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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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*American Samoa, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa
does 80-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants
are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export.
The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers.
Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry.
Transfers from the US government add substantially to American Samoa's
economic well-being.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $128 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$2,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
12% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $97,000,000 (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and $54,000,000
in grant revenue); including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports:
$306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
canned tuna 93%
partners:
US 99.6%
Imports:
$360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and
parts 6%
partners:
US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
42,000 kW capacity; 100 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat canning,
handicrafts
Agriculture:
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples,
papayas, dairy farming
Economic aid:
$21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in construction funds for
capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)
Currency:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*American Samoa, Communications

Railroads: none
Highways:
350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved
Ports:
Pago Pago, Ta'u, Ofu, Auasi, Aanu'u (new construction), Faleosao
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m :
1 (international airport at Tafuna)
with runways 1,200 to 2,439 m:
0
note:
small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu
Telecommunications:
8,399 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; good telex,
telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1
COMSAT earth station

*American Samoa, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Andorra, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between France and Spain
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
450 km2
land area:
450 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers
Terrain:
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
56%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
deforestation, overgrazing
Note:
landlocked

*Andorra, People

Population:
61,962 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.27% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.99 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
25.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.22 years
male:
75.35 years
female:
81.34 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Andorran(s)
adjective:
Andorran
Ethnic divisions:
Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages:
Catalan (official), French, Castilian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Andorra, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Principality of Andorra
conventional short form:
Andorra
local long form:
Principat d'Andorra
local short form:
Andorra
Digraph:
AN
Type:
parliamentary coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France
and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials
called veguers; to be changed to a parliamentary form of government
Capital:
Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La
Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence:
1278
Constitution:
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March
1993; to take effect within 15 days
Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September
Political parties and leaders:
political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political
parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General
Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward
Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first
formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976
and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal
Elections:
General Council of the Valleys:
last held 12 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two
designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent
delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish
vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government,
Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the
Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases,
Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases

*Andorra, Government

Leaders:
Chiefs of State:
French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by
Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); Spanish Episcopal
Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by
Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata
Head of Government:
Executive Council President Oscar RIBAS Reig (since 10 Decmber 1989)
Member of:
INTERPOL, IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
Andorra has no mission in the US
US diplomatic representation:
Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the
US Consul General visits Andorra periodically
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the
national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features
a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not
have a national coat of arms in the center

*Andorra, Economy

Overview:
The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 13 million
tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
summer and winter resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status,
also contributes significantly to the economy. Agricultural production is
limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The
principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly
of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Although it is a member of the EC
customs union, it is unclear what effect the European Single Market will
have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free status.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $760 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$14,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
0%
Budget:
revenues $119.4 million; expenditures $190 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$23 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners:
France, Spain
Imports:
$888.7 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
consumer goods, food
partners:
France, Spain
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,570 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking
Agriculture:
sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and
some vegetables
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
the French and Spanish currencies are used
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988); Spanish pesetas (Ptas)
per US$1 - 114.59 (January 1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93
(1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Andorra, Communications

Highways:
96 km
Telecommunications:
international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to
France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

*Andorra, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

*Angola, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Namibia and
Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,246,700 km2
land area:
1,246,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110
km
Coastline:
1,600 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
20 nm
International disputes:
civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; a ceasefire held from 31
May 1991 until October 1992, when the insurgent National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola refused to accept its defeat in internationally
monitored elections; fighting has since resumed across the countryside
Climate:
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May
to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite,
uranium
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland: 43%
other:
32%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification
Note:
Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

*Angola, People

Population:
9,545,235 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
18.96 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
148.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
45.26 years
male:
43.26 years
female:
47.35 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Angolan(s)
adjective:
Angolan
Ethnic divisions:
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Bantu dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
42%
male:
56%
female:
28%
Labor force:
2.783 million economically active
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

