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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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48%
male:
62%
female:
34%
Labor force:
284.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture 67% (FY85)

*India, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of India
conventional short form:
India
Digraph:
IN
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra, Pradesh, Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar, Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa,,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh,, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*,, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu,
Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 January 1950
Legal system:
based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)
Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party,
M. M. JOSHI; Janata Dal Party; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M),
Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO;
Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama RAO; All-India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party in Tamil Nadu),
JAYALALITHA Jeyaram; Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR; Shiv Sena, Bal
THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Bahujana
Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party, leader NA; Communist
Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan SINGH; Dravida
Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI; Akali
Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab; National
Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH;
Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla MAHANTA
Other political or pressure groups:
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy;
numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam
Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
People's Assembly:
last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545 total, 543 elected, 2
appointed) Congress (I) Party 245, Bharatiya Janata Party 119, Janata Dal
Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20, CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13,
AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party 5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S)
Party 1, other 23, vacant 9
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

*India, Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper house or Council of
States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992); Vice President K.R.
NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991)
Member of:
AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19, AfDB, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
ONUSAL, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ,
UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Siddhartha Shankar RAY
chancery:
2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-7000
consulates general:
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering
embassy:
Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[91] (11) 600651
FAX:
[91] (11) 687-2028, 687-2391
consulates general:
Bombay, Calcutta, Madras
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue
chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

*India, Economy

Overview:
India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern
agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude
of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980s permitted a
significant increase in real per capita private consumption. A large share
of the population, perhaps as much as 40%, remains too poor to afford an
adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990 and 1991 prompted government
austerity measures that slowed industrial growth but permitted India to meet
its international payment obligations without rescheduling its debt. Policy
reforms since 1991 have extended earlier economic liberalization and greatly
reduced government controls on production, trade, and investment.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $240 billion (FY93 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (FY93 est.)
National product per capita:
$270 (FY93 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.9% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $39.2 billion; expenditures $41.06 billion, including capital
expenditures of $10.2 billion (FY92)
Exports:
$19.8 billion (f.o.b., FY93 est.)
commodities:
gems and jewelry, clothing, engineering goods, leather manufactures, cotton
yarn, and fabric
partners:
USSR 16.1%, US 14.7%, West Germany 7.8% (FY91)
Imports:
$25.5 billion (c.i.f., FY93 est.)
commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, gems, fertilizer, chemicals, machinery
partners:
US 12.1%, West Germany 8.0%, Japan 7.5% (FY91)
External debt:
$73 billion (March 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.5% (FY93 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
82,000,000 kW capacity; 310,000 million kWh produced, 340 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment,
cement, mining, petroleum, machinery
Agriculture:
accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs 67% of labor force; principal
crops - rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes;
livestock - cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, poultry; fish catch of about 3
million metric tons ranks India among the world's top 10 fishing nations
Illicit drugs:
licit producer of opium poppy for the pharmaceutical trade, but some opium
is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country for
illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of
hashish

*India, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $31.7 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion;
Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million
Currency:
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise
Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 26.156 (January 1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742
(1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*India, Communications

Railroads:
61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge, 24,051 km
1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and 0.610 meter);
12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified
Highways:
1,970,000 km total (1989); 960,000 km surfaced and 1,010,000 km gravel,
crushed stone, or earth
Inland waterways:
16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,497 km; petroleum products 1,703 km; natural gas 902 km (1989)
Ports:
Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore, Port Blair (Andaman
Islands)
Merchant marine:
306 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,278,672 GRT/10,446,073 DWT;
includes 1 short-sea passenger, 6 passenger-cargo, 87 cargo, 1
roll-on/roll-off, 8 container, 63 oil tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 8
combination ore/oil, 114 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 6 liquefied gas
Airports:
total:
336
usable:
285
with permanent-surface runways:
205
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
58
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
90
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone system is poor providing only one telephone for about 200
persons on average; long distance telephoning has been improved by a
domestic satellite system which also carries TV; international service is
provided by 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations and by submarine cables
to Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates; broadcast stations - 96 AM, 4 FM,
274 TV (government controlled)

