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Notes & Queries, No. 41, Saturday, August 10, 1850 by Various

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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

* * * * *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 41.]
SATURDAY, AUGUST 10, 1850.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

* * * * *{161}

CONTENTS.

NOTES:
Sir William Gascoigne, by Edward Foss
An old Guy, by Dr. Bell
Folk Lore:--Folk Lore of South Northamptonshire,
No. 2 Mice, Snakes, Poultry, Crows, Owls, Cuckoos,
&c.
Minor Notes:--Hon. A. Erskine--Gloves--Punishment
of Death by Burning--India Rubber

QUERIES:
The "Bar" of Michael Angelo, by S.W. Singer
Annotated Copies of Bishop Andrewes' Works
Minor Queries:--Robert Innes, a Grub Street Poet--Sicilian
Vespers--One Bell--Treasure Trove--Poeta
Anglicus--Hornbooks--Ben Jonson, or Ben Johnson--MS. Book
of Prayers belonging to Queen Catherine
Parr--Waltheolf--De Combre Family--Ilda--"De
Male quaesitis"--Westminster Abbey--Haberdasher--Martinet--
"Querela Cantabrigiensis"--Long Lonkin

REPLIES:
Treatise of Equivocation
Boethius' Consolations of Philosophy, by C.H. Cooper
Etymological Queries answered, by Albert Way
Replies to Minor Queries:--Solingen--Blackguard--The
Three Dukes--Bonny Dundee--Was Quarles
pensioned?--Collar of Esses--The Story of the
Three Men and their Bag of Money--Will. Robertson
of Murton--Long Meg of Westminster--Churchwardens'
Accounts of St. Antholin's--The Plant
"Haemony"--Mildew in Books--The Carpenter's
Maggot--Martello Towers--Highland Kilts--Derivation
of Penny--Scarf--Smoke-money--Common,
Mutual, and Reciprocal--Juice Cups--Curfew--Derivation
of Totnes, &c.

MISCELLANEOUS:
Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted
Notices to Correspondents
Advertisements

* * * * *

NOTES.

SIR WILLIAM GASCOIGNE.

Although you and I no doubt unite in the admiration, which all our
fellow-countrymen profess, and some of them feel, for our immortal bard,
yet I do not think that our zeal as Shakspearians will extend so far as
to receive him as an unquestionable authority for the facts introduced
into his historical plays. The utmost, I apprehend, that we should admit
is, that they represent the tradition of the time in which he wrote, and
even that admission we should modify by the allowance, to which every
poet is entitled, of certain changes adopted for dramatic effect, and
with the object of enhancing our interest in the character he is
delineating.

Two facts in his Second Part of _Henry IV_, always referred to in
connection with each other, notwithstanding the ingenious remarks on
them made by Mr. Tyler in his _History of Henry V._, are still accepted,
and principally by general readers, on Shakspeare's authority, as
undoubtedly true. The one is the incident of Prince Henry's committal to
prison by Chief Justice Gascoigne; and the other is the magnanimous
conduct of the Prince on his accession to the throne, in continuing the
Chief Justice in the office, which he had shown himself so well able to
support.

The first I have no desire to controvert, especially as it has been
selected as one of the illustrations of our history in the House of
Lords. Frequent allusion is made to it in the play. Falstaff's page says
to his master, on seeing the Chief Justice:

"Sir, here comes the nobleman that committed the prince for
striking him about Bardolph."

And Falstaff in the same scene thus addresses Gascoigne:

"For the box of the ear that the prince gave you,--he gave it
like a rude prince, and you took it like a sensible lord. I have
checked him for it, and the young lion repents."

And Gascoigne, when Henry refers to the incident in these words:

"How might a prince of my great hopes forget
So great indignities you laid upon me?
What! rate, rebuke, and roughly send to prison
The immediate heir of England! Was this easy?
May this be wash'd in Lethe, and forgotten?"

thus justifies himself to the king:

"I then did use the person of your father;
The image of his power lay then in me:
And in the administration of his law,
Whiles I was busy for the commonwealth,
Your highness pleased to forget my place,--
The majesty and power of law and justice,
The image of the king whom I presented,--
And, struck me in my very seat of judgment;
Whereon, as an offender to your father,
I gave bold way to my authority,
And did commit you." {162}

Now this is a relation that we are well content, although unsupported by
contemporaneous authority, to receive on tradition; because in the
nature of the circumstances we cannot expect to find any authentic
evidence of the occurrence. But we should never think of citing these
passages as fixing the fact of the _blow_, as chronicled by Hall, in
opposition to the milder representation of the story as told by Sir
Thomas Elliott in "The Governour." The bard makes that selection between
the two versions which best suits the scene he is depicting.

We cannot, however, be so easily satisfied with the second fact,--the
reappointment of Gascoigne,--thus asserted by Shakspeare when making
Henry say:

"You did commit me;
For which, I do commit into your hand
The unstain'd sword that you have us'd to bear;
With this remembrance,--that you use the same
With the like bold, just, and impartial spirit,
As you have done 'gainst me."

