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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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military age (18) annually 386,504 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $36.6 billion, 3.1% of GDP (1993 est.)

*French Guiana, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas department of France)

*French Guiana, Geography

Location:
northern South America, bordering on the North Atlantic Ocean between
Suriname and Brazil
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
91,000 km2
land area:
89,150 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,183 km, Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline:
378 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources:
bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
82%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
mostly an unsettled wilderness

*French Guiana, People

Population:
133,376 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.42% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.46 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.72 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
22.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
16.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.87 years
male:
71.59 years
female:
78.32 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective:
French Guianese
Ethnic divisions:
black or mulatto 66%, Caucasian 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%,
other 10%
Religions:
Roman Catholic
Languages:
French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population:
82%
male:
81%
female:
83%
Labor force:
23,265
by occupation:
services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2%
(1980)

*French Guiana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Department of Guiana
conventional short form:
French Guiana
local long form:
none
local short form:
Guyane
Digraph:
FG
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Cayenne
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER; Rally for the Republic (RPR),
Paulin BRUNE; Union of the Center Rally (URC); Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK; Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
French National Assembly:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held March 1993); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
Regional Council:
last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the republic
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction
over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government: Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA 1992)
Member of:
FZ, WCL
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an overseas department of France, the interests of French Guiana are
represented in the US by France

*French Guiana, Government

US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas department of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*French Guiana, Economy

Overview:
The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports.
Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most
important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products
(mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1987. The
large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation
of crops - rice, cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - is limited to the coastal
area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily
dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem,
particularly among younger workers.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $421 million (1986)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$4,390 (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate:
13% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1987)
Exports:
$64.8 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners:
France 36%, US 14%, Japan 6% (1990)
Imports:
$435 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
petroleum
partners: France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3% (1987)
External debt:
$1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture:
some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas,
sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.51 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*French Guiana, Communications

Highways:
680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports:
Cayenne
Airports:
total:
10
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system; 18,100 telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*French Guiana, Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49 39,005; fit for military service 25,477 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*French Polynesia, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

*French Polynesia, Geography

Location:
Oceania, halfway between Australia and South America
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
3,941 km2
land area:
3,660 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
2,525 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderate
Terrain:
mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources:
timber, fish, cobalt
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
19%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland: 31%
other:
44%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes
Note:
Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Nauru

*French Polynesia, People

Population:
210,333 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.26% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
27.89 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.33 years
male:
67.95 years
female:
72.84 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.32 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
French Polynesian(s)
adjective:
French Polynesian
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%
Religions:
Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%
Languages:
French (official), Tahitian (official)
Literacy:
age 14 and over but definition of literacy not available (1977)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
76,630 employed (1988)

*French Polynesia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form:
French Polynesia
local long form:
Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form:
Polynesie Francaise
Digraph:
FP
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital:
Papeete
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic
divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des
Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note:
Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
based on French system
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian
Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; New Fatherland
Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; other small parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
French National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held 21 and 28 March 1993); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally (Gaullist)
1, New Fatherland Party 1
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party NA
Territorial Assembly:
last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18,
Polynesian Union Party 14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
Executive branch:
French president, high commissioner of the republic, president of the
Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of
Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, Court of the First Instance, Court of Administrative Law

*French Polynesia, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the
Republic Michel JAU (since NA 1992)
Head of Government:
President of the Council of Ministers Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
Vice President of the Council of Ministers Joel BUILLARD (since 12 September
1991)
Member of:
ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
as an overseas territory of France, French Polynesian interests are
represented in the US by France
US diplomatic representation:
none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*French Polynesia, Economy

Overview:
Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French
Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high
proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports
the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
source of hard currency earnings.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$6,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
14.9% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
$88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
partners:
France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports:
$765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners:
France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
75,000 kW capacity; 275 million kWh produced, 1,330 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef, dairy
products
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88),
$3.95 billion
Currency:
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 99.65 (January
1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
(1988); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*French Polynesia, Communications

Highways:
600 km (1982)
Ports:
Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note - a captive subset of the French
register
Airports:
total:
43
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
23
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
12
Telecommunications:
33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*French Polynesia, Defense Forces

