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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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growth rate 9.4% (1992 est.); accounts for about 20% of GDP
Electricity:
5,835,000 kW capacity; 21,840 million kWh produced, 4,600 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles, clothing,
chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining,
high-technology electronics, tourism

*Israel, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for about 3% of GDP; largely self-sufficient in food production,
except for grains; principal products - citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
cotton; livestock products - beef, dairy, poultry
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.8 billion
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.8000 (December 1992), 2.4591 (1992),
2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

*Israel, Communications

Railroads:
600 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated
Highways:
4,750 km; majority is bituminous surfaced
Pipelines:
crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km
Ports:
Ashdod, Haifa
Merchant marine:
35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 678,584 GRT/785,220 DWT; includes 8
cargo, 24 container, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off; note - Israel
also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet, which is normally at
least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the Israeli flag of convenience
fleet typically includes all of its oil tankers
Airports:
total:
53
usable:
46
with permanent-surface runways:
28
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
most highly developed in the Middle East although not the largest; good
system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; 1,800,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 14 AM, 21 FM, 20 TV; 3 submarine cables; satellite
earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

*Israel, Defense Forces

Branches:
Israel Defense Forces (including ground, naval, and air components)
note:
historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,240,757; females age 15-49 1,218,610; males fit for
military service 1,018,212; females fit for military service 996,089; males
reach military age (18) annually 46,131; females reach military age (18)
annually 44,134 (1993 est.); both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12.5 billion, 18% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Italy, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, a peninsula in the central Mediterranean Sea
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
301,230 km2
land area:
294,020 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Arizona
note:
includes Sardinia and Sicily
Land boundaries:
total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2
km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km
Coastline:
4,996 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
small vocal minority in northern Italy seeks the return of parts of
southwestern Slovenia
Climate:
predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources:
mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil
reserves, fish, coal
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
10%
meadows and pastures:
17%
forest and woodland:
22%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
31,000 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
regional risks include landslides, mudflows, snowslides, earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land sinkage in Venice
Note:
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea
and air approaches to Western Europe

*Italy, People

Population:
58,018,540 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.2% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
10.65 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.66 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.43 years
male:
74.22 years
female:
80.85 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Italian(s)
adjective:
Italian
Ethnic divisions:
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians
in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south),
Sicilians, Sardinians
Religions:
Roman Catholic 100%
Languages:
Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly
German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta
region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
97%
male:
98%
female:
96%
Labor force:
23.988 million
by occupation:
services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)

*Italy, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Italian Republic
conventional short form:
Italy
local long form:
Repubblica Italiana
local short form:
Italia
former:
Kingdom of Italy
Digraph:
IT
Type:
republic
Capital:
Rome
Administrative divisions:
20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria,
Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia,
Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto
Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Independence:
17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)
Constitution:
1 January 1948
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals
treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in
Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DC), Fermo Mino MARTINAZZOLI, general secretary;
Rosa Russo JERVOLINO, president; Socialist Party (PSI), Giorgio BENVENUTO,
party secretary; Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Enrico FERRI, party
secretary; Liberal Party (PLI); Democratic Party of the Left (PDS - was
Communist Party, or PCI, until January 1991), Achille OCCHETTO, secretary
general; Italian Social Movement (MSI), Gianfranco FINI, national secretary;
Republican Party (PRI), Giorgio BOGI, political secretary; Lega Nord
(Northern League), Umberto BOSSI, president; Communist Renewal (RC), Sergio
GARAVINI
Other political or pressure groups:
the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (CGIL -
formerly Communist dominated, CISL - Christian Democratic, and UIL - Social
Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian manufacturers association
(Confindustria); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum
age is 25)
Elections:
Senate:
last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997); results - DC
27.3%, PDS 17.0%, PSI 13.6%, Northern Leagues 8.2%, other 33.9%; seats -
(326 total; 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) DC 107, PDS 64, PSI
49, Leagues 25, other 70

