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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 19 out of 42

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24.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
guano deposits and other fertilizers
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
90%
other:
10%
Irrigated land: 0 km2
Environment:
subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

*Juan de Nova Island, People

Population:
uninhibited

*Juan de Nova Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Juan de Nova Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Juan de Nova
Digraph:
JU
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic, resident in
Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Juan de Nova Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Juan de Nova Island, Communications

Railroads:
short line going to a jetty
Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permament-surface runways:
0 with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

*Juan de Nova Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Kazakhstan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, between Russia and Uzbekistan, bordering on the Caspian Sea and
the Aral Sea
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,717,300 km2
land area:
2,669,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km,
Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Maritime claims:
landlocked, but boundaries with Uzbekistan in the Sea of Azov and with
Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea are yet to be
determined
International disputes:
none
Climate:
continental, arid and semiarid
Terrain:
extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western
Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia
Natural resources:
petroleum, coal, iron, manganese, chrome, nickel, cobalt, copper,
molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium, iron
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures:
57%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
23,080 km2 (1990)
Environment:
drying up of Aral Sea is causing increased concentrations of chemical
pesticides and natural salts; industrial pollution
Note:
landlocked

*Kazakhstan, People

Population:
17,156,370 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.65% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.55 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.95 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.83 years
male:
63.17 years
female:
72.73 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kazakhstani(s)
adjective:
Kazakhstani
Ethnic divisions:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek 2.1%,
Tatar 2%, other 7.1%
Religions:
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 15%, Protestant 2%, other 36%
Languages:
Kazakh (Qazaq; official language), Russian (language of interethnic
communication)
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population: 100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
7.563 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 32%, agriculture and forestry 23%, other 45%
(1990)

*Kazakhstan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form:
Kazakhstan
local long form:
Kazakhstan Respublikasy
local short form:
none
former:
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
KZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Almaty (Alma-Ata)
Administrative divisions:
19 oblasts (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular -
qala)*; Almaty*, Almaty, Aqmola, Aqtobe, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan, Kokshetau,, Mangghystau,
Ongtustik Qazaqstan, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Pavlodar,
Semey, Shyghys Qazaqstan, Soltustik Qazaqstan, Taldyqorghan, Torghay,
Zhambyl, Zhezqazghan,
Independence:
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted 18 January 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December
Political parties and leaders:
Peoples Congress, Olzhas SULEYMENOV and Mukhtar SHAKHANOV, co-chairmen;
Kazakh Socialist Party (former Communist Party), Nursultan NAZARBAYEV,
chairman; December (Zheltoksan) Movement, Khasan KOZHAKMETOV, chairman;
Freedom (AZAT) Party, Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Independent Trade Union Center (Birlesu; an association of independent trade
union and business associations), Leonid SOLOMIN, president
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); percent of vote by
party NA; Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed
Supreme Council:
last held NA April 1990 (next to be held NA December 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (358 total) Socialist Party 338
Executive branch:
president, cabinet of ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (sinceNA April 1990); Vice President Yerik
ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991)

*Kazakhstan, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sergey TERESHENKO (since 14 October 1991); First Deputy Prime
Minister Davlat SEMBAYEV (since NA November 1990); Supreme Council Chairman
Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN (since NA July 1991)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, IBRD, IDA, IMF, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alim S. DJAMBOURCHINE
chancery:
3421 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 333-4504
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
embassy:
Furumanova 99/97, Almaty
mailing address:
US Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-7030
telephone:
(3272) 63-24-26
Flag:
sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays
soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a
"national ornamentation" in yellow