Branches:
French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie
Note:
defense is responsibility of France

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Header

Affiliation:
(overseas territory of France)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Geography

Location:
in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica,
and Australia
Map references:
Antarctic Region, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
7,781 km2
land area:
7,781 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
note:
includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet;
excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica that is not
recognized by the US
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,232 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain: volcanic
Natural resources:
fish, crayfish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
Note:
remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are researchers whose numbers vary
from 150 in winter (July) to 200 in summer (January)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
conventional short form:
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
local long form:
Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
local short form:
Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises
Digraph:
FS
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High Administrator
Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by a 7-member
Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital:
none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named
Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre
Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Independence: none (overseas territory of France)
Flag:
the flag of France is used

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical
research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing catches
landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and
Reunion.
Budget:
revenues $17.5 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1992)

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 292,490 GRT/514,389 DWT; includes 2
cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3 bulk,
1 multifunction large load carrier; note - a captive subset of the French
register
Telecommunications:
NA

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Gabon, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator between the
Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
267,670 km2
land area:
257,670 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries: total 2,551 km, Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km
Coastline:
885 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources:
petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
78%
other:
2%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
deforestation

*Gabon, People

Population:
1,122,550 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.45% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
28.63 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
14.08 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
97.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.19 years
male:
51.46 years female:
57.01 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.02 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Gabonese
Ethnic divisions:
Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou,
Bateke), Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000 French
Religions:
Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist
Languages:
French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
61%
male:
74%
female:
48%
Labor force:
120,000 salaried
by occupation:
agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%, government
2.5%
note:
58% of population of working age (1983)

*Gabon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Gabonese Republic
conventional short form:
Gabon
local long form:
Republique Gabonaise
local short form:
Gabon
Digraph:
GB
Type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)
Capital:
Libreville
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
17 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
National holiday:
Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party established)
Political parties and leaders:
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO,
president; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP); National Recovery Movement
(Morena-Original); Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG); Gabonese
Socialist Union (USG); Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP); Union for
Democracy and Development (UDD)
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery Movement
- Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery Movement
(Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
President:
last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results -
President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990)

*Gabon, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 797-1000
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. WILSON IV
embassy:
Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
mailing address:
B. P. 4000, Libreville
telephone:
(241) 762003/4, or 743492
FAX:
[241] 745-507
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

*Gabon, Economy

Overview:
The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early 1970s, is now
dominated by the oil sector. In 1981-85, oil accounted for about 45% of GDP,
80% of export earnings, and 65% of government revenues on average. The high
oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a substantial increase in per
capita national income, stimulated domestic demand, reinforced migration
from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real wages to among the
highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The subsequent slide of Gabon's economy,
which began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989-90, but
debt servicing obligations continue to limit prospects for further domestic
development. Real growth in 1991-92 was weak because of a combination of an
overstaffed bureaucracy, a large budget deficit, and the continued
underdevelopment of the whole economy outside the petroleum sector.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
13% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $247 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
crude oil 80%, manganese 7%, wood 7%, uranium 2%
partners:
France 48%, US 15%, Germany 2%, Japan 2%
Imports:
$702 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials,
manufactures, machinery
partners:
France 64%, African countries 7%, US 5%, Japan 3%
External debt: $4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 10% (1988 est.); accounts for 45% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
315,000 kW capacity; 995 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, food and beverages, lumbering and plywood, textiles, mining -
manganese, uranium, gold, cement
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food; small
fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a
tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $68 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2,342 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Gabon, Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Gabon, Communications

Railroads:
649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese Railroad)
Highways:
7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth
Inland waterways:
1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km
Ports:
Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563 GRT/25,330 DWT
Airports:
total:
68
usable:
56
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
22
Telecommunications:
adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6
FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 12 domestic satellite

*Gabon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, National
Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 269,066; fit for military service 135,836; reach military
age (20) annually 9,680 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)

*The Gambia, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean almost completely
surrounded by Senegal
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
11,300 km2
land area:
10,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
total 740 km, Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November
to May)
Terrain:
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
55%
Irrigated land:
120 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

