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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide microwave relay
network; 190,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 120 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 6
shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Dominican Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,064,244; fit for military service 1,302,644; reach
military age (18) annually 80,991 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 0.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Ecuador, Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between
Colombia and Peru
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
283,560 km2
land area:
276,840 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Nevada
note:
includes Galapagos Islands
Land boundaries:
total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,237 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute
Climate:
tropical along coast becoming cooler inland
Terrain:
coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra), and flat to
rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, timber
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
17%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
5,500 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts
Note:
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

*Ecuador, People

Population:
10,461,072 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.61 years
male:
67.09 years
female:
72.25 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.19 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ecuadorian(s)
adjective:
Ecuadorian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
86%
male:
88%
female:
84%
Labor force:
2.8 million
by occupation:
agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other
activities 28% (1982)

*Ecuador, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form:
Ecuador
local long form:
Republica del Ecuador
local short form:
Ecuador
Digraph:
EC
Type:
republic
Capital:
Quito
Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar,
Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas,
Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha,
Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Constitution:
10 August 1979
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)
Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties:
Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Republican Unity
Party (PUR), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, leader; Conservative Party (CE),
Vice President Alberto DAHIK, president
Center-Left parties:
Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders;
Popular Democracy (DP), Jamil MANUAD Witt, president; Ecuadorian Radical
Liberal Party (PLRE), Carlos Luis PLAZA Aray, director; Radical Alfarista
Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario, director
Populist parties:
Roldista Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of
Popular Forces (CFP), Rafael SANTELICES, director; Popular Revolutionary
Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader; Assad Bucaram Party (PAB),
Avicena BUCARAM, leader; People, Change, and Democracy (PCD), Raul AULESTIA,
director
Far-Left parties:
Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Jorge Fausto MORENO, director; Ecuadorian
Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Jose
Xavier GARAYCOA, president; Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo
CASTILLO, director
Communists:
Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Leon Mague
MOSWUERRA, secretary general (5,00 members); Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), leader NA (3,000 members)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65,
optional for other eligible voters

*Ecuador, Government

Elections:
President:
runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Sixto
DURAN-BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice
president
National Congress:
last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR 12, ID 7, PC 6, DP
5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Alberto
DAHIK (since 10 August 1992)
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edgar TERAN
chancery:
2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-7200
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco
consulate:
San Diego
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires James F. MACK
embassy:
Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address:
P. O. Box 538, Quito, or APO AA 34039-3420
telephone:
[593] (2) 562-890
FAX:
[593] (2) 502-052
consulate general:
Guayaquil
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the
coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of
Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

*Ecuador, Economy

Overview:
Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth
has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in global oil
prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation. Banana exports,
second only to oil, have suffered as a result of EC import quotas and banana
blight. The new President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable
attitude toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has
implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela and
has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991, Ecuador received a
standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit the country to proceed
with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In September 1992, the government
launched a new, macroeconomic program that gives more play to market forces;
as of March 1993, the program seemed to be paying off.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $11.8 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$1,100 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
8% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $1.9 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$3.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
partners:
US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries
Imports:
$2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners:
US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan
External debt:
$12.7 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.9% (1991); accounts for almost 40% of GDP, including petroleum
Electricity:
2,921,000 kW capacity; 7,676 million kWh produced, 700 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products, wood
products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber
Agriculture:
accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other
exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice, potatoes,
manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle, sheep, hogs, beef,
pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar
Illicit drugs:
minor illicit producer of coca following the successful eradication campaign
of 1985-87; significant transit country, however, for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals
used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

*Ecuador, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $498 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.15 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $64 million
Currency:
1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,453.8 (August 1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 869.54
(December 1990), 767.75 (1990), 526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Ecuador, Communications

Railroads:
965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and improved earth, 7,000
km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,500 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Ports:
Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas
Merchant marine:
45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 333,380 GRT/483,862 DWT; includes 2
passenger, 4 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off,
15 oil tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
174
usable:
173
with permanent-surface runways:
52
with runway over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
21
Telecommunications:
domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

