 DWT/ 101,391,576 DWT;
includes 20 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 132 cargo, 56 refrigerated
cargo, 21 roll-on/roll-off, 58 vehicle carrier, 97 container, 3 barge
carrier, 499 oil tanker, 108 chemical, 68 combination ore/oil, 62 liquefied
gas, 6 specialized tanker, 456 bulk, 31 combination bulk; note - a flag of
convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top 4 owning flags
are US 16%, Japan 14%, Norway 11%, and Hong Kong 9%
Airports:
total:
59
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
telephone and telegraph service via radio relay network; main center is
Monrovia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; most telecommunications services inoperable due to insurgency
movement

*Liberia, Defense Forces

Branches:
the ultimate structure of the Liberian military force will depend on who is
the victor in the ongoing civil war
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 684,681; fit for military service 365,518 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Libya, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, between
Egypt and Tunisia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,759,540 km2
land area:
1,759,540 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 4,383 km, Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km,
Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline:
1,770 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line:
32 degrees 30 minutes north
International disputes:
claims and occupies the Aozou Strip in northern Chad; maritime boundary
dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims part of northern Niger and part of
southeastern Algeria
Climate:
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
90%
Irrigated land:
2,420 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in
spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources
Note:
the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the
world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to
coastal cities

*Libya, People

Population:
4,872,598 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.73% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.37 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 65.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
63.47 years
male:
61.35 years
female:
65.7 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Libyan(s)
adjective:
Libyan
Ethnic divisions:
Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis,
Turks, Indians, Tunisians
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 97%
Languages:
Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
64%
male:

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