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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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consists of an upper chamber or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower
chamber or Federal Diet (Bundestag)
Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984)
Head of Government:
Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5,
G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Juergen RUHFUS
chancery:
4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 298-4000
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
San Francisco, Seattle
consulates:
Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington (America
Samoa)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert M. KIMMITT
embassy:
Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2, Unit 21701
mailing address:
APO AE 09080
telephone:
[49] (228) 3391
FAX:
[49] (228) 339-2663
branch office:
Berlin
consulates general:
Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

*Germany, Economy

Overview:
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects seemed
bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into the highly
successful West German economy. The Federal Republic, however, continues to
experience difficulties in integrating and modernizing eastern Germany, and
the tremendous costs of unification have sunk western Germany deeper into
recession. The western German economy grew by less than 1% in 1992 as the
Bundesbank set high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of
large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany grew by
6.8% in 1992 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite government transfers
to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion annually, a self-sustaining
economy in the region is still some years away. The bright spots are eastern
Germany's construction, transportation, telecommunications, and service
sectors, which have experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an
advanced market economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly
urbanized and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards,
abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western
Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most
important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture
technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: services and
manufacturing account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw
materials and semimanufactured goods constitute a large portion of imports.
In recent years, manufacturing has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with
other sectors contributing lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1992
accounted for about 21.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $20,000
per capita, or 85% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears
to be changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more
service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on
maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a policy for
subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern Germany's share of
all-German GDP is only 7% and eastern productivity is just 30% that of the
west even though eastern wages are at roughly 70% of western levels. The
privatization agency for eastern Germany, Treuhand, has privatized more than
four-fifths of the almost 12,000 firms under its control and will likely
wind down operations in 1994. Private investment in the region continues to
be lackluster, resulting primarily from the deepening recession in western
Germany and excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the
world's largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the
way of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany is
improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began producing
all-German data for select economic statistics at the start of 1992. The
most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern Germany's economic
reconstruction - specifically, finding the right mix of fiscal, monetary,
regulatory, and tax policies that will spur investment in eastern Germany -
without destabilizing western Germany's economy or damaging relations with
West European partners. The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor
unions, business, state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the
right mix of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to
stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German economic
culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of immigrants.
National product:
Germany:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.398 trillion (1992)
western:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.294 trillion (1992)
eastern:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $104 billion (1992)

*Germany, Economy

National product real growth rate:
Germany:
1.5% (1992)
western:
0.9% (1992)
eastern:
8% (1992)
National product per capita:
Germany:
$17,400 (1992)
western:
$20,000 (1992)
eastern:
$6,500 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
western:
4% (1992)
eastern:
NA%
Unemployment rate:
western:
7.1% (1992)
eastern:
13.5% (December 1992)
Budget:
western (federal, state, local):
revenues $684 billion; expenditures $704 billion, including capital
expenditures $NA (1990)
eastern:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$378.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor
vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw
materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%
partners:
EC 54.3% (France 12.9%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 9.3%, UK 7.7%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.4%), other Western Europe 17.0%, US 6.4%, Eastern
Europe 5.6%, OPEC 3.4% (1992)
Imports:
$354.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%, raw materials
7.1%
partners:
EC 52.0 (France 12.0%, Netherlands 9.6%, Italy 9.2%, UK 6.8%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.0%), other Western Europe 15.2%, US 6.6%, Eastern
Europe 5.5%, OPEC 2.4% (1992)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
western:
growth rates -5% (1992 est.)
eastern:
$NA
Electricity:
134,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced, 7,160 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Germany, Economy

Industries:
western:
among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals,
machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and beverages
eastern:
metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building,
food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
western:
accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); diversified
crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock include potatoes,
wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net
importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987
eastern:
accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal
crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products
include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food;
fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987
Illicit drugs:
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors
Economic aid:
western:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion
eastern:
donor - $4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates:
deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.6158 (January 1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595
(1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Germany, Communications

