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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Industrial production:
NA
Electricity:
3,889,000 kW capacity; 16,248 million kWh produced, 1,500 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing,
textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel),
cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

*Cuba, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key commercial
crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee,
rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not
self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar); sector hurt by growing shortages
of fuels and parts
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion
Currency:
1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Cuba, Communications

Railroads:
12,947 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of 1.435-meter
gauge track; 151.7 km electrified; 7,742 km of sugar plantation lines of
0.914-m and 1.435-m gauge
Highways:
26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced (1989
est.)
Inland waterways:
240 km
Ports:
Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7 secondary, 35
minor
Merchant marine:
73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 511,522 GRT/720,270 DWT; includes 42
cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 cargo/training, 11 oil tanker, 1 chemical
tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 4 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns an additional
38 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 529,090 DWT under the registry of
Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Airports:
total:
186
usable:
166
with permanent-surface runways:
73
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
12
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
19
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios;
229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cuba, Defense Forces

Branches:
Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) - including Ground Forces, Revolutionary
Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Ministry of the Armed Forces
Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), Youth
Labor Army (EJT)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,087,255; females age 15-49 3,064,663; males fit for
military service 1,929,698; females fit for military service 1,910,733;
males reach military age (17) annually 90,409; females reach military age
(17) annually 87,274 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.2-1.4 billion; 10% of GNP in 1990 plan was for
defense and internal security
Note:
the breakup of the Soviet Union, the key military supporter and supplier of
Cuba, has resulted in substantially less outside help for Cuba's defense
forces

*Cyprus, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Mediterreanean Sea, 97 km west of Syria and 64 km west of
Turkey
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,250 km2
land area:
9,240 km2
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
648 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a
Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the island's land
area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that are separated by a
narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK sovereign base areas
(about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate:
temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain:
central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources:
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
arable land:
40%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
18%
other:
25%
Irrigated land:
350 km2 (1989)
Environment:
moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems (no natural reservoir
catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources
concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

*Cyprus, People

Population:
723,371 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.94% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.14 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.74 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.98 years
male:
73.75 years
female:
78.31 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.34 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cypriot(s)
adjective:
Cypriot
Ethnic divisions:
Greek 78%, Turkish 18%, other 4%
Religions:
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%
Languages:
Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population:
94%
male:
98%
female:
91%
Labor force:
Greek area:
282,000
by occupation:
services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1991)
Turkish area:
72,000
by occupation:
services 57%, industry 22%, agriculture 21% (1991)

*Cyprus, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form:
Cyprus
Digraph:
CY
Type:
republic
note:
a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began
after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further
solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which
gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots
control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983
Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the
formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been
recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of
intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government
Capital:
Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence:
16 August 1960 (from UK)
Constitution:
16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and
Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots
created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish
Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by
referendum in May 1985
Legal system:
based on common law, with civil law modifications
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (15 November is celebrated as Independence Day
in the Turkish area)
Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot:
Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios
CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), Glafkos CLERIDES; Democratic Party
(DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK),
Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis
PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS; Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area:
National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP),
Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus
Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Ergun VEHBI; New
Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet
KOTAK; Nationalist Justice Party (MAP), Zorlu TORE; United Sovereignty
Party, Arif Salih KIRDAG; Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland
Party (VP), Orhan UCOK; CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic
Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and
TKP boycotted the byelection of 13 October 1991, in which 12 seats were at
stake; the DMP was dissolved after the 1990 election

*Cyprus, Government

Other political or pressure groups:
United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of
Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK;
pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled);
Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish
Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions
(Dev-Is)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results -
Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
House of Representatives:
last held 19 May 1991; results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO
19.5%, EDEK 10. 9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL
(Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish Area: President:
last held 22 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995); results - Rauf R.
DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%
Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic:
last held 6 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - UBP
(conservative) 54.4%, DMP 44.4% YKP 0.9%; seats - (50 total) UBP
(conservative) 45, SDP 1, HDP 2, YDP 2; note - by-election of 13 October
1991 was for 12 seats; DP delegates broke away from the UBP and formed their
own party after the last election; seats as of July 1992 UBP 34, SPD 1, HDP
1, YDP 2, DP 10, independents 2
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note - there is a president,
prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon); note - there is a
unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Glafkos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993)
note:
Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February
1975; Dervish EROGLU has been prime minister of the Turkish area since 20
July 1985
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS
chancery:
2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-5772
consulate general:
New York note:
Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office at 1667
K Street, NW, Washington DC, telephone (202) 887-6198