*The Gambia, People

Population:
930,249 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
46.85 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
126.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
49.61 years
male:
47.41 years
female:
51.87 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Gambian(s)
adjective:
Gambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other
4%), non-Gambian 1%
Religions:
Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
27%
male:
39%
female:
16%
Labor force:
400,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services 18.9%, government 6.1%
note:
55% population of working age (1983)

*The Gambia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form:
The Gambia
Digraph:
GA
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Banjul
Administrative divisions:
5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank,, Upper River,
Western
Independence:
18 February 1965 (from UK; The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12
December 1981 that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be
known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)
Constitution:
24 April 1970
Legal system:
based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
(GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's Democratic
Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader NA; People's
Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results - PPP
56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP
31, NCP 5
President:
last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - Sir Dawda
JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA
(GPP) 13.7%
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
President Saihou SABALLY (since NA)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH

*The Gambia, Government

chancery:
Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 842-1356 or 842-1359
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Arlene RENDER
embassy:
Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul
mailing address:
P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
telephone:
[220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971
FAX:
(220) 92475
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green

*The Gambia, Economy

Overview:
The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a
limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a
per capita income of about $325. About 75% of the population is engaged in
crop production and livestock raising, which contribute 30% to GDP.
Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing peanuts, fish, and hides -
accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia
imports one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods.
Exports are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $292 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991)
National product per capita:
$325 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $94 million; expenditures $80 million, including capital
expenditures of $25 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$133 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
partners:
Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1%, other 5% (1989)
Imports:
$174 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
equipment
partners:
Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 9%, US 6%, other 3% (1989)
External debt:
$336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly,
woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports
one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; other
principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; forestry and fishing resources not fully
exploited
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million
Currency:
1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs
Exchange rates:
dalasi (D) per US$1 - 8.673 (October 1992), 8.803 (1991), 7.883 (1990),
7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987)

*The Gambia, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*The Gambia, Communications

Highways:
3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
400 km
Ports:
Banjul
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*The Gambia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 201,026; fit for military service 101,642 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Gaza Strip, Header

Note:
The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David accords and reaffirmed by
President Bush's post-Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a
peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
has yet to be determined. In the US view, the term West Bank describes all
of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before
the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, however, it is US policy that a distinction must be
made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the
final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the
rest of the West Bank.

*Gaza Strip, Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and
Israel
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total area:
380 km2
land area:
380 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total 62 km, Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
International disputes:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain:
flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
32%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
55%
Irrigated land: 200 km2
Environment:
desertification

*Gaza Strip, People

Population:
705,834 (July 1993 est.)
note:
in addition, there are 4,000 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.56% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.71 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.26 years
male:
66.01 years
female:
68.57 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7.51 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
NA
adjective:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely understood)
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
small industry, commerce and business 32.0%, construction 24.4%, service and
other 25.5%, agriculture 18.1% (1984)
note:
excluding Israeli Jewish settlers

*Gaza Strip, Government

Note:
The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
These negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.
Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Gaza Strip
local long form:
none
local short form:
Qita Ghazzah
Digraph:
GZ

*Gaza Strip, Economy

Overview:
In 1990 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by
Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
remittances accounting for about one-third of GNP. The construction,
agricultural, and industrial sectors account for about 15%, 12%, and 8% of
GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon Israel for some 90% of its external
trade. Unrest in the territory in 1988-93 (intifadah) has raised
unemployment and substantially lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The
Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt severe blows to Gaza
since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged,
unemployment has increased, and exports have fallen dramatically. The area's
economic outlook remains bleak.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $380 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-30% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$590 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $33.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
citrus
partners: Israel, Egypt
Imports:
$255 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners:
Israel, Egypt
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for about 8% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood
carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some
small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture:
accounts for about 12% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
beef, dairy products
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.6480 (November 1992), 2.4591 (1992),
2.2791 (1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

*Gaza Strip, Communications

Railroads:
one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways:
small, poorly developed indigenous road network
Ports:
facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

*Gaza Strip, Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 136,311; fit for military service NA (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Georgia, Header

Note:
Georgia is currently besieged by conflicts driven by separatists in its
Abkazian and South Ossetian enclaves, and supporters of ousted President
GAMAKHURDIA control much of western Georgia

