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(PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene
THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Joseph DOUZE; Assembly
of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Party of
Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME; Mobilization for National Development (MDN),
Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti
(MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire
EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU
and Jean MOLIERE
Other political or pressure groups:
Democratic Unity Confederation (KID); Roman Catholic Church; Confederation
of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS);
Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular Assembly (APN)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be
held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (83 total)
FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN
1, independents 5, other 2
President:
last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held by December 1995);
results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE
4.9%

*Haiti, Government

Senate:
last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate (next to be held
December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD 12,
ANDP 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 2
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) consisting of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup
in September 1991, but still recognized by international community as Chief
of State
Head of Government: de facto Prime Minister Marc BAZIN (since NA June 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
chancery:
2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-4090 through 4092
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Special Charge d'Affaires Charles REDMAN
embassy:
Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone:
[509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, or 22-0612
FAX:
[509] 23-9007
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white
rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by
flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE
(Union Makes Strength)

*Haiti, Economy

Overview:
About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly
small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly three-fourths of the work
force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe
drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social
assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains
one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil
erosion and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the
Organization of American States in response to the September 1991 coup
against President ARISTIDE have further damaged the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-4% (FY91 est.)
National product per capita:
$340 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25-50% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including capital
expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$146 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
partners:
US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less developed
countries 3% (1987)
Imports:
$252 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products
14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners:
US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%, Germany 3%
(1987)
External debt:
$838 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.0% (1991 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
217,000 kW capacity; 480 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism,
light assembly industries based on imported parts
Agriculture:
accounts for 28% of GDP and employs around 70% of work force; mostly
small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes,
sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $700 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $770 million
Currency:
1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

*Haiti, Economy

Exchange rates:
gourdes (G) per US$1 - 8.4 (December 1991), fixed rate of 5.000 through
second quarter of 1991)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

*Haiti, Communications

Railroads:
40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned industrial
line
Highways:
4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
negligible; less than 100 km navigable
Ports:
Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien
Airports:
total:
13
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly
better; 36,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Haiti, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,289,310; fit for military service 695,997; reach military
age (18) annually 60,588 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Geography

Location:
in the Indian Ocean, 4,100 km southwest of Australia
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
412 km2
land area:
412 km2 comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
101.9 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with an extinct volcano; McDonald
Islands - small and rocky
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
primarily used for research stations

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
conventional short form:
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Digraph:
HM
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Arts, Sport, the
Environment, Tourism and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

*Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Holy See (Vatican City), Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome - central Italy
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total area:
0.44 km2
land area:
0.44 km2
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 3.2 km, Italy 3.2 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers
(May to September)
Terrain:
low hill
Natural resources: none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
urban
Note:
landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the
Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer
residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

*Holy See (Vatican City), People

Population:
811 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.15% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
none
adjective:
none
Ethnic divisions:
Italians, Swiss
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages: Italian, Latin, various other languages
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live outside
the Vatican

*Holy See (Vatican City), Government

Names:
conventional long form:
The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
conventional short form:
Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form:
Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form:
Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
Digraph:
VT
Type:
monarchical-sacerdotal state
Capital:
Vatican City
Independence:
11 February 1929 (from Italy)
Constitution:
Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978) (John Paul II)
note:
Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978
Political parties and leaders:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Suffrage:
limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Elections:
Pope:
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current
pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for life by the College of
Cardinals
Executive branch:
pope
Legislative branch:
unicameral Pontifical Commission
Judicial branch:
none; normally handled by Italy
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978)
Head of Government:
Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal SODANO (since NA)
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS
(observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN
chancery:
3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-7121

*Holy See (Vatican City), Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN
embassy:
Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome
mailing address:
PSC 59, APO AE 09624
telephone:
[396] 46741
FAX:
[396] 638-0159
Flag:
two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of
Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

*Holy See (Vatican City), Economy

Overview:
This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions
(known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale
of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and
the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers
are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work
in the city of Rome.
Budget:
revenues $86 million; expenditures $178 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Electricity:
5,000 kW standby capacity (1992); power supplied by Italy
Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms;
worldwide banking and financial activities
Currency:
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi
Exchange rates:
Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,482.5 (January 1993), 1,232.4 (1992),
1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988); note - the
Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Holy See (Vatican City), Communications

Railroads:
850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of
Saint Peter's)
Highways:
none; all city streets
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone
exchange; no communications satellite systems

*Holy See (Vatican City), Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at
entrances to the Vatican City

