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Notes and Queries 1850.04.06 by Various

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* * * * *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 23.] SATURDAY, APRIL 6. 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

* * * * *{361}


NOTES:-- Page
Periplus of Hanno, by R.T. Hampson 361
Pope Vindicated 362
The Supper of the Lorde 362
Folk Lore:--Palm Sunday Wind--Curious Symbolical Custom--The Wild
Huntsman 363
On Authors and Books, No. VI, by Bolton Corney 363

Nicholas Breton's Crossing of Proverbs, by J.P. Collier 364
Sword called Curtana, by E.F. Rimbault, LL.D. 364
Is the Dombec the Domesday of Alfred? by George Munford 365
Minor Queries:--Wickliffite Versions of the Scriptures--Gloves--Law
Courts at St. Alban's--Milton Pedigree--Sapcote Motto--Scala Coeli,
&c. 366

The Arabic Numerals and Cipher 367
Replies to Minor Queries, by Sir W.C. Trevelyan 368
Derivation of "News" 369
Replies to Minor Queries:--Swot--Pokership--Vox Populi--Living Dog better
than dead Lion--Curious Monumental Brasses--Chapels--Forthlot--Loscop--
Smelling of the Lamp--Anglo-Saxon MS. of Orosius--Golden Frog--Sword
of Charles I.--John Bull--Vertue MSS.--Lines attributed to Tom Brown,
&c. 369

Epigram by La Monnoye--Spur Money--Minimum de Malls--Epigram on Louis
XIV.--Macaulay's Young Levite--St. Martin's Lane--Charles Deering,
M.D. 373

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 375
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 375
Notices to Correspondents 375
Advertisements 376

* * * * *


I am not sufficiently Quixotic to attempt a defence of the
Carthaginians on the western coast of Africa, or any where else, but
I submit that the accusation brought against them by Mr. S. Bannister,
formerly Attorney-General of New South Wales, is not sustained by
the only record we possess of Hanno's colonising expedition. That
gentleman, in his learned _Records of British Enterprise beyond Sea_,
just published, says, in a note, p. xlvii.:--

"The first nomade tribe they reached was friendly, and furnished
Hanno with _interpreters_. At length they discovered a nation _whose
language was unknown to the interpreters_. These strangers they
attempted to seize; and, upon their resistance, they took three of the
women, whom they put to death, and carried their skins to Carthage"
(_Geogr. Graeci Minores_, Paris, 1826, p. 115.).

Hanno obtained interpreters from a people who dwelt on the banks
of a large river, called the Lixus, and supposed to be the modern
St. Cyprian. Having sailed thence for several days, and touched at
different places, planting a colony in one of them, he came to a
mountainous country inhabited by savages, who wore skins of wild
beasts, [Greek: dermata thaereia enaemmenon]. At a distance of
twelve days' sail he came to some Ethiopians, who could not endure
the Carthaginians, and who spoke unintelligibly even to the Lixite
interpreters. These are the people whose women, Mr. Bannister says,
they killed. Hanno sailed from this inhospitable coast fifteen
days, and came to a gulf which he calls [Greek: Notou Kera], or
South Horn.

"Here," says the Dr. Hawkesworth, of Carthage, "in the gulf,
was an island, like the former, containing a lake, and in
this another island, full of wild men; but the women were
much more numerous, _with hairy bodies_ ([Greek: daseiai tois
somasin]), whom the interpreters called [Greek: gorillas].
We pursued the men, who, flying to precipices, defended
themselves with stones, and could not be taken. Three women,
who bit and scratched their leaders, would not follow them.
Having killed them, we brought their skins to Carthage."

He does not so much as intimate that the creatures who so defended
themselves with stones, or those whose bodies were covered with
hair, spoke any language. Nothing but the words [Greek: anthropoi
agrioi] and [Greek: gunaikes] can lead us to believe that they were
human beings at all; while the description of the behaviour of the
men, and the bodies of the women, is not repugnant to the supposition
that they were large apes, baboons, or orang-outangs, common to this
part of Africa. At all events, the voyagers do not say that they
flayed a people having the faculty of speech.

It is not, however, improbable that the Carthaginians were severe
taskmasters of the people whom they subdued. Such I understand those
to have been who opened the British tin mines, and who, according to
Diodorus Siculus, excessively overworked the wretches who toiled for
them, "wasting their bodies underground, and dying, {362} many a one,
through extremity of suffering, while others perished under the lashes
of the overseer." (_Bibl. Hist._ l. v. c. 38.)

R.T. Hampson.

* * * * *


"P.C.S.S." is too great an admirer of Pope not to seek to vindicate
him from one, at least, of the blunders attributed to him by Mr. D.
Stevens, at p. 331. of the "Notes and Queries."

"Singed are his _brows_, the scorching _lids_ grow black."

Now, if Mr. S. will refer to Homer, he will find that the original
fully justifies the use of "brows" and "lids" in the _plural_. It runs
thus (_Od._ ix. v. 389.):

"[Greek: Panta de ui blephar amphi kai ophruas eusen autmae]."

"P.C.S.S." wishes that he could equally remove from Pope the charge
of inaccuracy respecting the _three_ cannibal meals of Polyphemus. He
fears that nothing can be alleged to impugn Mr. Stevens's perfectly
just criticism.

While on the subject of Pope, "P.C.S.S." would wish to advert to
a communication (No. 16. p. 246.) in which it is insinuated that
Pope was probably indebted to Petronius Arbiter for the well-known

"Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow;
The rest is all but leather and prunella."

With all respect for the ingenious author of that communication,
"P.C.S.S." confesses that he is unable to discover such a similitude
of expression as might warrant the notion that Pope had been a
borrower from Petronius. He cannot suppose that Mr. F. could have been
led away by any supposed analogy between _corium_ and _coricillum_.
The latter, Mr. F. must know, is nothing more than a diminutive of
a diminutive (coricillum, _not_ corcillum, from corculum); and the
word is coined by Petronius to ridicule one of the affectations of
Trimalchio (Nero), who was wont to indulge, to an absurd extent, in
the use of such diminutives (_vide_ Burmann, _in loco_). "P.C.S.S."
will now subjoin such translations of the passage in question as he
has hitherto had opportunities of referring to. The first is from _The
Works of Petronius Arbiter, translated by several hands_, Lond. 8vo.
4th edit. 1714. At the beginning of the translation itself there is
this heading--"Made English by Mr. Wilson, of the Middle Temple, and
several others." The passage in question is thus rendered:--

"Come, my friends, let us see how merry you can be! for in my
time, I have been no better than yourselves; but, by my own
industry, I am what I am. _'Tis the heart makes the man_; all
the rest is but stuff!"

In another translation, which, with Grub-Street audacity, the
publisher, in his title-passage, presumes to attribute to Addison!
and which appeared in 1736 (Lond. 8vo.), the passage is as follows:--

"I was once as you are: but now, thanks to my industry, I am
what I am. _It is the heart that makes the man_; all the rest
is but stuff!"

Be the translator who he may, this version, so impudently ascribed to
the moral Addison, is written with much spirit and power, and with a
remarkable comprehension of the author's meaning. Some of the poetical
fragments at the end are, indeed, singularly well done.

Of the two French versions which "P.C.S.S." has examined, the one by
Levaur (Paris, 8vo. 1726) thus translates the passage:

"Je vous prie, mes amis ... _C'est le coeur qui fait les
hommes; je compte le reste pour un fetu_."

In that of Boispreaux (Lond. 1742), it is simply rendered--

"Mon scavoir faire m'a tire du pair. _C'est le coeur qui fait
l'homme_ ..."

No attempt is made to translate the _quisquilia_.


* * * * *


I shall be glad to find that your correspondent "C.H." (No. 21. p.
333.) receives a satisfactory answer to his inquiry, as such a reply
would also satisfy my earlier query, No. 7. p. 109. I perceive,
however, from his letter, that I can give him some information on
other points noticed in it, though the absence of papers now passing
through the press with the Parker Society's reprint of a third volume
of Tyndale, will prevent my replying with such precision as I could
wish. That ancient tract on "The Supper of the Lorde, after the true
meanyng of the sixte of John," &c., of which "C.H." says he possesses
a copy, was reprinted at different intervals with the same date, viz.,
MCCCCCXXXIII, Apryll v., on its title-page. The original edition has a
final colophon, stating that it was "imprinted at Nornberg, by Nielas
Twonson," and is so rare, that I have not been able to discover the
existence of any copy, but one recently deposited in the Bodleian.
That "C.H.'s" copy is not a specimen of that first edition, is
apparent from two circumstances. The first is, that he has given you
a quotation from his copy as follows:--"And as for M. More, whom the
verity most offendeth, and doth but mocke it," whereas the original
edition has, "And as for M. Mocke," &c., and Sir Thomas More notices
this mockage of his name in his reply. The next is, that his copy
contains "Crowley's Epistle to the Reader," which does not appear in
any edition of an earlier date than 1551. When first attached to this
treatise, the epistle was anonymous, as may be seen in the Lambeth
copy; but Crowley eventually {363} affixed his name to the epistle,
as it appears in "C.H.'s" and in other copies. Robert Crowley was a
fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; vicar of St. Giles, Cripplegate;
a printer and publisher; but to his singular combination of titles, we
cannot add that of author of the treatise in question. "C.H." has seen
that he did not enter Oxford till 1534; and in his Prefatory Epistle,
Crowley speaks of the author of the treatise as a person distinct from

I do not wish, however, to be considered as positively affirming the
treatise to be Tyndale's. Foxe, the martyrologist, edited Tyndale's
works for Day, and he has only said that this treatise was "compiled,
as some do gather, by M. Wm. Tyndale, because the method and phrase
agree with his, and the time of writing are [sic] concurrent." On the
other hand, the authorship is unhesitatingly assigned to Tyndale by
Mr. C. Anderson (_Annals of the English Bible_, Sec.ix. _ad finem_),
and by Mr. Geo. Offer (_Mem. of Tyndale_, p. 30.), the two most
pains-taking and best informants as to his works. But still there are
objections of such force, that I must confess myself rather inclined
to attribute the treatise to Joy's pen, if I could but be satisfied
that he was capable of writing so correctly, and of keeping so clear
of vulgarity in a controversy with a popish persecutor.