*Kazakhstan, Economy

Overview:
The second-largest in area of the 15 former Soviet republics, Kazakhstan has
vast oil, coal, and agricultural resources. Kazakhstan is highly dependent
on trade with Russia, exchanging its natural resources for finished consumer
and industrial goods. Kazakhstan now finds itself with serious pollution
problems, backward technology, and little experience in foreign markets. The
government in 1992 continued to push privatization of the economy and freed
many prices. Output in 1992 dropped because of problems common to the
ex-Soviet Central Asian republics, especially the cumulative effects of the
disruption of old supply channels and the slow process of creating new
economic institutions. Kazakhstan lacks the funds, technology, and
managerial skills for a quick recovery of output. US firms have been
enlisted to increase oil output but face formidable obstacles; for example,
oil can now reach Western markets only through pipelines that run across
independent former Soviet republics. Finally, the end of monolithic
Communist control has brought ethnic grievances into the open. The 6 million
Russians in the republic, formerly the favored class, now face the hostility
of a society dominated by Muslims. Ethnic rivalry will be just one of the
formidable obstacles to the prioritization of national objectives and the
creation of a productive, technologically advancing society.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
28% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of
underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $1.76
billion (1991)
Exports:
$1.5 billion to outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat (1991)
partners:
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$500 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992)
commodities:
machinery and parts, industrial materials
partners:
Russia and other former Soviet republics, China
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -15% (1992 est.); accounts for 30% of net material product
Electricity:
19,135,000 kW capacity; 81,300 million kWh produced, 4,739 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur), iron and
steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric
motors, construction materials

*Kazakhstan, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for almost 40% of net material product; employs about 25% of the
labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited
government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit
drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
recipient of limited foreign aid (1992)
Currency:
retaining Russian ruble as currency (May 1993)
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Kazakhstan, Communications

Railroads:
14,460 km (all 1.520-meter gauge); does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
189,000 km total; 108,100 km hard surfaced (paved or gravel), 80,900 km
earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
Syr Darya
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,850 km, refined products 1,500 km, natural gas 3,480 km (1992)
Ports:
inland - Atyrau (Guryev; on Caspian Sea)
Airports:
total:
365
useable:
152
with permanent-surface runways:
49
with runways over 3,659 m:
8
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
38
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
71
Telecommunications:
telephone service is poor, with only about 6 telephones for each 100
persons; of the approximately 1 million telephones, Almaty (Alma-Ata) has
184,000; international traffic with other former USSR republics and China
carried by landline and microwave, and with other countries by satellite and
through 8 international telecommunications circuits at the Moscow
international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - INTELSAT and Orbita
(TV receive only); new satellite ground station established at Almaty with
Turkish financial help (December 1992) with 2500 channel band width

*Kazakhstan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,349,509; fit for military service 3,499,718; reach
military age (18) annually 154,727 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
69,326 million rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note - conversion of
the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

*Kenya, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern India Ocean between Tanzania and
Somalia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
582,650 km2
land area:
569,250 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries:
total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769
km, Uganda 933 km
Coastline:
536 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain:
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile
plateau in west
Natural resources:
gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets,
wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
3% permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
4%
other:
85%
Irrigated land:
520 km2 (1989)
Environment:
unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and
economic value; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; glaciers on
Mt. Kenya
Note:
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

*Kenya, People

Population:
27,372,266 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.18 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
74.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.07 years
male:
52.27 years
female:
55.92 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.06 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kenyan(s)
adjective:
Kenyan
Ethnic divisions:
Kikuyu 21%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 11%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%,
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant (including Anglican) 26%, indigenous beliefs
18%, Muslim 6%
Languages:
English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
69%
male:
80%
female:
58%
Labor force:
9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total employed is 1,370,000 (14.8% of
the labor force)
by occupation:
services 54.8%, industry 26.2%, agriculture 19.0% (1989)

*Kenya, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kenya
conventional short form:
Kenya
former:
British East Africa
Digraph:
KE
Type:
republic
Capital:
Nairobi
Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift
Valley, Western
Independence:
12 December 1963 (from UK)
Constitution:
12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979,
1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992
Legal system:
based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in
High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations;
constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state
repealed in 1991
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is Kenya African National Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap MOI,
president; opposition parties include Forum for the Restoration of Democracy
(FORD-Kenya), Oginga ODINGA; FORD-Asili, Kenneth MATIBA; Democratic Party of
Kenya (DP), Mwai KIBAKI; Kenya National Congress (KNC), Titus MBATHI; Kenya
Social Congress (KSC), George ANYONA; Kenya National Democratic Alliance
(KENYA), Mukara NG'ANG'A; Party for Independent Candidates of Kenya (PKK),
Otieno OTOERA
Other political or pressure groups:
labor unions; exile opposition - Mwakenya and other groups
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 29 December 1992; results - President Daniel T. arap MOI was
reelected with 37% of the vote; Kenneth Matiba (FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai Kibaki
(SP) 19%, Oginga Odinga (FORD-Kenya) 17%
National Assembly:
last held on 29 December 1992; results - (188 total) KANU 100, FORD-Kenya
31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president nominates 12
additional members
note:
first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court