We require better evidence for this than tradition, because, if true,
better evidence can be adduced. A noble writer has very recently
declared that he can "prove to demonstration that Sir William Gascoigne
survived Henry IV. several years, _and actually filled the office of
Chief Justice of the King's Bench under Henry V_." As to the first of
these points he implicitly follows Mr. Tyler's history, who proves that
Gascoigne died in December 1419, in the seventh year of the fifth
Henry's reign; but as to the second point, deserting his authority and
omitting the dates introduced in it, he entirely fails in supporting his
assertion. The assertion, however, having been made in so recent a work,
it becomes important to investigate its truth.

The only fact that gives an apparent authenticity to the story is that
Gascoigne was summoned to the first parliament of Henry V. as "Chief
Justice of our Lord the King." When we recollect, however, that this
summons was dated on March 22, 1413, the day following the king's
accession, we must see that his Majesty could have had little more time
than to command a parliament to be summoned; that the officer who made
out the writs would naturally direct them to those peers, judges, and
others who were summoned to the preceding parliament; and that the
proper title of Gascoigne was Chief Justice until he was actually
superseded. This evidence, therefore, is anything but conclusive, and in
fact gives very little assistance in deciding the point at issue.

It is well known that Sir William Hankford was Gascoigne's successor as
Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and the real question is, when he
became so. Dugdale states that the date of his patent was January 29,
1414, ten months after King Henry's accession; and if this were so, the
presumption would follow that Gascoigne continued Chief Justice till
that time. Let us see whether facts support this presumption.

Now, Hankford was a Judge of the Common Pleas at the end of the previous
reign; but he was omitted when his brethren of that court received their
new patents from Henry V., which were not issued till May 2, a day or
two before Easter Term. And yet we find the name of Hankford in the
Year-book reports of both that and Trinity Term; and we find it, not as
acting in the Common Pleas, but as ruling in the King's Bench.

Further, although Gascoigne was summoned to the first parliament on
March 22, yet on its meeting on May 15, he was not present;--added to
which, his usual position, as first named legal trier of petitions, was
filled by Sir William Hankford, placed too in precedence of Sir William
Thirning, the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.

These facts, so contradictory to Dugdale's date, rendered it necessary
to refer to the roll. This, by the kindness of Mr. Duffus Hardy (who
certainly can never be called the "streict-laced" gaoler of the records,
alluded to in your fourth number, Vol. i., p. 60.), has been inspected;
and the result is that the date of Hankford's appointment, instead of
being _January_ 29, 1414, as stated by Dugdale, turns out to be _March_
29, 1413; just eight days after King Henry's accession, and ten days
previous to his coronation.

The peculiar period chosen for this act, and its precipitancy in
contrast with the delay in issuing the new patents to the other judges,
tend strongly, I am afraid, to deprive us of the "flattering unction" of
supposing that it resulted from Gascoigne's choice, rather than Henry's
mandate. Nor is the royal warrant of November 1414, 2 Henry V. (twenty
months afterwards), granting him four bucks and four does yearly, during
his life, out of the forest of Pontefract, a sufficient proof of favour
to countervail the impression created by his early removal.

With these facts before us, King Henry's supposed generosity in
renominating Gascoigne can no longer be credited. But, even presuming
that none of these facts had been discovered, I must own myself
surprised that any one could maintain that Gascoigne was ever Chief
Justice to Hen. V., with two existing records before him, both
containing conclusive proof to the contrary.

The first is the entry on the Issue Roll of July, 1413, of a payment
made of an arrear of Gascoigne's salary and pension, in which he is
called "_late_ Chief Justice of the Bench of _Lord Henry, father of the
present King_."

The second is the inscription on his monument in Harwood Church in
Yorkshire, where he is described as "_nuper_ capit. justio. de banco
Hen. _nuper_ regis angliae _quarti_."

I think I may fairly ask whether it is possible to suppose that in
either of these records, particularly {163} the latter, he would have
been docked his title, had he ever been Chief Justice of the reigning
king?

Allow me to take this opportunity of thanking L.B.L. for his extracts
from the Hospitaller's Survey (Vol. ii., p. 123.), which are most
interesting, and, to use a modern word, very _suggestive_.

Edward Foss.

Street-End House, near Canterbury.

* * * * *

AN OLD GUY?

No one would at present think of any other answer to a Query as to the
meaning of this term than that the phrase originated with the scarecrows
and stuffed apings of humanity with which the rising generation enlivens
our streets on every fifth of November, and dins in our ears the cry,
"Please to remember the guy," and that it alludes to the Christian name
of the culprit, Guido. Have, however, any of your readers met this
title, or any allusion to it, in any writer previously to 1605? and may
its attribution to the supposed framer of the Gunpowder Plot only have
been the accidental appropriation of an earlier term of popular
reproach, and which had become so since the conversion of the nation to
Christianity? This naturally heaped contumely and insult upon every
thing relating to the Druids, and the heathen superstitions of the
earlier inhabitants.