* * * * *


_Palm Sunday Wind_.--It is a common idea among many of the farmers and
labourers of this immediate neighbourhood, that, from whatever quarter
the wind blows for the most part on Palm Sunday, it will continue
to blow from the same quarter for the most part during the ensuing

Is this notion prevalent in other parts of the country, as a piece of


Winchester, March 26.

_Curious Symbolical Custom_.--On Saturday last I married a couple in
the parish church. An old woman, an aunt of the bridegroom, displeased
at the marriage, stood at the church gate and pronounced an anathema
on the married pair. She then bought a new broom, went home, swept
her house, and hung the broom over the door. By this she intimated her
rejection of her nephew, and forbade him to enter her house. Is this a
known custom? What is its origin?

H. Morland Austen.

St. Peter's, Thanet, March 25. 1850.

_The Wild Huntsman_.--The interesting contributions of your
correspondent "Seleucus," on "Folk Lore," brought to my recollection
the "Wild Huntsman" of the German poet, Tieck; of whose verses on that
superstitious belief, still current among the imaginative peasantry of
Germany, I send you a translation, _done into English_ many years ago.
The Welsh dogs of Annwn, or "couriers of the air"--the spirit-hounds
who hunt the souls of the dead--are part of that popular belief
existing among all nations, which delivers up the noon of night to
ungracious influences, that "fade on the crowing of the cock."


"At the dead of the night the Wild Huntsman awakes,
In the deepest recess of the dark forest's brakes;
He lists to the storm, and arises in scorn.
He summons his hounds with his far-sounding horn;
He mounts his black steed; like the lightning they fly
And sweep the hush'd forest with snort and with cry.
Loud neighs his black courser; hark his horn, how 'tis swelling!
He chases his comrades, his hounds wildly yelling.
Speed along! speed along! for the race is all ours;
Speed along! speed along! while the midnight still lours;
The spirits of darkness will chase him in scorn,
Who dreads our wild howl, and the shriek of our horn,
Thus yelling and belling they sweep on the wind,
The dread of the pious and reverent mind:
But all who roam gladly in forests, by night,
This conflict of spirits will strangely delight."


Oxford, March 13.

* * * * *


In the union of scholarship, polished manners, and amiability of
character, we have had few men to surpass the reverend Joseph Spence.
His career was suitable to his deserts. He was fortunate in his
connections, fortunate in his appointments, and fortunate in his share
of fame.

His fame, however, is somewhat diminished. His _Essay on the Odyssey_,
which procured him the friendship of Pope, has ceased to be in
request; his _Polymetis_, once the ornament of every choice library,
has been superseded by the publications of Millin and Smith; his poems
are only to be met with in the collections of Dodsley and Nichols. If
we now dwell with pleasure on his name, it is chiefly as a recorder
of the sayings of others--it is on account of his assiduity in making
_notes!_ I allude to the volume entitled _Anecdotes, observations,
and characters of books and men_, which was edited by my friend Mr.
Singer, with his wonted care and ability in 1820.

The _Essay on the Odyssey_ was first published anonymously in 1726-7.
It was reprinted in 1737 and 1747. A copy of the latter edition, now
in my possession, contains this curious note:--

"It is remarkable that of twelve passages objected to in this
critique on the English Odyssey, _two_ only are found in those
books which were translated by Pope.

"From Mr. Langton, who had his information from Mr. Spence.

"When Spence carried his preface to Gorboduc in {364} 1736 to
Pope, he asked him his opinion. Pope said 'It would do very
well; there was nothing _pert_ or _low_ in it.' Spence was
satisfied with this praise, which however, was in implied
censure on all his other writings.--He is very fond of the
familiar vulgarisms of common talk, and is the very reverse of
Dr. Johnson.

"E.M." [Edmond Malone.]

The note is not signed at length, but there can be no doubt as to its
authorship, as I purchased the volume which contains it at the sale of
the unreserved books of Mr. Malone in 1818.

Bolton Corney.

* * * * *



Although my query respecting William Basse and his poem, "Great
Britain's Sun's Set," (No. 13. p. 200), produced no positive
information touching that production, it gave an opportunity to some
of your correspondents to communicate valuable intelligence relating
to the author and to other works by him, for which I, for one, was
very much obliged. If I did not obtain exactly what I wanted, I
obtained something that hereafter may be extremely useful; and that
I could not, perhaps, have obtained in any other way than through the
medium of your pleasant and welcome periodical.

I am now, therefore, about to put a question regarding another writer
of more celebrity and ability. Among our early pamphleteers, there was
certainly none more voluminous than Nicholas Breton, who began writing
in 1575, and did not lay down his pen until late in the reign of
James I. A list of his pieces (by no means complete, but the fullest
that has been compiled) may be seen in Lowndes's _Bibl. Manual_;
it includes several not by Breton, among them Sir Philip Sidney's
_Ourania_, 1606, which in fact is by a person of the name Backster;
and it omits the one to which my present communication refers, and
regarding which I am at some loss.

In the late Mr. Heber's _Catalogue_, part iv. p. 10., I read as
follows, under the name of Nicholas Breton:--

"Crossing of Proverbs. The Second Part, with certaine briefe
Questions and Answeres, by N.B., Gent. Extremely rare and very
curious, _but imperfect_. It appears to contain a portion of
the first part, and also of the second; but it appears to be

Into whose hands this fragment devolved I know not; and that is one
point I am anxious to ascertain, because I have another fragment,
which consists of what is evidently the first sheet of the first part
of the tract in question, with the following title-page, which I quote
_totidem literis_:--

"Crossing of Proverbs. Crosse-Answeres. And Crosse-Humours. By
B.N., Gent. At London, Printed for John Wright, and are to be
solde at his Shop without Newgate, at the signe of the Bible,

It is in 8vo., as Heber's fragment appears to have been; but then the
initials of the author are given as N.B., whereas in my fragment they
stand B.N., a usual inversion with Nicholas Breton; the brief address
"To the Reader" is also subscribed B.N.; and then begins the body of
the work, thus headed: "Crosse and Pile, or, Crossing of Proverbs." It
opens as follows:

"_Proverb_. The more the merrier.
_Cross_. Not so; one hand is enough in a purse.
_P._ Every man loves himselfe best.
_C._ Not so, when man is undone by suretyship.
_P._ He that runnes fastest gets most ground.
_C._ Not so, for then foote-men would have more land than their masters.
_P._ He runnes far that never turnes.
_C._ Not so, he may breake his necke in a short course.
_P._ No man can call againe yesterday.
_C._ Yes, hee may call till his heart ake, though it never come.
_P._ Had I wist was a foole.
_C._ No, he was a foole that said so."

And so it proceeds, not without humour and point, here and there
borrowing from known sources, as in the following:--

"_Proverb._ The world is a long journey.
_Cros._ Not so, the sunne goes it every day.
_P._ It is a great way to the bottom of the sea.
_C._ Not so, it is but a stone's cast."

However, my object is not to give specimens of the production further
than are necessary for its identification. My queries are, 1st, Who
bought Mr. Heber's fragment, and where is it now to be found? 2nd, Are
any of your correspondents aware of the existence of a perfect copy of
the work?

I naturally take a peculiar interest about Nicholas Breton, because
I have in my possession an unknown collection of amatory and pastoral
poems by him, printed in quarto in 1604, in matter and measure obvious
imitations of productions in "The Passionate Pilgrim," 1599, imputed
to Shakespeare, and some of which are unquestionably by Richard

Any new information regarding Breton and his works will be most
acceptable to me. I am already in possession of undoubted proof that
he was the Nicholas Breton whose epitaph is on the chancel-wall of the
church of Norton, in Northamptonshire, a point Ritson seems to have

J. Payne Collier.

March 30. 1850.

* * * * *


In the wardrobe account for the year 1483, are "iij swerdes, whereof
oon with a flat poynte, {365} called _curtana_, and ij other swords,
all iij swords covered in a yerde di of crymysym tisshue cloth of

The name of _curtana_ for many ages continued to be given to the first
royal sword in England. It existed as long ago as the reign of Henry
III., at whose coronation (A.D. 1236) it was carried by the Earl of
Chester. We find it at the coronations of Edward II. and Richard II.;
also in the time of Henry IV., Richard III., and Henry VII.; and among
the royal arms of Edward VI. we read of "a swerde called _curtana_."