*India, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Security or Paramilitary Forces (including Border
Security Force, Assam Rifles, and Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 242,866,053; fit for military service 143,008,471; about
9,466,323 reach military age (17) annually (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $5.8 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY93/94)

*Indian Ocean, Geography

Location:
body of water between Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica
Map references:
Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
73.6 million km2
comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean
(after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Arctic
Ocean)
note:
includes Arabian Sea, Bass Straight, Bay of Bengal, Java Sea, Persian Gulf,
Red Sea, Straight of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Coastline:
66,526 km
International disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October);
tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the north
Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean
Terrain:
surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of
currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in
the north Indian Ocean, low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from
hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and
southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern
Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and
northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the
Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge,
Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258
meters in the Java Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer
deposits, polymetallic nodules
Environment:
endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales;
oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
Note:
major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of
Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait; ships
subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from May to
October

*Indian Ocean, Government

Digraph:
XO

*Indian Ocean, Economy

Overview:
The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East,
Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a
particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oil
fields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing
importance to the bordering countries for domestic consumption and export.
Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian
Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being
tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western
Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes
from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore
placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly
India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
Industries:
based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly marine life,
minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel aggregates,
placer deposits

*Indian Ocean, Communications

Ports:
Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka),
Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia), Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne
(Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)
Telecommunications:
submarine cables from India to United Arab Emirates and Malaysia, and from
Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia

*Indonesia, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, between Malaysia and Australia
Map references:
Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,919,440 km2
land area:
1,826,440 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal
and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils,
coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
75,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional floods, severe
droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation
Note:
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from
Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

*Indonesia, People

Population:
197,232,428 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.61% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.84 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.73 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
69.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
60.26 years
male:
58.28 years
female:
62.34 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Indonesian(s)
adjective:
Indonesian
Ethnic divisions:
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Religions:
Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other
1% (1985)
Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch, local
dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
77%
male:
84%
female:
68%
Labor force:
67 million
by occupation:
agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and
communications 3% (1985 est.)

*Indonesia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form:
Indonesia
local long form:
Republik Indonesia
local short form:
Indonesia
former name:
Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Digraph:
ID
Type:
republic
Capital:
Jakarta
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions*, (daerah-daerah
istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital
city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya,, Jakarta Raya**,,
Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan
Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung,
Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*, Independence:
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia
became legally independent from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional
Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and
by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
WAHONO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of
former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman; Development
Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan
METAREUM, chairman
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR 68%,
PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 appointed) GOLKAR
282, PPP 62, PDI 56
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note -
the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR)
includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five
years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to
determine national policy

*Indonesia, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Gen.
(Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993)
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY
chancery:
2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone:
(202) 775-5200
consulates general:
Houston, New York, and Los Angeles
consulates:
Chicago and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert L. BARRY
embassy:
Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address:
APO AP 96520
telephone:
[62] (21) 360-360
FAX:
[62] (21) 360-644
consulates:
Medan, Surabaya
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of
Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white
(top) and red

*Indonesia, Economy

Overview:
Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central
planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise.
Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly
increasing population, it remains a poor country. Real GDP growth in 1985-92
averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash
underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the
labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important
sector, accounting for almost 20% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force.
The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia
is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and
textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job
generation. Industrial output now accounts for almost 40% of GDP and is
based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural
gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the
external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and
40% of export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's growth is highly
dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan remains
Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the
money supply in 1989-90 prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary
policy in 1991, forcing the private sector to go to foreign banks for
investment financing. Real interest rates remained above 10% and off-shore
commercial debt grew. The growth in off-shore debt prompted Jakarta to limit
foreign borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the continued problems in
moving toward a more open financial system and the persistence of a fairly
tight credit situation, GDP growth in 1992 is estimated to have stayed at
6%.
National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $133 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$680 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% ; underemployment 45% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)
Exports:
$29.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%,
coffee 3%
partners:
Japan 37%, Europe 13%, US 12%, Singapore 8% (1991)
Imports:
$24.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%
partners:
Japan 25%, Europe 23%, US 13%, Singapore 5% (1991)
External debt:
$50.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts for almost 40% of GDP