*Italy, Government

Chamber of Deputies:
last held 5-6 April 1992 (next to be held by April 1997); results - DC
29.7%, PDS 16.1%, PSI 13.6%, Northern Leagues 8.7%, RC 5.6%, MSI 5.4%, PRI
4.4%, PLI 2.8%, PSDI 2.7%, other 11%; seats - (630 total) DC 206, PDS 107,
PSI 92, Northern Leagues 55, RC 35, MSI 34, PRI 27, PLI 17, PSDI 16, other
41
Executive branch:
president, prime minister (president of the Council of Ministers)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of an upper chamber or Senate of
the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (29 April 1993)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional),
CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-7, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI CHIAPPORI
chancery:
1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 328-5500
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San
Francisco
consulates:
Detroit, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Via Veneto 119/A, 00187, Rome
mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone:
[39] (6) 46741
FAX:
[39] (6) 488-2672
consulates general:
Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Palermo (Sicily)
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to
the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and
orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors
reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

*Italy, Economy

Overview:
Since World War II the economy has changed from one based on agriculture
into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per
capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a
developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and an
undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises.
Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 35%, agriculture 4%, and public
administration 13%. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of
energy requirements must be imported. After growing at an annual average
rate of 3% in 1983-90, growth slowed to about 1% in 1991 and 1992. In the
second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying
to participate in EC plans for economic and monetary union later in the
decade; thus it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances. Thanks
to the determination of Prime Minister AMATO, the government adopted a
fairly stringent budget for 1993, abandoned its highly inflationary wage
indexation system, and started to scale back its extremely generous social
welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary
officials, who were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary
system in September 1992 when it came under extreme pressure in currency
markets, remain committed to bringing the currency back into the grid as
soon as conditions warrant. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of
refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in major
industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying
the ongoing economic integration of the European Community.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.012 trillion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
0.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
$17,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
11% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $447 billion; expenditures $581 billion, including capital
expenditures of $46 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
$168.8 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles, wearing apparel, metals, production machinery, motor vehicles,
transportation equipment, chemicals, other
partners:
EC 58.3%, US 6.8%, OPEC 5.1% (1992)
Imports:
$169.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum, industrial machinery, chemicals, metals, food, agricultural
products
partners:
EC 58.8%, OPEC 6.1%, US 5.5% (1992)
External debt:
$42 billion (September 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.5% (1992 est.); accounts for almost 35% of GDP
Electricity:
58,000,000 kW capacity; 235,000 million kWh produced, 4,060 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Italy, Economy

Industries:
machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor
vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Agriculture:
accounts for about 4% of GDP and about 10% of the work force;
self-sufficient in foods other than meat, dairy products, and cereals;
principal crops - fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990
Illicit drugs:
increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering
the European market
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion
Currency:
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,482.5 (January 1993), 1,232.4 (1992),
1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Italy, Communications

Railroads:
20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned standard gauge
(8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned - 2,100 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km 0.950-meter narrow gauge
(380 km electrified)
Highways:
298,000 km total; autostrada (expressway) 6,000 km, state highways 46,000
km, provincial highways 103,000 km, communal highways 143,000 km; 270,000 km
paved, 23,000 km gravel and crushed stone, 5,000 km earth
Inland waterways:
2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited
overall value
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Ports:
Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo (Sicily),
Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine:
536 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,788,938 GRT/10,128,468 DWT;
includes 15 passenger, 36 short-sea passenger, 87 cargo, 4 refrigerated
cargo, 21 container, 69 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 vehicle carrier, 1
multifunction large-load carrier, 138 oil tanker, 34 chemical tanker, 45
liquefied gas, 10 specialized tanker, 9 combination ore/oil, 57 bulk, 2
combination bulk
Airports:
total:
137
usable: 133
with permanent-surface runways:
92
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
36
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
39
Telecommunications:
modern, well-developed, fast; 25,600,000 telephones; fully automated
telephone, telex, and data services; high-capacity cable and microwave radio
relay trunks; broadcast stations - 135 AM, 28 (1,840 repeaters) FM, 83
(1,000 repeaters) TV; international service by 21 submarine cables, 3
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3 Atlantic Ocean
antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in INMARSAT and
EUTELSAT systems

*Italy, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,898,913; fit for military service 12,989,142; reach
military age (18) annually 425,286 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $24.5 billion, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Jamaica, Geography