Amongst others, _Guy_ was a term by which, no doubt, the Druids were
very early designated, and is cognate, with the Italian _Guido_ and our
own _Guide_, to the Latin _cuidare_, which would give it great
appropriativeness when applied to the offices of teachers and leaders,
with which these lordly flamens were invested. Narrowly connected with
their rites, the term has descended to the present day, as is decidedly
shown in the French name of the mistletoe, _le Gui_, and as denoting the
priesthood. The common cry of the children at Christmas in France, _au
gui l'an neuf_, marks the winter solstice, and their most solemn
festival; so _ai-guil-lac_, as the name of new year's gifts, so
necessary and expensive to a Frenchman, which they particularly bear in
the diocese of Chartres, can only be explained by referring it to the
same origin. In the French vocabulary at present this word, as I have
before observed, is restricted to the mistletoe, the _viscum album_ of
Linnaeus: but in Germany we have pretty much the same conversion of a
favourite druidical plant, the trefoil, or shamrock, and the cinquefoil;
both of them go in Bavaria and many other parts of Germany under the
name of _Truten-fuss_, or Druid's foot, and are thought potent charms in
guarding fields and cattle from harm; but there too, as with us,
possibly the oldest title of guy, the term Druid, has grown into a name
of the greatest disgrace: "_Trute, Trute, Saudreck_," "Druid, Druid, sow
dirt," is an insulting phrase reserved for the highest ebullitions of a
peasant's rage in Schwaben and Franken.

Whilst on the subject of the mistletoe, I cannot forbear to mark the
coincidences that run through the popular notions of a country in all
ages. Pliny, in his very exact account of the druidical rites, tells us,
when the archdruid mounted the oak to cut the sacred parasite with a
golden pruning-hook, two other priests stood below to catch it in a
white linen cloth, extremely cautious lest it should fall to earth. One
is almost tempted to fancy that Shakspeare was describing a similar
scene when he makes Hecate say

"Upon the corner of the moon,
There hangs a vap'rous drop profound,
I'll catch it ere it come to ground."

In a very excellent note to Dr. Giles' translation of Richard of
Cirencester, p. 432., he adduces the opinion of Dr. Daubeny, of Oxford,
that as the mistletoe is now so rarely found in Europe on oaks, it had
been exterminated with the other druidical rites on the introduction of
Christianity. I am not sufficiently botanist to determine how far it is
possible to destroy the natural habitat of a plant propagated by
extrinsic means, and should be more inclined to account for the
difference then and now by supposing that the Druids may have known the
secret of inoculating a desirable oak with the seeds where birds had not
done so, and practised it when necessary.

P.S. Since writing the above, I recollect that the Latin verse,

"_Ad viscum Druidae_: Druidae clamare solebant,"

is frequently quoted from Ovid, sometimes, and that recently, specifying
the Fasti. I need not tell you that it is not to be found there, and I
wish to inquire if any of the numerous readers of your valuable
publication can say where I can meet with it; if classical, it is
another remarkable evidence of the endurance of popular customs to the
present day. In the following quotation from Keyssler's Treatise _de
Visco_, the Anklopferleinstag would be also a noisy demonstration dating
from druidical times, at a period of the year not far removed from the
beginning of November.

"In superiori Germaniae parte, Marchionatu Onolsbacensi
comprehensa, cujus inolae plurimas Gentilismi reliquias retinent,
regio ipsa multis Druidum vestigiis abundat, tempore adventus
Christi, sive media Hyeme (am Anklopferleinstag), vulgus per
vias et pagos currit malleisque pulsat fores et fenestras
indesinenter clamans _Gutheyl! Gutheyl!_ Quod quidem non salutem
per Christi adventum partam indicat, quasi diceres: Gut Heyl;
bona salus; multo minus fictitam Sanctam Guenthildem, quam
rustici illius tractus miris fabulis ac nugis celebrant, sed
nomen ipsum visci est." {164}

The present popular and only German name of the mistletoe, the parent of
our English denomination, is _Mistel_, which is evidently only
_Meist-heyl_ (most heal, or healing), the superlative of the above
_Gut-heyl_, and both wonderfully agreeing with the name which Pliny says
it bore in his time, _Omnia sanans_.

William Bell, Ph.D.

* * * * *

FOLK LORE.

_Folk Lore of South Northamptonshire._--No. 2.

_Mice._--A sudden influx of mice into a house, hitherto free from their
ravages, denotes approaching mortality among its inhabitants. A mouse
running over a person is considered to be an infallible sign of death,
as is also the squeaking of one behind the bed of an invalid, or the
appearance or apparition of a white mouse running across the room. To
meet with a shrew-mouse, in going a journey, is reckoned ominous of
evil. The country people have an idea that the harvest-mouse is unable
to cross a path which has been trod by man. Whenever they attempt, they
are immediately, as my informant expressed it, "struck dead." This, they
say, accounts for the numbers which on a summer's evening may be found
lying dead on the verge of the field footpaths, without any external
wound or apparent cause for their demise.

_Snakes._--There is a very prevalent belief that a snake can never die
till the sun is down. Cut or hack it as you will, it will never die till
sunset. This idea has evidently its source in the amazing vitality
common to the species.

_Poultry._--The crowing of a hen bodes evil, and is frequently followed
by the death of some member of the family. When, therefore, Dame Partlet
thus experiments upon the note of her mate, she pays her head as the
price of her temerity, a complete severance of the offending member
being supposed to be the only way of averting the threatened calamity.
No house, it is said, can thrive whose hens are addicted to this kind of
amusement. Hence the old proverb often quoted in this district:

"A whistling woman and a crowing hen,
Is neither fit for God nor men."