Can any of your readers explain the origin of the name _curtana_,
a sword so famous that it carries us back to the days of ancient
chivalry, when it was wielded by the Dane _Uggiero_, or by the still
more famed _Orlando_.

Edward F. Rimbault.

* * * * *


I beg to propose the following "Query":--Is the _Dombec_, a work
referred to in the Laws of Edward the Elder, the same as what has been
called the Domesday or Winchester Book of Alfred the Great? I incline
to think that it is not, and shall be much obliged to any of your
correspondents, learned in the Anglo-Saxon period of our history, who
will give himself the trouble of resolving my doubts.

Sir Henry Spelman, in his Glossary _voce Dombec_, calls it the _Liber
Judicialis_ of the Anglo-Saxons; and says it is mentioned in the first
chapter of the laws of Edward the Elder, where the king directs his
judges to conduct themselves in their judicial proceedings as on [Old
English: thaere dom bec stand], that is, as _is enjoined in their Dome
Book_.--"Quod," he continues, "an de praecedentium Regum legibus quae
hodie extant, intelligendum sit: an de alio quopiam libro hactenus non
prodeunte, incertum est."

But this uncertainty does not seem to have attached itself to the
mind of Sir William Blackstone; for in the third section of the
Introduction prefixed to his _Commentaries on the Laws of England_, he
informs us that our antiquaries "tell us that in the time of Alfred,
the local customs of the several provinces of the kingdom were grown
so various, that he found it expedient to compile his _Dome Book_, or
_Liber Judicialis_, for the general use of the whole kingdom." This
book is said to have been extant so late as the reign of King Edward
IV., but is now unfortunately lost. It contained, we may probably
suppose, the principal maxims of the common law, the penalties for
misdemeanors, and the forms of judicial proceedings. Thus much may be
at least collected from that injunction to observe it, which we find
in the Laws of King Edward the Elder, the son of Alfred.--"_Omnibus
qui reipublicae praesunt etiam atque etiam mando, ut omnibus aequos
se praebeant judices, perinde ac in judiciali libro_ (Saxonice, [Old
English: dom bec]) _scriptum habetur: nec quidquid formident quin
jus commune_ (Saxonice, [Old English: folcrihte]) _audactes libereque

But notwithstanding this, it appears to me by no means conclusive,
that the _Dombec_ referred to in the Laws of Edward the Elder and the
_Liber Judicialis_ of Alfred are the same; on the contrary, Alfred's
_Liber Judicialis_ seems to have been known not under the name
of _Dombec_, but under that of the _Winchester Roll_, from the
circumstance of its having been principally kept at Winchester: and
Sir Henry Spelman says, the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror was
sometimes called _Rotulus Wintoniae, a similitudine antiquoris_, from
its resemblance to an older document preserved at Winchester. And he
quotes Ingulphus Abbot of Croyland, who says, "Iste rotulus (i.e. the
Domesday Book of William) vocatus est Rotulus Wintoniae, et ab Anglicis
pro sua generalitate, omnia tenementa totius terrae integre continente
_Domesday_ cognominatur." And the he proceeds, "Talem rotulum et
multum similem; ediderat quondam Rex Alfredus, in quo totam terram
Angliae per comitatus, centurias, et decurias descripserat, sicut
praenotatur. Qui quidem Rotulus Wintoniae vocatus est, quia deponebatur
apud Wintoniam conservandus," &c.

Here is nothing said of this work being called [Old English: dom bec]:
neither does Spelman, in his enumeration of the works of Alfred,
give the least intimation that any one of his collections of laws was
called [Old English: dom bec].

We know, indeed, that Alfred compiled a code of laws for his subjects;
but whether any part of them has been preserved, or how much of them
is embodied in subsequent codes, cannot now be determined. Asser
mentions that he frequently reprimanded the judges for wrong
judgments; and Spelman, that he wrote "a book against unjust
magistrates," but any complete body of laws, if such was ever framed
by Alfred, is now lost; and that attributed to him in Wilkin's _Leges
Anglo-Saxon_, is held in suspicion by most writers.

For these reasons, and considering that Sir William Blackstone's
knowledge of English history was rather superficial, I incline to the
belief, that the [Old English: dom bec] referred to in the laws of
Edward the Elder, was some collection of laws made _prior_ to the time
of Alfred: this might clearly be the case, as Sharon Turner informs
us that the Saxon laws were committed to writing as early as the
commencement of the 7th century.

The opinions of your learned correspondents on this disputed point may
be of much interest to many of your readers, and to none more than to

George Munford.

East Winch.

* * * * *{366}


_MSS. of the Wycliffite Translations of the Scriptures_.--The Add. MS.
15,521., in the British Museum, contains a copy of Lewis's edition
of the _Wycliffite New Testament_, printed in 1731, with manuscript
notes by Ames and Lewis, and the former has transcribed into it some
_additional prologues_, prefixed to each book of the New Testament,
which had not been printed by Lewis, and were taken by Ames from a MS.
of the New Testament, written in 1424, and in 1731 in the possession
of Thomas Granger. It would be very desirable to learn what became of
this MS. subsequently. Granger died in the following year, but the
MS. does not appear in the sale catalogue of his library, nor is it
found in the catalogue of Ames's own library, dispersed in 1760. Any
information relative to this remarkable copy of the New Testament,
would be very acceptable to the Editors of the _Wycliffite Versions
of the Scriptures_, who are now, after a literary labour of more than
twenty years, about to bring the work to a conclusion. They would
also feel much obliged by the communication of any notices of MSS. of
the Wycliffite versions, _existing in private hands_, exclusive of
those copies of which they already possess descriptions, existing in
the libraries of the following individuals:--Mrs. Allanson of Farn,
Flintshire, the Earl of Ashburnham, Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., Sir
Peregrine Ackland, Bart., Sir David Dundas, H.M. Judge Advocate, Dr.
Cardwell, Principal of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, and Thomas Bannister,

F. Madden.

British Museum, March 28.

_Why are Gloves not worn before Royalty?_--Can any of your readers
inform me what is the origin of the custom observed at Court, of
persons in the royal presence not wearing gloves? Is it a matter of
pure etiquette, or does the observance of it derive its origins from
barbarous times, when chivalry was little else than barbarism in


_Law Courts at St. Albans_.--Can any of your correspondents give
me the reference to a communication in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
(between, I think, the years 1815 and 1836), in which a passage
in Massinger, which alludes to lawyers going to St. Albans, is
illustrated by an inscription in the nave of St. Alban's Abbey Church,
which records that the courts were held there on account of the
sweating-sickness in the reign of Elizabeth?

[Greek: Sigma.]

_Richard Haley, or Hales.--Milton Pedigree_.--I should feel obliged
by any particulars respecting Richard Haley, or Hales, of Idlestreete,
otherwise Ilstreyd, in com. Hertford, yeoman; my object being to
ascertain the nature of some transaction he had with Milton, in July
1674, referred to in a bond which the former executed, dated the
27th of that month, for performance of the covenants contained in an
indenture of even date.

Is any thing known of Richard Milton, who signs his name as the
attesting witness to the releases given by two of the poet's daughters
for their share of his estate? Is there any pedigree of the family of
Sir Christopher Milton, the poet's brother, drawn up with sufficient
apparent accuracy to exclude the probability of Richard Milton being
his son? I have referred to the pedigree in the British Museum (Harl.
MS. 5802. fo. 19b.), which makes no mention of the letter; but it is
evidently so imperfect a notice, as to be of little authority one way
or other.


_Sapcote Motto_.--Over the old gatehouse of Elton, co. Hunts., built
by the family of Sapcote, is their coat of arms, namely, "three
dove-cotes;" and upon a scroll, surrounding the lower part of the
shield, is carved a motto, evidently French, and as evidently cut by
a person ignorant of that language. So far as I can decypher it, the
letters appear to be

sco toot X vinic [or umic]
X poncs.

Possibly the first and last letters _s_ are only flourishes. I shall
be glad of any suggestion as to its meaning.

I have not been able to find the Sapcote motto on record; and I
believe the Carysfoot family, the possessors of Elton, and the Duke
of Bedford, the heir in blood, to be ignorant of what this scroll is
intended to represent.


Athenaeum Club.

_Scala Coeli_.--In a will, dated 12 Hen. VIII., the testator directs
that there shall be four trentals of Saint Gregory said for his soul
at London at "Scala Coeli." Can any of your readers explain what place
is meant by "Scala Coeli?"

A Subscriber.