*Angola, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Angola
conventional short form:
Angola
local long form:
Republic de Angola
local short form:
Angola
former:
People's Republic of Angola
Digraph:
AO
Type:
transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
presidential system
Capital:
Luanda
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie,
Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila,
Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to
accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose EDUARDO
DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National
Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI,
remains a legal party despite its returned to armed resistance to the
government; five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National
Assembly
Other political or pressure groups:
Cabindan State Liberation Front (FLEC), NZZIA Tiago, leader
note:
FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the
independence of Cabinda Province
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
first nationwide, multiparty elections were held in late September 1992 with
disputed results; further elections are being discussed
Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacrao)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992)

*Angola, Government

Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
representation:
Jose PATRICIO, Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States
address:
Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States, 1899 L Street,
NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20038
telephone:
(202) 785-1156
FAX:
(202) 785-1258
US diplomatic representation:
director:
Edmund DE JARNETTE
liaison office:
Rua Major Kanhangolo, Nes 132/138, Luanda
mailing address:
CP6484, Luanda, Angola (mail international); USLO Luanda, Department of
State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch)
telephone:
[244] (2) 34-54-81
FAX:
[244] (2) 39-05-15
note:
the US maintains a liaison office in Luanda accredited to the Joint
Political Military Commission that oversees implementation of the Angola
Peace Accords; this office does not perform any commercial or consular
services; the US does not maintain diplomatic relations with the Government
of the Republic of Angola
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow
emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a
machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

*Angola, Economy

Overview:
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the
population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital
to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. Bitter internal fighting
continues to severely affect the nonoil economy, and food needs to be
imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
resources in addition to oil, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To
realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace
but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
imbalances throughout the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$950 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1,000% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.1 billion; expenditures $3.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $963 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
oil, liquefied petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish
products, timber, cotton
partners:
US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil
Imports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and
spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military
deliveries
partners:
Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain
External debt:
$8 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output
Electricity:
510,000 kW capacity; 800 million kWh produced, 84 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum; mining diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
uranium, and gold;, fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco;
sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products
Agriculture:
cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar cane, manioc, tobacco; food
crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production
accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output;
disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food
imports
Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,105 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements
(1985-89), $750 million

*Angola, Economy

Currency:
1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 kwei
Exchange rates:
kwanza (Kz) per US$1 -4,000 (black market rate was 17,000 on 30 April 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Angola, Communications

Railroads:
3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge;
limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil
war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war
Highways:
73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed
stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,295 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 179 km
Ports:
Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11
cargo, 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
302
usable:
173
with permanent-surface runways:
32
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
17
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
57
Telecommunications:
limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high
frequency radio used extensively for military links; 40,300 telephones;
broadcast stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

*Angola, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and
Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,204,155; fit for military service 1,109,292; reach
military age (18) annually 94,919 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Anguilla, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Anguilla, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 270 km east of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
91 km2
land area:
91 km2
comparative area:
about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
61 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Natural resources:
negligible; salt, fish, lobster
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt
ponds)
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

*Anguilla, People

Population:
7,006 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.64% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.26 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.28 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-9.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.89 years
male:
71.1 years
female:
76.7 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.09 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Anguillan(s)
adjective:
Anguillan
Ethnic divisions:
black African
Religions:
Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman
Catholic 3%, other 12%
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
total population:
95%
male:
95%
female: 95%
Labor force:
2,780 (1984)
by occupation:
NA

*Anguilla, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Anguilla
Digraph:
AV
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
The Valley
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 April 1982
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Anguilla Day, 30 May
Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP),
Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP
1, independent 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Alan W.
SHARE (since August 1992)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March 1984, served previously from
February 1977 to May 1980)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CDB
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with
three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the
white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

*Anguilla, Economy

Overview:
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on
lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants.
In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism.
Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure,
particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $47.4 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,800 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $13.8 million; expenditures $15.2 million, including capital
expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$1.4 million (f.o.b., 1987)
commodities:
lobster and salt
partners:
NA
Imports:
$10.3 million (f.o.b., 1987)
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 862 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, boat building, salt
Agriculture:
pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry,
fishing (including lobster)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38
million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
NA