According to Pluquet, the Normans have a similar belief, and a saying
singularly like the English one:

"Un Poule qui chante le coq, et une fille qui siffle, portent
malheur dans la maison."

Before the death of a farmer his poultry frequently go to roost at
noon-day, instead of at the usual time. When the cock struts up to the
door and sounds his clarion on the threshold, the housewife is warned
that she may soon expect a stranger. In what is technically termed
"setting a hen," care is taken that the nest be composed of an odd
number of eggs. If even, the chickens would not prosper. Each egg is
always marked with a little black cross, ostensibly for the purpose of
distinguishing them from the others, but also supposed to be
instrumental in producing good chickens, and preventing any attack from
the weasel or other farm-yard marauders. The last egg the hen lays is
carefully preserved, its possession being supposed to operate as a charm
upon the well-doing of the poultry. In some cases, though less commonly,
the one laid on Good Friday is preserved, from the same reason. When a
baby is first taken out to see its friends, it is customary for them to
give it an egg: this, if preserved, is held to be a source of good
fortune to the future man. (Vide _Brand_, ii. p. 48.) The first egg laid
by a pullet is usually secured by the shepherd, in order to present to
his sweetheart,--the luckiest gift, it is believed, he can give her.

_Crows._--To see a crow flying alone is a token of bad luck. An odd one,
perched in the path of the observer, is a sign of wrath.

_Owls._--The ominous screech of this, the most ominous of all birds, is
still heard with alarm; and he remains with us, as in Chaucer's days,

"The oule eke that of deth the bode bringeth."

When, as sometimes happens, he exchanges the darkness of his ivy bush
for the rays of the sun at noon-day, his presence is looked upon as
indicative of bad luck to the beholder. Hence it not infrequently
happens that a mortal is as much scared by one of these occasional
flights as the small bird denizens of the tree on which he may happen to
alight.

_Cuckoos._--When the cry of the cuckoo is heard for the first time in
the season, it is customary to turn the money in the pocket, and wish.
If within the bounds of reason, it is sure to be fulfilled. In reference
to the pecuniary idea respecting the cuckoo, the children sing,

"Cuckoo, cuckoo, cherry tree
Catch a penny and give it to me."

_Robins and Wrens._--The robin is considered a sacred bird: to kill one
is little less than sacrilege, and its eggs are free from the destroying
hand of the bird-nester. It is asserted that the respect shown to it by
man is joined in by the animals of the wood. The weasel and wild cat, it
is said, will neither molest it, nor eat it when killed. The high favour
in which this bird is held is usually attributed to the ballad of _The
Babes in the Wood_. Few, however, among the peasantry of this district
have even heard of it; and, however much that beautiful tale may have
tended to popularise the belief, it is evident that we must trace the
origin to a more remote source. One cause for the veneration in which it
is held may be the superstition which represents him as the medium
through which mankind are warned of approaching death. {165} Before the
death of a person, a robin is believed, in many instances, to tap thrice
at the window of the room in which he or she may be. The wren is also a
bird which superstition protects from injury; but it is by no means
treated with such reverence as the robin. The praises of both are sung
in the old couplet:--

"The robin and the wren,
Be God A'mighty's cock and hen."

_Pigeons._--No one, it is believed, can die on pigeons' feathers. In the
northern parts of the county, the same thing is said of game
feathers,--a superstition also current in Kent.--_Ingolsby Legends_,
Third Series, p. 133.

_Wasps._--The first wasp seen in the season should always be killed. By
so doing you secure to yourself good luck and freedom from enemies
throughout the year.

_Bees._--The superstitious ceremonies and observances attached to these
animals appear to be current throughout the kingdom, and by no means
suffer any diminution in this county. Among others of less common
occurrence, we have the belief that they will not thrive in a
quarrelsome fammily.

The wild, or, as we term him, the _humble bee_, is not without a share
of the superstitions which pertain to his more civilised brethren. The
entrance of one into a cottage is deemed a certain sign of death.

_Spiders._--The small spiders called "money spinners" prognosticate good
luck; in order to propitiate which, they must be thrown over the left
shoulder.

T.Y.

* * * * *

Minor Notes

_The Hon. A. Erskine._--In J. Reed's Copy of _Boswell's and Hon. A.
Erskine's Correspondence_, 12mo. 1763, was the following note in Reed's
autograph:--

"The Hon. A. Erskine was fourth son of the fifth Earl of Kelley.
Mr. Boswell told me the 30th of May, 1794, that A.E., having
spent all his property, in a fit of despair threw himself from a
rock into the sea last winter, and was drowned. His body was
found five days after, when it appeared it was a deliberate act,
as he had filled his pockets with stones."

_Gloves._--The question of F.E. (Vol. i., p. 366.), "Why are gloves not
worn before royalty?" having hitherto received no answer, may probably
be as difficult of solution as another custom in which a glove figures
as a token of defiance. Perhaps, however, covered hands, as well as a
covered head, may have been considered discourteous. Indeed, we learn
frown Cobarruvias, in his _Tesoro_, that it was so considered in
Spain:--

"ENGUANTADO. El que entra con Guantes adonde se le ha de tener a
descortesia. El que sirve no los ha de tener delante de su
Senor: ni Vasallo, sea quien fuere, delante de su Rey." Fo. 453.
b. ed. 1611.