Location:
in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 160 km south of Cuba
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
10,990 km2
land area:
10,830 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,022 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes: none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources:
bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
19%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
28%
other:
29%
Irrigated land:
350 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (especially July to November); deforestation; water
pollution
Note:
strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea
lanes for Panama Canal

*Jamaica, People

Population:
2,529,981 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.96% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
22.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.72 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
17.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.09 years
male:
71.92 years
female:
76.36 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican
Ethnic divisions:
African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3%,
white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%
Religions:
Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church
2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other, including some spiritual cults
39.1% (1982)
Languages:
English, Creole
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1990)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
99%
Labor force:
1,062,100
by occupation:
services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%, unemployed 17.5% (1989)

*Jamaica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jamaica
Digraph:
JM
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Kingston
Administrative divisions:
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint
Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint
Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence:
6 August 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
6 August 1962
Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day (first Monday in August)
Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP) P. J. PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP),
Edward SEAGA
Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 30 March 1993 (next to be held by February 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) PNP 52, JLP 8
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Sir Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister P. J. PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77, GATT, G-15, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard BERNAL
chancery:
Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:
(202) 452-0660

*Jamaica, Government

consulates general:
Miami and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN
embassy:
Kingston
mailing address:
3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston
telephone:
(809) 929-4850 through 4859
FAX:
(809) 926-6743
Flag:
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and
bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

*Jamaica, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism. In 1985 it suffered a
setback with the closure of some facilities in the bauxite and alumina
industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since 1986 an economic
recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to improve for the
bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal prices. The
recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and tourism
sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on
crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary setback to the
economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the hurricane was
largely complete, and real growth was up about 3% for 1989. In 1991,
however, growth dropped to 0.2% as a result of the US recession, lower world
bauxite prices, and monetary instability. In 1992, growth was 1.5%,
supported by a recovery in tourism and stabilization of the Jamaican dollar
in the second half of 1992.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.7 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
52% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15.4% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $600 million; expenditures $736 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum
partners:
US 39%, UK 14%, Canada 12%, Netherlands 8%, Norway 7%
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fuel, other raw materials, construction materials, food, transport
equipment, other machinery and equipment
partners:
US 51%, UK 6%, Venezuela 5%, Canada 5%, Japan 4.5%
External debt:
$4.4 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.0% (1990); accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
1,127,000 kW capacity; 2,736 million kWh produced, 1,090 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force, and 17% of exports;
commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables;
livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk; not
self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point for cocaine from
Central and South America to North America; government has an active
cannabis eradication program

*Jamaica, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2 billion; other countries,
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion
Currency:
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 22.173 (September 1992), 12.116 (1991),
7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Jamaica, Communications

Railroads:
294 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track
Highways:
18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km improved earth
Pipelines:
petroleum products 10 km
Ports:
Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,619 GRT/16,302 DWT; includes 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker, 2 bulk
Airports:
total:
36
usable:
23
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
fully automatic domestic telephone network; 127,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 3
coaxial submarine cables

*Jamaica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Jamaica Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard and Air Wing),
Jamaica Constabulary Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 651,931; fit for military service 461,980 (1993 est.); no
conscription; 26,445 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $19.3 million, 1% of GDP (FY91/92)

*Jan Mayen, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

*Jan Mayen, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km
north-northeast of Iceland, between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea
Map references:
Arctic Region
Area:
total area:
373 km2
land area:
373 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
124.1 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
10 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
Mayen
Climate:
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
Terrain:
volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the highest peak,
with an elevation of 2,277 meters
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
barren volcanic island with some moss and grass; volcanic activity resumed
in 1970

*Jan Mayen, People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants; note - there are personnel who man the LORAN C
base and the weather and coastal services radio station

*Jan Mayen, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jan Mayen
Digraph:
JN
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann)
resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard)
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)

*Jan Mayen, Economy

Overview:
Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources.
Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's
radio and meteorological stations located on the island.
Electricity:
15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1992)

*Jan Mayen, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
radio and meteorological station