_Illustrations of Gresset's "Vert Vert," painted on Enamel, &c._--In
a Paris edition of Gresset's Works (Janet et Cotelle, 1823), in the
preface is the following passage.--

"Vert-vert fut bientot dans toutes les mains. Le suffrage de
la multitude se joignit a celui des connoisseurs; la mode, qui
est aussi en possession de donner son suffrage, s'empressa de
parer les ajustemens d'invention recente, du nom de l'illustre
perroquet; _les vases d'ornement, les vases usuels_ qui
sortoient des fabriques francoises, retracoient presque tous
quelques episodes du petit poeme. Un artist dont le nom est
venu jusqu'a nous, Raux, en _peignit sur email les sujets
les plus marquants_; et tandis qu'on faisoit passer dans une
version latine les vers elegants du poete jesuite, M. Bertin,
ministre d'etat, le gratifioit d'un magnifique _cabaret_ de
Sevres, dont toutes les pieces reproduisoient les aventures
de son heros, ce qui fit dire a Gresset, _qu'on le traduisoit
aussi en porcelaine de Sevres_." {367}

The _Query_ I wish to make is, Have any of these illustrations or
designs from Gresset's poem of Vert-vert, painted on enamel china, or
earthenware of any sort, of French or any other manufacture, come to
light of late years? or more lately still, among the articles that
have been dispersed among various buyers of almost all nations, in the
sales within these few weeks effected at Paris?

Robert Snow.

_Urbanus Regius_.--A friend of mine, a delightful old lady, fresh,
genial, and inquisitive, has in her possession an old volume, a family
heir-loom, which is not the less dear to her for being somewhat dingy
and dilapidated, and touching which she would gladly receive such
information as your correspondents can supply.

It is made up of three apparently distinct treatises; the first
(of which several leaves are wanting) on the twelve articles of the
Apostles' Creed. The second is "The ryght foundation, and pryncypall
common places of the hole godly Scripture," &c., by Doctor Urbanus
Regius. Prefixed is an epistle to Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury
(evidently Cranmer), to whom "Hys dayly oratoure, Gwalter Lynne (the
writer of the epistle), wyssheth lyfe euerlastynge." Between this
second treatise and the third, and apparently belonging to the latter,
is a title-page with the following inscription:

"Imprinted for Gwalter Lynne, dwelling upon Somers Kaye, by
Byllinges gate. In the yeare of oure Lorde. MDXLVIII. And they
by [_sic_] to be solde at Poules church yarde at the north
doore, In the signe of the By-bell, By Richard Jugge."

This last treatise is in smaller type than the others, and has no
general designation: it contains chapters on various subjects, e.g.
"The Signification of Baptism," &c.

Query 1. Is this volume well known? 2. Who were Urbanus Regius and
Walter Lynne?


March 16. 1850.

* * * * *



I might, with a little more consideration, have referred "E.V." to
several other authorities which he will do well to consult.

9. Wallis's _Algebra_, p. 9. and p. 153. of the additions.

10. _Phil. Trans._, Nos. 439. and 475.

11. Montucla, _Histoire des Mathematiques_, tom. i. chap. 2.

12. Baillie, _Histoire de l'Astronomie_.

13. Delambre[1], _Hist. de l'Astr. du moyen age_.

14. Hutton's _Tracts_ (8vo. ed. 1812.), vol. ii. (subject "History of

15. Huet, _Demonstratio Evangelica_.

16. Dr. John Taylor's Translation of the _Lilawati_. (Bombay, 1816.)

17. Strachey's Translation of the _Bija Ganita_[2].

18. Colebrooke's _Algebra of the Hindus_.

Would it not be worth while to give a _facsimile_ of the "Tabel for
all manere of merchauntes," in the "Notes and Queries"? It is not only
a curiosity, but an important element (and unique as far as is known)
in the philosophic history of our arithmetic. It was, no doubt, an
actual instrument in constant use in the merchant's office, as much so
as an almanac, interest-tables, a "cambist" and a copying-press, are

As regards the cipher, the difficulty only commenced with _writing
numbers_ in the new symbology. With persons accustomed to the use
of this instrument, there is no doubt that the mode of obviating the
difficulty of "keeping the place," would suggest itself at once. In
this instrument an empty hole (without its peg) _signified_ "none of
this denomination." What then more simple than to make the outline
of the empty hole which occupied the "local position" of any
denomination, when none of that precise denomination occurred in the
number itself? Under this view the process at least becomes simple
and natural; and as the early merchants contributed so largely to the
improvement of our arithmetical processes, such a conclusion is wholly
divested of improbability on any other ground. The circle would then
naturally become, as it certainly has practically become, the most
appropriate symbol of _nothingness_.

As regards the term _cipher_ or _zero_ (which are so obviously the
same as to need no remark), it is admitted on all hands to be derived
from one or other of the Semitic languages, the Hebrew or the Arabic.
It is customery with the mathematical historians to refer it to the
Arabic, they being in general more conversant with it than with the
Hebrew. The Arabic being a smaller hand than the Hebrew, a dot was
used instead of the circle for marking the "place" at which the hiatus
of any "denomination" occurred. If we obtained our cipher from this,
it would be made hollow (a mere _ceinture_, girdle, or ring) to
save the trouble of making a dot sufficiently large to correspond in
magnitude with our other numerals as we write them. Either is alike
possible--probability must be sought, for either over the other, from
a slightly different source.

The root-words in Hebrew and in Arabic are precisely the same
(_ts-ph-r_), though in the two {368} languages, and at different ages
of the same language, they might have been vowelised differently.
In some shape or other, this name is used in all countries that have
derived their arithmetic from mediaeval Italy, or from the Saracens. It
is with some _cipher_, with others _chiffre_, and with all _zero_. The
word is certainly no more Italian than it is French or English. Be it
remembered, too, that _ezor_ (quoted at p. 268.), as a _girdle_, is
radically the same word, somewhat mutilated. The cardinal meaning of
the word (denuded of the conventional accretions of signification,
which peculiar applications of it adds to the cardinal meaning)
appears to be _emptiness_, _hollowness_, _nothingness_. It may be
further remarked, that in the fine Chartres MS. of Boetius, described
by Chasles, the 0 is called _sipos_:--the same name, he remarks,
that Graves found in use in the East. The modern Turks call the 0,

It is curious enough that in all languages, the term _ciphering_ is
popularly used to denote all arithmetical operations whatever.
Our schoolboys do their "ciphering," and write carefully in their
"ciphering-books." This all seems to point to the art of dispensing
with the use of the abacus or counting table.


Shooter's Hill, March 5.

[1] The best account, because the most consistent and
intelligible, of the Greek arithmetic, is that by Delambre, affixed to
Peyraud's edition of Archimedes.

[2] At a period of leisure I may be tempted to send you a few
extracts, somewhat curious, from some of the papers of Mr. Strachey in
my possession.

_Arabic Numerals_.--I had replied to "E.V." (No. 15. p. 230.), when
I saw by your "Notice to Correspondents," that the question was
answered. I therefore waited the publication of the replies, which I
find do not embrace any one of the points to which I would call the
attention of "E.V."--Diophantus of Alexandria, who flourished about
150 years after Christ, and who wrote thirteen books of algebra or
arithmetic in the Greek language, is generally supposed to be the
oldest writer on the subject that has come down to our time; but it
was not from him that we received the knowledge of algebra in Europe.
It appears certain that the first knowledge of this science in
England was from Italy or Spain, after the Moors settled in the latter
country; and the Arabians and Persians appear to have derived their
arithmetical method of computing by ten characters from the Indians:
who, in their turn, have most probably borrowed from the Chinese, and
improved on their method by the adoption of a zero, which was one of
the most important improvements effected by the Hindoos. In China,
the words ancient and modern are almost synonymous; their usages
and customs being so unchangeable, as appears by their instrument
of computation, the _swanpan_, which is still used in all their
calculations. The Oriental scholar will find much curious and
interesting information connected with this subject in the Sanscrit
_Vija Ganita_ and _Lilivati_ of Bhaskara Acharya: the former
was translated into Persian at Agra, or Delhi, in 1634, and the
latter by Fyzee in 1587; but there are also English translations,
all of which are in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society. The
_Khalasah-ul-Hisah_ is another work of repute in India. Mr. Strachey
wrote and printed in India, for the _Asiatic Researches_, a valuable
paper, which contains most conclusive evidence of the Indian (if not
Chinese) origin of our numerals. See also _Astronomie Indienne_,
of M. Bailly; 2d vol. _Asiatic Researches_, "On the Astronomical
Computations of the Hindoos," by Saml. Davis; "Two Dissertations on
Indian Astronomy and Trigonometry," by Professor Playfair, in the 2d
and 4th vols. of the _Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions_. And many
others might be referred to; but all tending to prove that our numbers
came originally from China and India, through Persia, Arabia, Africa,
Spain, and Italy, by gradual and successive changes in form, several
of them still retaining a close resemblance to the ancient and modern
Sanscrit, Chinese, Arabic, Persian, and Hindoo numerals.

Henry Wilkinson.

* * * * *


I send you a few Notes on Queries scattered through some of the later
numbers of your very valuable publication:

_Anonymous Ravennas_.--In the library of the Royal Geographical
Society, I believe there is a copy of an 8vo. edition of that

_Selago_.--This plant, I should think it probable, is the _Lycopodium
clavatum_ of modern botanists; the seeds of which, when ripe, and when
the plant is struck, rise like smoke ("fumum" of Pliny), and may have
been supposed, from their remarkable inflammability when dashed into
a flame, igniting with a sudden flash, to have possessed wonderful
virtues. The species known as _Lycopodium selago_ is rare in
comparison to the other.