*Ecuador, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,655,520; fit for military service 1,798,122; reach
military age (20) annually 109,413 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Egypt, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, between
Sudan and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
1,001,450 km2
land area:
995,450 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273
km
Coastline:
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international
boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 km2, the
dispute over this area escalated in 1993
Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum,
talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
95%
Irrigated land:
25,850 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below
Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring;
water pollution; desertification
Note:
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of
Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian
Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its
major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

*Egypt, People

Population:
59,585,529 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.3% (1993 est.)
note:
the US Bureau of the Census has lowered its 1993 estimate of growth to 2.0%
on the basis of a 1992 Egyptian government survey, whereas estimates of
other observers go as high as 2.9%
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
NEGL
Infant mortality rate:
78.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
60.46 years
male:
58.61 years
female:
62.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Egyptian(s)
adjective:
Egyptian
Ethnic divisions:
Eastern Hamitic stock 90%, Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese 10%
Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and other 6%
(official estimate)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
48%
male:
63%
female:
34%
Labor force:
15 million (1989 est.)
by occupation:
government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%, agriculture
34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984)
note: shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly in Saudi
Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)

*Egypt, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form:
Egypt
local long form:
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form:
none
former:
United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Digraph:
EG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Cairo
Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al
Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al
Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al
Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyu't, Bani Suwayf, Bur
Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence:
28 February 1922 (from UK)
Constitution:
11 September 1971
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial
review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of
administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader,
is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are Socialist Liberal Party
(SLP), Kamal MURAD; Socialist Labor Party, Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHYI-AL-DIN; Umma Party, Ahmad
al-SABAHI; New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Misr al-Fatah Party
(Young Egypt Party), Ali al-Din SALIH; The Greens Party, Hasan RAJABD;
Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Muhammad Rif'at al-MUHAMI; Democratic
Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Democratic Peoples' Party,
Anwar AFISI
note:
formation of political parties must be approved by government
Other political or pressure groups:
Islamic groups are illegal, but the largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is
tolerated by the government; trade unions and professional associations are
officially sanctioned
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
Advisory Council:
last held 8 June 1989 (next to be held June 1995); results - NDP 100%; seats
- (258 total, 172 elected) NDP 172

*Egypt, Government

People's Assembly:
last held 29 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results - NDP
78.4%, NPUG 1.4%, independents 18.7%; seats - (437 total, 444 elected) NDP
348, NPUG 6, independents 83; note - most opposition parties boycotted
President:
last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October 1993); results - President
Hosni MUBARAK was reelected
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b); note - there is an Advisory
Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting President on 6 October
1981 upon the assassination of President SADAT and sworn in as president on
14 October 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY (since 12 November 1986)
Member of:
ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, CAEU,
CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, UNRWA,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ahmed MAHER El Sayed
chancery:
2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-5400
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU
embassy:
Lazougi Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address:
APO AE 09839 telephone:
[20] (2) 355-7371
FAX:
[20] (2) 355-7375
consulate general:
Alexandria
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist
side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band;
also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag
of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band

*Egypt, Economy

Overview:
Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World
economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment.
Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but
in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of
debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for
balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement concluded
in mid-1987 was suspended in early 1988 because of the government's failure
to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and
also negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In
1991-92 the government made solid progress on administrative reforms such as
liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted implementing major
structural reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the
economy has not gained momentum and unemployment has become a growing
problem. In 1992-93 tourism has plunged 20% or so because of sporadic
attacks by Islamic extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited
population growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The
addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge population
of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the land area available
for agriculture.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $41.2 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.1% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$730 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $4 billion (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal
products, chemicals
partners:
EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Imports:
$10.0 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer
goods, capital goods
partners:
EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe
External debt:
$38 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
14,175,000 kW capacity; 47,000 million kWh produced, 830 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction,
cement, metals

*Egypt, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force;
dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton
exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit,
vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for a rapidly expanding population;
livestock - cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about
140,000 metric tons
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium
moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers;
large domestic consumption of hashish and heroin from Lebanon and Syria
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15.7 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $10.1 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4
billion
Currency:
1 Egyptian pound (#E) = 100 piasters
Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171
(1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Egypt, Communications