The use of gloves must be of very high antiquity. In the Middle Ages the
priest who celebrated mass always, I believe, wore them during that
ceremony; but it was just the contrary in courts of justice, where the
presiding judge, as well as the criminal, was not allowed to cover his
hands. It was anciently a popular saying, that three kingdoms must
contribute to the formation of a good glove:--Spain to prepare the
leather, France to cut them out, and England to sow them.

I think the etymology of the word _glove_ is in far from a satisfactory
state. It is a good subject for some of your learned philological
correspondents, to whom I beg leave to recommend its elucidation.

S.W. Singer.

Mickleham, July 26. 1850.

_Punishment of Death by Burning_ (Vol. ii., pp. 6, 50, 90.).--Your
correspondent E.S.S.W. gives an account of a woman burnt for the murder
of her husband in 1783, and asks whether there is any other instance of
the kind in the latter part of the last century. I cannot positively
answer this Query, but I will state a circumstance that occurred to
myself about the year 1788. Passing in a hackney-coach up the Old Bailey
to West Smithfield, I saw the unquenched embers of a fire opposite
Newgate; on my alighting I asked the coachman "What was that fire in the
Old Bailey, over which the wheel of your coach passed?" "Oh, sir," he
replied, "they have been burning a woman for murdering her husband."
Whether he spoke the truth or not I do not know, but I received it at
the time as truth, and remember the impression it made on me.

It is, perhaps, as well to state that there were some fifteen to twenty
persons standing around the smouldering embers at the time I passed.

Senex.

_India Rubber_ is now so cheap and common, that it seems worth while to
make a note of the following passage in the _Monthly Review_ for Feb.
1772. It occurs at p. 71., in the article on "A familiar Introduction to
the Theory and Practice of Perspective, by Joseph Priestly, LL.D.
F.R.S., 8vo. 5s., boards. Johnson."

"Our readers, perhaps, who employ themselves in the art of
drawing, will be pleased with a transcript of the following
advertisement:--'I have seen, says Dr. Priestly, a substance,
excellently adapted to the purpose of wiping from paper the
marks of a black lead pencil. It must, therefore, be of singular
use to those who practise drawing. It is sold by Mr. Nairne,
mathematical instrument-maker, opposite the Royal Exchange. He
sells a cubical piece, of about half an inch, for three
shillings; and, he says, it will last several years.'"

N.B.

* * * * *{166}

QUERIES

THE "BAR" OF MICHAEL ANGELO.

In that delightful volume, _In Memoriam_, in which Mr. Tenyson has so
nobly and pathetically enshrined the memory of his friend, Arthur
Hallam, the following passage occurs, pp. 126, 127.:--

"To these conclusions, when we saw
The God within him light his face,
And seem to lift the form, and glow
In azure orbits heavenly-wise;
And over those ethereal eyes
_The bar of Michael Angelo_."

To what does this allude? In the fine profile portrait by Julio
Bonasoni, Michael Angelo appears to have had a protuberant brow; and
Condivi says, in his very interesting and detailed account of his
person, that his forehead was square, and that, seen in profile ("quasi
avanza il naso"), it projected almost beyond the nose. It is remarkable
that the same spirit pervades these verses which we find in the Platonic
breathings of the _Rime_ of the great artist; but we are most forcibly
reminded of the poet of Vaucluse. The grief of the poet for the loss of
his friend has however had a happier effect on his mind than the more
impassioned nature of that of the lover of Laura produced: yet a kindred
feeling, of spiritual communion with the lost one, pervades both poets;
and this might have been the motto of Mr. Tenyson's volume:--

"Levommi il mio pensiero in parte ov' era
Quello eh' io cerco, e non ritrovo in terra;
... in questa spera
Sarai ancor meco, s' el desir non erra."

Foscolo has remarked that "when a great poet describes his own heart,
his picture of _Love_ will draw tears from the eyes of every sensitive
mortal in every age." And no one can read these effusions of deepfelt
virtuous affection without emotions of a happy tendency.

S.W. SINGER.

* * * * *

ANNOTATED COPIES OF BISHOP ANDREWES' WORKS.

Acting on a suggestion given in previous number, I beg to state that I
shall be much obliged by the use of any annotated copies of the
following works of Bp. Andrewes, which I am engaged in taking through
the press:--_Tortura Torti; Responsio ad Apolog. Cordius Bellarmini;
Opuscula Posthuma; Two Answers to Cardinal Perron, &c.; Preces Privitae_.

JAMES BLISS.

Ogburne St. Andrew, near Marlborough.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

_Robert Innes, a Grub Street Poet._--Is there anything known respecting
a strange "madcap," one Robert Innes, who, according to a printed
broadside now before me, was a pauper in St. Peter's Hospital, 1787? He
was in the habit of penning doggrel ballads and hawking them about for
sale. Some of them have a degree of humour, and are, to a certain
extent, valuable at the present time for their notices of passing
events. In one of these now rare effusions, he styles himself "R. Innes,
O.P.," and in explanation gives the following lines:--

"Some put unto their name A.M.,
And others put a D. and D.,
If 'tis no harm to mimick them,
I adds unto my name O.P.