_Portugal_.--In the library of the Geographical Society are some of
the more recent works published in Lisbon on the topography of that
country, but they are generally very meagre and unsatisfactory. In a
periodical published in Lisbon in numbers, on the plan of the _Penny
Magazine_, there is a good deal of information, with engravings,
regarding many places of interest in Portugal. I think it is called
_The Album_, but I am sorry I have not at present the power of sending
you more correct particulars concerning it. It is in 4to.

Portugal is a country that is so little travelled in either by natives
or foreigners, that information regarding places in the interior
is not easily obtained; and facilities for travelling, as well as
accommodation for travellers, is of a very limited description.

_Sir Roger de Coverley_.--In one of your early numbers was a query on
this subject, which I do not think has been yet answered. I have a MS.
{369} account of the family of Calverley, of Calverley, in Yorkshire,
an autograph of Ralph Thoresby in the year 1717, in which occurs the
following passage:--

"_Roger_, so named from the Archbishop" (of York), "was
a person of renowned hospitality, since, at this day, the
obsolete known tune of _Roger a Calverley_ is referred to
him, who, according to the custom of those times, kept his
_minstrells_, from that their office named _harpers_, which
became a family and possessed lands till late years in and
about _Calverley_, called to this day _Harpersroids_ and
_Harper's Spring_.... He was a knight, and lived in the time
of K. Richard 1st. His seal, appended to one of his charters,
is large, with a chevalier on horseback."


* * * * *


It is not declared with what motive "Mr. GUTCH" (No. 17. p. 270.) has
laid before the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" the alleged derivation
of N.E.W.S.

It must therefore be supposed, that his object was to have its
justness and probability commented upon; and it is quite time that
they should be so, since the derivation in question has of late become
quite a favourite authoritative dictum with etymology compilers.
Thus it may be found, in the very words and form adopted by your
correspondent, in Haydn's _Dictionary of Dates_, and in other
authorities of equal weight.

This sort of initial-letter derivation was probably brought into
fashion in England by the alleged origin of "Cabal," or, perhaps, by
the many guesses at the much disputed word "AEra." I shall take the
liberty of quoting a few sentences with reference to such etymologies,
_as a class_, which I find in an unpublished manuscript upon a kindred

"Besides, such a splitting up of a word of significant and
perfect meaning in itself is always a bad and suspicious mode
of derivation.

"It is generally an after-thought, suggested by some
fortuitous or fancied coincidence, that appropriateness of
which is by no means a sufficient proof of probability.

"Of this there can scarcely be a better example than the
English word 'news,' which, notwithstanding the felicity of
its supposed derivation from the four cardinal points, must,
nevertheless, so long as the corresponding words 'nova,'
'nouvelles,' &c. exist, be consigned to its more sober and
common-place origin in the adjective '_new_.'"

To this it must be added that the ancient orthography of the word
_newes_, completely upsets the derivation Mr. Gutch has brought before
your readers. Hone quotes from "one Burton, printed in 1614: 'if any
one read now-a-days, it is a play-book, or _a pamphlet_ of _newes_."

I had been in two minds whether or not to send this communication,
when the scale is completely turned by the apropos occurrence of a
corroboration of this latter objection in "NOTES AND QUERIES" of this
day. Mr. Rimbault mentions (at p. 277.), "a rare black letter volume
entitled _Newes from Scotland_, 1591."

Here is one more proof of the usefulness of your publication, that I
am thus enabled to strengthen the illustration of a totally different
subject by the incidental authority of a fellow correspondent.


Leeds, March, 1850.

* * * * *


_Swot_ is, as the querist supposes, a military cant term, and
a sufficiently vulgar one too. It originated at the great
slang-manufactory for the army, the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.
You may depend upon the following account of it, which I had many
years ago from the late Thomas Leybourne, F.R.S., Senior Professor of
Mathematics in that college.

One of the Professors, Dr. William Wallace, in addition to his being a
Scotchman, had a bald head, and an exceedingly "broad Scotch" accent,
besides a not very delicate discrimination in the choice of his
English terms relating to social life. It happened on one hot summer's
day, nearly half a century ago, that he had been teaching a class,
and had worked himself into a considerable effusion from the skin. He
took out his handkerchief, rubbed his head and forehead violently, and
exclaimed in his Perthshire dialect,--"_It maks one swot_." This was
a God-send to the "gentlemen cadets," wishing to achieve a notoriety
as wits and slangsters; and mathematics generally ever after became
_swot_, and mathematicians _swots_. I have often heard it said:--"I
never could do _swot_ well, Sir;" and "these dull fellows, the
_swots_, can talk of nothing but triangles and equations."

I should have thought that the _sheer disgustingness_ of the
idea would have shut the word out of the vocabularies of English
_gentlemen_. It remains nevertheless a standard term in the vocabulary
of an English soldier. It is well, at all events, that future ages
should know its etymology.


_Pokership_, (_ante_, pp. 185. 218. 269. 282. 323, 324.)--I am sorry
to see that no progress has yet been made towards a satisfactory
explanation of this office. I was in hopes that something better than
mere conjecture would have been supplied from the peculiar facilities
of "T.R.F." "W.H.C." (p. 323.) has done little more than refer to the
same instruments as had been already adverted to by me in p. 269.,
with the new reading {370} of _poulterer_ for poker! With repect to
"T.R.F.'s" conjecture, I should be more ready to accept it if he
could produce a single example of the word _pawker_, in the sense of
a hog-warden. The quotation from the Pipe-roll of John is founded on
a mistake. The entry occurs in other previous rolls, and is there
clearly explained to refer to the _porter of Hereford Castle_. Thus,
in Pipe 2 Hen. II. and 3 Hen. II. we have, under Hereford,

"In liberatione portarii castelli ... 30s. 5d."

In Pipe 1 Ric. I. we have,

"In liberatione constituta portarii de Hereford, 30s. 5d."

Again, in Pipe 3 Joh.

"In liberatione constituta portario de Hereford, 30s. 5d."

A similar entry is to be found in other rolls, as well printed as
inedited. I could indulge some other criticisms on the communication
of your correspondent in Spring Gardens, but I prefer encouraging
him to make further inquiries, and to produce from the records in
his custody some more satisfactory solution of the difficulty. In the
meantime, let me refer to a Survey of Wrigmore Castle in the Lansdowne
Collection, No. 40. fo. 82. The surveyor there reports, that the
paling, rails, &c. of the park are much decayed in many and sundry
places, and he estimates the repairs, with allowance of timber from
the wood there, "by good surveye and oversight of the _poker_ and
other officers of the said parke," at 4l. The date of the survey is 13
May, 1584.

Comparing this notice of the office with the receiver's accounts
tempore Hen. VII. and Hen. VIII. (_ante_, p. 269.), in which the
officer is called "pocarius omnium boscorum," I cannot doubt that his
duty, or at least one of his duties, was that of woodward, and that,
as such, he assigned timber for repair of the premises. How he came by
his local title and style of poker is a mystery on which we have all
hitherto failed to throw any light.


_Vox Populi Vox Dei_,--about the origin of which saying "QUAESITOR"
asks (No. 21. p. 321.),--were the words chosen by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Simon Mepham, as his text for the sermon which he preached
when Edward III. was called to the throne, from which the nation had
pulled down his father, Edward II. This we learn from Walsingham, who

"Archiepiscopus vero Cantuariae praesenti consensit electioni,
ut omnes praelati et archiepiscopus quidem assumpto themate,
_Vox populi Vox Dei_, sermonem fecit populo, exhortans
omnes ut apud regem regum intercederent pro electo."--Tho.
Walsingham, _Hist. Angl._ ed. Camden, p. 126.


_A living Dog better than a dead Lion_.--I no not know whether your
correspondent (No. 22. p. 352.) ever goes to church; but if he is not
prevented by rain next St. Swithin's day, he will learn who was the
author of this proverb. It will be a good thing, if your work should
sometimes lead your readers to search the Scriptures, and give them
credit for wisdom that has flowed from them so long, and far, and
wide, that its source is forgotten; but this is not the place for a
sermon, and I now only add, "here endeth the first lesson" from


["J.E.," "D.D.," and other correspondents, have also replied
to this Query by references to Eccl. ix. 4.]

_Curious Monumental Brass_ (No. 16. p. 247.)--If "RAHERE" will turn to
Mr. Boutell's _Monumental Brasses and Slabs_, p. 148., he will there
find a description as well as an engraving of what, from his account,
I doubt not he will discover to be the identical fragment to which he
refers. A foot legend, and what remains of a border inscription, is
added to it. In the above work, pp. 147 to 155, and in the Oxford
Architectural Society's _Manual for the Study of Brasses_, p. 15.,
"RAHERE" will find an account and references to numerous examples of
palimpsest brasses, to which class the one in question belongs.

I presume that "RAHERE" is a young brass-rubber, or the fact of a
plate being engraved on both sides would have presented no difficulty
to him.


[We have received several other replies to this Query,
referring to Mr. Boutell's _Monumental Brasses_: one from
"W."; another from "A CORNISHMAN," who says,--

"The brass in question, when I saw it last, had been
removed from the Rectory and placed in the tomb of Abbot
Wheathampstead, in company with the famous one of Thomas
Delamere, another Abbot of St. Albans."