Railroads:
5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km 0.750-meter
gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified
Highways:
51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel, 13,500 km improved earth,
18,025 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and
numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including
approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
Ports:
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta
Merchant marine:
168 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,097,707 GRT/1,592,885 DWT; includes
25 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 88 cargo, 3
refrigerated cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off, 13 oil tanker, 16 bulk, 1 container
Airports:
total:
92
usable:
82
with permanent-surface runways:
66
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
44
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
24
Telecommunications:
large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present
requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; about 600,000 telephones
(est.) - 11 telephones per 1,000 persons; principal centers at Alexandria,
Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable
and microwave radio relay; international traffic is carried by satellite -
one earth station for each of Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, ARABSAT and INMARSAT; by 5 coaxial submarine cables, microwave
troposcatter (to Sudan), and microwave radio relay (to Libya, Israel, and
Jordan); broadcast stations - 39 AM, 6 FM, and 41 TV

*Egypt, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 14,513,752; fit for military service 9,434,020; reach
military age (20) annually 581,858 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 5% of GDP (FY92/93)

*El Salvador, Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala and
Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
21,040 km2
land area:
20,720 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 545 km, Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
307 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm
International disputes:
land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September 1992
International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; ICJ referred the maritime
boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and
Nicaragua likely would be required
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources:
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
27%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
6%
other:
30%
Irrigated land:
1,200 km2 (1989)
Environment:
the Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive
earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Note:
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on
Caribbean Sea

*El Salvador, People

Population:
5,636,524 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.04% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.12 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
42.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
66.5 years
male:
63.93 years
female:
69.2 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.87 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Salvadoran(s)
adjective:
Salvadoran
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%
note:
Roman Catholic about 75%; there is extensive activity by Protestant groups
throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1
million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages:
Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
73%
male:
76%
female:
70%
Labor force:
1.7 million (1982 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial
services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%
note:
shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower
training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

*El Salvador, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form:
El Salvador
local long form:
Republica de El Salvador
local short form:
El Salvador
Digraph:
ES
Type:
republic
Capital:
San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan,
Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan,
San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
20 December 1983
Legal system:
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
National Republican Alliance (Arena), Armando CALDERON Sol, president;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Fidel CHAVEZ Mena, secretary general;
National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president; Democratic
Convergence (CD) is a coalition of three parties - the Social Democratic
Party (PSD), Carlos Diaz BARRERA, secretary general; Democratic Nationalist
Union (UDN), Mario AGUINADA Carranza, secretary general; and the Popular
Social Christian Movement (MPSC), Dr. Ruben Ignacio ZAMORA Rivas; Authentic
Christian Movement (MAC), Guillermo Antonia GUEVARA Lacayo, president;
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLM), Jorge Shafik HANDAL,
general coordinator, has five factions - Popular Liberation Forces (FPL),
Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren; Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN), Ferman
CIENFUEGOS; People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Joaquin VILLA LOBOS Huezo;
Salvadoran Communist Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL), Jorge
Shafik HANDAL; and
Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular Liberation
Revolutionary Aermed Forces (FARLP), Francisco JOVEL
Other political or pressure groups:
FMLN labor front organizations:
National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist umbrella front group,
leads FMLN front network; National Federation of Salvadoran Workers
(FENASTRAS), best organized of front groups and controlled by FMLN's
National Resistance (RN); Social Security Institute Workers Union (STISSS),
one of the most militant fronts, is controlled by FMLN's Armed Forces of
National Resistance (FARN) and RN; Association of Telecommunications Workers
(ASTTEL); Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist; Treasury
Ministry Employees (AGEMHA)

*El Salvador, Government

FMLN nonlabor front organizations:
Committee of Mothers and Families of Political Prisoners, Disappeared
Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador (COMADRES); Nongovernmental Human
Rights Commission (CDHES); Committee of Dismissed and Unemployed of El
Salvador (CODYDES); General Association of Salvadoran University Students
(AGEUS); National Association of Salvadoran Educators (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO);
Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS), associated with the Popular
Forces of Liberation (FPL); Association of National University Educators
(ADUES); Salvadoran University Students Front (FEUS); Christian Committee
for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES), an FPL front; The Association
for Communal Development in El Salvador (PADECOES), controlled by the
People's Revolutionary Army (ERP); Confederation of Cooperative Associations
of El Salvador (COACES)
labor organizations:
Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS),
independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association;
Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate; General Confederation of Workers
(CGT), moderate; National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC), moderate
labor coalition of democratic labor organizations; United Workers Front
(FUT)
business organizations:
National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP), conservative; Productive
Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of Salvadoran Small
Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 10 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - ARENA 44.3%,
PDC 27.96%, CD 12.16%, PCN 8.99%, MAC 3.23%, UDN 2.68%; seats - (84 total)
ARENA 39, PDC 26, PCN 9, CD 8, UDN 1, MAC 1
President:
last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994); results - Alfredo
CRISTIANI (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 36.6%, other 9.6%
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President (Felix) Alfredo CRISTIANI Buchard (since 1 June 1989); Vice
President (Jose) Francisco MERINO Lopez (since 1 June 1989)
Member of:
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission:
Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA
chancery:
2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-9671 through 3482
consulates general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

*El Salvador, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Peter F. ROMERO
embassy:
Final Boulevard, Station Antigua Cuscatlan, San Salvador
mailing address:
APO AA 34023
telephone:
[503] 78-4444
FAX:
[503] 78-6011
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features
a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of
arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the
words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also
similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

*El Salvador, Economy

Overview:
The agricultural sector accounts for 24% of GDP, employs about 40% of the
labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the major
commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export earnings. The manufacturing
sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 18% of
GDP and 15% of employment. Economic losses because of guerrilla sabotage
total more than $2 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large
military seriously constrain the government's efforts to provide essential
social services. Nevertheless, growth in national output during the period
1990-92 exceeded growth in population for the first time since 1987.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $5.9 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.6% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,060 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $846 million; expenditures $890 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$693 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee 45%, sugar, shrimp, cotton
partners:
US 33%, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica
Imports:
$1.47 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
US 43%, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany
External debt:
$2.6 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.7% (1991); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
713,800 kW capacity; 2,190 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing, beverages, petroleum, nonmetallic products, tobacco,
chemicals, textiles, furniture
Agriculture:
accounts for 24% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including fishing and
forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other products -
sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products, shrimp; not
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95 billion, plus $250 million
for 1992-96; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $525 million
Currency:
1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

*El Salvador, Economy

Exchange rates:
Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.7600 (January 1993), 9.1700 (1992),
8.0300 (1991), fixed rate of 5.000 (1986-1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*El Salvador, Communications

Railroads:
602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 542 km in use
Highways:
10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km improved and
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports:
Acajutla, Cutuco
Airports:
total:
105
usable:
74
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
nationwide trunk microwave radio relay system; connection into Central
American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones (21 telephones per 1,000
persons); broadcast stations - 77 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*El Salvador, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,305,853; fit for military service 836,192; reach military
age (18) annually 71,101 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 3%-4% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Equatorial Guinea, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Cameroon and
Gabon
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
28,050 km2
land area:
28,050 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 539 km, Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline:
296 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over
islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium
Land use:
arable land:
8%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
51%
other:
33%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to violent windstorms
Note:
insular and continental regions rather widely separated

*Equatorial Guinea, People

Population:
399,055 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.6% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
41.1 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
15.11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
104.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.63 years
male:
49.56 years
female: 53.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective:
Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic divisions:
Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang),
Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish
Religions:
nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Languages:
Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
50%
male:
64%
female:
37%
Labor force:
172,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
note:
labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population of working age (1985)

*Equatorial Guinea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form:
Equatorial Guinea
local long form:
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form:
Guinea Ecuatorial
former:
Spanish Guinea
Digraph:
EK
Type:
republic in transition to multiparty democracy
Capital:
Malabo
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko
Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence:
12 October 1968 (from Spain)
Constitution:
new constitution 17 November 1991
Legal system:
partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling - Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen. (Ret.)
Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
President:
last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996); results - President
Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was reelected without
opposition
Chamber of People's Representatives:
last held 10 July 1988 (next to be held 10 July 1993); results - PDGE is the
only party; seats - (41 total) PDGE 41
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives of the People (Camara de Representantes
del Pueblo)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August
1979)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Deputy Prime
Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG MIFUMU (since 22 January 1992)