*Anguilla, Communications

Highways:
60 km surfaced
Ports:
Road Bay, Blowing Point
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1 (1,000 m at Wallblake Airport)
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
1 FM, no TV; radio relay microwave link to island of Saint Martin

*Anguilla, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Antarctica, Geography

Location:
continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
14 million km2 (est.)
land area:
14 million km2 (est.)
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
note:
second-smallest continent (after Australia)
Land boundaries:
none, but see entry on International disputes
Coastline:
17,968 km
Maritime claims:
none, but see entry on International Disputes
International disputes:
Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below);
sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France
(Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and
UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of
other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve
the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between
90 degrees west and 150 degrees west, where, because of floating ice,
Antarctica is unapproachable from the sea
Climate:
severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the
ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher
elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher
temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below
freezing
Terrain:
about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land,
Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on
McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline,
and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Natural resources:
none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum
and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small,
uncommercial quantities
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
Irrigated land:
0 km2

*Antarctica, Geography

Environment:
mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; a
circumpolar ocean current flows clockwise along the coast as do cyclonic
storms that form over the ocean; during summer more solar radiation reaches
the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
equivalent period; in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield,
which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had
dwindled to the lowest level ever recorded over Antarctica; active volcanism
on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic
activity rare and weak
Note:
the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

*Antarctica, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed research
stations
Summer (January) population:
over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile
256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12,
India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264,
Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116,
Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90)
Winter (July) population:
over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China
NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14,
NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR
313 (1989-90)
Year-round stations:
42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1,
France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South
Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91)
Summer only stations:
over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1,
Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2,
UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the
former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in
doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing
economic difficulties

*Antarctica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Antarctica
Digraph:
AY
Type:
Antarctic Treaty Summary:
The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23
June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings--the 17th
Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Venice in November 1992.
Currently, there are 41 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 15
acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19
nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims
have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of
others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted
to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country
was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are--Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are--Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador
(1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan,
South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South
Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia.
Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses,
are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba
(1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala
(1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania
(1971), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992).
Article 1:
area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as
weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be
used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2:
freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3:
free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and
other international agencies
Article 4:
does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new
claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Article 5:
prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6:
includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00
minutes south
Article 7:
treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to
any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance
notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must
be given
Article 8:
allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states
Article 9:
frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations

*Antarctica, Government

Article 10:
treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that
are contrary to the treaty
Article 11:
disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately,
by the ICJ
Article 12, 13, 14:
deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved
nations
Other agreements:
more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and
ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of
Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of
Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine
Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988
but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this
agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through
five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental
impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits
all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research;
four parties have ratified Protocol as of June 1993
Legal system:
US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries.
Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic
Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and
criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by
regulation of statute: The taking of native mammals or birds; the
introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially
protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and
the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of
the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation,
and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US
Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to
Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs,
Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such
plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more
information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National
Science Foundation, Washington, DC 20550.

*Antarctica, Economy

Overview:
No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and
small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

*Antarctica, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations
Airports:
42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15 national
governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated by
commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads at 28 of
these locations; runways at 10 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice,
or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved
runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by
ski-equipped planes--11 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways
less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of
unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe
restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic
conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from
governments required for landing

*Antarctica, Defense Forces

Note:
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as
the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of
military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use
of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other
peaceful purposes

*Antigua and Barbuda, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
440 km2
land area:
440 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes Redonda
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
153 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas
Natural resources:
negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
arable land:
18% permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
59%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient
freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural
harbors

*Antigua and Barbuda, People

Population:
64,406 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.51% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.51 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.83 years
male:
70.81 years
female:
74.95 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective:
Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic divisions:
black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Religions:
Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic
Languages:
English (official), local dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)
total population:
89%
male: 90%
female:
88%
Labor force:
30,000
by occupation:
commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