*Kenya, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Daniel Teroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President
George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE
chancery:
2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-6101
consulates general:
Los Angeles and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE, Jr.
embassy:
corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address:
P. O. Box 30137, Nairobi or APO AE 09831
telephone:
[254] (2) 334141
FAX:
[254] (2) 340838
consulate:
Mombasa
Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is
edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is
superimposed at the center

*Kenya, Economy

Overview:
Kenya's 3.6% annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the world
- presents a serious problem for the country's economy. In the meantime, GDP
growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of population - annually
averaging 4.9% in the 1986-90 period. Undependable weather conditions and a
shortage of arable land hamper long-term growth in agriculture, the leading
economic sector. In 1991, deficient rainfall, stagnant export volume, and
sagging export prices held economic growth below the all-important
population growth figure, and in 1992 output fell.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $8.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$320 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $2.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $0.74 billion (FY90)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990)
partners:
EC 44%, Africa 25%, Asia 5%, US 5%, Middle East 4% (1990)
Imports:
$2.05 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum products
15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989)
partners:
EC 45%, Asia 11%, Middle East 12%, US 5% (1988)
External debt:
$7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
730,000 kW capacity; 2,540 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap,
cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining, cement, tourism
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and 65% of exports; cash
crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products - corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs;
food output not keeping pace with population growth, and crop production has
been extended into marginal land
Illicit drugs:
widespread wild, small-plot cultivation of marijuana and gat; most locally
consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to West Africa
and onward to Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on
way to South Africa

*Kenya, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7,490 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $83
million
Currency:
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 -36.227 (January 1993), 32.217 (1992),
27.508 (1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Kenya, Communications

Railroads:
2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel, remainder improved earth
Inland waterways:
part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya
Pipelines:
petroleum products 483 km
Ports:
coastal - Mombasa, Lamu; inland - Kisumu
Merchant marine:
1 oil tanker ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,727 GRT/5,558 DWT
Airports:
total:
247
usable:
208
with permanent-surface runways:
18
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
43
Telecommunications:
in top group of African systems; consists primarily of radio relay links;
over 260,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 16 AM; 4 FM, 6 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

*Kenya, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 5,912,744; fit for military service 3,654,738 (1993 est.);
no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $294 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY88/89 est.)

*Kingman Reef, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Kingman Reef, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu, about
halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
1 km2
land area:
1 km2
comparative area:
about 1.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds
Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash most of the time
Note:
maximum elevation of about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed
to the public

*Kingman Reef, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Kingman Reef, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Kingman Reef
Digraph:
KQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Kingman Reef, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Kingman Reef, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by
Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

*Kingman Reef, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Kiribati, Geography

Location:
Oceania, straddling the equator in the Pacific Ocean, about halfway between
Hawaii and Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
717 km2
land area:
717 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix
Islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,143 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Natural resources:
phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
51%
meadows and pastures:
0% forest and woodland:
3%
other:
46%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; 20 of the 33
islands are inhabited
Note:
Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia
and Nauru

*Kiribati, People

Population:
76,320 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.03% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
32.03 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.31 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
98.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.16 years
male:
52.56 years
female:
55.78 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.82 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective:
I-Kiribati
Ethnic divisions:
Micronesian
Religions:
Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)
Languages:
English (official), Gilbertese
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA% female:
NA%
Labor force:
7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985 est.)