*Equatorial Guinea, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAS
(observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG
chancery:
(temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
telephone:
(914) 667-9664
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John E. BENNETT
embassy:
Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo
mailing address: P.O. Box 597, Malabo
telephone:
[240] (9) 2185
FAX:
[240] (9) 2164
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in
the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars
(representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield
bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto
UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

*Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Overview:
The economy, devastated during the regime of former President Macias NGUEMA,
is based on agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which account for about half
of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence agriculture predominates, with
cocoa, coffee, and wood products providing income, foreign exchange, and
government revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts for about
8% of GDP and the construction, public works, and service sectors for about
38%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese,
uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place under concessions
offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful.
Increased production from recently discovered natural gas deposits will
provide a greater share of exports by 1995.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $144 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$380 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $26 million; expenditures $30 million, including capital
expenditures of $3 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$37 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
coffee, timber, cocoa beans
partners:
Spain 38.2%, Italy 12.2%, Netherlands 11.4%, FRG 6.9%, Nigeria 12.4% (1988)
Imports:
$63.0 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners:
France 25.9%, Spain 21.0%, Italy 16%, US 12.8%, Netherlands 8%, FRG 3.1%,
Gabon 2.9%, Nigeria 1.8% (1988)
External debt: $213 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.8% (1990 est.)
Electricity:
23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fishing, sawmilling
Agriculture:
cash crops - timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa from Bioko; food crops -
rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, livestock
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89) $130 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)

*Equatorial Guinea, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Equatorial Guinea, Communications

Highways:
Rio Muni - 2,460 km; Bioko - 300 km
Ports:
Malabo, Bata
Merchant marine:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413 GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo
and 1 passenger-cargo
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
poor system with adequate government services; international communications
from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; 2,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Equatorial Guinea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 84,323; fit for military service 42,812 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Eritrea, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Djibouti and Sudan
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
121,320 km2
land area:
121,320 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 1,630 km, Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
Coastline:
1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central
highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and
lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except on coast desert
Terrain:
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands,
descending on the east to a coastal desert plan, on the northwest to hilly
terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Natural resources:
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil, fish
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
2% (coffee)
meadows and pastures:
40%
forest and woodland:
5% other:
50%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
frequent droughts, famine; deforestation; soil eroision; overgrazing; loss
of infrastructure from civil warfare
Note:
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and
close to Arabian oilfields, Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27
April 1993

*Eritrea, People

Population:
3,467,087 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.46% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Eritrean(s)
adjective:
Eritrean
Ethnic divisions:
ethnic Tigrays 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast
dwellers) 3%
Religions:
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Languages:
Tigre and Kunama, Cushitic dialects, Tigre, Nora Bana, Arabic
Literacy:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Eritrea, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Eritrea
local long form:
none
local short form:
none
former:
Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
Digraph:
ER
Type:
transitional government
note:
on 29 May 1991 ISSAIAS Afeworke, secretary general of the Eritrean People's
Liberation Front (EPLF), announced the formation of the Provisional
Government in Eritrea (PGE), in preparation for the 23-25 April 1993
referendum on independence for the autonomous region of Eritrea; the result
was a landslide vote for independence that was announced on 27 April 1993
Capital:
Asmara (formerly Asmera)
Administrative divisions:
NA
Independence:
27 April 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)
Constitution:
transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993)
Political parties and leaders:
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (Christian Muslim), ISSAIAS
Aferworke, PETROS Soloman; Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) (Muslim),
ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO),
leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's
resignation, including several Islamic militant groups
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
multinational election before 20 May 1997
Executive branch:
president, Eritrean National Council
Legislative branch:
National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Judiciary
Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government:
President ISSAIAS Aferworke
Member of:
OAU, UN, UNCTAD