*Indonesia, Economy

Electricity:
11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers,
plywood, food, rubber
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 20% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder
and plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products,
poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a
major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting
traffickers
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $25.9 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
million
Currency:
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,064.7 (January 1993), 2,029.9 (1992),
1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Indonesia, Communications

Railroads:
6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 km
0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all government
owned
Highways:
119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial, and 73,508 km
district roads
Inland waterways:
21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460
km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports:
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang, Semarang,
Surabaya
Merchant marine:
401 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,766,201 GRT/2,642,529 DWT; includes
6 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo, 238 cargo, 10 container, 4
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 78 oil tanker, 6 chemical tanker,
6 liquefied gas, 7 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 26 bulk, 2
passenger
Airports:
total:
435
usable:
411
with permanent-surface runways:
119
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
11
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
67
Telecommunications:
interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair,
international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 763,000 telephones
(1986); broadcast stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations -
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

*Indonesia, Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 53,160,364; fit for military service 31,395,254; reach
military age (18) annually 2,148,927 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

*Iran, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea
Map references:
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1.648 million km2
land area:
1.636 million km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total 5,440 km, Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north) 432
km, Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey
499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline:
2,440 km
note:
Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental shelf limit, continental shelf
boundaries, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies
two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Tunb as Sughra (Arabic),
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek (Persian) or Lesser Tunb, and Tunb al Kubra
(Arabic), Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg (Persian) or Greater Tunb; it jointly
administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE,
Abu Musa (Arabic) or Jazireh-ye Abu Musa (Persian); in 1992 the dispute over
Abu Musa and the Tunb Islands became more acute when Iran unilaterally tried
to control the entry of third country nationals into the UAE portion of Abu
Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed off in the face of significant
diplomatic support for the UAE in the region; periodic disputes with
Afghanistan over Helmand water rights,
Climate:
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small,
discontinuous plains along both coasts
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese,
zinc, sulfur
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
27%
forest and woodland:
11%

*Iran, Geography

other:
54%
Irrigated land:
57,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

*Iran, People

Population:
63,369,809 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.49% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
62.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
65.26 years
male:
64.37 years
female:
66.19 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Iranian(s)
adjective:
Iranian
Ethnic divisions:
Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%,
Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and
Baha'i 1%
Languages:
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish
9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
54%
male:
64%
female:
43%
Labor force:
15.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%
note:
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

*Iran, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form:
Iran
local long form:
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form:
Iran
Digraph:
IR
Type:
theocratic republic
Capital:
Tehran
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan,
Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran,
Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence:
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Constitution:
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and
eliminate the prime ministership
Legal system:
the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government
National holiday:
Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
there are at least 18 licensed parties; the three most important are -
Tehran Militant Clergy Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI; Militant
Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI
Other political or pressure groups:
groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
Following the Line of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost
completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq
Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society
for the Defense of Freedom
Suffrage:
15 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held July 1989 (next to be held 11 June 1993); results - Ali Akbar
HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token opposition
Islamic Consultative Assembly:
last held 8 April 1992 (next to be held April 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
supreme leader (velay-t-e faqih), president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Iran, Government

Leaders:
Supreme Leader and functional Chief of State:
Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali HOSEINI-KHAMENEI (since 4
June 1989)
Head of Government:
President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989)
Member of:
CCC, CP, ESCAP, ECO, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery:
Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 965-4990
US diplomatic representation:
protecting power in Iran is Switzerland
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national
emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in
the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along
the top edge of the red band