*Honduras, Geography

Location:
Central America, between Guatemala and Nicaragua
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
112,090 km2
land area:
111,890 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,520 km, Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline:
820 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly resolved by 11 September 1992
International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the maritime
boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and
Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain:
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources:
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish
Land use:
arable land:
14%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
30%
forest and woodland:
34%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
900 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes
and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

*Honduras, People

Population:
5,170,108 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.8% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
47.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.17 years
male:
64.82 years
female: 69.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.87 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Honduran(s)
adjective:
Honduran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority
Languages:
Spanish, Indian dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
73%
male:
76%
female:
71%
Labor force:
1.3 million
by occupation:
agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%, other 6%
(1985)

*Honduras, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Honduras
conventional short form:
Honduras
local long form:
Republica de Honduras
local short form:
Honduras
Digraph:
HO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tegucigalpa
Administrative divisions:
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida,
Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan,
Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque,
Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
Legal system:
rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law;
accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PLH), Carlos Roberto REINA, presidential candidate, Rafael
PINEDA Ponce, president; National Party (PN) has two factions: Movimiento
Nacional de Reivindication Callejista (Monarca), Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS,
and Oswaldista, Oswaldo RAMOS SOTO, presidential candidate; National
Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), German LEITZELAR, president; Christian
Democratic Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president
Other political or pressure groups:
National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of
Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH);
National Union of Campesinos (UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT);
United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of
Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular
Organizations (CCOP)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results -
Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%, Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other
5.7%
National Congress:
last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1993); results - PNH
51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU-SD 1.5%, other 2.6%; seats - (128 total) PNH
71, PLH 55, PINU-SD 2
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

*Honduras, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS Romero (since 26 January 1990)
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Rene Arturo BENDANA-VALENZUELA
chancery:
3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 966-7702
consulates general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
consulates:
Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston, and Jacksonville
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William Bryce (since 28 May 1993)
embassy:
Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa
mailing address:
APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone:
[504] 32-3120
FAX:
[504] 32-0027
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue
five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the
stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central
America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua;
similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled
by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on
the bottom, centered in the white band

*Honduras, Economy

Overview:
Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for more
than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces two-thirds of
exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in its early stages,
employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates
20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration,
account for 50% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic
problems facing the economy include rapid population growth, high
unemployment, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient public
sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee and
bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. A far-reaching
reform program initiated by President CALLEJAS in 1990 is beginning to take
hold.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.5 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,090 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (30-40% underemployed) (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners:
US 65%, Germany 9%, Japan 8%, Belgium 7%
Imports:
$1.3 billion (c.i.f. 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods,
fuel and oil, foodstuffs
partners:
US 45%, Japan 9%, Netherlands 7%, Mexico 7%, Venezuela 6%
External debt:
$2.8 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
575,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood
products
Agriculture:
most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, more than 60% of
the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include
bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally
for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion

*Honduras, Economy

Currency:
1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
lempiras (L) per US$1 - 5.4 (fixed rate); 5.70 parallel black-market rate
(November 1990); the lempira was allowed to float in 1992; current rate
about US$1 - 5.65
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Honduras, Communications

Railroads:
785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge
Highways:
8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft
Ports:
Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
252 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 819,100 GRT/1,195,276 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 162 cargo, 20 refrigerated cargo, 10 container, 6
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 22 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 specialized
tanker, 22 bulk, 3 passenger, 2 short-sea passenger; note - a flag of
convenience registry; Russia owns 10 ships under the Honduran flag
Airports:
total:
165
usable:
137
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
14
Telecommunications:
inadequate system with only 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; international
services provided by 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earch stations and the
Central American microwave radio relay system; broadcast stations - 176 AM,
no FM, 7 SW, 28 TV

*Honduras, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,185,072; fit for military service 706,291; reach military
age (18) annually 58,583 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $45 million, about 1% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Hong Kong, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Hong Kong, Geography

Location:
East Asia, on the southeast coast of China bordering the South China Sea
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
1,040 km2
land area:
990 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 30 km, China 30 km
Coastline:
733 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring
through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Natural resources:
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
79%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989)
Environment:
more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

*Hong Kong, People

Population:
5,552,965 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.06% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.27 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.99 years
male:
76.55 years
female:
83.64 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 98%, other 2%
Religions:
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
Chinese (Cantonese), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population:
77%
male:
90%
female:
64%
Labor force:
2.8 million (1990)
by occupation:
manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels
27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport
and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