*Eritrea, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Joseph P. O'NEILL
embassy:
NA
mailing address:
NA
telephone:
251-4-113-720
FAX:
NA
Flag:
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two
right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold
wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the
red triangle

*Eritrea, Economy

Overview:
With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the bitter
economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country. Most of the
population will continue to depend on subsistence farming. Domestic output
is substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government
revenues come from custom duties and income and sales taxes. Eritrea has
inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for
revenues from the devlopment of offshore oil, offshore fishing and tourist
development. For the time being, Ethiopia will be largely dependent on
Eritrean ports for its foreign trade.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $400 million (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$115 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; NA kWh produced, NA kWh per capita
Industries:
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
NA
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
NA

*Eritrea, Communications

Railroads:
307 km total; 307 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
(nonoperational) linking Ak'ordat and Asmera with the port of Mits'iwe (1993
est.)
Highways:
3,845 km total; 807 km paved, 840 km gravel, 402 km improved earth, 1,796 km
unimproved earth
Ports:
Assab (formerly Aseb), Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,837 GRT/90,492 DWT; includes 9
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off, 1 livestock carrier, 2 oil tanker, 1 refrigerated
cargo
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
5 with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
NA

*Eritrea, Defense Forces

Branches:
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 NA; fit for military service NA; reach military age (18)
annually NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Estonia, Geography

Location:
Northeastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia
Map references:
Arctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
45,100 km2
land area:
43,200 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
note:
includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Land boundaries:
total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km
Coastline:
1,393 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
international small border strips along the northern (Narva) and southern
(Petseri) sections of eastern border with Russia ceded to Russia in 1945 by
the Estonian SSR
Climate:
maritime, wet, moderate winters
Terrain:
marshy, lowlands
Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use:
arable land:
22%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
11%
forest and woodland:
31%
other:
36%
Irrigated land:
110 km2 (1990)
Environment:
air heavily polluted with sulphur dioxide from oil-shale burning power
plants in northeast; radioactive wastes dumped in open reservoir in
Sillamae, a few dozen meters from Baltic Sea; contamination of soil and
ground water with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases

*Estonia, People

Population:
1,608,469 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.52% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.05 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
12.13 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
69.75 years
male:
64.75 years
female:
74.99 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.01 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Estonian(s)
adjective:
Estonian
Ethnic divisions:
Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Belarusian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%,
other 2.13% (1989)
Religions:
Lutheran
Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
796,000
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
(1990)

*Estonia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Estonia
conventional short form:
Estonia
local long form:
Eesti Vabariik
local short form:
Eesti
former:
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
EN
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
none (all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction)
Independence:
6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Political parties and leaders:
Popular Front of Estonia (Rahvarinne), NA chairman; Estonian Christian
Democratic Party, Aivar KALA, chairman; Estonian Christian Democratic Union,
Illar HALLASTE, chairman; Estonian Heritage Society (EMS), Trivimi VELLISTE,
chairman; Estonian National Independence Party (ENIP), Lagle PAREK,
chairman; Estonian Social Democratic Party, Marju LAURISTIN, chairman;
Estonian Green Party, Tonu OJA; Independent Estonian Communist Party, Vaino
VALJAS; People's Centrist Party, Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Estonian Royalist
Party (ERP), Kalle KULBOK, chairman; Entrpreneurs' Party (EP), Tiit MADE;
Estonian Fatherland Party, Mart LAAR, chairman; Safe Home; Moderates;
Estonian Citizen
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results - no candidate
received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (NA October
1992)
Parliament:
last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results - Fatherland 21%,
Safe Home 14%, Popular Front 13%, Moderates 10%, Estonian National
Independence Party 8%, Royalists 7%, Estonian Citizen 7%, Estonian
Entrepreneurs 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe Home
18, Popular Front 15, Moderates 12, ENIP 10, Royalists 8, Estonian Citizen
8, Estonian Entrepreneurs 1
Congress of Estonia:
last held March 1990 (next to be held NA); note - Congress of Estonia was a
quasi-governmental structure which disbanded itself October 1992 after the
new Parliament and government were installed
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, cabinet

*Estonia, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Riigikogu)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Lennart MERI (since NA October 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since NA October 1992)
Member of:
CBSS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, NACC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Toomas Hendrik IIVES
chancery:
(temporary) 630 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2415, New York, NY 10111
telephone:
(212) 247-2131
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE
embassy:
Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
011-[358] (49) 303-182 (cellular) FAX:
[358] (49) 306-817 (cellular)
note:
dialing to Baltics still requires use of an international operator unless
you use the cellular phone lines
Flag:
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

*Estonia, Economy

Overview:
As of June 1993 Estonia ranks first among the 15 former Soviet republics in
moving from its obsolete command economy to a modern market economy. Yet
serious problems remain. In contrast to the estimated 30% drop in output in
1992, GDP should grow by a small percent in 1993. Of key importance has been
the introduction of the kroon in August 1993 and the subsequent reductions
in inflation to 1%-2% per month. Starting in July 1991, under a new law on
private ownership, small enterprises, such as retail shops and restaurants,
were sold to private owners. The auctioning of large-scale enterprises is
progressing with the proceeds being held in escrow until the prior ownership
(that is, Estonian or the Commonwealth of Independent States) can be
established. Estonia ranks first in per capita consumption among the former
Soviet republics. Agriculture is well developed, especially meat production,
and provides a surplus for export. Only about one-fifth of the work force is
in agriculture. The major share of the work force engages in manufacturing
both capital and consumer goods based on raw materials and intermediate
products from the other former Soviet republics. These manufactures are of
high quality by ex-Soviet standards and are exported to the other republics.
Estonia's mineral resources are limited to major deposits of shale oil (60%
of the old Soviet total) and phosphorites (400 million tons). Estonia has a
large, relatively modern port and produces more than half of its own energy
needs at highly polluting shale oil power plants. It has advantages in the
transition, not having suffered so long under the Soviet yoke and having
better chances of developing profitable ties to the Nordic and West European
countries. Like Latvia, but unlike Lithuania, the large portion of ethnic
Russians (30%) in the population poses still another difficulty in the
transition to an independent market economy.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-30% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1%-2% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
3% (March 1993); but large number of underemployed workers
Budget:
revenues $223 million; expenditures $142 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$NA
commodities: textile 11%, wood products and timber 9%, dairy products 9%
partners:
Russia and the other former Soviet republics 50%, West 50% (1992)
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
machinery 45%, oil 13%, chemicals 12%
partners:
Finland 15%, Russia 18%
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -40% (1992)
Electricity:
3,700,000 kW capacity; 22,900 million kWh produced, 14,245 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Estonia, Economy

Industries:
accounts for 30% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper,
shoes, apparel
Agriculture:
employs 20% of work force; very efficient; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits and
vegetables
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic
production
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million
Currency:
1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 NA; (introduced in August 1992)
Exchange rates:
kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 12 (January 1993)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Estonia, Communications

Railroads:
1,030 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
30,300 km total (1990); 29,200 km hard surfaced; 1,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
natural gas 420 km (1992)
Ports: coastal - Tallinn, Novotallin, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine:
68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 394,501 GRT/526,502 DWT; includes 52
cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 2 short-sea passenger, 6 bulk, 2 container
Airports:
total:
29
useable:
18
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
300,000 telephone subscribers in 1990 with international direct dial service
available to Finland, Germany, Austria, UK and France; 21 telephone lines
per 100 persons as of 1991; broadcast stations - 3 TV (provide Estonian
programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs);
international traffic is carried to the other former USSR republics by
landline or microwave and to other countries by leased connection to the
Moscow international gateway switch via 19 incoming/20 outgoing
international channels, by the Finnish cellular net, and by an old copper
submarine cable to Finland soon to be replaced by an undersea fiber optic
cable system; there is also a new international telephone exchange in
Tallinn handling 60 channels via Helsinki; 2 analog mobile cellular networks
with international roaming capability to Scandinavia are operating in major
cities

*Estonia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit), Security
Forces (internal and border troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 387,733; fit for military service 306,056; reach military
age (18) annually 11,570 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993); note - conversion of
the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

*Ethiopia, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:

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