*Iran, Economy

Overview:
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and
other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private
trading and service ventures. After a decade of economic decline, Iran's
real GDP grew by 10% in FY90 and 6% in FY91, according to Iranian Government
statistics. An oil windfall in 1990 combined with a substantial increase in
imports contributed to Iran's recent economic growth. Iran has also begun
implementing a number of economic reforms to reduce government intervention
(including subsidies) and has allocated substantial resources to development
projects in the hope of stimulating the economy. Lower oil revenues in 1991
- oil accounts for more than 90% of export revenues - together with a surge
in imports greatly weakened Iran's international financial position. By
mid-1992 Iran was unable to meet its obligations to foreign creditors.
Subsequently the government has tried to boost oil exports, curb imports
(especially of consumer goods), and renegotiate terms of its foreign debts.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $90 billion (FY92)
National product real growth rate:
6% (FY91)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (FY91)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23.7% (September 1991-September 1992)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including capital
expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$17.2 billion (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides
partners:
Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and Germany
Imports:
$21.0 billion (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals,
technical services, refined oil products
partners:
Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France
External debt:
$17 billion (FY91 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12% (1990 est.); accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including
petroleum
Electricity: 15,649,000 kW capacity; 43,600 million kWh produced, 710 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building materials,
food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
metal fabricating
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP; principal products - wheat, rice, other
grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not
self-sufficient in food

*Iran, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug
trade; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.675 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million; note - aid fell sharply
following the 1979 revolution
Currency:
1 Iranian rial (IR) = 10 tomans
Exchange rates:
Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 67.095 (January 1993), 65.552 (1992), 67.505
(1991), 68.096 (1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988); black-market rate 1,400
(January 1991); note - in March 1993 the Iranian government announced a new
single-parity exchange rate system with a new official rate of 1,538 rials
per dollar
Fiscal year:
21 March - 20 March

*Iran, Communications

Railroads:
4,852 km total; 4,760 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter gauge; 480 km
under construction from Bafq to Bandar-e Abbas, rail construction from Bafq
to Sirjan has been completed and is operational; section from Sirjan to
Bandar-e Abbas still under construction
Highways:
140,200 km total; 42,694 km paved surfaces; 46,866 km gravel and crushed
stone; 49,440 km improved earth; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network
Inland waterways:
904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about
130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use
Pipelines:
crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km
Ports:
Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Bandar Beheshti,
Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Torkeman
(Caspian Sea port), Khorramshahr (repaired after being largely destroyed in
fighting during 1980-88 war) has been in limited operation since November
1992
Merchant marine:
135 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,480,726 GRT/8,332,593 DWT; includes
39 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
refrigerated cargo, 48 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 1 liquefied gas
Airports:
total:
219
usable:
194
with permanent-surface runways:
83
with runways over 3,659 m:
16
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
70
Telecommunications:
microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran;
2,143,000 telephones (35 telephones per 1,000 persons); broadcast stations -
77 AM, 3 FM, 28 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey,
Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber optic
cable to UAE

*Iran, Defense Forces

Branches:
Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force,
Revolutionary Guards (including Basij militia and own ground, air, and naval
forces), Law Enforcement Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 13,812,367; fit for military service 8,218,286; reach
military age (21) annually 575,392 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
hard currency expenditures on defense are 7-10% of total hard currency
expenditures; rial expenditures on defense are 8-13% of total rial
expenditures (1992 est.)
note:
conversion of rial expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing
exchange rate could produce misleading results

*Iraq, Geography

Location:
Middle East, between Iran and Saudi Arabia
Map references:
Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
437,072 km2 land area:
432,162 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries:
total 3,631 km, Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia
814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km
Coastline:
58 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to
work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their
eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom
of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in April 1991
official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set forth in its
1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah
Islands or to all of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final report of the UN
Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission was welcomed by the Security
Council in Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993, which also reaffirmed that the
decisions of the commission on the boundary were final, bringing to a
completion the official demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi
officials still make public statements claiming Kuwait; periodic disputes
with upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute
over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold
winters with occasionally heavy snows
Terrain:
mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along borders
with Iran and Turkey
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
75%
Irrigated land:
25,500 km2 (1989 est)

*Iraq, Geography

Environment:
development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements
with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water pollution; soil
degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

*Iraq, People

Population:
19,161,956 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.73% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
44.57 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
71.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.96 years
male:
64.2 years
female:
65.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Iraqi(s)
adjective:
Iraqi
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3%
Languages:
Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
60%
male:
70%
female:
49%
Labor force:
4.4 million (1989)
by occupation:
services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note:
severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000 (July
1990); since then, it has declined substantially