*Antigua and Barbuda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Antigua and Barbuda
Digraph:
AC
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Saint John's
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint, John, Saint Mary, Saint
Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence:
1 November 1981 (from UK)
Constitution:
1 November 1981
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD; United
Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER
Other political or pressure groups:
United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of
three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic Party
(UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the
Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU),
headed by Noel THOMAS
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UPP 1, independent 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor
since 1976)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA 1976); Deputy Prime
Minister Lester BIRD (since NA)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS

*Antigua and Barbuda, Government

chancery:
Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225
consulate:
Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and, in
his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant J. SALTER
embassy:
Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
mailing address:
FPO AA 34054-0001
telephone:
(809) 462-3505 or 3506
FAX:
(809) 462-3516
Flag:
red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag;
the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and
white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

*Antigua and Barbuda, Economy

Overview:
The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important
determinant of economic performance. During the period 1987-90, real GDP
expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%. Tourism makes a direct
contribution to GDP of about 13% and also affects growth in other sectors -
particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. Although
Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a
labor shortage in some sectors of the economy, it has been hurt in 1991-92
by a downturn in tourism caused by the Persian Gulf war and the US
recession.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $424 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,600 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $105 million; expenditures $161 million, including capital
expenditures of $56 million (1992)
Exports:
$32 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%,
machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners:
OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports:
$317.5 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures,
chemicals, oil
partners:
US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%
External debt:
$250 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household
appliances)
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and
livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane;
not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Antigua and Barbuda, Communications

Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways:
240 km
Ports:
Saint John's
Merchant marine:
149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 529,202 GRT/778,506 DWT; includes 96
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 21 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1
multifunction large-load carrier, 2 oil tanker, 19 chemical tanker, 2 bulk;
note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter
links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Antigua and Barbuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police
Force (including the Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)

*Arctic Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
14.056 million km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's
four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
note:
includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian
Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and
other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
45,389 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of a
maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia
Climate:
polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual
temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and
stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by
continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or
snow
Terrain:
central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages
about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times
that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly
straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark
Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open
seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and
extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a
central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
Fram Basin
Natural resources:
sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and
gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)
Environment:
endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands
occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from
glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow
cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and
lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
disruptions or damage
Note:
major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific
Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from
October to May; strategic location between North America and Russia;
shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia,
floating research stations operated by the US and Russia

*Arctic Ocean, Government

Digraph:
XQ

*Arctic Ocean, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

*Arctic Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications:
no submarine cables
Note:
sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage
(North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal
waterways

*Argentina, Geography

Location:
Eastern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Chile and
Uruguay
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,766,890 km2
land area:
2,736,690 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay
1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Coastline:
4,989 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
not specified
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of
the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland
Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate:
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain:
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources:
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese,
petroleum, uranium
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
52%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
17,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are
violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil
degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires

*Argentina, Geography

Note:
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location
relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans
(Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

*Argentina, People

Population:
33,533,256 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.64 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.19 years
male:
67.91 years
female:
74.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.72 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Argentine(s)
adjective:
Argentine
Ethnic divisions:
white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%,
Jewish 2%, other 6%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
95%
male:
96%
female:
95%
Labor force:
10.9 million
by occupation:
agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

*Argentina, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Argentine Republic
conventional short form:
Argentina
local long form:
Republica Argentina
local short form:
Argentina
Digraph:
AR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Buenos Aires
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal district*, (distrito federal);
Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
Corrientes, Distrito Federal*, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La, Rioja, Mendoza,
Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis,
Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego (Territorio
Nacional de la Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur),
Tucuman
note:
the national territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does
not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Constitution:
1 May 1853
Legal system:
mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Mario LOSADA, moderately
left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO,
conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist
party; Dignity and Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO,
right-wing party; several provincial parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor (CGT;
Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners'
association); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church;
the Armed Forces
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held in three phases during late 1991 for half of 254 seats; seats (254
total) - JP 122, UCR 85, UCD 10, other 37 (1993)
President:
last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - Carlos Saul
MENEM was elected