Another from "E.V.," who states,--

"Other examples are found at St. Margaret's, Rochester (where
the cause of the second engraving is found to be an error in
costume in the first), St. Martins at Plain, Norwich, Hedgerly
Church, Bucks, and Burwell Church, Cambridgeshire. Of this
last, an engraving and description, by Mr. A.W. Franks,
is given in the fourteenth part of the Publications of the
Cambridge Antiquarian Society."

One from "WILLIAM SPARROW SIMPSON," who says,--

"It is also described in the Oxford Architectural Society's
_Manual of Mon. Brasses_, No. 6. pp. 6, 7. other examples of
which occur at Rochester, Kent, and at Cobham, Surrey. A small
plate of brass, in the possession of a friend, has on one side
a group of children, and on the reverse the uplifted hands of
an earlier figure."

And lastly, one from "A.P.H." (to which we cannot do ample
justice, as we do not keep an engraver), from which we extract
the following passages:--

"A friend of mine has a shield in his possession, taken from
a slab, and which has been enamelled. It is of late date
and rudely executed. On the back is {371} seen the hands and
breast of a small female figure, very nearly a century earlier
in date. I can also remember an inscription in Cuxton Church,
Kent, which was loose, and had another inscription on the back
in the same manner.

"I am very much impressed with the idea that the destroyed
brasses never had been used at all; but had been engraved,
and then, from circumstances that of course we cannot hope to
fathom, thrown on one side till the metal might be used for
some other purpose. This, I think, is a more probable, as well
as a more charitable explanation than the one usually given of
the so-called palimpsest brasses."]

_Chapels_ (No. 20. p. 333.).--As to the origin of the name, will you
allow me to refer Mr. Gatty to Ducange's _Glossary_, where he will
find much that is to his purpose.

As to its being "a legal description," I will not undertake to
give an opinion without a fee; but I will mention a fact which may
assist him in forming one. I believe that fifty years ago the word
_Chapel_ was very seldom used among those who formed what was termed
the "Dissenting Interest;" that is, the three "denominations" of
Independents, Baptists, and Presbyterians. But I well recollect
hearing, from good authority, nearly, or quite, forty years ago, that
an eminent barrister (whom I might now describe as a late learned
judge), who was much looked up to by the dissenters as one of their
body, had particularly advised that in all trust-deeds relating to
places of dissenting worship, they should be called "Chapels." I do
not know that he assigned any reason, but I know that the opinion was
given, or communicated, to those who had influence; and, from my own
observation, I believe that from about that time we must date the
adoption of the term, which has now been long in general use.

I do not imagine that there was any idea of either assistance
or opposition to the Church of England, in the mind of him who
recommended, or those who adopted, the alteration, or that either
of them expected or sought any thing by this measure but to obtain
a greater security for property, or, rather, to avoid some real
or imagined insecurity, found or supposed to attach to the form of
description previously in use.


_Forlot, Forthlot_ (No. 20. p. 320.).--A measure of grain used
throughout Scotland at present--query _fourthlot_. See Jamieson's
_Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language_.

"_Firlot; Fyrlot; Furlet_.--A corn measure in S., the fourth
part of a boll.

"Thay ordainit the boll to mat victual with, to be devidit
in foure partis, _videlicet_, foure _fyrlottis_ to contene
a boll; and that _fyrlot_ not to be maid efter the first
mesoure, na efter the mesoure now usit, bot in middill mesoure
betwixt the twa."--_Acts Jac._ l. 1526. c. 80. edit. 1566.

"--Ane furme, ane furlet,
Ane pott, ane pek."

Bannatyne _Poems_, p. 159.

Skinner derives it from A.-S. _feower_, quatuor; and _lot_, _hlot_,
portio (the fourth part); Teut. "_viertel_."


_Loscop_ (No. 20. p. 319).--To be "Louecope-free" is one of the
immunities granted to the Cinque Ports in their charters of Liberties.

Jeakes explains the term thus:--

"The Saxon word Cope (in Low Dutch still Kope or Koope), for
trade or merchandising, makes this as much as to trade freely
for love. So that by no kind of monopoly patent, or company or
society of traders or merchants, the portsmen be hindered from
merchandising; but freely and for love, be permitted to trade
and traffick, even by such company of merchants, whenever it
shall happen their concerns lie together."

In my MSS., and in the print of Jeakes, it is "Louecope," with which
"Lofcope" may be readily identified; and _f_ may easily be misread for
_s_, especially if the roll be obscured.

If Jeakes's etymology of the word be correct, the inference would
rather be that "Lovecope" was a tax for the goodwill of the port
at which a merchant vessel might arrive; a "port duty" in fact,
independent of "lastage" &c., chargeable upon every trader that
entered the port, whatever her cargo might be. And the immunities
granted to the portsmen were that they should be "port duty free."

I do not venture to offer this as any thing more than a mere guess.
Among your contributors there are many more learned than myself in
this branch of antiquarian lore, who will probably be able to give
a more correct interpretation, and we shall feel obliged for any
assistance that they can give us in elucidating the question.

"Lovecope" might perhaps be the designation of the association of
merchants itself, to which Jeakes alludes; and the liberty of forming
such association, with powers of imposing port duties, may have been
dependent on special grant to any port by royal charter, such as that
which forms the subject of your correspondent's communication.

After all, perhaps, "Lovecope" was the word for an association of
merchants; and "Louecope-free" is to be freed from privileged taxation
by this body.


_Smelling of the Lamp_ (No. 21. p. 335.).--"X." will find the
expression [Greek: Illuchnion ozein] attributed to Pytheas by Plutarch
(_Vit. Demosth._, c. 8.).


_Anglo-Saxon MS. of Orosius_ (No. 20. p. 313.).--It may gratify Mr.
Singer to be informed that the Lauderdale MS., formerly in the library
at Ham House, is now preserved, with several other {372} valuable
manuscripts and books, in the library at Helmingham Hall, Suffolk, the
seat of the Tollemache family.


_Golden Frog_.--Ingenious as is the suggestion of "R.R." (No. 18. p.
282.), that Sir John Poley stuck a golden frog in his ear from his
affection for _tadpoles_, I think "R.R.'s" "Rowley Poley" may be
dismissed with the "_gammon_ and spinach" of the amorous frog to which
he alludes.

Conceiving that the origin of so singular a badge could hardly fail to
be commemorated by some tradition in the family, I have made inquiry
of one of Sir John Poley's descendants, and I regret to hear from him
that "they have no authentic tradition respecting it, but that they
have always believed that it had some connection with the service Sir
John rendered in the Low Countries, where he distinguished himself
much by his military achievements." To the Low Countries, then, the
land of frogs, we must turn for the solution of the enigma.


Cambridge, March 9.

_Sword of Charles I._--Mr. Planche inquires (No. 12. p. 183.), "When
did the real sword of Charles the First's time, which, but a few years
back, hung at the side of that monarch's equestrian figure at Charing
Cross, disappear?"--It disappeared about the time of the coronation
of Her present Majesty, when some scaffolding was erected about the
statue, which afforded great facilities for removing the rapier (for
such it was); and I always understood it found its way, by some means
or other, to the Museum, so called, of the notoriously frolicsome
Captain D----, where, in company with the wand of the Great Wizard of
the North, and other well-known articles, it was carefully labelled
and numbered, and a little account appended of the circumstances of
its acquisition and removal.

John Street.

[Surely then Burke was right, and the "Age of Chivalry is
past!"--Otherwise the idea of _disarming a statue_ would never
have entered the head of any Man of Arms, even in his most
frolicsome of moods.]

_John Bull_.--_Vertue MSS._--I always fancied that the familiar name
for our countrymen, about the origin of which "R.F.H." inquires (No.
21. p. 336.), was adopted from Swift's _History of John Bull_, first
printed in 1712; but I have no authority for saying so.

If the Vertue MSS. alluded to (No. 20. p. 319.) were ever returned by
Mr. Steevens to Dr. Rawlinson, they may be in the Bodleian Library, to
which the Doctor left all his collections, including a large mass of
papers purchased by him long after Pepys' death, as he described it,
"Thus et odores vendentibus."

These "_Pepys_ papers," as far as I can recollect, were very
voluminous, and relating to all sorts of subjects; but I saw them in
1824, and had only then time to examine and extract for publication
portions of the correspondence.


Audley End, March 25.

_Vertue's Manuscripts_.--The MS. quoted under this title by Malone
is printed entire, or rather all of it which refers to plays, by Mr.
Peter Cunningham, in the _Papers of the Shakspeare Society_, vol. ii.
p. 123., from an interleaved copy of Langbaine. Since the publication
of that paper, the entries relating to Shakspeare's plays have been
given from the original MS. in the Bodleian Library, in Halliwell's
_Life of Shakspeare_, p. 272.


_Vertue's MSS_. (No. 20. p. 319.) were in Horace Walpole's possession,
bought by him, I think, of Vertue's widow; and his _Anecdotes of
Painting_ were chiefly composed from them, as he states, with great
modesty, in his dedication and his preface. I do not see in the
Strawberry-Hill Catalogue any notice of "Vertue's MSS.," though some
vols. of his collection of engravings were sold.