*Hong Kong, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Hong Kong
Abbreviation:
HK
Digraph:
HK
Type:
dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in 1997
Capital:
Victoria
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with China
on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and
economic systems and lifestyle)
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law
approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)
Political parties and leaders:
United Democrats of Hong Kong, Martin LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for
the Betterment of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Democratic Foundation
Other political or pressure groups:
Cooperative Resources Center, Allen LEE, chairman; Meeting Point, Anthony
CHEUNG, chairman; Association of Democracy and People's Livelihood,
Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic Federation, HEUNG Yee
Kuk; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China); Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy);
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce
(pro-China); Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers'
Association of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union; Hong Kong
Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China
Suffrage:
direct election 21 years of age; universal as a permanent resident living in
the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years indirect election
limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional
constituencies
Elections:
Legislative Council:
indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections were
held for the first time 15 September 1991 (next to be held in September 1995
when the number of directly-elected seats increases to 20); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total; 21 indirectly elected by
functional constituencies, 18 directly elected, 18 appointed by governor, 3
ex officio members); indirect elections - number of seats by functional
constituency NA; direct elections - UDHK 12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other
2
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council

*Hong Kong, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor Chris PATTEN (since NA July 1992); Chief Secretary Sir David Robert
FORD (since NA February 1987)
Member of: APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO (associate), INTERPOL
(subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are
represented by the UK
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS
embassy:
Consulate General at 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address:
Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone:
[852] 239-011
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong
Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag;
the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by
a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another
lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the
shield

*Hong Kong, Economy

Overview:
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff
barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be
imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP, employs 28% of the
labor force, and exports about 90% of its output. Real GDP growth averaged a
remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and picked up to 4.2%
in 1991 and 5.9% in 1992. Unemployment, which has been declining since the
mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward
pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain
bright so long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably
prosperous.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $86 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
$14,600 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $17.4 billion; expenditures $14.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$118 billion, including reexports of $85.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances,
watches and clocks, toys
partners: US 29%, China 21%, Germany 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5% (1990)
Imports:
$120 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum
partners:
China 37%, Japan 16%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1990)
External debt:
$9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,566,000 kW capacity; 29,400 million kWh produced, 4,980 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Agriculture:
minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20%
self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water
Illicit drugs:
a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major financial
and money-laundering center
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923 million
Currency:
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

*Hong Kong, Economy

Exchange rates:
Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1992), 7.771 (1991), 7.790 (1990),
7.800 (1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987); note - linked to the US dollar at
the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Hong Kong, Communications

Railroads:
35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned
Highways:
1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth
Ports:
Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
176 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 5,870,007 GRT/10,006,390 DWT;
includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 20 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo,
29 container, 15 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 6 combination ore/oil, 5
liquefied gas, 88 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience
registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag, and an estimated
500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere
Airports:
total:
2
useable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services;
3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical
fiber transmission network; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater station and 1 British Forces
Broadcasting Service repeater station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000
TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations - 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou,
China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN
member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

*Hong Kong, Defense Forces

Branches:
Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong
Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,635,516; fit for military service 1,256,057; reach
military age (18) annually 43,128 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this
represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the remainder
being paid by the UK
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Howland Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Howland Island, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, just north of
the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references: Oceania
Area:
total area:
1.6 km2
land area:
1.6 km2
comparative area:
about 2.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
6.4 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain:
low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing
reef; depressed central area
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
5%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a
nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife; feral cats

*Howland Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air
and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit
only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

*Howland Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Howland Island
Digraph:
HQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Howland Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Howland Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
west coast
Airports:
airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the
round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left Lae,
New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is
no longer serviceable
Note:
Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was
partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

*Howland Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

*Hungary, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Slovakia and Romania
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe
Area:
total area:
93,030 km2
land area:
92,340 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,952 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 292 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km,
Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and
awarded to the former Yugoslavia by treaty of Trianon in 1920
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use:
arable land:
50.7%
permanent crops:
6.1%
meadows and pastures:
12.6%
forest and woodland:
18.3%
other:
12.3%
Irrigated land:
1,750 km2 (1989)
Environment:
levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western
Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean
basin

*Hungary, People

Population:
10,324,018 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
13.02 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.86 years
male:
66.81 years
female:
75.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Hungarian(s)
adjective:
Hungarian
Ethnic divisions:
Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
99%
female:
98%
Labor force:
5.4 million
by occupation:
services, trade, government, and other 44.8%, industry 29.7%, agriculture
16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