*Georgia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references:
Africa, Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
69,700 km2
land area:
69,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252
km
Coastline:
310 km
Maritime claims:
note:
12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary between the
two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline along the Black
Sea as its international waters, although it cannot control this area and
the Russian navy and commercial ships transit freely
International disputes:
none
Climate:
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser
Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in
the west; Kura River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood
plains, foothills of Kolkhida lowland
Natural resources: forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal
and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and
citrus growth
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA%
Irrigated land:
4,660 km2 (1990)
Environment:
air pollution, particularly in Rustavi; heavy pollution of Kura River, Black
Sea

*Georgia, People

Population:
5,634,296 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.85% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
16.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) note - this data may be low
because of movement of Ossetian, Russian, and Abkhaz refugees due to ongoing
conflicts
Infant mortality rate:
24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.58 years
male:
68.89 years
female:
76.46 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.21 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Georgian(s)
adjective:
Georgian
Ethnic divisions:
Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz
1.8%, other 5%
Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Muslim 11%, Armenian Orthodox
8%, unknown 6%
Languages:
Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
2.763 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44%
(1990)

*Georgia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Georgia
conventional short form:
Georgia
local long form:
Sakartvelo Respublika
local short form:
Sakartvelo
former:
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
GG
Type:
republic
Capital:
T'bilisi (Tbilisi)
Administrative divisions:
2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abkhazia (Sukhumi), Ajaria (Batumi)
note:
the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in
parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are under
direct republic jurisdiction; also included is the South Ossetia Autonomous
Oblast
Independence:
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted NA 1921; currently amending constitution for Parliamentary and
popular review by late 1995
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 April 1991
Political parties and leaders:
All-Georgian Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; All-Georgian
Traditionalists' Union, Akakiy ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian National Front -
Radical Union, Ruslan GONGADZE, chairman; Georgian Social Democratic Party,
Guram MUCHAIDZE, chairman; Green Party, Zurab ZHVANIA, chairman;
Monarchist-Conservative Party (MCP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI, chairman; Georgian
Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic Party
(NDP), Georgi CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party (NIP), Irakli
TSERETELI and Irakli BATIASHVILI, chairmen; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo
PAATASHVILI, chairman; Democratic Georgia Party, Georgiy SHENGELAYA,
Chairman; Peace Bloc; Unity; October 11
Other political or pressure groups:
supporters of ousted President GAMSAKHURDIA boycotted the October elections
and remain an important source of opposition and instability
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Chairman of Parliament:
last held NA October 1992 (next to be held NA); results - Eduard
SHEVARDNADZE 95%

*Georgia, Government

Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet):
last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (225 total) number of seats by party NA; note -
representatives of 26 parties elected; Peace Bloc, October 11, Unity,
National Democratic Party, and the Greens Party won the largest
representation
Executive branch:
chairman of Parliament, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman of Parliament Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (since 10 March
1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Tengiz SIGUA (since NA January 1992); First Deputy Prime
Minister Roman GOTSIRIDZE (since NA); Deputy Prime Ministers Aleksandr
KAVADZE, Avtandil MARGIANI, Zurab KERVALISHVILI (since NA)
Member of:
BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, IBRD, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kent N. BROWN
embassy:
#25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi
mailing address:
APO AE 09862
telephone:
(7) 8832-74-46-23
Flag:
maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle
divided horizontally with black on top, white below

*Georgia, Economy

Overview:
Among the former Soviet republics, Georgia has been noted for its Black Sea
tourist industry, its large output of citrus fruits and tea, and an
industrial sector that accounted, however, for less than 2% of the USSR's
output. Another salient characteristic of the economy has been a flourishing
private sector (compared with the other republics). About 25% of the labor
force is employed in agriculture. Mineral resources consist of manganese and
copper, and, to a lesser extent, molybdenum, arsenic, tungsten, and mercury.
Except for very small quantities of domestic oil, gas, and coal, fuel must
be imported from neighboring republics. Oil and its products have been
delivered by pipeline from Azerbaijan to the port of Batumi for export and
local refining. Gas has been supplied in pipelines from Krasnodar and
Stavropol'. The dismantling of central economic controls has been delayed by
political factionalism, marked by bitter armed struggles. In early 1993 the
Georgian economy was operating at well less than half capacity due to
disruptions in fuel supplies and vital transportation links as a result of
conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, antigovernment activity in Western
Georgia, and Azerbaijani pressure against Georgian assistance for Armenia.
To restore economic viability, Georgia must establish domestic peace and
must maintain economic ties to the other former Soviet republics while
developing new links to the West.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-35% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% per month (January 1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% but large numbers of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
citrus fruits, tea, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery;
ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles
partners:
Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan (1992)
Imports: $NA
commodities:
machinery and parts, fuel, transport equipment, textiles
partners:
Russia, Ukraine (1992)
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -50% (1992)
Electricity:
4,875,000 kW capacity; 15,800 million kWh produced, about 2,835 kWh per
capita (1992)

*Georgia, Economy

Industries:
heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, cement, lumber;
machine tools, foundry equipment, electric mining locomotives, tower cranes,
electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation, meat packing,
dairy, and fishing industries; air-conditioning electric motors up to 100 kW
in size, electric motors for cranes, magnetic starters for motors; devices
for control of industrial processes; trucks, tractors, and other farm
machinery; light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes
Agriculture:
accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea;
berries and grapes; sugar; vegetables, grains, potatoes; cattle, pigs,
sheep, goats, poultry; tobacco
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
coupons introduced in April 1993 to be followed by introduction of the lari
at undetermined future date; Russian ruble remains official currency until
introduction of the lari
Exchange rates:
rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Georgia, Communications

Railroads:
1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
33,900 km total; 29,500 km hard surfaced, 4,400 km earth (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 370 km, refined products 300 km, natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Batumi, Poti, Sukhumi
Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 658,192 GRT/1,014,056 DWT; includes 16
bulk cargo, 30 oil tanker, and 1 specialized liquid carrier
Airports:
total:
37
useable:
26
with permanent-surface runways:
19
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
9
Telecommunications:
poor telephone service; as of 1991, 672,000 republic telephone lines
providing 12 lines per 100 persons; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for
telephones (31 January 1992); international links via landline to CIS
members and Turkey; low capacity satellite earth station and leased
international connections via the Moscow international gateway switch;
international electronic mail and telex service established
Note:
transportation network is disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities,
and fuel shortages

*Georgia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, National Guard, Interior Ministry Troops
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,338,606; fit for military service 1,066,309; reach
military age (18) annually 43,415 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP
Note:
Georgian forces are poorly organized and not fully under the government's
control

*Germany, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
356,910 km2
land area:
349,520 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
note:
includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German
Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October
1990
Land boundaries:
total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km,
Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland
456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline:
2,389 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends, at
one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder of Baltic
Sea
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional
warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain:
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt,
nickel
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
16%
forest and woodland:
30%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
4,800 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
air and water pollution; groundwater, lakes, and air quality in eastern
Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern
mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain

*Germany, Geography

Note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the
Baltic Sea

*Germany, People

Population:
80,767,591 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.4% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76 years
male:
73 years
female:
79 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
German(s)
adjective:
German
Ethnic divisions:
German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other
1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former Yugoslavia)
Religions:
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
36.75 million
by occupation:
industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

*Germany, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Germany conventional short form:
Germany
local long form:
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form:
Deutschland
Digraph:
GM
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Berlin
note:
the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years with
Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries
Administrative divisions:
16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin,
Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence:
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of
occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II;
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and
included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic
(GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR
zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
Constitution:
23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social
Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Klaus
KINKEL, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD); Green Party, Ludger VOLMER,
Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen (after the 2 December 1990 election the East
and West German Green Parties united); Alliance 90 united to form one party
in September 1991, Petra MORAWE, chairwoman; Party of Democratic Socialism
(PDS), Gregor GYSI, chairman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National
Democratic Party (NPD), Walter BACHMANN; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Other political or pressure groups:
expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*Germany, Government

Elections:
Federal Diet: last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - CDU
36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS
2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other
2.1%; seats - (662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note - special rules for this election
allowed former East German parties to win seats if they received at least 5%
of vote in eastern Germany
Executive branch:
president, chancellor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)

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