*Jan Mayen, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

*Japan, Geography

Location:
Northeast Asia, off the southeast coast of Russia and east of the Korean
peninsula
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
377,835 km2
land area:
374,744 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
note:
includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,
Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands
(Kazan-retto)
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
29,751 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and
Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait
International disputes:
Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group
occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by
Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Terrain:
mostly rugged and mountainous
Natural resources:
negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
28,680 km2 (1989)
Environment:
many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences
(mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
Note:
strategic location in northeast Asia

*Japan, People

Population:
124,711,551 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.32% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
10.31 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.17 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.18 years
male:
76.35 years
female:
82.15 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Japanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Japanese
Ethnic divisions:
Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)
Religions:
Shinto 95.8%, Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12%
note:
most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites so the percentages add
to more than 100%
Languages:
Japanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
63.33 million
by occupation:
trade and services 54%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 33%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%, government 3% (1988)

*Japan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Japan
Digraph:
JA
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Tokyo
Administrative divisions:
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka,
Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa,
Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka,
Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori,
Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
Independence:
660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
Constitution:
3 May 1947
Legal system:
modled after European civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Kiichi MIYAZAWA, president; Seiroku
KAJIYAMA, secretary general; Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ), Sadao
YAMAHANA, Chairman; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keizo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, Presidium chairman; Komeito
(Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman; Japan New Party
(JNP), Morihiro HOSOKAWA, chairman
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Councillors:
last held on 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1995); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 106, SDPJ 73, CGP 24, DSP 12,
JCP 11, JNP 4, other 22
House of Representatives:
last held on 18 February 1990 (next to be held by NA February 1994); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (512 total) LDP 274, SDPJ 137, CGP
46, JCP 16, DSP 13, others 5, independents 6, vacant 15
Executive branch:
Emperor, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors
(Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Shugi-in)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5 November 1991)

*Japan, Government

Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP, CSCE
(observer), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNRWA,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA
chancery:
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-6700
consulates general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas
City (Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle,
and Portland (Oregon)
consulates:
Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST
embassy:
10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
mailing address:
APO AP 96337-0001
telephone:
[81] (3) 3224-5000
FAX:
[81] (3) 3505-1862
consulates general:
Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
consulate:
Fukuoka
Flag:
white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the
center

*Japan, Economy

Overview:
Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a comparatively
small defense allocation have helped Japan advance with extraordinary
rapidity, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important
sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. Self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its
requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the
world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global
catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the
1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic growth slowed markedly
in 1992 largely because of contractionary domestic policies intended to
wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. At the
same time, the stronger yen and slower global growth are containing export
growth. Unemployment and inflation remain low at 2%. Japan continues to run
a huge trade surplus - $107 billion in 1992, up nearly 40% from the year
earlier - which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The
crowding of its habitable land area and the aging of its population are two
major long-run problems.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $2.468 trillion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$19,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
2.2% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $490 billion; expenditures $579 billion, including capital
expenditures (public works only) of about $68 billion (FY93)
Exports:
$339.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactures 97% (including machinery 40%, motor vehicles 18%, consumer
electronics 10%)
partners:
Southeast Asia 31%, US 29%, Western Europe 23%, Communist countries 4%,
Middle East 3%
Imports:
$232.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
manufactures 44%, fossil fuels 33%, foodstuffs and raw materials 23%
partners:
Southeast Asia 25%, US 22%, Western Europe 17%, Middle East 12%, former
Communist countries and China 8%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -6.0% (1992); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
196,000,000 kW capacity; 835,000 million kWh produced, 6,700 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment, construction
and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronic and
telecommunication equipment and components, machine tools and automated
production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock, shipbuilding,
chemicals, textiles, food processing

*Japan, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with
crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets,
vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs;
about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn,
soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $83.2 billion; ODA outlay of $9.1
billion in 1990 (est.)
Currency:
1 yen (Y) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
yen (Y) per US$1 - 125.01 (January 1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991),
144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Japan, Communications

Railroads:
27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 25,315 km
predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and multitrack
sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified, 2,012 km
1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)
Highways:
1,111,974 km total; 754,102 km paved, 357,872 km gravel, crushed stone, or
unpaved; 4,400 km national expressways; 46,805 km national highways; 128,539
km prefectural roads; and 930,230 km city, town, and village roads, 6,400 km
other
Inland waterways:
about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas
Pipelines:
crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km
Ports:
Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu, Himeji,
Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu
Merchant marine:
950 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,080,149 GRT/32,334,270 DWT;
includes 10 passenger, 39 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 81 cargo,
43 container, 43 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 87 refrigerated cargo, 97 vehicle
carrier, 240 oil tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 39 liquefied gas, 9 combination
ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker, 247 bulk, 1 multi-function large load
carrier; note - Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including
up to 44% of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag
Airports:
total:
162
usable:
159
with permanent-surface runways:
132
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
50
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international service; 64,000,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major - 1 kw or greater);
satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and Russia

*Japan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
(Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Maritime Safety Agency
(Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 32,134,496; fit for military service 27,689,029; reach
military age (18) annually 1,002,998 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 billion, 0.94% of GDP (FY93/94 est.)

*Jarvis Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Jarvis Island, Geography

Location:
in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,090 km south of Honolulu, just south of the
Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
4.5 km2
land area:
4.5 km2
comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; lacks fresh
water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

*Jarvis Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it
was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year
by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit only
and generally restricted to scientists and educators

*Jarvis Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Jarvis Island
Digraph:
DQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Jarvis Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Jarvis Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only - one boat landing area in the middle of the
west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island
Note:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

*Jarvis Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

*Jersey, Header

Affiliation:
(British crown dependency)

*Jersey, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, 27 km from France in the English Channel
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
117 km2
land area:
117 km2
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
70 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain:
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Natural resources:
agricultural land
Land use:
arable land:
57%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other: NA%
Environment:
about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
Note:
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands

*Jersey, People

Population:
85,450 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.7% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.79 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.23 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.4 years
male:
73.28 years
female:
79.86 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.42 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Channel Islander(s)
adjective:
Channel Islander
Ethnic divisions:
UK and Norman-French descent
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist,
Presbyterian
Languages:
English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in
country districts
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Jersey, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form:
Jersey
Digraph:
JE
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Saint Helier
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
English law and local statute
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
none; all independents
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
Assembly of the States:
last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of vote by party
since all are independents; seats - (56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents
Executive branch:
British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the States
Judicial branch:
Royal Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON
(since NA 1990); Bailiff Sir Peter J. CRILL (since NA)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (British crown dependency)
US diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland)
extending to the corners of the flag

*Jersey, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture, and
tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy
cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export earner. Milk
products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986 the finance sector
overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the
island's output. In recent years the government has encouraged light
industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry
has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw
material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of
Jersey's food needs.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
8% (1987 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1988 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1985)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral
fuels, chemicals
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
50,000 kW standby capacity (1992); power supplied by France
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy
Agriculture:
potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Jersey pound (#J) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Jersey pounds (#J) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
(1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); the Jersey pound is at
par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Jersey, Communications

Ports:
Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
63,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine
cables

*Jersey, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Johnston Atoll, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Johnston Atoll, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,430 km west-southwest of Honolulu, about
one-third of the way between Hawaii and the Marshall Islands
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
2.8 km2
land area:
2.8 km2
comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
10 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little
seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until about 1890)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
some low-growing vegetation
Note:
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand
Island are natural islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are
manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former
nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal
System (JACADS)

*Johnston Atoll, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 1,400 US Government personnel
and contractors

*Johnston Atoll, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Johnston Atoll
Digraph:
JQ
Type:
unincorportated territory of the US administered by the US Defense Nuclear
Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
the flag of the US is used

*Johnston Atoll, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel
and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must
be imported.
Electricity:
supplied by the management and operations contractor

*Johnston Atoll, Communications

Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m:
1 with TACAN and beacon
with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
excellent system including 60-channel submarine cable, Autodin/SRT terminal,
digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station),
commercial satellite television system, and UHF/VHF air-ground radio

*Johnston Atoll, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

*Jordan, Header

Affiliation:
(also see separate West Bank entry)

*Jordan, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Israel and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
89,213 km2
land area:
88,884 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,619 km, Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km, Syria 375
km, West Bank 97 km
Coastline:
26 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
differences with Israel over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line that
separates the two countries; water-sharing issues with Israel
Climate:
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrain:
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley
separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Natural resources:
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
0.5%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
0.5%
other:
94%
Irrigated land: 570 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
lack of natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification

*Jordan, People

Population:
3,823,636 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.57% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
39.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
33.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.61 years
male:
69.83 years
female:
73.51 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.79 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Jordanian(s)
adjective:
Jordanian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
80%
male:
89%
female:
70%
Labor force:
572,000 (1988)
by occupation:
agriculture 20%, manufacturing and mining 20% (1987 est.)