*Argentina, Government

Senate:
last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for
indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 46 seats in the
national senate in May 1992; seats (46 total) - JP 27, UCR 14, others 5
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position
vacant)
Member of:
AG (observer), Australian Group, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19,
G-24, AfDB, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
LORCS, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carlos ORTIZ DE ROZAS
chancery:
1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 939-6400 through 6403
consulates general:
Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico)
consulates:
Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James CHEEK (since 28 May 1993)
embassy:
4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address:
APO AA 34034
telephone:
[54] (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911
FAX:
[54] (1) 775-4205
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue;
centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known
as the Sun of May

*Argentina, Economy

Overview:
Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate population,
an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.
Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the
economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge external debts and recurring
bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession,
President MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring
program that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable,
sustainable growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US
dollar since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20
years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by
repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. Much remains
to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to growth
and in solidifying the recent economic gains.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $112 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
7% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,400 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.7% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
6.9% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $33.1 billion; expenditures $35.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992)
Exports:
$12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
partners:
US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands
Imports:
$14.0 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
agricultural products
partners:
US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt:
$54 billion (June 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1992 est.); accounts for 26% of GDP
Electricity:
17,911,000 kW capacity; 51,305 million kWh produced, 1,559 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and
petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces abundant food for both
domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain
and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and
Europe

*Argentina, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million
Currency:
1 peso = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
pesos per US$1 - 0.99000 (January1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991),
0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989), 0.00088 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Argentina, Communications

Railroads:
34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter narrow
gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways:
208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 km improved
earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
11,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km
Ports:
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, La Plata, Rosario, Santa Fe
Merchant marine:
60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,695,420 GRT/1,073,904 DWT; includes
30 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 railcar carrier, 14 oil
tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
total:
1,700
usable:
1,451
with permanet-surface runways:
137
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
31
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
326
Telecommunications:
extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones);
microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM, no FM, 231 TV, 13
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic satellite
network has 40 earth stations

*Argentina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
National Aeronautical Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 8,267,316; fit for military service 6,702,303; reach
military age (20) annually 284,641 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Armenia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, between Turkey and Azerbaijan
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Middle
East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
29,800 km2
land area:
28,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia
164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically Armenian
exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; some irredentism by Armenians living in
southern Georgia; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey
have greatly subsided
Climate:
continental, hot, and subject to drought
Terrain:
high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources:
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
3,050 km2 (1990)
Environment:
pollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in Yerevan; energy
blockade has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood, use of
Lake Sevan water for hydropower has lowered lake level, threatened fish
population
Note:
landlocked

*Armenia, People

Population:
3,481,207 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25.79 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.77 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.77 years
male:
68.36 years
female:
75.36 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.31 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Armenian(s)
adjective:
Armenian
Ethnic divisions:
Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions:
Armenian Orthodox 94%
Languages:
Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
1.63 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%
(1990)

*Armenia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Armenia
conventional short form:
Armenia
local long form:
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former:
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
Digraph:
AM
Type:
republic
Capital:
Yerevan
Administrative divisions:
none (all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
Armenian National Movement, Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Democratic
Union; National Self-Determination Association; Armenian Democratic Liberal
Organization, Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman; Dashnatktsutyan Party (Armenian
Revolutionary Federation, ARF), Rouben MIRZAKHANIN; Chairman of
Parliamentary opposition - Mekhak GABRIYELYAN; Christian Democratic Union;
Constitutional Rights Union; Republican Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Levon Akopovich
TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon TER-PETROSYAN
was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990
Supreme Soviet:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (240 total) non-aligned 149, Armenian National Movement
52, Armenian Democratic Liberal Organization 14, Dashnatktsutyan 12,
National Democratic Union 9, Christian Democratic Union 1, Constitutional
Rights Union 1, National Self-Determination Association 1, Republican Party
1
Executive branch:
president, council of ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:

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