"Master of Arts, sure I am not,
No Doctor, no Divine I be
But OAKUM PICKING is my lot,
Of the same clay are we all three."

The "works" of this "rogue and vagabond," now in my possession, were
given me by the late Mr. Catnach of Seven Dials.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_The Sicilian Vespers._--In what English work can a full and correct
narrative of this event be found?

C.H. COOPER.

Cambridge, July 29. 1850.

_One Bell._--Can any of your readers favour me with a reference to some
authority for the following, which may be found in Southey's _Book of
the Church_ (vol. ii. p. 121.)?

"Somerset pretended that one bell in a steeple was sufficient
for summoning the people to prayer; and the country was thus in
danger of losing its best music."

What follows is so beautiful and appropriate, that I may perhaps be
excused for lengthening my quotation:

"--a music, hallowed by all circumstances, which, according
equally with social exultation and with solitary pensiveness,
though it falls upon many an unheeding ear, never fails to find
some hearts which it exhilarates, and some which it softens."

It is a curious fact, that in many towers there may be often found a
solitary _black-letter Bell_ (if I may so call it), evidently of
ante-Reformation date, making one of the peal.

H.T.E.

_Treasure Trove._--The prejudicial effect which the law of _Treasure
Trove_, as it now exists in this country, has been found to exercise
upon the preservation of objects of archaeological interest, especially
if such articles happen to be formed of either of the precious metals,
is just now exciting the attention of the antiquarian world. Any notes
upon the state of this law upon the Continent, any references to
instances of valuable "finds" which have been lost to archaeological
investigation through the operation of this law, or to cases in which
the decisions of the courts have been given upon questions of this law;
in short, any hints {167} or information upon any points connected with
the subject of _Treasure Trove_ will be thankfully received by,

EFFESSA.

_Poeta Anglicus._--The gloss on the Prooemium to the _Constitutions of
Clement V._, col. iv. "Corp. Jur. Can." t. iii. Lugd. 1671, has the
following remark:--

"Et dicitur a _Papae_, quod est, interjectio admirantis, et vere
admirabilis: quia vices Dei in terris gerit. Inde dixit ille
Anglicus in poetria nova: _Papa stupor mundi._ Et circa fin.,
_Qui maxima rerum, nec Deus es nec homo, quasi neuter es inter
utrumque_."

Who is the Anglicus Poeta? What is the name of his poem?

J.B.

_Hornbooks._--Can either of your numerous intelligent readers give me an
account of the hornbooks from which our ancestors learned their letters?
If so, I shall feel especially obliged for the information.

JOHN TIMBS.

_Ben Jonson, or Ben Johnson._--Among some papers I possess of the Digby
family, I have an autograph poem on _The Picture of the Minde of the
Lady Venetia Digby_, by Ben "Johnson." Is this the same as Ben "Jonson?"
and if so, how comes it the "h" has been dropped from his name? Or was
there some other Ben "Johnson," a poet of that period?

N.A.B.

_MS. Book of Prayers belonging to Queen Catherine Parr._--In vol. ix. of
the _Gentleman's Magazine_ is a description of a MS. book of prayers,
bound in silver, which probably belonged to Queen Catherine Parr. Can
you or any of your numerous readers inform me in whose possession the
volume is _now_?

J.L.W.

_Waltheof--De Combre Family--Ilda._--In _Waltheof, or the Siege of
York_, an historical drama published at York, 1832, one of the _dramatis
personae_, Judith, the niece of the Conqueror, and daughter of the
Countess of Albemarle, is made to say,--

"When gallant _Waltheof, as his country's champion_,
On bus'ness of high import and high matters,
_Oft at my royal uncle's court appeared_,

...

"We married privately.
Two years and more have passed since this has happened,
And one sweet pledge of love has crowned our vows."

Now I am anxious to know,

1. Whether there be any historical authority for Waltheof being sent as
envoy to William? and, if so, on what mission?

2. Is it not the more correct account, that the Conqueror gave his niece
Judith in marriage to Waltheof _after_ the surrender of the city, [at
the same time that he conferred other honours upon him, out of respect
for his brave defence of the city; creating him, first, Earl of
Northhampton and Huntingdon, and afterwards Earl of Northumberland, A.D.
1070.] And if so, as Waltheof could certainly not have had any "pledge
of love" _before_ the siege of York; so neither is it probable that he
had any issue at all by Judith, as in the same year, 1070, he was
beheaded by William, for supposed participation in a conspiracy at York.

The above drama is said to be "by a descendant of one of the _dramatis
personae_," viz. of "De Combre, one of William's generals;" being written
by Rev. Thomas Comber, of Oswaldkirk, Yorkshire. This De Combre is
represented as having married _Ilda_, a daughter of King Harold, and
sister of _Edgar_. Can any of your correspondents furnish me with
information as to the origin and antiquity of this family of Comber? I
learn from the present representatives of this family, that they have no
recorded pedigree which goes higher than the reign of Henry VI., but
that the family tradition has always been, that their ancestor came over
from Normandy with William, and married Ilda, daughter of Harold. It
seems that the name of Ilda is at this very day borne by one of the
family. In the _Memoirs of Dr. Thomas Comber, Dean of Durham_, this De
Combre is said to have had the manor of Barkham, in Sussex, given to him
by the Conqueror. What family had King Harold II.? Had he any daughter
Ilda? and, if so, is there any record or mention of her husband's name?