*Cyprus, Government

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert E. LAMB
embassy:
corner of Therissos Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia
mailing address:
APO AE 09836
telephone:
[357] (2) 465151
FAX:
[357] (2) 459-571
Flag:
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is
derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive
branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for
peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note:
the Turkish cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom
with a red crescent and red star on a white field

*Cyprus, Economy

Overview:
The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry
contributes 16.5% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force, while the
service sector contributes 62% to GDP and employs 57% of the labor force.
Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products and in
tourism have played important roles in the average 6.8% rise in GDP between
1986 and 1990. This progress was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the
adverse effects of the Gulf War on tourism. Nevertheless in mid-1991, the
World Bank "graduated" Cyprus off its list of developing countries. In
contrast to the bright picture in the south, the Turkish Cypriot economy has
less than half the per capita GDP and suffered a series of reverses in 1991.
Crippled by the effects of the Gulf war, the collapse of the
fruit-to-electronics conglomerate, Polly Peck, Ltd., and a drought, the
Turkish area in late 1991 asked for a multibillion-dollar grant from Turkey
to help ease the burden of the economic crisis. In addition, the Turkish
government extended a $100 million loan in November 1992 to be used for
economic development projects in 1993. Turkey normally underwrites a
substantial portion of the Turkish Cypriot economy.
National product:
Greek area:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $6.3 billion (1992)
Turkish area:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $600 million (1990)
National product real growth rate: Greek area:
6.5% (1992)
Turkish area:
5.9% (1990)
National product per capita:
Greek area:
$11,000 (1992)
Turkish area:
$4,000 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Greek area:
5.1% (1991)
Turkish area:
69.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
Greek area:
2.4% (1991)
Turkish area:
1.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $350 million (1993)
Exports:
$875 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
partners:
UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 10%, Germany 5%
Imports:
$2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
partners:
UK 13%, Japan 12%, Italy 10%, Germany 9.1%

*Cyprus, Economy

External debt:
$1.9 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.4% (1991); accounts for 16.5% of GDP
Electricity:
620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced, 2,530 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Agriculture:
contributes 6% to GDP and employs 14% of labor force in the south; major
crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruits;
vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues
Illicit drugs:
transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe,
especially from Lebanon and Turkey
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $250 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $24
million
Currency:
1 Cypriot pound (#C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Cyprus, Communications

Highways:
10,780 km total; 5,170 km paved; 5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth
Ports:
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos
Merchant marine:
1,299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,045,037 GRT/37,119,933 DWT;
includes 10 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 463 cargo, 77
refrigerated cargo, 24 roll-on/roll-off, 70 container, 4 multifunction large
load carrier, 110 oil tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 26
chemical tanker, 32 combination ore/oil, 422 bulk, 3 vehicle carrier, 48
combination bulk, 1 railcar carrier, 2 passenger; note - a flag of
convenience registry; Cuba owns 27 of these ships, Russia owns 36, Latvia
also has 7 ships, Croatia owns 2, and Romania 5
Airports:
total:
13
usable:
13
with permanent-surface runways:
10
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek
area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; 210,000 telephones;
largely open-wire and microwave radio relay; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 8
FM, 1 (34 repeaters) TV in Greek sector and 2 AM, 6 FM and 1 TV in Turkish
sector; international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables,
and satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and EUTELSAT earth stations

*Cyprus, Defense Forces

Branches:
Greek area:
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements), Greek
Cypriot Police
Turkish area:
Turkish Cypriot Security Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 185,371; fit for military service 127,536; reach military
age (18) annually 5,085 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Czech Republic, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Germany and Slovakia
Map references:
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
78,703 km2
land area:
78,645 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214
km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Liechtenstein claims 620 square miles of Czech territory confiscated from
its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does
not go back before February 1948, when the Communists seized power;
unresolved property dispute issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic's property; establishment of international
border between Czech Republic and Slovakia
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
two main regions: Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains, hills,
and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the east,
consisting of very hilly country
Natural resources:
hard coal, kaolin, clay, graphite
Land use:
arable land:
NA%
permanent crops:
NA%
meadows and pastures:
NA%
forest and woodland:
NA%
other: NA%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
NA
Note:
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military
corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