_Lines attributed to Tom Brown_.--In a book entitled _Liber
Facetiarum, being a Collection of curious and interesting Anecdotes_,
published at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by D. Akenhead & Sons, 1809, the
passage attributed to Tom Brown by your correspondent "J.T." is given
to Zacharias Boyd.

The only reference given as authority for the account is the initials

"Zacharias Boyd, whose bust is to be seen over the entrance
to the Royal College in Glasgow, while Professor in that
university, translated the Old and New Testament into Scotch
Metre; and, from a laudable zeal to disseminate religious
knowledge among the lower classes of the community, is said to
have left a very considerable sum to defray the expense of the
said work, which, however, his executors never printed."

After a few specimens, the account goes on

"But the highest flight of his Muse appears in the following
_beautiful Alexandrine_:

"And was not Pharaoh a saucy rascal?
That would not let the children of Israel, their wives
And their little ones, their flocks and their herds, go
Out into the wilderness forty days
To eat the Pascal.


Speaking of Zachariah Boyd, Granger says, (vol. ii. p. 379.):

"His translation of the Scripture in such uncouth verse as to
amount to burlesque, has been often quoted, and the just fame
of a benefactor to learning has been obscured by that cloud
of miserable rhymes. Candour will smile at the foible, but
applaud the man.

"Macure, in his account of Glasgow, p. 223., informs us he
lived in the reign of Charles I."


Sheffield, March 9. 1850. {373}

_Passage in Frith's Works_ (No. 20. p. 319).--This passage should be
read, as I suppose, "Ab inferiori ad suum superius confuse distribui."

It means that there would be confusion, if what is said distributively
or universally of the lower, should be applied distributively or
universally to the higher; or, in other words, if what is said
universally of a species, should be applied universally to the genus
that contains that and other species: e.g., properties that are
universally found in the human species will not be found universally
in the genus Mammalis, and universal properties of Mammalia wil not be
universal over the animal kingdom.


_Martins, the Louvain Printer_.--Your correspondent "W." (No.
12. p. 185.) is informed, that in Falkenstein's _Geschichte der
Buchdrucherkunst_ (Leipzig, 1840, p. 257.), Theoderich Martens,
printer in Louvain and Antwerp, is twice mentioned. I have no doubt
but this is the correct German form of the name. Mertens, by which he
was also known, may very possibly be the Flemish form. His Christian
name was also written Dierik, a short form of Dietrich, which, in its
turn, is the same as Theodorich.


_Master of the Revels_.--"DR. RIMBAULT" states (No. 14. p. 219.), that
Solomon Dayrolle was appointed Master of the Revels in 1744, but does
not know the date of his decease. It may be unknown to Dr. Rimbault,
that Solomon Dayrolle_s_ was an intimate friend and correspondent of
the great Lord Chesterfield: the correspondence continues from 1748
to 1755 in the selection of Chesterfield's letters to which I am

Dayrolles, during all that period, held a diplomatic appointment from
this country at the Hague. See Lord Chesterfield's letter to him of
the 22d Feb. 1748, where Lord C. suggests that by being cautious he
(Dayrolles) may be put _en train d'etre Monsieur l'Envoye_.

In several of the letters Chesterfield warmly and familiarly commends
his hopeful son, Mr. Stanhope, to the care and attention of Dayrolles.

I have not been able to ascertain when Dayrolles died, but the above
may lead to the discovery.


_French Maxim_.--The French saying quoted by "R.V." is the 223rd
of _Les Reflexions morales du Duc de la Rochefoucauld_ (Pougin,
Paris, 1839). I feel great pleasure in being able to answer your
correspondent's query, as I hope that my reply may be the means of
introducing to his notice one of the most delightful authors that has
ever yet written: one who deserves far more attention than he appears
to receive from general readers in this degenerate age, and from whom
many of his literary successors have borrowed some of their brightest
thoughts. I need not go far for an illustration:

"Praise undeserved, is scandal in disguise,"

is merely a condensation of,

"Louer les princes des vertus qu'ils n'ont pas, c'est leur
dire impunement des injures."--La Rochefoucauld, Max. 327.

I believe that Pope marks it as a _translation--a borrowed
thought--not as a quotation_. He has just before used the words "your
Majesty;" and I think the word "_scandal_" is employed "_consulto_,"
and alludes to the offence known in English law as "scandalum
magnatum." Your correspondent will, of course, read the work in the
original; in fact, he _must_ do so _per force_. A good translation
of _Les Maximes_ is still a desideratum in English literature. I
have not yet seen one that could lay claim even to the meagre title
of mediocrity; although I have spared neither time nor pains in the
search. Should any of your readers have been more fortunate, I shall
feel obliged by their referring me to it.


_Endeavour_.--I have just found the following instance of "endeavour"
used as an active verb, in Dryden's translation of Maimbourg's
_History of the League_, 1684.

"On the one side the majestique House of Bourbon,... and on
the other side, that of two eminent families which endeavour'd
their own advancement by its destruction; the one is already
debas'd to the lowest degree, and the other almost reduc'd to
nothing."--p. 3.



* * * * *


_Epigram by La Monnoye_.--It has been ingeniously said, that "Life is
an epigram, of which death is the point." Alas for human nature! good
points are rare; and no wonder, according to this wicked, but witty,


The world of fools has such a store,
That he who would not see an ass,
Must bide at home, and bolt his door,
And break his looking glass.


Mickleham, Dec. 10. 1849.

_Spur Money_.--Two or three years since, a party of sappers and miners
was stationed at Peterborough, engaged in the trigonometrical survey,
when the officer entered the cathedral with his spurs on, and was
immediately beset by the choristers, who demanded money of him for
treading the sacred floor with armed heels. Does any one know the
origin of this singular custom? I inquired of some of the dignitaries
of the Cathedral, but they were not aware even of its existence. The
boys, however, have more tenacious memories, at least where their
interest is concerned; but we must not look to them for the origin of
a {374} custom which appears to have long existed. In the _Memorials
of John Ray_, published by the Ray Society, p. 131., there is the
following entry in his second Itinerary:--

"July the 26th, 1661, we began our journey northwards from
Cambridge, and that day, passing through Huntingdon and
Stilton, we rode as far as Peterborough twenty-five miles.
There I first heard the Cathedral service. The choristers made
us pay money for coming into the choir with our spurs on."

East Winch.

[The following note from _The Book of the Court_ will serve
to illustrate the curious custom referred to by our

"In _The Privy Purse Expenses of King Henry VIII._ edited by
Sir Harris Nicolas, there occur several entries of payments
made to the choristers of Windsor 'in rewarde for the king's
spurs'; which the editor supposes to mean 'money paid to
redeem the king's spurs, which had become the fee of the
choristers at Windsor, perhaps at installations, or at the
annual celebration of St. George's feast.' No notice of the
subject occurs in Ashmole's or Anstis's _History of the Order
of the Garter_. Mr. Markland, quoting a note to Gifford's
edition of Ben Jonson, vol. ii. p. 49., says, 'In the time
of Ben Jonson, in consequence of the interruptions to Divine
Service occasioned by the ringing of the spurs worn by persons
walking and transacting business in cathedrals, and especially
in St. Paul's, a small fine was imposed on them, called
"spur-money," the exaction of which was committed to the
beadles and singing-boys.' This practice, and to which,
probably, the items in Henry's household-book bear reference,
still obtains, or, at least, did till very lately, in the
Chapel Royal and other choirs. Our informant himself claimed
the penalty, in Westminster Abbey, from Dr. Fisher, Bishop of
Rochester, and received from him an eighteenpenny bank token
as the fine. He likewise claimed the penalty from the King
of Hanover (then Duke of Cumberland), for entering the choir
of the Abbey in his spurs. But His Royal Highness, who had
been installed there, excused himself with great readiness,
pleading 'his right to wear his spurs in that church, inasmuch
as it was the place where they were first put on him!'--See
further, _European Mag._, vol. iii. p. 16."]

* * * * *



Calenus owed a single pound, which yet
With all my dunning I could never get.
Tired of fair words, whose falsehood I foresaw,
I hied to Aulus, learned in the law.
He heard my story, bade me "Never fear,
There was no doubt--no case could be more clear:--
He'd do the needful in the proper place,
And give his best attention to the case."
And this he may have done--for it appears
To have been his business for the last ten years,
Though on his pains ten times ten pounds bestow'd
Have not regain'd that one Calenus owed.
Now, fearful lest this unproductive strife
Consume at once my fortune and my life,
I take the only course I can pursue,
And shun my debtor and my lawyer too.
I've no more hope from promises or laws,
And heartily renounce both debt and cause--
But if with either rogue I've more to do,
I'll surely choose my debtor of the two;
For though I credit not the lies he tells,
At least he _gives_ me what the other _sells_.


* * * * *

_Epigram on Louis XIV._--I find the following epigram among some old
papers. The emperor would be Leopold I., the king Louis XIV.

_Epigram by the Emperor, 1666, and the King of France._

Bella fugis, sequeris bellas, pugnaeque repugnas,
Et bellatori sunt tibi bella tori.
Imbelles imbellis amas, totusque videris
Mars ad opus Veneris, Martis ad arma Venus.