T.E.L.L.

19th July, 1850.

_"De male quaesitis," &c._--Spelman's striking argument, that spoliated
church property is seldom enjoyed for more than three generations, seems
but a special application of a general principle,--

"De male quaesitis gaudet non tertius haeraes."

Can any of your readers tell me who is the author of the above verse? I
find it quoted as "an adage" by John Gadsbury, in his work _On the
Doctrine of Nativities_, 1658.

R.P.

_Westminster Abbey._--The late Sir Harry Englefield is known to have had
access to some of the original fabric accounts of this venerable
structure. Can any of your readers inform me whether he published the
information he may have obtained from those documents; and, if so, where
it may be found?

J.BT.

_Haberdasher--Martinet._--Can any of your correspondents suggest an
etymology for the word _haberdasher_? I ought, perhaps, to say that I am
acquainted with the derivations propounded by Mr. Richardson, but
consider them all unsatisfactory. While on the subject, I would also ask
if Mr. Richardson's _Dictionary_ is considered the best {168} source
extant of information on English etymology, because I cannot help
thinking that it has very many faults and deficiencies. The very word,
for instance, on the derivation of which your valuable correspondent MR.
FORBES offered a suggestion in No. 38., viz. _Martinet_, I had in vain
sought for in Mr. Richardson's _Dictionary_, at least in his quarto
edition, 1887.

PRISCIAN.

* * * * *

"_Querela Cantabrigiensis_."--Is anything known of the authorship of the
_Querela Cantabrigiensis: or, a Remonstrance by way of Apologie for the
banished Members of the late flourishing University of Cambridge. By
some of the said Sufferers. Anno Dom. 1647_? This seems a favourable
time for inserting this Query, as there is a chance of _a second series
of "The Universities' Complaint"_ making its appearance before the year
is out.

J.M.B.

* * * * *

_Long Lonkin._--Can any of your readers give me a clue to the
personality of Long Lonkin, the hero of a moss-trooping ballad popular
in Cumberland, which commences--

"The Lord said to his ladie,
As he mounted his horse,
Beware of Long Lonkin
That lies in the moss."

And goes on to tell how Long Lonkin crept in at "one little window"
which was left unfastened, and was counselled by the wicked maiden to--

"Prick the babe in the cradle"

as the only means of bringing down the poor mother, whom he wished to
kill.

Are there any other traditions of him, and can he have any connection
with the name bestowed by children on the middle finger, in the
following elegant rhyme?--

"Tom Thumbkin,
Will Wilkins,
Long Lonkin," &c.?

This I had always supposed merely to refer to the length of the finger,
but the coincidence of names is curious.

SELEUCUS.

* * * * *

REPLIES.

TREATISE OF EQUIVOCATION.

I can now inform you that the MS. _Treatise of Equivocation_, about
which J.M. inquired (Vol. i., p. 263.), is preserved in the Bodleian
Library (Laud, _Miscellaneous MSS. 655_.). Dodd, in his _Church History_
(vol. ii. pp. 381. 428.), under the names Blackwell and Francis Tresham,
mentions the work by its second title, _A Treatise against Lying and
fraudulent Dissimulation_, and states that the MS. is in the Bodleian.
Through the kindness of Dr. Baudinel, I have seen the tract; and as
there is a certain historical interest attached to it, some information
on the subject may be acceptable to your readers. But it may be as well
first to give the account of its production at the trial of Guy Fawkes
and the conspirators, Jan. 27, 1606. (See _State Trials_, vol. ii. col.
180.) After Coke had introduced under the seventh head of his speech, as
the fourth means for carrying on the plot, "their perfidious and
perjurious equivocating," there follows:--

"And here was showed a Book, written not long before the Queen's
death, at what time Thomas Winter was employed into Spain,
entituled, 'A Treatise of Equivocation,' which book being seen
and allowed by Garnet, the superior of the Jesuits, and
Blackwell, the Archpriest of England, in the beginning thereof
Garnet with his own hand put out those words in the title of
'Equivocation,' and made it thus; 'A Treatise against Lying and
fraudulent Dissimulation.' ... And in the end thereof, Blackwell
besprinkles it with his blessing, saying, 'Tractatus iste valde
doctus, et vere pius et Catholicus est. Certe S. Scripturarum,
patrum, doctorum, scholasticorum, canonistarum, et optimarum
rationum praesidiis plenissime firmat aequitatem aequivocationis;
ideoque dignissimus est qui typis propagetur, ad consolationem
afflictorum Catholicorum, et omnium piorum instructionem.'"

Coke referred to it again at Garnet's trial, March 28, 1606 (_State
Trials_, vol. ii. p. 234.); and the importance attached to the discovery
of the work may be judged of by Morton's _Full Satisfaction_, 1606: a
very large part of which is occupied in discussing it.