*Czech Republic, People

Population:
10,389,256 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.16% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.44 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.64 years
male:
68.9 years
female:
76.58 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Czech(s)
adjective:
Czech
Ethnic divisions:
Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian
0.2%, other 1%
Religions:
atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other
13.4%
Languages:
Czech, Slovak
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force: 5.389 million
by occupation:
industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications and
other 45.2% (1990)

*Czech Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Czech Republic
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Ceska Republika
local short form:
Cechy
Digraph:
EZ
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Prague
Administrative divisions:
7 regions (kraje, kraj - singular); Severocesky, Zapadocesky, Jihocesky,
Vychodocesky, Praha, Severomoravsky, Jihomoravsky
Independence:
1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)
Constitution:
ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) obligations and to
expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
Civic Democratic Party, Vaclav KLAUS, chairman; Christian Democratic Union,
leader NA; Civic Democratic Alliance, Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
Democratic Party, Vaclav BENDA, chairman; Czech People's Party, Josef LUX;
Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Milos ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc, leader NA;
Republican Party, Miroslav SLADEK, chairman; Movement for Self-Governing
Democracy for Moravia and Silesia, Jan STRYCER, chairman; Liberal Social
Union, leader NA; Assembly for the Republic, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Czech Democratic Left Movement; Civic Movement
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results -
Vaclav HAVEL elected by the National Council
Senate:
elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (200 total) Civic Democratic Party/Christian Democratic
Party 76, Left Bloc 35, Czechoslovak Social Democracy 16, Liberal Social
Union 16, Christian Democratic Union/Czech People's Party 15, Assembly for
the Republic/Republican Party 14, Civic Democratic Alliance 14, Movement for
Self-Governing Democracy for Moravia and Silesia 14
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet

*Czech Republic, Government

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Council (Narodni rada) will consist of an upper house or
Senate (which has not yet been established) and a lower house or Chamber of
Deputies
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers
Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992)
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFC, IFCTU, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN (as of 8
January 1993), UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
chancery:
3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 363-6315 or 6316
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
embassy:
Trziste 15, 125 48, Prague 1
mailing address:
Unit 25402; APO AE 09213-5630
telephone:
[42] (2) 536-641/6
FAX:
[42] (2) 532-457
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side

*Czech Republic, Economy

Overview:
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent nation states - the
Czech Republic and Slovakia - on 1 January 1993 has complicated the task of
moving toward a more open and decentralized economy. The old Czechoslovakia,
even though highly industrialized by East European standards, suffered from
an aging capital plant, lagging technology, and a deficiency in energy and
many raw materials. In January 1991, approximately one year after the end of
communist control of Eastern Europe, theCzech and Slovak Federal Republic
launched a sweeping program to convert its almost entirely state-owned and
controlled economy to a market system. In 1991-92 these measures resulted in
privatization of some medium- and small-scale economic activity and the
setting of more than 90% of prices by the market - but at a cost in
inflation, unemployment, and lower output. For Czechoslovakia as a whole
inflation in 1991 was roughly 50% and output fell 15%. In 1992, in the Czech
lands, inflation dropped to an estimated 12.5% and GDP was down a more
moderate 5%. For 1993 the government of the Czech Republic anticipates
inflation of 15-20% and a rise in unemployment to perhaps 12% as some
large-scale enterprises go into bankruptcy; GDP may drop as much as 3%,
mainly because of the disruption of trade links with Slovakia. Although the
governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia had envisaged retaining the
koruna as a common currency, at least in the short term, the two countries
ended the currency union in February 1993.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $75.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.5% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.1% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels,
minerals, and metals
partners:
Slovakia, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, France, US, UK, CIS
republics
Imports:
$8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manfactured goods,
raw materials, chemicals, agricultural products
partners:
Slovakia, CIS republics, Germany Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Hungary, UK,
Italy
External debt:
$3.8 billion hard currency indebtedness (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4% (November 1992 over November 1991); accounts for over 60% of
GDP
Electricity:
16,500,000 kW capacity; 62,200 million kWh produced, 6,030 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Czech Republic, Economy

Industries:
fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor vehicles,
glass, armaments
Agriculture:
largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products
Illicit drugs:
the former Czechoslovakia was a transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and was emerging as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
(1992)
Economic aid:
the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to
non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)
Currency:
1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru
Exchange rates:
koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 28.59 (December 1992), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Czech Republic, Communications