*Iraq, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Iraq
conventional short form:
Iraq
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form:
Al Iraq
Digraph:
IZ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baghdad
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al
Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil,
Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din,
Wasit
Independence:
3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim Constitution); new
constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted
Legal system:
based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system
elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
Ba'th Party
Other political or pressure groups:
political parties and activity severely restricted; possibly some opposition
to regime from disaffected members of the regime, Army officers, and Shi'a
religious and Kurdish ethnic dissidents; the Green Party
(government-controlled)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results - Sunni Arabs 53%,
Shi'a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.; seats - (250 total) number
of seats by party NA
note:
in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992 and calls for
Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq
Executive branch:
president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, prime minister, first
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani)
Judicial branch:
Court of Cassation

*Iraq, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi
al-Din MA'RUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN
(since 23 March 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 13 September 1991); Deputy
Prime Minister Tariq 'AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian embassy in Washington, DC
chancery:
Iraqi Interests Section, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 483-7500
FAX:
(202) 462-5066
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); note - operations have been temporarily suspended; a US Interests
Section is located in Poland's embassy in Baghdad
embassy:
Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
mailing address:
P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad
telephone:
[964] (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green
five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the
phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the
right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was
added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of
Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a
plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic
eagle centered in the white band

*Iraq, Economy

Overview:
The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of
industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale
industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The
economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally
provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial
problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and
damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the government to implement
austerity measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt
payments. After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually
increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged
facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages,
salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and
collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high
priority by the government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's
seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic
embargoes, and military action by an international coalition beginning in
January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture. Industrial and
transportation facilities suffered severe damage and have been only
partially restored. Oil exports remain at less than 10% of the previous
level. Shortages of spare parts continue. Living standards deteriorated even
further in 1992 and early 1993; consumer prices at least tripled in 1992.
The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and imports and has
contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The government's policies of
supporting large military and internal security forces and of allocating
resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In
brief, per capita output in early 1993 is far below the 1989-90 level, but
no reliable estimate is available.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $35 billion (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
10% (1989 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,940 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
200% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
less than 5% (1989 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
partners:
US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)
Imports:
$6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
manufactures, food
partners:
Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)
External debt:
$45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to Arab
Gulf states
Industrial production: NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)

*Iraq, Economy

Electricity:
7,300,000 kW available out of 9,902,000 kW capacity due to Gulf war; 12,900
million kWh produced, 700 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction
materials, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GNP and 30% of labor force; principal products - wheat,
barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock -
cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $647 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion
Currency:
1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2 (fixed official rate since 1982);
black-market rate (April 1993) US$1 = 53.5 Iraqi dinars
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Iraq, Communications

Railroads:
2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
Highways:
34,700 km total; 17,500 km paved, 5,500 km improved earth, 11,700 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about
130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use; Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt
al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991
because of the Persian Gulf war
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km
Ports:
Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah (closed since 1980)
Merchant marine:
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 930,780 GRT/1,674,878 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note - none of the
Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January 1993
Airports:
total:
114
usable: 99
with permanent-surface runways:
74
with runways over 3,659 m:
9
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
52
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after Desert
Storm, most damaged facilities have been rebuilt; the network consists of
coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links; 632,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 16 AM, 1 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean GORIZONT
in the Intersputnik system and 1 ARABSAT; coaxial cable and microwave radio
relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey, Kuwait line is probably
non-operational

*Iraq, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard
Force, Internal Security Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,235,321; fit for military service 2,379,999; reach
military age (18) annually 211,776 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

*Ireland, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, across the Irish Sea from Great Britain
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
70,280 km2
land area:
68,890 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 360 km, UK 360 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute
involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool
summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low
mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
dolomite, peat, silver
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
71%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
strategic location on major air and sea routes between North American and
northern Europe

*Ireland, People

Population:
3,529,566 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.26% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.39 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.38 years
male:
72.56 years
female: 78.36 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.02 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective:
Irish
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard,
English is the language generally used
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
98%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1.37 million
by occupation:
services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5% (1992)