_Macaulay's Young Levite._--I met, the other day with a rather curious
confirmation of a passage in Macaulay's _History of England_, which
has been more assailed perhaps than any other.

In his character of the clergy, Macaulay says, they frequently
married domestics and retainers of great houses--a statement which has
grievously excited the wrath of Mr. Babington and other champions.
In a little book, once very popular, first published in 1628, with
the title _Microcosmographie, or a Piece of the World discovered_,
and which is known to have been written by John Earle, after the
Restoration Bishop of Worcester and then of Salisbury, is the
following passage. It occurs in what the author calls a character of
"a young raw preacher."

"You shall know him by his narrow velvet cape and serge
facing, and his ruffe, next his hire, the shortest thing
about him.... His friends, and much painefulnesse, may
preferre him to thirtie pounds a yeere, and this meanes, to
a chamber-maide: with whom we leave him now in the bonds of
wedlocke. Next Sunday you shall have him againe."

The same little book contains many very curious and valuable
illustrations of contemporary manners, especially in the universities.

That the usage Macaulay refers to was not uncommon, we find from a
passage in the _Woman-Hater_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1607), Act
III. Sc. 3.

Lazarillo says,

"Farewell ye courtly chaplains that be there!
All good attend you! May you never more
Marry your patron's lady's waiting-woman!"


Trin. Coll. Camb., March 16. 1850. {375}

_St. Martin's Lane_.--The first building leases of St. Martin's Lane
and the adjacent courts accidentally came under my notice lately.
They are dated in 1635 and 1636, and were granted by the then Earl of


* * * * *


"Author of the Catalogue of Plants in the neighbourhood of Nottingham.
'Catalogus Stirpium, &c., or a Catalogue of Plants naturally growing
and commonly cultivated in divers parts of England, and especially
about Nottingham,' 8vo. Nottingh. 1738.

"He was in the suite of the English ambassador to Russia, returned and
practised physic in London married unfortunately, buried his wife,
and then went to Nottingham, where he lived several years. During
his abode there he wrote a small _Treatise on the Small Pocks_, this
_Catalogue of Plants_, and the _History of Nottingham_, the materials
for which John Plumtre, Esq. of Nottingham, was so obliging as to
assist him with. He also was paid 40l. by a London bookseller for
adding 20,000 words to an English dictionary. He was master of seven
languages, and in 1746 he was favoured with a commission in the
Nottinghamshire Foot, raised at that time. Soon after died, and was
buried in St. Peter's Churchyard.

"William Ayscough, father of the printer of this _Catalogus Stirpium_
(G. Ayscough), in 1710, first introduced the art of printing at

"Mr. White was the same year the first printer at Newcastle-upon-Tyne;
and Mr. Dicey at Northampton."--_MS. Note in the Copy of the Cat.
Stirpium, in the Library of the British Museum_.

* * * * *



Our advertising columns already show some of the good results of the
_Exhibition of the Works of Ancient and Mediaeval Art_. Mr. Williams
announced last week his _Historic Reliques_, to be etched by
himself. Mr. Cundall has issued proposals for _Choice Examples of Art
Workmanship_; and, lastly, we hear that an _Illustrated Catalogue
of the Exhibition_, prepared by Mr. Franks, the zealous Honorary
Secretary of the Committee, and so arranged as to form a _History of
Art_, may be expected. We mention these for the purpose of inviting
our friends to contribute to the several editors such information as
they may think likely to increase the value of the respective works.

The second edition of our able correspondent, Mr. Peter Cunningham's
_Handbook of London_, is on the eve of publication.

There are few of our readers but will be glad to learn from
the announcement in a previous column, that the edition of the
_Wickliffite Versions of the Scriptures_, upon which Sir Frederick
Madden and his fellow labourers have been engaged for a period of
twenty years, is just completed. It forms, we believe, three quarto

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson lately disposed of a most select and
interesting collection of autograph letters. We unfortunately did not
receive the catalogue in time to notice it, which we the more regret,
because, like all their catalogues of autographs, it was drawn up with
amateur-like intelligence and care; so as to make it worth preserving
as a valuable record of materials for our history and biography.

We have received the following Catalogues of Books:--No. XXV. of
Thomas Cole's (15. Great Turnstile): No. 2. for 1850, of William
Heath's (291/2 Lincoln's Inn Fields); and No. 15. of Bernard Quarritch's
(16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue of Oriental and
Foreign Books.

* * * * *




Mills, Rev. Isaac, of Highcleer--Account of the Life and Conversation
of, with a Sermon, 8vo., 1721.

Mykur Hazem, by Marcus, London, 1846.

Poems by a Bornnatural, 1849.


Proceedings of the Philological Society. Vol. I.

Richardson's Correspondence, Vol. I. of the Six-Volume Ed.

Todd's Johnson's Dictionary, 4to., 1819. (Part X. containing Title,
Preface, &c.)

Partington's British Cyclopaedia--That portion of Natural History which
follows Vol. I.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_,
to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet

* * * * *


Burning for Treason.--Can the Correspondent who furnished us with
a curious Note upon this subject favour us with a copy of it, the
original having been accidentally mislaid?

We are again compelled, from want of space, to omit many curious
and interesting articles; and, after this statement, must beg our
kind friends at Leeds, Brompton, &c., who complain of delay in the
insertion of their communications, to do us the favour to refer to the
notice on this very subject which appeared in our early numbers.

Notes and Queries may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday:
so that our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in
receiving it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are probably
not yet aware of this arrangement, which enables them to receive
Copies in their Saturday parcels. Part V. is now ready.

* * * * *{376}


No. CLXXII. is Published This Day.


John Murray, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *


[Illustration: CHOICE EXAMPLES OF ART WORKMANSHIP Selected from the
Exhibition of ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL ART at the Society of Arts]

A Prospectus, containing a Specimen of the Illustrations, will be sent
on receipt of two postage stamps.

Joseph Cundall, 21. Old Bond Street.

* * * * *

this day, and can be had Gratis, and sent, if required, Postage Free.
Address, John Miller, 43, Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square. This List
embraces numerous valuable and interesting Books on English Poetry,
the Drama, History, Biography, Voyages and Travels, &c., with the
works of a few of the best Continental writers, a selection of
Pictorial Books of Scenery, Costume, Topography, and Drawing-room
Table Books.

Also, on forwarding Four Postage Stamps, JOHN MILLER'S CATALOGUE OF
BOOKS FOR THE PAST QUARTER may be had stitched in a wrapper, with
a Table of Contents, showing at one glance the range of subjects
embraced, amongst which may be enumerated the following, viz.,
America, Angling, Banking and Currency, Coins, Dictionaries,
Drawing-books, Games, Sports, &c., Heraldry, Genealogy and Family
History, Ireland, its History and Literature, Kent, its History and
Topography, Law, Music, its History and Theory, Painting and the Fine
Arts, Shakspeariana, and a variety of other branches of Literature
comprised in upwards of 1500 articles.

John Miller, 43. Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square.

* * * * *

THE ANGLO-SAXON, for April, Price 2s. 6d. or 3s. post-free, contains
England and her Colonies: County Colonisation, with Maps--English
Church Music--Christian Architecture--London: a Poem, Essay II.--The
Alfred Medals: Three Sonnets, by Martin F. Tupper--Anglo-Saxon
Literature: the Jubilee Edition of King Alfred's Works, with Specimens
and Translations--Wives and Mothers--Anglo-Saxon Colonies: Victoria,
Cooksland, Port Essington, (Papua--Timor)--Original Ballads.

The ANGLO-SAXON for 1849 forms a handsome volume, price One Guinea.

London: T. Bosworth, 215. Regent Street.

* * * * *

Published every Saturday, price 3d., or stamped, 4d., also in Monthly
Parts. Part V. (for March), price 1s. 3d., now ready.

NOTES AND QUERIES: a Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men,
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The attention of Publishers and Booksellers is particularly
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In addition to the valuable matter which will be found in its columns,
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London: George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Just Published, Parts 13 and 14, imperial quarto. Price 3_s._
each, tinted 4s.

Johnson, Architect, F.S.A., Lithographed by Alfred Newman.

Contents, Part 13:--Hawton Church; Notts.--St. Mary's,
Stamford--Aldwinkle, All Saints, Northamptonshire-Wellingborough
Church, Northamptonshire.

Part 14--Skelton Church, from the South-East and South-West--Rye
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This Work is intended to embrace a series of examples of
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completed in Twenty Monthly Parts, price 3s. each, tinted 4s.

London: George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Preparing for immediate Publication, in 2 vols. small octavo.

THE FOLK-LORE OF ENGLAND. By William J. Thoms, F.S.A., Secretary
of the Camden Society, Editor of "Early Prose Romances," "Lays and
Legends of all Nations," &c. One object of the present work is to
furnish new contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore;
and especially some of the more striking illustrations of the subject
to be found in the Writings of Jacob Grimm and other Continental

Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
Popular Observances, Rhyming Charms, &c. are earnestly solicited, and
will be thankfully acknowledged by the Editor. They may be addressed
to the care of Mr. Bell, Office of "Notes and Queries," 186. Fleet

* * * * *

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5.
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of St. Dunstan in The West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No.
186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 6, 1850.

* * * * *

Book of the day: