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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 12 out of 42

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1,127,127 km2
land area:
1,119,683 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Erithea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626
km, Sudan 1,606 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
International disputes:
southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative
Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis;
territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden
Climate:
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; some areas prone
to extended droughts
Terrain:
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources:
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
41%
forest and woodland:
24%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
1,620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
frequent droughts; famine
Note:
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure
independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

*Ethiopia, People

Population:
53,278,446 (July 1993 est.)
note:
Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth rate,
include Eritrea
Population growth rate:
3.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
14.23 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
108.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
52.21 years
male:
50.6 years
female:
53.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ethiopian(s)
adjective:
Ethiopian
Ethnic divisions:
Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar
4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Muslim 45-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist 12%, other 5%
Languages:
Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English
(major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
age 10 and over can read and write (1983)
total population:
62%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
18 million
by occupation:
agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry
and construction 8% (1985)

*Ethiopia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Ethiopia
local long form:
none
local short form: Ityop'iya
Digraph:
ET
Type:
transitional government
note:
on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took
control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE),
announced a two-year transitional period
Capital:
Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela,
Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali, Tigray,
Wolayta
Independence:
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at
least 2,000 years
Constitution:
to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's
resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 10 September 1987; next election planned after new constitution
drafted; results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
Constituent Assembly:
now planned for January 1994 (to ratify constitution to be drafted by end of
1993)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Constituent Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991)

*Ethiopia, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991)
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery:
2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-2281 or 2282
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Marc A. BAAS
embassy:
Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone:
[251] (1) 550-666
FAX:
[251] (1) 551-166
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is
the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so
often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became
known as the pan-African colors

*Ethiopia, Economy

Overview:
With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues to
face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed
countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures predate the
independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture,
which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing
sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90%
of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the
government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants.
Favorable agricultural weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in
FY89, whereas drought and deteriorating internal security conditions
prevented growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in
the south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992, because
of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world, the economy
substantially improved.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$130 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.8% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $565 million (FY91)
Exports:
$276 million (f.o.b., FY90)
commodities:
coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
partners:
EC, Djibouti, Japan, Saudi Arabia, US
Imports:
$1.0 billion (c.i.f., FY90)
commodities:
capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners:
EC, Eastern Europe, Japan, US
External debt:
$3.48 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
330,000 kW capacity; 650 million kWh produced, 10 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Agriculture:
accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even
though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output
low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly
on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence
level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds,
sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep,
goats

*Ethiopia, Economy

Illicit drugs:
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
destined for Europe and North America; cultivates qat (chat) for local use
and regional export
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0
billion
Currency:
1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
8 July - 7 July

*Ethiopia, Communications

Railroads:
781 km total; 781 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge linking
Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) to Djibouti; control of railroad is shared between
Djibouti and Ethiopia
Highways:
39,150 km total; 2,776 km paved, 7,504 km gravel, 2,054 km improved earth,
26,816 km unimproved earth (1993 est.)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
none; landlocked
Airports:
total:
121
usable:
82
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
83 (1993 est.)
Telecommunications:
open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use; open-wire to
Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; broadcast
stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets; 9,000,000 radios; satellite
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Ethiopia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 12,793,340; fit for military service 6,640,616; reach
military age (18) annually 576,329 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Europa Island, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Europa Island, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
28 km2
land area:
28 km2
comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
22.2 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other:
NA% (heavily wooded)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
wildlife sanctuary

*Europa Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Europa Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Europa Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Europa
Digraph:
EU
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic; resident in
Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Europa Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Europa Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
0
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
1 meteorological station

*Europa Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Geography

Location:
in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the southern coast of Argentina
Map references:
Antarctic Region, South America
Area:
total area:
12,170 km2
land area:
12,170 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
note:
includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small
islands
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
100 m depth
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than
half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and
February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources:
fish, wildlife
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
99%
forest and woodland:
0%
other: 1%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
poor soil fertility and a short growing season
Note:
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), People

Population:
2,206 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.43% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Falkland Islander(s)
adjective:
Falkland Island
Ethnic divisions:
British
Religions:
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church,
Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,100 (est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form:
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Digraph:
FA
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Stanley
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party
NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992)
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
US diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major
economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the
islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs
most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet domestic
consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are primarily those
for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to
the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So far,
efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In
1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees
amount to more than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income
for the government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant
wildlife and trout fishing.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate:
NA%; labor shortage
Budget:
revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
at least $14.7 million
commodities:
wool, hides and skins, and meat
partners:
UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports:
at least $13.9 million
commodities:
food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
partners:
UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,940 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
wool and fish processing
Agriculture:
predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and vegetable
crops
Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$277 million
Currency:
1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.6527 (January 1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652
(1991), 0.5604 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988); note - the Falkland
pound is at par with the British pound

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Communications

Highways:
510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km unimproved earth
Ports:
Stanley
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks provide
effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station with links through London to other countries

*Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force, Royal
Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Faroe Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(part of the Danish realm)

*Faroe Islands, Geography

Location:
in the north Atlantic Ocean, located half way between Norway and Iceland
Map references:
Arctic Region
Area:
total area:
1,400 km2
land area:
1,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
764 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain:
rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
98%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago
of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets
Note:
strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic

*Faroe Islands, People

Population:
48,065 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.67% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.45 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.92 years
male:
74.51 years
female:
81.45 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.52 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Faroese
Ethnic divisions:
Scandinavian
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
17,585
by occupation:
largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and commerce

*Faroe Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Faroe Islands local long form:
none
local short form:
Foroyar
Digraph:
FO
Type:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
Denmark
Capital:
Torshavn
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence:
none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)
Constitution:
Danish
Legal system:
Danish
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
three-party ruling coalition:
Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Republican Party, Signer HANSEN;
Home Rule Party, Hilmar KASS
opposition:
Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Progressive and Fishing
Industry Party-Christian People's Party (PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress
Party, leader NA; People's Party, Jogvan SUND-STEIN
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
Danish Parliament:
last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's
Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish
Parliament
Faroese Parliament:
last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Social
Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%,
Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats -
(32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7),
Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Executive branch:
Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet (Landsstyri)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Lgting)
Judicial branch:
none

*Faroe Islands, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
Bent KLINTE (since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Marita PETERSEN (since 18 January 1993)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

*Faroe Islands, Economy

Overview:
The Faroese, who have long enjoyed the affluent living standards of the
Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of the
all-important fishing industry and one of the world's heaviest per capita
external debts of nearly $30,000. When the nations of the world extended
their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese no
longer could continue their traditional long-distance fishing and
subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas. The government's tight
controls on fish stocks and its austerity measures have caused a recession,
and subsidy cuts will force nationalization in the fishing industry, which
has already been plagued with bankruptcies. Copenhagen has threatened to
withhold its annual subsidy of $130 million - roughly one-third of the
islands' budget revenues - unless the Faroese make significant efforts to
balance their budget. To this extent the Faroe government is expected to
continue its tough policies, including introducing a 20% VAT in 1993, and
has agreed to an IMF economic-political stabilization plan. In addition to
its annual subsidy, the Danish government has bailed out the second largest
Faroe bank to the tune of $140 million since October 1992.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $662 million (1989 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1989 est.)
National product per capita:
$14,000 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
5%-6% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $425 million; expenditures $480 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment (ships)
(1989)
partners:
Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US 4.5%
Imports:
$322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners:
Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced, 5,760 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal crops -
potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000
metric tons
Economic aid:
receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million

*Faroe Islands, Economy

Currency:
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Faroe Islands, Communications

Highways:
200 km
Ports:
Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine:
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,015 GRT/24,007 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 5 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 2 refrigerated cargo; note
- a subset of the Danish register
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1 with runways over 3659 m:
0
with runways 2440-3659 m:
0
with runways 1220-2439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29 repeaters)
TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

*Faroe Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
small Police Force, no organized native military forces
Note:
defense is the responsibility of Denmark

*Fiji, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean
Map references:
Oceania, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
18,270 km2
land area:
18,270 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,129 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential
Land use: arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
65%
other:
19%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of
which approximately 110 are inhabited

*Fiji, People

Population:
756,762 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.95% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
24.74 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.59 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-8.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
64.86 years
male:
62.62 years
female:
67.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.98 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Fijian(s)
adjective:
Fijian
Ethnic divisions:
Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese,
and other 5%
Religions:
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%,
other 2%
note:
Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim
minority (1986)
Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population:
86%
male:
90%
female:
81%
Labor force:
235,000
by occupation:
subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

*Fiji, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Fiji
conventional short form:
Fiji
Digraph:
FJ
Type:
republic
note:
military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a
republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
Suva
Administrative divisions:
4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western, Independence:
10 October 1970 (from UK)
Constitution:
10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was proposed
on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the 1990 Constitution
is currently still under review (February 1993)
Legal system:
based on British system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini
RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA;
Christian Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor
Party (FLP), Jokapeci KOROI; All National Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA;
General Voters Party (GVP), Max OLSSON; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
Isireli VUIBAU; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame
SAVU; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party,
Ishwari BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners
Party, David TULVANUAVOU
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 23-29 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats,
ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party NA
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet, Great Councils of Chiefs (highest
ranking members of the traditional chiefly system)
Legislative branch:
the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives, was dissolved following the coup of 14
May 1987; the Constitution of 23 September 1988 provides for a bicameral
Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU (since 5 December 1987); Vice
President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 14 April 1992); Vice President Ratu
Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 14 April 1992)

*Fiji, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
Filipe BOLE (since 11 June 1992); Deputy Prime Minister Ratu Timoci VESIKULA
(since 11 June 1993)
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
chancery:
Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 337-8320
consulate:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN
embassy:
31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address:
P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone:
[679] 314-466
FAX:
[679] 300-081
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a
yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George
featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

*Fiji, Economy

Overview:
Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence sector.
Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange, and sugar processing
accounts for one-third of industrial output. Industry, including sugar
milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji traditionally had earned considerable
sums of hard currency from the 250,000 tourists who visited each year. In
1987, however, after two military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP
dropped by 7.8% in 1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty
created a drop in tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar
production to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990 the
economy received a setback from cyclone Sina, which cut sugar output by an
estimated 21%. Sugar exports recovered in 1991-92.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,900 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $455 million; expenditures $546 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$435 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish, lumber
partners:
EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%
Imports:
$553 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 32%, food 15%, petroleum products,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt:
$428 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
215,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced, 560 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage
industries
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; small livestock sector includes
cattle, pigs, horses, and goats; fish catch nearly 33,000 tons (1989)
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$815 million
Currency:
1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

*Fiji, Economy

Exchange rates:
Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.5809 (January 1993), 1.5029 (1992), 1.4756
(1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Fiji, Communications

Railroads:
644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned Fiji
Sugar Corporation
Highways:
3,300 km total; 1,590 km paved; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports:
Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,072 GRT/47,187 DWT; includes 2
roll-on/roll-off, 2 container, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 cargo
Airports:
total:
25
usable:
22
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public
and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities;
regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and New
Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones (71 telephones per 1,000 persons);
broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Fiji, Defense Forces

Branches:
Fiji Military Force (FMF; including a naval division, police)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 194,634; fit for military service 107,304; reach military
age (18) annually 7,834 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, about 2% of GDP (FY91/92)

*Finland, Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
337,030 km2
land area:
305,470 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
6 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of
moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more
than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Natural resources:
timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
76%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain
Note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on
European continent

*Finland, People

Population:
5,050,942 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.37% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.61 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.91 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.65 years
male:
71.85 years
female:
79.62 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.79 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Finn(s)
adjective:
Finnish
Ethnic divisions:
Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and
Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 100%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2.533 million
by occupation:
public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance, insurance,
and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%, transport and
communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

*Finland, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Finland
conventional short form:
Finland
local long form:
Suomen Tasavalta
local short form:
Suomi
Digraph:
FI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi,
Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa,
Vaasa
Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
17 July 1919
Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation
interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Political parties and leaders:
government coalition:
Center Party, Esko AHO; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Perti
SALOLAINEN; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Finnish Christian
League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI
other parties:
Social Democratic Party, Antero KEKKONEN, Acting Chairman; Leftist Alliance
(Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative, Claes
ANDERSON; Green League, Pekka SAURI; Rural Party, Tina MAKELA; Liberal
People's Party, Kalle MAATTA
Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional
Rightist Party;
Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 31 January - 1 February and 15 February 1988 (next to be held
January 1994); results - Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri
HOLKERI 18%
Parliament:
last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - Center Party
24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National Coalition (Conservative)
Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish
People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%, Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal
People's Party 0.8%; seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic
Party 48, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance
(Communist) 19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish
Christian League 8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1

*Finland, Government

Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of State
(Valtioneuvosto)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka
KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM
(cooperating country), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest),
NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI
chancery:
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone:
(202) 363-2430
FAX:
(202) 363-8233
consulates general:
Los Angeles and New York
consulates: Chicago and Houston
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John H. KELLY
embassy:
Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki
mailing address:
APO AE 09723
telephone:
[358] (0) 171931
FAX:
[358] (0) 174681
Flag:
white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG
(Danish flag)

*Finland, Economy

Overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per
capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector is
manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries.
Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP.
Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw
materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of
the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining
self-sufficiency in basic products. The economy, which experienced an
average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep
recession in 1991 as growth contracted by 6.5%. The recession - which
continued in 1992 with growth contracting by 3.5% - has been caused by
economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the
barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet
oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and
efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public
expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in
monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the EC's
European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing speculation
resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's policies forced
Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in November 1991 and to
indefinitely break the link in September 1992. By boosting the
competitiveness of Finnish exports, these measures presumably have kept the
economic downturn from being even more severe. Unemployment probably will
remain a serious problem during the next few years - monthly figures in
early 1993 are approaching 20% - with the majority of Finnish firms facing a
weak domestic market and the troubled German and Swedish export markets.
Declining revenues, increased transfer payments, and extensive funding to
bail out the banking system are expected to push the central government's
budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993. Helsinki continues to harmonize its
economic policies with those of the EC during Finland's current EC
membership bid.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $79.4 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-3.5% (1992)
National product per capita:
$15,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
13.1% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $26.8 billion; expenditures $40.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$24.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
partners:
EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US 5.9%,
Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)
Imports:
$21.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
grains

*Finland, Economy

partners:
EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%, Japan
5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)
External debt:
$25 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
13,500,000 kW capacity; 55,300 million kWh produced, 11,050 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper),
copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops -
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains
and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion
Currency:
1 markkaa (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates:
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.4193 (January 1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440
(1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988)
Fiscal year: calendar year

*Finland, Communications

Railroads:
5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863 km
1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,445 km are
electrified
Highways:
about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete,
bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved (stabilized gravel,
gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private (state-subsidized) roads
Inland waterways:
6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers
Pipelines:
natural gas 580 km
Ports:
Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku
Merchant marine:
87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 935,260 GRT/973,995 DWT; includes 3
passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 17 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 26
roll-on/roll-off, 14 oil tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7 bulk
Airports:
total:
160
usable:
157
with permanent-surface runways:
66
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
25
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
22
Telecommunications:
good service from cable and microwave radio relay network; 3,140,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine cable;
INTELSAT satellite transmission service via Swedish earth station and a
receive-only INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

*Finland, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,323,381; fit for military service 1,091,613; reach
military age (17) annually 33,828 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.93 billion, about 2% of GDP (1992)

*France, Geography

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Spain and Germany
Map references:
Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
547,030 km2
land area:
545,630 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
note:
includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the
overseas administrative divisions
Land boundaries:
total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488
km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km
Coastline:
3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12-24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de
Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims
Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of
French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime
boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers
along the Mediterranean
Terrain:
mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is
mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
27%
other:
16%
Irrigated land: 11,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
most of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone, Garonne, Seine,
or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral
Note:
largest West European nation

*France, People

Population:
57,566,091 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.48% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
78 years
male:
74.04 years
female:
82.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective:
French
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque
minorities
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers)
1%, unaffiliated 6%
Languages:
French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal,
Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
24.17 million by occupation:
services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987)

*France, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
French Republic
conventional short form:
France
local long form:
Republique Francaise
local short form:
France
Digraph:
FR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paris
Administrative divisions:
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse,
Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon,
Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire,
Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note:
the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for
the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
Dependent areas:
Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French
Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New
Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
note:
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
486 (unified by Clovis)
Constitution:
28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962,
ammended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not
legislative acts
National holiday:
National Day, Taking of theBastille, 14 July (1789)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French Democracy
(UDF, federation of UREI, UC, RDE), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING; Republican
Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre
MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS), Michel
ROCARD; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Emile ZUCCARELLI; Communist Party
(PCF), Georges MARCHAIS; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; Union of
Republican and Independents (UREI); Centrist Union (UC); (RDE)
Other political or pressure groups:
Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly
2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.;
independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000
members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du
Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

*France, Government

Elections:
President:
last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot
Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
Senate:
last held NA September 1992 (next to be held September 1995 - nine-year
term, elected by thirds every three years); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas
departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF
142 (UREI 51, UC 68, RDE 23), PS 66, PCF 16, independents 2, other 4
National Assembly:
last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24,
independents 26
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993)
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UNTAC, UN Trusteeship Council,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
chancery:
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (202) 944-6000
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pamela HARRIMAN
embassy:
2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, Unit 21551
mailing address:
APO AE 09777
telephone:
[33] (1) 4296-12-02 or 4261-80-75
FAX:
[33] (1) 4266-9783
consulates general:
Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg

*France, Government

Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as
the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have been the basis
for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote
d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas

*France, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial sector.
Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and
subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in
Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural products
and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector
generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has
become crucial to the economy. The French economy is entering its fourth
consecutive year of sluggish growth after a strong expansion in the late
1980s. Growth averaged only 1.3% in 1990-92 and is expected to drop to
between zero and -0.5% in 1993. The government budget deficit rose to 3.2%
of GDP in 1992 and is expected to be far larger than planned in the 1993
budget. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsch mark
parity, which has kept French interest rates high despite France's low
inflation. Although the pace of economic integration within the European
Community has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major force
shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.08 trillion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$18,900 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.5% (end 1992)
Budget:
revenues $220.5 billion; expenditures $249.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $47 billion (1993 budget)
Exports:
$212.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural
products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
partners:
Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 8.8%,
Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, former USSR 0.7% (1991 est.)
Imports:
$230.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron
and steel products
partners:
Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, former USSR 1.3% (1991 est.)
External debt:
$270 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.2% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
110,000,000 kW capacity; 426,000 million kWh produced, 7,430 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics,
mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

*France, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's
top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products,
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most
temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce,
but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons
ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion
Currency:
1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4812 (January 1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421
(1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*France, Communications

Railroads:
French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,322 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge; 12,434 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 99 km of
various gauges (1.000-meter), privately owned and operated
Highways:
1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km departmental
highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401 km of
controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved
Inland waterways:
14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports:
coastal - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque, Fos-Sur-Mer, Le
Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Sete, Toulon; inland - Rouen
Merchant marine:
130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,224,945 GRT/5,067,252 DWT; includes
7 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 20 container, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 27 roll-on/roll-off, 36 oil tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied
gas, 2 specialized tanker, 10 bulk; note - France also maintains a captive
register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern
and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia
Airports:
total:
471
usable:
461
with permanent-surface runways:
256
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
136
Telecommunications:
highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks;
large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for
domestic traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41 AM, 800
(mostly repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine coaxial
cables; 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for the
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT); HF radio
communications with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV
service

*France, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,662,761; fit for military service 12,247,950; reach

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