*Ireland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ireland
Digraph:
EI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dublin
Administrative divisions:
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry,
Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath,
Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath,
Wexford, Wicklow
Independence:
6 December 1921 (from UK)
Constitution:
29 December 1937; adopted 1937
Legal system:
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA; Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS; Labor
Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland,
Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Desmond
O'MALLEY
note:
Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna Fail and
the Labor Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
Senate:
last held on NA February 1992 (next to be held February 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 26,
Fine Gael 16, Labor 9, Progressive Democrats 2, Democratic Left 1,
independents 6
House of Representatives:
last held on 25 November 1992 (next to be held by June 1995); results -
Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party 19.3%, Progressive Democrats
4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein 1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%,
independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total) Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labor
Party 33, Progressive Democrats 10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1,
independents 5
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dail
Eireann)

*Ireland, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992)
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, COCOM (cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NEA, NSG,
OECD, ONUSAL, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNPROFRO, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER chancery:
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-3939
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William Henry G. FITZGERALD; Ambassador Designate Jean Kennedy
SMITH (17 March 1993)
embassy:
42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[353] (1) 687122
FAX:
[353] (1) 689946
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar
to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors
reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag
of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and
red

*Ireland, Economy

Overview:
The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most
important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 37% of GDP,
about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor force. Since 1987, real
GDP growth, led by exports, has averaged 4% annually. Over the same period,
inflation has fallen sharply and chronic trade deficits have been
transformed into annual surpluses. Unemployment, at 22.7% remains a serious
problem, however, and job creation is the main focus of government policy.
To ease unemployment, Dublin aggressively courts foreign investors and
recently created a new industrial development agency to aid small indigenous
firms. Government assistance is constrained by Dublin's continuing deficit
reduction measures. After five years of fiscal restraint, total government
debt still exceeds GDP. Growth probably will moderate in 1993 as the heavily
indebted and trade-dependent economy is highly sensitive to changes in
exchange rates and world interest rates. Exports to the UK, Ireland's major
export market, probably will be hurt by the recent appreciation of the Irish
currency against sterling - for the first time since 1979 the value of the
Irish pound exceeds that of its British counterpart.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $42.4 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1992)
National product per capita:
$12,000 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 22.7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $16.0 billion; expenditures $16.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.6 billion (1992 est.)
Exports:
$28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals,
animal products
partners:
EC 75% (UK 32%, Germany 13%, France 10%), US 9%
Imports:
$23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing
partners:
EC 66% (UK 41%, Germany 8%, Netherlands 4%), US 15%
External debt:
$15 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.0% (1992 est.); accounts for 37% of GDP
Electricity:
5,000,000 kW capacity; 14,500 million kWh produced, 4,120 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

*Ireland, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP and 13% of the labor force; principal crops -
turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; livestock - meat and dairy
products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food shortages include bread grain,
fruits, vegetables
Economic aid:
donor - ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million
Currency:
1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Irish pounds (#Ir) per US$1 - 0.6118 (January 1993), 0.5864 (1992), 0.6190
(1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Ireland, Communications

Railroads:
Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter gauge,
government owned; 485 km double track; 37 km electrified
Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km paved, 4,872 km gravel or crushed stone
Inland waterways:
limited for commercial traffic
Pipelines:
natural gas 225 km
Ports:
Cork, Dublin, Waterford
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 154,647 GRT/186,432 DWT; includes 4
short-sea passenger, 33 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 3 oil
tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 5 bulk
Airports:
total:
40
usable:
39
with permanent-surface runways:
13
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial submarine
cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Ireland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (Garda
Siochana)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 903,536; fit for military service 731,085; reach military
age (17) annually 33,932 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $569 million, 1-2% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Israel, Header

Affiliation:
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Note:
The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included
in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed
by President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of
the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza
Strip entries). On 25 April 1982, Israel relinquished control of the Sinai
to Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in
the Syria entry.