*Kiribati, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form:
Kiribati
former:
Gilbert Islands
Digraph:
KR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tarawa
Administrative divisions:
3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
note:
a new administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts,
Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) may have been
changed to 21 island councils (one for each of the inhabited islands) named
Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Canton,
Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa,
Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina
Independence:
12 July 1979 (from UK)
Constitution:
12 July 1979
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Party, Teatao TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic Party,
Teburoro TITO; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka
TENTOA; Maneaba Party, Roniti TEIWAKI
note:
there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati;
they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no
party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 8 July 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996); results - Teatao
TEANNAKI 52%, Roniti TEIWAKI 28%
House of Assembly:
last held on 8 May 1991 (next to be held by NA 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party
NA
Executive branch:
president (Beretitenti), vice president (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti), Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 8 July 1991); Vice President Taomati IUTA
(since 8 July 1991)

*Kiribati, Government

Member of:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
US diplomatic representation:
the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag:
the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising
sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to
represent the ocean

*Kiribati, Economy

Overview:
The country has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish
now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated
widely in recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987, as the fish
catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986 and copra production
was hampered by repeated rains. Output rebounded strongly in 1988, with real
GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in economic growth came from an increase in
copra production and a good fish catch. Following the strong surge in output
in 1988, GNP increased 1% in both 1989 and 1990.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $36.8 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$525 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.8% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $29.9 million; expenditures $16.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $14.0 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$5.8 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
copra 18%, fish 17%, seaweed 13%
partners:
EC 50%, Fiji 22%, US 18% (1990)
Imports:
$26.7 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel
partners:
Australia 33%, Japan 24%, Fiji 19%, NZ 6%, US 6% (1990)
External debt:
$2 million (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1988 est.); accounts for less than 4% of GDP
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced, 190 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish contribute about
95% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops - taro,
breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$273 million
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
NA

*Kiribati, Communications

Highways:
640 km of motorable roads
Inland waterways:
small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands
Ports:
Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)
Airports:
total:
21
useable:
20
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m :
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
1,400 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Kiribati, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties;
there are small police posts on all islands); no military force is
maintained
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Korea, North, Geography

Location:
Northeast Asia, between China and South Korea
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
120,540 km2
land area:
120,410 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Mississippi
Land boundaries:
total 1,673 km, China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km
Coastline:
2,495 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
military boundary line:
50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the
Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are
banned
International disputes:
short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line with
South Korea
Climate:
temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains
wide in west, discontinuous in east
Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold,
pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
74%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
14,000 km2 (1989)
Environment:
mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely
populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding
Note:
strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia

*Korea, North, People

Population:
22,645,811 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.51 years
male:
66.42 years
female:
72.75 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Korean(s)
adjective:
Korean
Ethnic divisions:
racially homogeneous
Religions:
Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored
religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom
Languages:
Korean
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
9.615 million
by occupation:
agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%
note:
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

*Korea, North, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form:
North Korea
local long form:
Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form:
none
Abbreviation:
DPRK
Digraph:
KN
Type:
Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship
Capital:
P'yongyang
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (jikhalsi,, singular and plural);
Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North
Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto
(North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province),
Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si*, (Namp'o City),
P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo
(South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do, (Yanggang Province)
Independence:
9 September 1948
note:
15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and celebrated in
North Korea as National Liberation Day
Constitution:
adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in April
1992
Legal system:
based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist
legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)
Political parties and leaders:
major party - Korean Workers' Party (KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary,
and his son, KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee; Korean Social
Democratic Party, KIM Yong-ho, vice-chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG
Sin-hyok, chairman
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held by NA 1994); results - President KIM
Il-song was reelected without opposition
Supreme People's Assembly:
last held on 7-9 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a single list of
candidates who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few
seats
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, premier, ten vice premiers, State
Administration Council (cabinet)

*Korea, North, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui)
Judicial branch:
Central Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President KIM Il-song (national leader since 1948, president since 28
December 1972); designated successor KIM Chong-il (son of president, born 16
February 1942)
Head of Government:
Premier KANG Song-san (since December 1992)
Member of:
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none
US diplomatic representation:
none
Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red
band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk
with a red five-pointed star

*Korea, North, Economy

Overview:
More than 90% of this command economy is socialized; agricultural land is
collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of manufactured goods.
State control of economic affairs is unusually tight even for a Communist
country because of the small size and homogeneity of the society and the
strict rule of KIM Il-song and his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during
the period 1984-88 averaged 2-3%, but output declined by 3-5% annually
during 1989-92 because of systemic problems and disruptions in
socialist-style economic relations with the former USSR and China. In 1992,
output dropped sharply, by perhaps 10-15%, as the economy felt the
cumulative effect of the reduction in outside support. The leadership
insisted in maintaining its high level of military outlays from a shrinking
economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in inventories and critical
shortages in the energy sector have led to increasing interruptions in
industrial production. Abundant mineral resources and hydropower have formed
the basis of industrial development since WWII. Output of the extractive
industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead,
and precious metals. Manufacturing is centered on heavy industry, including
military industry, with light industry lagging far behind. Despite the use
of improved seed varieties, expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of
fertilizers, North Korea has not yet become self-sufficient in food
production. Five consecutive years of poor harvests, coupled with
distribution problems, have led to chronic food shortages. North Korea
remains far behind South Korea in economic development and living standards.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $22 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-10% to -15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $18.5 billion; expenditures $18.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and fishery products,
manufactures (including armaments)
partners:
China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Mexico
Imports:
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment, consumer goods
partners:
China, Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore
External debt:
$8 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -15% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
7,300,000 kW capacity; 26,000 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Korea, North, Economy

Industries:
machine building, military products, electric power, chemicals, mining,
metallurgy, textiles, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force; principal crops - rice,
corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock products - cattle,
hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7
million metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s
Currency:
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon
Exchange rates:
North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1
(January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94 (March 1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Korea, North, Communications

Railroads:
4,915 km total; 4,250 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 km 0.762-meter
narrow gauge; 159 km double track; 3,084 km electrified; government owned
(1989)
Highways:
about 30,000 km (1991); 92.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth surface; 7.5%
paved
Inland waterways:
2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only
Pipelines:
crude oil 37 km
Ports:
primary - Ch'ongjin, Hungnam (Hamhung), Najin, Namp'o, Wonsan; secondary -
Haeju, Kimchaek, Kosong, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang
Merchant marine:
80 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 675,666 GRT/1,057,815 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 67 cargo, 2 oil tanker,
5 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 container
Airports:
total:
55
usable :
55 (est.)
with permanent-surface runways:
about 30
with runways over 3,659 m: fewer than 5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
30
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 300,000 TV sets (1989); 3,500,000
radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Korea, North, Defense Forces

Branches:
Korean People's Army (including the Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil Security
Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,567,684; fit for military service 3,996,893; reach
military age (18) annually 208,132 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.); note
- the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.9 billion (1991) 8% of
GNP (1991 est.)

*Korea, South, Geography

Location:
Northeast Asia, between North Korea and Japan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
98,480 km2
land area:
98,190 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 238 km, North Korea 238 km
Coastline:
2,413 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait
International disputes:
Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed by Japan
Climate:
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Terrain:
mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Natural resources:
coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
13,530 km2 (1989)
Environment:
occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in southwest;
air pollution in large cities

*Korea, South, People

Population:
44,613,993 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.05% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.72 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.16 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
22.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.29 years
male:
67.1 years
female:
73.68 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.64 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Korean(s)
adjective:
Korean
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)
Religions:
Christianity 48.6%, Buddhism 47.4%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive folk religion
(Shamanism), Chondogyo (religion of the heavenly way) 0.2%
Languages:
Korean, English widely taught in high school
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
96%
male:
99%
female:
94%
Labor force:
19 million
by occupation:
services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%, agriculture, fishing,
forestry 21% (1991)

*Korea, South, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Korea
conventional short form:
South Korea
local long form:
Taehan-min'guk
local short form:
none
Abbreviation:
ROK
Digraph:
KS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Seoul
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6 special cities* (jikhalsi,, singular and plural);
Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo,
Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,, Kwangju-jikhalsi*,,
Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo,
Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*, Independence:
15 August 1948
Constitution:
25 February 1988
Legal system:
combines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American
law, and Chinese classical thought
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 August (1948)
Political parties and leaders:
majority party:
Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), KIM Young Sam, president
opposition:
Democratic Party (DP), LEE Ki Taek, executive chairman; United People's
Party (UPP), CHUNG Ju Yung, chairman; several smaller parties
note:
the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party (DJP),
Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic Republican Party
(NDRP) on 9 February 1990
Other political or pressure groups:
Korean National Council of Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea;
National Federation of Student Associations; National Federation of Farmers'
Associations; National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean Trade
Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean Industries;
Korean Traders Association
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 18 December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1997); results -
KIM Young Sam (DLP) 41.9%, KIM Dae Jung (DP) 33.8%, CHUNG Ju Yung (UPP)
16.3%, other 8%