Railroads:
9,434 km total (1988)
Highways:
55,890 km total (1988)
Inland waterways:
NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river
Pipelines:
natural gas 5,400 km
Ports:
coastal outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin), Croatia (Rijeka),
Slovenia (Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river ports are
Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe)
Merchant marine:
the former Czechoslovakia had 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,185
GRT/437,291 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 9 bulk; may be shared with Slovakia
Airports:
total:
75
usable:
75
with permanent-surface runways: 8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
NA

*Czech Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,736,657; fit for military service 2,083,555; reach
military age (18) annually 95,335 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
23 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Denmark, Geography

Location:
Northwestern Europe, bordering the North Sea on a peninsula north of Germany
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
43,070 km2
land area:
42,370 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
note:
includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of
metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Land boundaries:
total 68 km, Germany 68 km
Coastline:
3,379 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
4 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area);
dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean
between Greenland and Jan Mayen is before the International Court of Justice
Climate:
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land:
61%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
12%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
4,300 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
air and water pollution
Note:
controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

*Denmark, People

Population:
5,175,922 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
12.5 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.42 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.51 years
male:
72.63 years
female:
78.56 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.68 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dane(s) adjective:
Danish
Ethnic divisions:
Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%, other 7%
(1988)
Languages:
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small minority)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
2,553,900
by occupation:
private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and mining
20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.6%,
electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

*Denmark, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form:
Denmark
local long form:
Kongeriget Danmark
local short form:
Danmark
Digraph:
DA
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Copenhagen
Administrative divisions:
metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city*, (stad); Arhus, Bornholm,
Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kbenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe,
Ringkbing, Roskilde, Snderjylland, Staden Kbenhavn*, Storstrm, Vejle,, Vestsjaelland, Viborg
note:
see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of
the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions
Independence:
1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)
Constitution:
5 June 1953
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Poul
SCHLUETER; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party,
Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD; Center Democratic Party,
Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian
People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN; Danish
Workers' Party
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
Social Democratic Party 37.4%, Conservative Party 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
Socialist People's Party 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic Party
5.1%, Radical Liberal Party 3.5%, Christian People's Party 2.3%, other 5.2%;
seats - (179 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands)
Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29, Socialist People's 15,
Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical Liberal 7, Christian
People's 4
Executive branch:
monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Folketing)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

*Denmark, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,
CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG
chancery:
3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-4300
FAX:
(202) 328-1470 consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard B. STONE
embassy:
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen O
mailing address:
APO AE 09716
telephone:
[45] (31) 42-31-44
FAX:
[45] (35) 43-0223
Flag:
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of
the DANNEBROG (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic
countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

*Denmark, Economy

Overview:
This modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale
and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable
living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark's new
center-left coalition government will concentrate on reducing the persistent
high unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as following the
previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a current
account surplus. In the face of recent international market pressure on the
Danish krone, the coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency.
The coalition hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall
tax revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax
reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve welfare
services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime Minister
RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to EC's economic and
monetary union (EMU) criteria by 1999, although Copenhagen won from the EC
the right to opt out of the EMU if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark
is, in fact, one of the few EC countries likely to fit into the EMU on time.
Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than many West
European countries. As the EC's single market (formally established on 1
January 1993) gets underway, Danish economic growth is expected to pickup to
around 2% in 1993. Expected Danish approval of the Maastricht treaty on EC
political and economic union in May 1993 would almost certainly reverse the
drop in investment, further boosting growth. The current account surplus
remains strong as limitations on wage increases and low inflation - expected
to be around 1% in 1993 - improve export competitiveness. Although
unemployment is high, it remains stable compared to most European countries.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $94.2 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1992)
National product per capita:
$18,200 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
11.4% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $48.8 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$37.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment (shipbuilding),
fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
partners:
EC 54.3% (Germany 23.6%, UK 10.1%, France 5.7%), Sweden 10.5%, Norway 5.8%,
US 4.9%, Japan 3.6% (1992)
Imports:
$30.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
textiles, paper
partners:
EC 53.4% (Germany 23.1%, UK 8.2%, France 5.6%), Sweden 10.8%, Norway 5.4%,
US 5.7%, Japan 4.1% (1992)
External debt:
$40 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.9% (1992)

*Denmark, Economy

Electricity:
11,215,000 kW capacity; 34,170 million kWh produced, 6,610 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical
products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products,
shipbuilding
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP and employs 5.6% of labor force (includes fishing and
forestry); farm products account for nearly 15% of export revenues;
principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish;
self-sufficient in food production
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion
Currency:
1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 re
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.236 (January 1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Denmark, Communications

Railroads:
2,770 km; Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,120 km (1,999 km rail line
and 121 km rail ferry services); 188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked;
650 km of standard-gauge lines are privately owned and operated
Highways:
66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block; 1,931 km
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth
Inland waterways:
417 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km
Ports:
Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous secondary and minor
ports
Merchant marine:
328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,043,277 GRT/7,230,634 DWT; includes
13 short-sea passenger, 102 cargo, 19 refrigerated cargo, 47 container, 37
roll-on/roll-off, 1 railcar carrier, 33 oil tanker, 18 chemical tanker, 36
liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note -
Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish
manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the
Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag ships belonged
to the DIS
Airports:
total:
118
usable:
109
with permanent-surface runways:
28
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
7
Telecommunications:
excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 4,509,000
telephones; buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay support
trunk network; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 50 TV; 19 submarine coaxial
cables; 7 earth stations operating in INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INMARSAT

*Denmark, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,368,211; fit for military service 1,176,559; reach
military age (20) annually 37,248 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.8 billion, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Djibouti, Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, at the entrance to the Red Sea between Ethiopia and Somalia
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
22,000 km2
land area:
21,980 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 508 km, Erithea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
314 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis
Climate:
desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Natural resources:
geothermal areas
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
91%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
vast wasteland
Note:
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian
oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

*Djibouti, People

Population:
401,579 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.7% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.05 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
113.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.78 years
male:
47.01 years
female:
50.59 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.27 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Djiboutian(s)
adjective:
Djiboutian
Ethnic divisions:
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
48%
male:
63%
female:
34%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port and 3,000 railway workers
note:
52% of population of working age (1983)

*Djibouti, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former:
French Territory of the Afars and Issas French Somaliland
Digraph:
DJ
Type:
republic
Capital:
Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); `Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti,
Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
27 June 1977 (from France)
Constitution:
multiparty constitution approved in referendum September 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party:
People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
other parties:
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic National
Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh
Other political or pressure groups:
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates;
Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP is the only party; seats - (65
total) RPP 65
President:
last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993); results - President
Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without opposition
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

*Djibouti, Government

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roble OLHAYE
chancery:
Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 331-0270
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles R. BAQUET III
embassy:
Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address:
B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone:
[253] 35-39-95
FAX:
[253] 35-39-40
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star
in the center

*Djibouti, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's
strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa.
Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an
international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural
resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent
on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance
development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be a
major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last
five years because of recession and a high population growth rate (including
immigrants and refugees).
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $358 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1.2% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,030 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
over 30% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $170 million; expenditures $203 million, including capital
expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$186 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
partners:
Africa 50%, Middle East 40%, Western Europe 9%
Imports:
$360 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
partners:
Western Europe 54%, Middle East 20%, Asia 19%
External debt:
$355 million (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10.0% (1990); manufacturing accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
115,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and
mineral-water bottling
Agriculture:
accounts for only 3% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop production to
mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads herding
goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39 million; Western (non-US)
countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million; Communist countries
(1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)

*Djibouti, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Djibouti, Communications

Railroads:
the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through Djibouti
Highways:
2,900 km total; 280 km paved; 2,620 km improved or unimproved earth (1982)
Ports:
Djibouti
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
Airports:
total:
13
usable:
11 with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the
microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country;
international connections via submarine cable to Saudi Arabia and by
satellite to other countries; one ground station each for Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV

*Djibouti, Defense Forces

Branches:
Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force), National Security
Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 97,943; fit for military service 57,187 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)

*Dominica, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean, about halfway between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and
Tobago
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
750 km2
land area:
750 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
148 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes: none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain:
rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
13%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
41%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes

*Dominica, People

Population:
86,547 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.31% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.82 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.06 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.72 years
male:
73.89 years
female:
79.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.03 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dominican(s)
adjective:
Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
black, Carib Indians
Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other
5%
Languages:
English (official), French patois
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
94%
male:
94%
female:
94%
Labor force:
25,000
by occupation:
agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