Railroads:
western:
31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard gauge
(12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km nongovernment
owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km electrified)
and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)
eastern:
14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or
other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter standard gauge double-track;
3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways:
western:
466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 32,460 km
national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways
(Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of
secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen)
eastern:
124,604 km total; 47,203 km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,855
km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,326 km are trunk roads, and
34,022 km are regional roads; 77,401 km municipal roads (1988)
Inland waterways:
western:
5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton
capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is
an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
eastern:
2,319 km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
(1988)
Ports:
coastal - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel,
Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland - 31
major on Rhine and Elbe rivers
Merchant marine:
565 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,928,759 GRT/6,292,193 DWT; includes
5 short-sea passenger, 3 passenger, 303 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 134
container, 28 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 7 barge carrier, 9
oil tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 17 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination
ore/oil, 6 combination bulk, 12 bulk; note - the German register includes
ships of the former East and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet underwent
major restructuring as surplus ships were sold off
Airports:
total:
499
usable:
492
with permanent-surface runways:
271
with runways over 3,659 m:
5
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
59 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
67

*Germany, Communications

Telecommunications:
western:
highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the
country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones; intensively
developed, highly redundant cable and microwave radio relay networks, all
completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM, 470 FM, 225 (6,000
repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 12
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas,
EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF radiocommunication centers;
tropospheric links
eastern:
badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 23 AM,
17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000 radios; 1
satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and Intersputnik systems

*Germany, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 20,295,655; fit for military service 17,577,570; reach
military age (18) annually 411,854 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $42.4 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1992)

*Ghana, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cote d'Ivoire and
Togo
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
238,540 km2
land area:
230,020 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
539 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in
southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
37%
other:
36%
Irrigated land:
80 km2 (1989)
Environment:
recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind
(January to March)
Note:
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

*Ghana, People

Population:
16,699,105 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.12% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
44.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
84.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
55.19 years
male: 53.27 years
female:
57.17 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.21 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ghanaian(s)
adjective:
Ghanaian
Ethnic divisions:
black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga
8%), European and other 0.2%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
Languages:
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe,
and Ga)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
60%
male:
70%
female:
51%
Labor force:
3.7 million
by occupation:
agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical 15.2%,
services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%
note:
48% of population of working age (1983)

*Ghana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Ghana
conventional short form:
Ghana
former:
Gold Coast
Digraph:
GH
Type:
constitutional democracy
Capital:
Accra
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern,
Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
6 March 1957 (from UK)
Constitution:
new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Congress, Jerry John Rawlings; New Patriotic Party,
Albert Adu BOAHEN; People's Heritage Party, Alex Erskine; various other
smaller parties
Suffrage:
universal at 18
Elections:
President:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA)
National Assembly:
last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA)
Executive branch:
president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY
chancery:
3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 686-4520
consulate general:
New York

*Ghana, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN
embassy:
Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
mailing address:
P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone:
[233] (21) 775348, 775349, 775295 or 775298
FAX: [233] (21) 776008
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large
black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a
coat of arms centered in the yellow band

*Ghana, Economy

Overview:
Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983, including
moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls. Heavily
dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not
spread substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
democratic government have boosted government expenditures and undercut
structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in 1990.
Meanwhile, declining world commodity prices for Ghana's exports has placed
the government under severe financial pressure.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.9% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$410 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $1.0 billion; expenditures $905 million, including capital
expenditures of $200 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
partners:
Germany 29%, UK 12%, US 12%, Japan 5%
Imports:
$1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
partners:
UK 23%, US 11%, Germany 10%, Japan 6%
External debt:
$4.6 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.6% in manufacturing (1991); accounts for almost 15% of GDP
Electricity:
1,180,000 kW capacity; 4,490 million kWh produced, 290 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture: accounts for about 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major
cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava, peanuts,
corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $106
million
Currency:
1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates:
ceolis per US$1 - 437 (July 1992)

*Ghana, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Ghana, Communications