*Hungary, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Hungary
conventional short form:
Hungary
local long form:
Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form:
Magyarorszag
Digraph: HU
Type:
republic
Capital:
Budapest
Administrative divisions:
38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros);, Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya,
Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*,, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer,
Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron,
Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar,
Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza,
Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar,
Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg
Independence:
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
Constitution:
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October
1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks
on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of
parliamentary oversight
Legal system:
in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model
National holiday:
October 23 (1956) (commemorates the Hungarian uprising)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman, Dr. Lajos FUR, executive
chairman; Independent Smallholders (FKGP), Jozsef TORGYAN, president;
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP), Gyula HORN, chairman; Christian Democratic
People's Party (KDNP), Dr. Lazlo SURJAN, president; Federation of Young
Democrats (FIDESZ), Viktor ORBAN, chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats
(SZDSZ), Ivan PETO, chairman
note:
the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP) renounced
Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in October 1989;
there is still a small (fringe) MSZMP
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ
elected by parliamentary vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the
National Assembly with a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President
from 2 May 1990 until elected President
National Assembly:
last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with the second round held 8 April
1990); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Democratic
Forum 162, Free Democrats 90, Independent Smallholders 45, Hungarian
Socialist Party (MSP) 33, Young Democrats 22, Christian Democrats 21,
independents or jointly sponsored candidates 13

*Hungary, Government

Executive branch:
president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president
from 2 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL (since 21 May 1990)
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pal TAR
chancery:
3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 362-6730
FAX:
(202) 966-8135
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles H. THOMAS
embassy:
V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
mailing address:
Am Embassy, Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5270
telephone:
[36] (1) 112-6450
FAX:
[36] (1) 132-8934
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

*Hungary, Economy

Overview:
Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition from a command to a market
economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export
earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of
GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 25% of foreign
trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD
members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it
a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment.
In 1991, Hungary received 60% of all foreign investment in Eastern Europe,
and in 1992 received the largest single share. The growing private sector
accounts for about one-third of national output according to unofficial
estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing, although
excessive red tape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about pricing
have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of inflation
may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform, while
Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to introduce
full convertibility of the forint before 1994 and to rein in inflation. The
government is projecting an end to the 5-year recession in 1993, and GDP is
forecast to grow 0%-3%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $55.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,380 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
23% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
12.3% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $15.4 billion, including capital
expenditures $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 35.5%, machinery 13.5%, light
industry 23.3%, food and agricultural 24.8%, fuels and energy 2.8%
partners:
OECD 70.7%, (EC 50.1%, EFTA 15.0%), LDCs 5.1%, former CEMA members 23.2%,
others 1.0% (1991)
Imports:
$11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
fuels and energy 14.9%, raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 37.6%,
machinery 19.7%, light industry 21.5%, food and agricultural 6.3%
partners:
OECD 71.0%, (EC 45.4%, EFTA 20.0%), LDCs 3.9%, former CEMA members 23.9%,
others 1.2% (1991)
External debt:
$23.5 billion (September 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1992)
Electricity:
7,200,000 kW capacity; 30,000 million kWh produced, 3,000 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles,
chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles

*Hungary, Economy

Agriculture:
including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly
diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn,
sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy
products; self-sufficient in food output
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
recipient - $9.1 billion in assistance from OECD countries (from 1st quarter
1990 to end of 2nd quarter 1991)
Currency:
1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler
Exchange rates:
forints per US$1 - 83.97 (December 1992), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21
(1990), 59.07 (1989), 50.41 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Hungary, Communications

Railroads:
7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 222 km narrow gauge
(mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge; 1,236 km double track,
2,249 km electrified; all government owned (1990)
Highways:
130,218 km total; 29,919 km national highway system (27,212 km asphalt, 126
km concrete, 50 km stone and road brick, 2,131 km macadam, 400 km unpaved);
58,495 km country roads (66% unpaved), and 41,804 km other roads (70%
unpaved) (1988)
Inland waterways:
1,622 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports:
Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; coastal outlets are
Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)
Merchant marine:
12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 83,091 GRT/115,950
DWT
Airports:
total:
92
usable:
92
with permanent-surface runways:
25
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
28
Telecommunications:
automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; 1,128,800
phones (1991); telephone density is at 19.4 per 100 inhabitants; 49% of all
phones are in Budapest; 608,000 telephones on order (1991); 12-15 year wait
for a phone; 14,213 telex lines (1991); broadcast stations - 32 AM, 15 FM,
41 TV (8 Soviet TV repeaters); 4.2 million TVs (1990); 1 satellite ground
station using INTELSAT and Intersputnik

*Hungary, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,630,552; fit for military service 2,101,637; reach
military age (18) annually 91,979 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Iceland, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
103,000 km2
land area:
100,250 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4,988 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp,
cool summers
Terrain:
mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply
indented by bays and fiords
Natural resources:
fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite
Land use:
arable land:
1% permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
1%
other:
78%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity
Note:
strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European
country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe

*Iceland, People

Population:
261,270 (July 1993 est.)
note:
population data estimates based on average growth rate may differ slightly
from official population data because of volatile migration rates
Population growth rate:
0.88% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
16.99 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.74 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78.69 years
male:
76.45 years
female:
81.04 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Icelander(s)
adjective:
Icelandic
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none 1%
(1988)
Languages:
Icelandic
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population:
100%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
127,900
by occupation:
commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%, manufacturing 12.5%, fishing
and fish processing 11.8%, construction 10.8%, agriculture 4.0% (1990)

*Iceland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Iceland
conventional short form:
Iceland
local long form:
Lyoveldio Island
local short form:
Island
Digraph:
IC
Type:
republic
Capital:
Reykjavik
Administrative divisions:
23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns*, (kaupstadhir, singular -
kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla,, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*,, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla,
Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,,
Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla
Independence:
17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
Constitution:
16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
Legal system:
civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)
Political parties and leaders:
Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party,
Steingrimur HERMANNSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON; Women's List
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held on 29 June 1988 (next scheduled for June 1996); results - there
was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed
Althing:
last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by April 1995); results -
Independence Party 38.6%, Progressive Party 18.9%, Social Democratic Party
15.5%, People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.3%, Liberals 1.2%, other 3.1%;
seats - (63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Althing)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

*Iceland, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA,
NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-6653 through 6655
FAX:
(202) 265-6656
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jon GUNDERSEN
embassy:
Laufasvegur 21, Box 40, Reykjavik
mailing address:
USEMB, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
telephone:
[354] (1) 29100
FAX: [354] (1) 29139
Flag:
blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

*Iceland, Economy

Overview:
Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but with an
extensive welfare system, relatively low unemployment, and comparatively
even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing
industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings and employs 12% of
the workforce. In the absence of other natural resources - except energy -
Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. Iceland's
economy has been in recession since 1988. The recession deepened in 1992 due
to severe cutbacks in fishing quotas and falling world prices for the
country's main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.
Real GDP declined 3.3% in 1992 and is forecast to contract another 1.5% in
1993. The center-right government's economic goals include reducing the
budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing
inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the
economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The recession has led to a
wave of bankruptcies and mergers throughout the economy, as well as the
highest unemployment of the post-World War II period. The national
unemployment rate reached 5% in early 1993, with some parts of the country
experiencing unemployment in the 9-10% range. Inflation, previously a
serious problem, declined from double digit rates in the 1980s to only 3.7%
in 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $4.5 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-3.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$17,400 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5% (first quarter 1993)
Budget:
revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $191 million (1992)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, ferrosilicon, diatomite
partners:
EC 68% (UK 25%, Germany 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9% (1992)
External debt:
$3.9 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.75% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced, 19,940 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production, geothermal
power

*Iceland, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for about 25% of GDP; fishing is most important economic activity,
contributing nearly 75% to export earnings; principal crops - potatoes,
turnips; livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of
about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million
Currency:
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar
Exchange rates:
Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 63.789 (January 1993), 57.546 (1992),
58.996 (1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Iceland, Communications

Highways:
11,543 km total; 2,690 km hard surfaced, 8,853 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar
Merchant marine:
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,832 GRT/53,037 DWT; includes 3
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1
chemical tanker
Airports:
total:
90
usable:
84
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 12
Telecommunications:
adequate domestic service; coaxial and fiber-optical cables and microwave
radio relay for trunk network; 140,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 5
AM, 147 (transmitters and repeaters) FM, 202 (transmitters and repeaters)
TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station carries all
international traffic; a second INTELSAT earth station is scheduled to be
operational in 1993

*Iceland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Police, Coast Guard
note:
no armed forces, Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic
Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 69,499; fit for military service 61,798 (1993 est.); no
conscription or compulsory military service
Defense expenditures:
none

*India, Geography

Location:
South Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between
Bangladesh and Pakistan
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
3,287,590 km2
land area:
2,973,190 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China
3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
7,000 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status of Kashmir with Pakistan;
water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus
Climate:
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the
Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica,
bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
55%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
23%
other:
17%
Irrigated land:
430,390 km2 (1989)
Environment:
droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil
erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification
Note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

*India, People

Population:
903,158,968 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
29.11 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
80.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
58.12 years
male:
57.69 years
female:
58.59 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.57 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective:
Indian
Ethnic divisions:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%
Religions:
Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains
0.5%, other 0.4%
Languages:
English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for
national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national
language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu
(official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati
(official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official),
Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi
(official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu,
is spoken widely throughout northern India
note:
24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other
languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:

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