*Dominica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form:
Dominica
Digraph:
DO
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Roseau
Administrative divisions:
10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint
Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
Independence:
3 November 1978 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 November 1978
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Political parties and leaders:
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES; Dominica Labor Party
(DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES
Other political or pressure groups:
Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected
representatives) DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4
President:
last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results -
President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET was reelected by the House of
Assembly
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since 19 December 1983)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21 July 1980, elected for a
third term 28 May 1990)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
there is no chancery in the US
US diplomatic representation:
no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados),
but travels frequently to Dominica

*Dominica, Government

Flag:
green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is
yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top),
black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk
bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in
yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

*Dominica, Economy

Overview:
The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to
climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Principal products include bananas, citrus, mangoes,
root crops, and coconuts. In 1991, GDP grew by 2.1%. The tourist industry
remains undeveloped because of a rugged coastline and the lack of an
international airport.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $174 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,100 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $70 million; expenditures $84 million, including capital
expenditures of $26 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$66.0 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
partners:
UK 50%, CARICOM countries, US, Italy
Imports:
$110.0 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
partners:
US 27%, CARICOM, UK, Canada
External debt:
$87 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988 est.); accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced, 185 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GDP; principal crops - bananas, citrus, mangoes, root
crops, coconuts; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings; forestry and
fisheries potential not exploited
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$120 million
Currency:
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Dominica, Communications

Highways:
750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Roseau, Portsmouth
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and UHF link to Saint
Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 3
AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

*Dominica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Dominican Republic, Geography

Location:
in the northern Caribbean Sea, about halfway between Cuba and Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
48,730 km2
land area:
48,380 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
total 275 km, Haiti 275 km
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or the outer edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
6 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Natural resources:
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
43%
forest and woodland:
13%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
2,250 km2 (1989)
Environment:
subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October); deforestation
Note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is Haiti, eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

*Dominican Republic, People

Population:
7,683,940 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.86% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
25.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.98 years
male:
65.87 years
female:
70.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.89 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Dominican(s)
adjective:
Dominican
Ethnic divisions:
mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
83%
male:
85%
female:
82%
Labor force:
2,300,000 to 2,600,000
by occupation:
agriculture 49%, services 33%, industry 18% (1986)

*Dominican Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Dominican Republic
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Republica Dominicana
local short form:
none
Digraph:
DR
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santo Domingo
Administrative divisions:
29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito);, Azua, Baoruco,
Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El, Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor,
Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San
Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez,
Valverde
Independence:
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Constitution:
28 November 1966
Legal system:
based on French civil codes
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Political parties and leaders:
Major parties:
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican
Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino; Dominican Revolutionary Party
(PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI),
Jacobo MAJLUTA
Minor parties:
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive
Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio
DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde;
Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party
(APD), Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA
note:
in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the
Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual party
structures
Other political or pressure groups:
Collective of Popular Organzations (COP), leader NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory or married persons regardless of
age
note:
members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

*Dominican Republic, Government

Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2
President:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Joaquin BALAGUER
(PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 34.4%
Senate:
last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term
began 16 August 1990); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16
August 1986)
Member of:
ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
chancery:
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 332-6280
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans,
New York, Philadelphia, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulates:
Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville,
Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert S. PASTORINO
embassy:
corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo
Domingo
mailing address:
APO AA 34041-0008
telephone:
(809) 541-2171 and 541-8100
FAX:
(809) 686-7437
Flag:
a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four
rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are
red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the
cross

*Dominican Republic, Economy

Overview:
The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported components average 60%
of the value of goods consumed in the domestic market. Rapid growth of free
trade zones has established a significant expansion of manufacturing for
export, especially wearing apparel. Over the past decade, tourism has also
increased in importance and is a major earner of foreign exchange and a
source of new jobs. Agriculture remains a key sector of the economy. The
principal commercial crop is sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa,
and tobacco. Domestic industry is based on the processing of agricultural
products, oil refining, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially
reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $8.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,120 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$600 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners:
US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)
Imports:
$2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 50%
External debt:
$4.7 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.5% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
2,283,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 660 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement,
tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor force; sugarcane is the
most important commercial crop, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and
tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; animal output -
cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $575 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $655 million
Currency:
1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

*Dominican Republic, Economy

Exchange rates:
Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 12.7 (1992), 12.692 (1991), 8.525 (1990),
6.340 (1989), 6.113 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Dominican Republic, Communications

Railroads:
1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges from 0.558 m to
1.435 m
Highways:
12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved earth, 600 km
unimproved
Pipelines:
crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Ports:
Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata
Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
Airports:
total:
36
usable:
30
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:

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