Railroads:
953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads undergoing
major renovation
Highways:
32,250 km total; 6,084 km concrete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km gravel,
laterite, and improved earth surfaces
Inland waterways:
Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for
launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder
waterways
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,293 GRT/78,246 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo
Airports:
total:
10
usable:
9
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
6
Telecommunications:
poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave radio relay links; 42,300
telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators) TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Ghana, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,766,073; fit for military service 2,105,865; reach
military age (18) annually 171,145 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Gibraltar, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Gibraltar, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the
North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of
Spain
Map references:
Africa, Europe
Area:
total area:
6.5 km2
land area:
6.5 km2
comparative area:
about 11 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 1.2 km, Spain 1.2 km
Coastline:
12 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:
a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
natural freshwater sources are meager, so large water catchments (concrete
or natural rock) collect rain water
Note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic
Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

*Gibraltar, People

Population:
31,508 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.89 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.06 years
male:
73.18 years
female:
78.91 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.37 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gibraltarian(s)
adjective:
Gibraltar
Ethnic divisions:
Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish
Religions:
Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%), Moslem
8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages:
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, Russian
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
note:
UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the
labor force

*Gibraltar, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Gibraltar
Digraph:
GI
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Gilbraltar
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
30 May 1969
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association
for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader NA; Gibraltar Social
Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar National Party, Joe GARCIA
Other political or pressure groups:
Housewives Association; Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives
Organization
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident six months or
more
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held on 16 January 1992 (next to be held January 1996); results - SL
73.3%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) number of seats by party NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar Council, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and
Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek REFFELL (since NA 1989)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
Member of:
INTERPOL (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the
castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

*Gibraltar, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures, revenue from
tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from banking and
finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of
employment. Construction workers are particularly affected when government
expenditures are cut.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $182 million (FY87)
National product real growth rate:
5% (FY87)
National product per capita:
$4,600 (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
partners:
UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports:
$258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners:
UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt:
$318 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,740 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large UK
naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port; light
manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer,
and canned fish
Agriculture:
none
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $188 million
Currency:
1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992),
0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the
Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Gibraltar, Communications

Railroads:
1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways:
50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Gibraltar
Merchant marine:
32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 642,446 GRT/1,141,592 DWT; includes 4
cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 18 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
5 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Gibraltar, Defense Forces

Branches:
British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Glorioso Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Glorioso Islands, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the Indian Ocean just north of Madagascar
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
5 km2
land area:
5 km2
comparative area:
about 8.5 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
35.2 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain: NA
Natural resources:
guano, coconuts
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
subject to periodic cyclones

*Glorioso Islands, People

Population:
unihabited

*Glorioso Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Glorioso Islands
local long form:
none
local short form:
Iles Glorieuses
Digraph:
GO
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic, resident in
Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Glorioso Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Glorioso Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runsways over 3,6359 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1

*Glorioso Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Greece, Geography

Location:
Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Bulgaria
Map references:
Africa, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
131,940 km2
land area:
130,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries:
total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia
228 km
Coastline:
13,676 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm
International disputes:
air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in Aegean
Sea; Cyprus question; northern Epirus question with Albania; Macedonia
question with Bulgaria and Macedonia
Climate:
temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of
islands
Natural resources:
bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
9%
Irrigated land:
11,900 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution
Note:
strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about
2,000 islands

*Greece, People

Population:
10,470,460 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
10.42 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.36 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
8.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.5 years
male:
75.02 years
female:
80.12 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Greek(s)
adjective: Greek
Ethnic divisions:
Greek 98%, other 2%
note:
the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece
Religions:
Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Languages:
Greek (official), English, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
93%
male:
98%
female:
89%
Labor force:
3,966,900
by occupation:
services 45%, agriculture 27%, industry 28% (1990)

*Greece, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Hellenic Republic
conventional short form:
Greece
local long form:
Elliniki Dhimokratia
local short form:
Ellas
former:
Kingdom of Greece
Digraph:
GR
Type:
presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8
December 1974
Capital:
Athens
Administrative divisions:
52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia,
Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros,
Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina,
Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki,
Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa,
Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs,
Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki,
Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt.
Athos)
Independence:
1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
11 June 1975
Legal system:
based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and
administrative courts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)
Political parties and leaders:
New Democracy (ND; conservative), Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS; Panhellenic
Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU; Left Alliance, Maria
DAMANAKI; Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Konstantinos STEFANOPOULOS; Communist
Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA; Ecologist-Alternative List, leader rotates
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos
KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 8 April 1990 (next must be held by May 1994); results - ND 46.89%,
PASOK 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK/Left Alliance 1.02%,
Ecologist-Alternative List 0.77%, DIANA 0.67%, Muslim independents 0.5%;
seats - (300 total) ND 150, PASOK 123, Left Alliance 19, PASOK-Left Alliance
4, Muslim independents 2, DEANA 1, Ecologist-Alternative List 1
note:
deputies shifting from one party to another and the dissolution of party
coalitions have resulted in the following seating arrangement: ND 152, PASOK
124, Left Alliance 14, KKE 7, Muslim deputies 2, Ecologist-Alternative List
1

*Greece, Government

Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Konstantinos MITSOTAKIS (since 11 April 1990)
Member of:
Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR,
NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS
chancery:
2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:
(202) 939-5800
FAX:
(202) 939-5824
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
consulate:
New Orleans
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires James A. WILLIAMS
embassy:
91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens
mailing address:
PSC 108, Box 56, APO AE 09842
telephone:
[30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401
FAX:
[30] (1) 645-6282
consulate general:
Thessaloniki
Flag:
nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a
blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross
symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

*Greece, Economy

Overview:
Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial system
overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the public sector
from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% when Prime Minister MITSOTAKIS took
office. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and
agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal
feedstuffs. Since 1986, real GDP growth has averaged only 1.6% a year,
compared with the Europen Community average of 3%. The MITSOTAKIS government
has made little progress during its two and one-half years in power in
coming to grips with Greece's main economic problems: an inflation rate
still four times the EC average, a large public sector deficit, and a
fragile current account position. In early 1991, the government secured a
three-year, $2.5 billion assistance package from the EC under the strictest
terms yet imposed on a member country, as the EC finally ran out of patience
with Greece's failure to put its financial affairs in order. On the advice
of the EC Commission, Greece delayed applying for the second installment
until 1993 because of the failure of the government to meet the 1992
targets. Although MITSOTAKIS faced down the unions in mid-1992 in a dispute
over privatization plans, social security reform, and tax and price
increases, and his new economics czar, Stephanos MANOS, is a respected
economist committed to renovating the ailing economy. However, a national
elections due by May 1994 will probably prompt MITSOTAKIS to backtrack on
economic reform. In 1993, the GDP growth rate likely will remain low; the
inflation rate probably will continue to fall, while remaining the highest
in the EC.
National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $82.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
$8,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15.6% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
9.1% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $37.6 billion; expenditures $45.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $5.4 billion (1993)
Exports:
$6.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 31%, fuels 9%
partners:
Germany 24%, France 18%, Italy 17%, UK 7%, US 6%
Imports:
$21.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 71%, foodstuffs 14%, fuels 10%
partners:
Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, UK 5%, US 4%
External debt:
$23.7 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.0% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,400 million kWh produced, 3,610 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Greece, Economy

Industries:
food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism,
mining, petroleum
Agriculture:
including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of the labor
force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives,
tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat,
dairy products, and animal feedstuffs; fish catch of 116,600 metric tons in
1988
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic
production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis
and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor
chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,390 million
Currency:
1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta
Exchange rates:
drachma (Dr) per US$1 - 215.82 (January 1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991),
158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Greece, Communications

Railroads:
2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of which 36 km
electrified and 100 km double track; 892 km 1.000-meter gauge; 22 km
0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned
Highways:
38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632
km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal
(6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth
with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to
Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers
Pipelines:
crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km
Ports:
Piraievs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki
Merchant marine:
998 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,483,768 GRT/47,047,285 DWT;
includes 14 passenger, 66 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 128 cargo,
26 container, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle
carrier, 214 oil tanker, 19 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 42 combination
ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 424 bulk, 22 combination bulk, 1 livestock
carrier; note - ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the
registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas
Airports:
total:
78
usable:
77
with permanent-surface runways:
63
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
24
Telecommunications:
adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,080,000 telephones; microwave
radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine
cables to off-shore islands; broadcast stations - 29 AM, 17 (20 repeaters)
FM, 361 TV; tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 1 satellite earth
station operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna),
and EUTELSAT systems

*Greece, Defense Forces

Branches:
Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard, Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,606,267; fit for military service 1,996,835; reach
military age (21) annually 73,541 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.2 billion, 5.1% of GDP (1992)

*Greenland, Header

Affiliation:
(part of the Danish realm)

*Greenland, Geography

Location:
in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Canada and Norway
Map references:
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,175,600 km2
land area:
341,700 km2 (ice free)
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
44,087 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan
Mayen
Climate:
arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain:
flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous,
barren, rocky coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
99%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous
permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Note:
dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe

*Greenland, People

Population:
56,533 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.84% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
19.62 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.66 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.19 years
male:
61.79 years
female:
70.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Greenlander(s)
adjective:
Greenlandic
Ethnic divisions:
Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), Danish 14%
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Eskimo dialects, Danish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA% female:
NA%
Labor force:
22,800
by occupation:
largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

*Greenland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Greenland
local long form:
none
local short form:
Kalaallit Nunaat
Digraph:
GL
Type:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division
Capital:
Nuuk (Godthab)
Administrative divisions:
3 municipalities (kommuner, singular - kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland,
Vestgronland
Independence:
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division)
Constitution:
Danish
Legal system:
Danish
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
two-party ruling coalition; Siumut (a moderate socialist party that
advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from
Denmark), Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a
Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather
than home rule), Arqaluk LYNGE; Atassut Party (a more conservative party
that favors continuing close relations with Denmark), leader NA; Polar Party
(conservative-Greenland nationalist), Lars CHEMNITZ; Center Party (a new
nonsocialist protest party), leader NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Danish Folketing:
last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); Greenland
elects two representatives to the Folketing; results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1
Landsting:
last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March 1995); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 8, Inuit
Ataqatigiit 5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1
Executive branch:
Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule chairman, prime minister,
Cabinet (Landsstyre)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Landsting)
Judicial branch:
High Court (Landsret)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
Torben Hede PEDERSEN (since NA)

*Greenland, Government

Head of Government:
Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15 March 1991)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly
to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom
half is white

*Greenland, Economy

Overview:
Greenland's economic situation at present is difficult and unemployment
increases. Prospects for economic growth in the immediate future are not
bright. The Home Rule Government's economic restraint measures introduced in
the late 1980s have assisted in shifting red figures into a balance in the
public budget. Foreign trade produced a surplus in 1989 and 1990, but has
now returned to a deficit. Following the closing of the Black Angel lead and
zinc mine in 1989, Greenland today is fully dependent on fishing and fish
processing, this sector accounting for 95% of exports. Prospects for
fisheries are not bright, as the important shrimp catches will at best
stabilize and cod catches have dropped. Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon
activities is not around the corner, thus leaving only tourism with some
potential for the near future. The public sector in Greenland, i.e. the HRG
and its commercial entities and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in
Greenland accounting for about two thirds of total employment. About half
the government's revenues come from grants from the Danish Government.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $500 million (1988)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1990)
National product per capita:
$9,000 (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
9% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $381 million; expenditures $381 million, including capital
expenditures of $36 million (1989)
Exports:
$340.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fish and fish products 95%
partners:
Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%
Imports:
$403 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport equipment 24%, food and live
animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
partners:
Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan 3.8%, Sweden 2.4%
External debt:
$480 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced, 3,060 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead and zinc mining, handicrafts, some
small shipyards, potential for platinum and gold mining
Agriculture:
sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage and
small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500 metric tons
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re

*Greenland, Economy

Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Greenland, Communications

Highways:
80 km
Ports:
Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk (Godthaab),
Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North Star Bay
Airports: total:
11
usable:
8
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and microwave
radio relay; 17,900 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 (35 repeaters)
FM, 4 (9 repeaters) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Greenland, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is responsibility of Denmark

*Grenada, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 150 im north of Trinidad and Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
340 km2
land area:
340 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
121 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain:
volcanic in origin with central mountains
Natural resources:
timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
26%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
9%
other:
47%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Note:
islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines

*Grenada, People

Population:
93,830 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.24% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
30.85 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.46 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-21.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.15 years
male:
67.79 years
female:
72.54 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Grenadian(s)
adjective:
Grenadian
Ethnic divisions:
black African
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects
Languages: English (official), French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
36,000
by occupation:
services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%, manufacturing 5%, other 32%
(1985)

*Grenada, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Grenada
Digraph:
GJ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Saint George's
Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petit Martinique*, Saint Andrew,, Saint David, Saint
George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence:
7 February 1974 (from UK)
Constitution:
19 December 1973
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE; Grenada United
Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY; The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New
National Party (NNP), Keith MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement
(MBPM), Terrence MARRYSHOW; New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard COARD
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by NA March 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Ministers of Government
(cabinet)
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Reginald Oswald PALMER (since 6 August 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Denneth MODESTE
chancery:
1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 265-2561

*Grenada, Government

consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Annette T. VELER
embassy:
Ross Point Inn, Saint George's
mailing address:
P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
telephone:
(809) 444-1173 through 1178
FAX:
(809) 444-4820
Flag:
a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and
green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border around the
flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three centered in the
top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red
disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg
pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest
producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven
administrative divisions

*Grenada, Economy

Overview:
The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional
production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for about 16%
of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the
leading foreign exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports.
Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but is expected to grow, given
a more favorable private investment climate since 1983. The economy achieved
an impressive average annual growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but stalled in
1992. Unemployment remains high at about 25%.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $250 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-0.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $78 million; expenditures $51 million, including capital
expenditures of $22 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
nutmeg 36%, cocoa beans 9%, bananas 14%, mace 8%, textiles 5%
partners:
US 12%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago (1989)
Imports:
$110 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%, chemicals 10%, fuel 6%
(1989)
partners:
US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)
External debt:
$104 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.); accounts for 9% of GDP
Electricity:
12,500 kW capacity; 26 million kWh produced, 310 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Agriculture:
accounts for 16% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, and mace
account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's second-largest
producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-size farms
predominate, growing a variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops,
sugarcane, corn, and vegetables
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $70 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Grenada, Communications

Highways:
1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unimproved
Ports:
Saint George's
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF radio
links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to
Trinidad and Carriacou; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*Grenada, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Guadeloupe, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

*Guadeloupe, Geography

Location:
in the Caribbean Sea, 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
1,780 km2 land area:
1,760 km2
comparative area:
10 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
306 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high humidity
Terrain:
Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grand-Terre is
low limestone formation
Natural resources:
cultivable land, beaches and climate that foster tourism
Land use:
arable land:
18%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
40%
other:
24%
Irrigated land:
30 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an active volcano

*Guadeloupe, People

Population:
422,114 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.18 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.72 years
male:
73.67 years
female:
79.9 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Guadeloupian(s)
adjective:
Guadeloupe
Ethnic divisions:
black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
French, creole patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
90%
male:
90%
female:
91%
Labor force:
120,000
by occupation:
services, government, and commerce 53.0%, industry 25.8%, agriculture 21.2%

*Guadeloupe, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Guadeloupe
conventional short form:
Guadeloupe
local long form:
Departement de la Guadeloupe
local short form:
Guadeloupe
Digraph:
GP
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Basse-Terre
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene CAPTANT; Communist Party of Guadeloupe
(PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (PS), Dominique LARIFLA;
Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Independent
Republicans; Union for French Democracy (UDF); Union for the Center Rally
(URC coalition of the PS, RPR, and UDF); Guadeloupe Objective (OG), Lucette
MICHAUX-CHEVRY
Other political or pressure groups:
Popular Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for
Independent Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG);
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for the

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