*Israel, Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and
Lebanon
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
20,770 km2
land area:
20,330 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total 1,006 km, Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79
km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
Coastline:
273 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the 1949 Armistice Line;
differences with Jordan over the location of the 1949 Armistice Line that
separates the two countries; West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied
with status to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli
troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan
Climate:
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain:
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift
Valley
Natural resources:
copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese,
small amounts of natural gas and crude oil
Land use:
arable land:
17%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
6%
other: 32%
Irrigated land:
2,140 km2 (1989)
Environment:
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land and
natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation
Note:
there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built
Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

*Israel, People

Population:
4,918,946 (July 1993 est.)
note:
includes 102,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 14,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 4,000 in the Gaza Strip, and 134,000 in East
Jerusalem (1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.08% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.72 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
16.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.77 years
male:
75.72 years
female:
79.93 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Israeli(s)
adjective:
Israeli
Ethnic divisions:
Jewish 83%, non-Jewish 17% (mostly Arab)
Religions:
Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%, Druze and other
2%
Languages:
Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most
commonly used foreign language
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
total population: 92%
male:
95%
female:
89%
Labor force:
1.4 million (1984 est.)
by occupation:
public services 29.3%, industry, mining, and manufacturing 22.8%, commerce
12.8%, finance and business 9.5%, transport, storage, and communications
6.8%, construction and public works 6.5%, personal and other services 5.8%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%, electricity and water 1.0% (1983)

*Israel, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
State of Israel
conventional short form:
Israel
local long form:
Medinat Yisra'el
local short form:
Yisra'el
Digraph:
IS
Type:
republic
Capital:
Jerusalem
note:
Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all
other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions:
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution:
no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled
by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the parliament
(Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system:
mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal
matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985,
Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948,
but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May)
Political parties and leaders:
members of the government:
Labor Party, Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN; MERETZ, Minister of Education
Shulamit ALONI; SHAS, Minister of Interior Arieh DERI
opposition parties:
Likud Party, Binyamin NETANYAHU; Tzomet, Rafael EITAN; National Religious
Party, Zevulun HAMMER; United Torah Jewry, Avraham SHAPIRA; Democratic Front
for Peace and Equality (Hadash), Hashim MAHAMID; Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI;
Arab Democratic Party, Abd al Wahab DARAWSHAH
note:
Israel currently has a coalition government comprising 3 parties that hold
62 seats of the Knesset's 120 seats
Other political or pressure groups:
Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West
Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza
Strip and Lebanon policies
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 24 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - Ezer
WEIZMAN elected by Knesset

*Israel, Government

Knesset:
last held June 1992 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor Party 44, Likud bloc 32, Meretz 12,
Tzomet 8, National Religious Party 6, Shas 6, United Torah Jewry 4,
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 3, Moledet 3, Arab Democratic Party
2
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Knesset)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN (since July 1992)
Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, CERN (oberver), EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Itamar RABINOVICH
chancery:
3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 364-5500
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation: chief of mission:
Acting Ambassador William BROWN
embassy:
71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv
mailing address:
APO AE 09830
telephone:
[972] (3) 654338
FAX:
[972] (3) 663449
consulate general:
Jerusalem
Flag:
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen
David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands
near the top and bottom edges of the flag

*Israel, Economy

Overview:
Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation. It
depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military
equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively
developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years.
Industry employs about 20% of Israeli workers, agriculture 5%, and services
most of the rest. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural
products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports. Israel usually posts
balance-of-payments deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments
from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's $17
billion external debt is owed to the United States, which is its major
source of economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel
has been targeting high-technology niches in international markets, such as
medical scanning equipment. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former
USSR, which topped 400,000 during the period 1990-92, has increased
unemployment, intensified housing problems, and widened the government
budget deficit. At the same time, a considerable number of the immigrants
bring to the economy valuable scientific and professional expertise.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $57.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$12,100 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $33.9 billion; expenditures $36.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $9.3 billion (FY93)
Exports:
$11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed
foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics
partners:
US, EC, Japan, Hong Kong, Switzerland
Imports:
$19.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and
steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft
partners:
US, EC, Switzerland, Japan, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong
External debt:
$25 billion of which government debt is $17 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production:

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