*Jordan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form:
Jordan
local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form:
Al Urdun
former:
Transjordan
Digraph:
JO
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Amman
Administrative divisions:
8 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al
Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an
Independence:
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
8 January 1952
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts
in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Political parties and leaders:
approximately 24 parties have been formed since the National Charter, but
the number fluctuates; after the 1989 parliamentary elections, King Hussein
promised to allow the formation of political parties; a national charter
that sets forth the ground rules for democracy in Jordan - including the
creation of political parties - was approved in principle by the special
National Conference on 9 June 1991, but its specific provisions have yet to
be passed by National Assembly
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 8 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) Muslim Brotherhood (fundamentalist)
22, Independent Islamic bloc (generally traditionalist) 6, Democratic bloc
(mostly leftist) 9, Constitutionalist bloc (traditionalist) 17, Nationalist
bloc (traditionalist) 16, independent 10
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-'Umma) consists of an upper house or
House of Notables (Majlis al-A'ayan) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwaab); note - the House of Representatives has
been convened and dissolved by the King several times since 1974 and in
November 1989 the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation

*Jordan, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal Al Hashemi (since 11 August 1952)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Zayd bin SHAKIR (since 21 November 1991)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNRWA, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Fayez A. TARAWNEH
chancery:
3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-2664
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roger Gram HARRISON
embassy:
Jebel Amman, Amman
mailing address:
P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO AE 09892
telephone:
[962] (6) 644-371
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a red
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven
fundamental laws of the Koran

*Jordan, Economy

Overview:
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the late
1970s and early 1980s, when its annual GNP growth averaged more than 10%. In
the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in both Arab aid and worker
remittances slowed economic growth to an average of roughly 2% per year.
Imports - mainly oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and food - have been
outstripping exports, with the difference covered by aid, remittances, and
borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government began debt-rescheduling
negotiations and agreed to implement an IMF program designed to gradually
reduce the budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated Jordan's
already serious economic problems, forcing the government to shelve the IMF
program, stop most debt payments, and suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid
from Gulf Arab states and worker remittances have plunged, and refugees have
flooded the country, straining government resources. Economic recovery is
unlikely without substantial foreign aid, debt relief, and economic reform.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.6 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,100 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $440 million (1992 est.)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures
partners:
India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, UAE, China
Imports:
$2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured
goods
partners:
EC countries, US, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey
External debt:
$9 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
1,030,000 kW capacity; 3,814 million kWh produced, 1,070 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing
Agriculture:
accounts for about 7% of GDP; principal products are wheat, barley, citrus
fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock - sheep, goats, poultry; large
net importer of food

*Jordan, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $44
million
Currency:
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.6890 (January 1993), 0.6797 (1992),
0.6808 (1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Jordan, Communications

Railroads:
789 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed stone
Pipelines:
crude oil 209 km
Ports:
Al 'Aqabah
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,378 GRT/113,557 DWT; includes 1
cargo and 1 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
19
usable:
15
with permanent-surface runways:
14
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
adequate telephone system of microwave, cable, and radio links; 81,500
telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations
- 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 domestic
TV receive-only; coaxial cable and microwave to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and
Syria; microwave link to Lebanon is inactive; participant in MEDARABTEL, a
microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia,
Algeria, and Morocco

*Jordan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Naval Force,
Public Security Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 936,213; fit for military service 664,095; reach military
age (18) annually 42,093 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $434.8 million, 7.9% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Juan de Nova Island, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Juan de Nova Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the central Mozambique Channel about one-third of the
way between Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
4.4 km2
land area:
4.4 km2
comparative area:
about 7.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:

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