*Korea, South, Government

National Assembly:
last held on 24 March 1992; results - DLP 38.5%, DP 29.2%, Unification
National Party (UNP) 17.3% (name later changed to UPP), other 15%; seats -
(299 total) DLP 149, DP 97, UNP 31, other 22; the distribution of seats as
of May 1993 was DLP 167, DP 95, UPP 14, other 23
note:
the change in the distribution of seats reflects the fluidity of the current
situation where party members are constantly switching from one party to
another
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, State Council
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Kuk Hoe)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President KIM Young Sam (since 25 February 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister HWANG In Sung (since 25 February 1993); Deputy Prime Minister
LEE Kyung Shick (since 25 February 1993) and Deputy Prime Minister HAN Wan
Sang (since 25 February 1993)
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, COCOM (cooperating country), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OAS (observer), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador HAN Seung Soo
chancery:
2370 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-5600
consulates general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles,
New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant), Charge d'Affaires Raymond BURGHARDT
embassy:
82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul, AMEMB, Unit 15550
mailing address:
APO AP 96205-0001
telephone:
[82] (2) 732-2601 through 2618
FAX:
[82] (2) 738-8845
consulate:
Pusan
Flag:
white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a
different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each
corner of the white field

*Korea, South, Economy

Overview:
The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth has been the planned
development of an export-oriented economy in a vigorously entrepreneurial
society. Real GNP increased more than 10% annually between 1986 and 1991.
This growth ultimately led to an overheated situation characterized by a
tight labor market, strong inflationary pressures, and a rapidly rising
current account deficit. As a result, in 1992, focusing attention on slowing
the growth rate of inflation and reducing the deficit is leading to a
slow-down in growth. The economy remains the envy of the great majority of
the world's peoples.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $287 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$6,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $48.4 billion; expenditures $48.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
$76.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
textiles, clothing, electronic and electrical equipment, footwear,
machinery, steel, automobiles, ships, fish
partners:
US 24%, Japan 15% (1992)
Imports:
$81.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport
equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners:
Japan 24%, US 22% (1992)
External debt:
$42 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.0% (1992 est.); accounts for about 45% of GNP
Electricity:
24,000,000 kW capacity; 105,000 million kWh produced, 2,380 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing, chemicals, steel,
electronics, automobile production, shipbuilding
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GNP and employs 21% of work force (including fishing and
forestry); principal crops - rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit;
livestock and livestock products - cattle, hogs, chickens, milk, eggs;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish catch of 2.9 million metric
tons, seventh-largest in world
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9 billion; non-US countries
(1970-89), $3.0 billion
Currency:
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon (theoretical)

*Korea, South, Economy

Exchange rates:
South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 791.99 (January 1993), 780.65 (1992), 733.35
(1991), 707.76 (1990), 671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Korea, South, Communications

Railroads:
3,091 km total (1991); 3,044 km 1.435 meter standard gauge, 47 km
0.610-meter narrow gauge, 847 km double track; 525 km electrified,
government owned
Highways:
63,201 km total (1991); 1,551 expressways, 12,190 km national highway,
49,460 km provincial and local roads
Inland waterways:
1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft
Pipelines:
petroleum products 455 km
Ports:
Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan
Merchant marine:
431 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,689,227 GRT/11,016,014 DWT;
includes 2 short-sea passenger, 138 cargo, 61 container, 11 refrigerated
cargo, 9 vehicle carrier, 45 oil tanker, 12 chemical tanker, 13 liquefied
gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 135 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 1 multifunction
large-load carrier
Airports:
total:
103
usable:
93
with permanent-surface runways:
59
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
22
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
18
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international services; 13,276,449 telephone
subscribers; broadcast stations - 79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or
greater); satellite earth stations - 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT

*Korea, South, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 13,286,969; fit for military service 8,542,640; reach
military age (18) annually 432,434 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12.2 billion, 3.6% of GNP (1993 est.)

*Kuwait, Geography

Location:
Middle East, at the head of the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
17,820 km2
land area:
17,820 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 464 km, Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km
Coastline:
499 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
in April 1991 Iraq officially accepted UN Security Council Resolution 687,
which demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set forth
in its 1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and
Warbah Islands, or to all of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final report of the UN
Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission was welcomed by the Security
Council in Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993, which also reaffirmed that the
decisions of the commission on the boundary were final, bringing to a
completion the official demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi
officials still make public statements claiming Kuwait; ownership of Qaruh
and Umm al Maradim Islands disputed by Saudi Arabia
Climate:
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Terrain:
flat to slightly undulating desert plain
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
92%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

*Kuwait, People

Population:
1,698,077 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
8.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
30.29 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
2.39 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
58.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:
74.62 years
male:
72.47 years
female:
76.87 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.11 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Kuwaiti(s)
adjective:
Kuwaiti
Ethnic divisions:
Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
Religions:
Muslim 85% (Shi'a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and
other 15%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
73%
male:
77%
female:
67%
Labor force:
566,000 (1986)
by occupation:
services 45.0%, construction 20.0%, trade 12.0%, manufacturing 8.6%, finance
and real estate 2.6%, agriculture 1.9%, power and water 1.7%, mining and
quarrying 1.4%
note:
70% of labor force was non-Kuwaiti (1986)

*Kuwait, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Kuwait
conventional short form:
Kuwait
local long form:
Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form:
Al Kuwayt
Digraph:
KU
Type:
nominal constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Kuwait
Administrative divisions:
5 governorates (mu'hafaz'at, singular - muh'afaz'ah); Al Ah'madi, Al Jahrah,
Al Kuwayt, 'Hawalli; Farwaniyah
Independence:
19 June 1961 (from UK)
Constitution:
16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29 August 1962)
Legal system:
civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 25 February
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
40,000 Palestinian community; small, clandestine leftist and Shi'a
fundamentalist groups are active; several groups critical of government
policies are active
Suffrage:
adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male descendants at
age 21
note:
out of all citizens, only 10% are eligible to vote and only 5% actually vote
Elections:
National Assembly:
dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections were held on 5 October 1992 with a
second election in the 14th and 16th constituencies scheduled for 15
February 1993
Executive branch:
amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al 'umma) dissolved 3 July 1986;
elections for new Assembly held 5 October 1992
Judicial branch:
High Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Amir Shaykh JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 31 December 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister and Crown Prince SA'D al-'Abdallah al-Salim al-Sabah (since 8
February 1978); Deputy Prime Minister SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah
(since 17 October 1992)

*Kuwait, Government

Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Muhammad al-Sabah al-Salim al-SABAH
chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-0702
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward (Skip) GNEHM, Jr.
embassy:
Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Kuwait International Hotel), Kuwait City
mailing address:
P.O. Box 77 SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; APO AE 09880
telephone:
[965] 242-4151 through 4159
FAX:
[956] 244-2855
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a black
trapezoid based on the hoist side

*Kuwait, Economy

Overview:
Kuwait is a small and relatively open economy with proven crude oil reserves
of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world reserves. Kuwait is rebuilding
its war-ravaged petroleum sector and the increase in crude oil production to
nearly 2.0 million barrels per day by the end of 1992 led to an enormous
increase in GDP for the year. The government ran a cumulative fiscal deficit
of approximately $70 billion over its last two fiscal years, reducing its
foreign asset position and increasing its public debt to roughly $40
billion. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and over 90% of export
and government revenue.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $15.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
80% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$11,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)
Exports:
$750 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
oil
partners:
France 16%, Italy 15%, Japan 12%, UK 11%
Imports:
$4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
partners: US 35%, Japan 12%, UK 9%, Canada 9%
External debt:
$7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)
note:
external debt has grown substantially in 1991 and 1992 to pay for
restoration of war damage
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for NA% of GDP
Electricity:
6,873,000 kW available out of 7,398,000 kW capacity due to Persian Gulf war;
12,264 million kWh produced, 8,890 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, building
materials, salt, construction
Agriculture:
practically none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of potable water
must be distilled or imported
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries
(1979-89)
Currency:
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.3044 (January 1993), 0.2934 (1992), 0.2843
(1991), 0.2915 (1990), 0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988)

*Kuwait, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

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