The copy in the Bodleian is the one which was produced at the trial. It
is a small quarto in a vellum cover, on the outside of which is written,
on the front side, in a later hand, "Blackwell de Equivocatione, &c.;"
on the other side, in Sir E. Coke's hand, "Equivocations." It consists
of sixty-six pages in all; i.e. two leaves at the beginning originally
left blank, and not numbered; sixty-one pages numbered continuously, and
fifty-nine of them written on: p. 61., that is, the fly-leaf at the end,
contains Blackwell's imprimatur as described by Coke. On the first
fly-leaf, at the beginning, is the following memorandum:--

"This booke, contening 61 pages, I founde in a chamber in the
Inner Temple, wherein Sr Thomas Tresham used to lye, and whiche
he obteyned for his two younger sonnes. This 5 of December,
1605." EDW. COKE.

"Os quod mentitur occidit animam."

It may be enough to remind the reader, that after Nov. 5, 1605, Coke,
being Attorney-General, was engaged in prosecuting the discovery of the
plot and seeking for evidence. Francis Tresham, to whom the authorship
is attributed by Dodd (vol. ii. p. 427, 428.), was a son of Sir Thomas
Tresham; his connection with Garnet and the plot is well known. Sir T.
Tresham died Sept. 11, 1605. (Dodd, vol. ii. p. 58.) Francis had been
committed {169} to prison, and died Nov. 20, 1605; and Coke found this
in searching his chambers a fortnight after. The title originally stood
thus:--

"A TREATISE OF EQUIVOCATION, _wherein is largely discussed the
question_, whether a Catholicke or any other person before a
Magistrate being demaunded uppon his oath whether a Prieste were
in such a place, may (notwithstanding his perfect knowledge to
the contrary), without Perjury, and securely in conscience
answere, No: with this secreat meaning reserved in his minde,
That he was not there so that any man is bound to detect it."

The words in small capitals and Italics occupying the first two lines
are crossed out, and "whe-," the first syllable of whether, re-written
at the beginning of line 3. At the end of this title, interlined by
another hand, follow the words "_newly, overseer ... ignorants_;" but
these words are also struck through and re-written on the preceding
leaf, on which, written by the same hand by which the interlineation was
made (Garnet's, as it would seem), the title stands,--

"A Treatise _of_ against Lying and fraudulent Dissimulation.
Newly overseen by the Authour, and published for the defence of
Innocency and for the Instruction of Ignorants."

The "_of_", in Italics, is struck out. The MS. has other corrections
throughout in the same (Garnet's) hand; and was evidently prepared for
the press, as Blackwell's imprimatur implies.

I have to apologise for some incorrect dates in my last communication.

J.B.

* * * * *

BOETHIUS' CONSOLATIONS OF PHILOSOPHY.

The celebrated treatise _De Consolatione Philosophiae_, was translated
into English verse by John Walton, otherwise called Johannes Capellanus,
in the year 1410. A beautiful manuscript on parchment, of this
translation, is preserved in the British Museum (_Harl. MS._ 43.). Other
copies are amongst the archives of Lincoln Cathedral, Baliol College,
&c. It was printed in the Monastery of Tavestok in 1525, a copy of which
impression is of the utmost rarity. There is an English prose
translation by "George Colvil, alias Coldewell," printed by John Cawood,
4to. 1556. And again, _Boethius' Five Bookes of Philosophicall Comfort_,
translated by J.T., and printed at London in 12mo., 1609.

Viscount Preston's translation was _first_ printed in 8vo., 1695. The
edition of 1712, mentioned by your correspondent, was the _second_.
Boethius was again translated by W. Causton in 1730, and with notes and
illustrations, by the Rev. P. Ridpath, 8vo., 1785. The latter is, I
believe, an excellent translation; it is accompanied by a Life of
Boethius, drawn up with great care and accuracy. In 1789 a translation
by R. Duncan appeared at Edinburgh; and in 1792, an anonymous
translation was printed in London. The latter is said to be a miserable
performance.

King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version, with an English translation and
notes, by J.S. Cardale, was printed at London, in 8vo., 1829.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Queen Elizabeth's Translation of Boethius_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--One of
JARLTZBERG'S inquiries is, "Has Queen Elizabeth's work (which she
executed during her captivity before she ascended the throne) been
printed?" Certainly not: if it had been, it would have been well known.
May we venture to anticipate an affirmative reply to another parallel
question--Does Queen Elizabeth's translation of _Boethius_ exist in
manuscript? But where did JARLTZBERG learn that it was "executed during
her captivity before she ascended the throne?" We know that she made
such a translation when she was sixty years of age, that is, in October
and November, 1593, (see Nichols's _Progresses, &c., of Queen
Elizabeth_, vol. iii. p. 564., and the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
February last, p. 143.), and it is a very interesting proof of the
continuance of her learned studies at that advanced period of her life;
and, as the curious document which records this fact is unnoticed in the
last edition of _Royal and Noble Authors_ by Mr. Park, it is probably a
misapprehension that the same task had engaged some of the hours of her
captivity; or rather is it not one of those dove-tailing conjectures in
which some of our most popular lady-biographers have recently exhibited
such extravagant and misplaced ingenuity?

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS.

_Boethius' Consolations of Philosophy_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--JARLTZBERG
is wrong in supposing that Richard Viscount Preston's translation
appeared _first_ in 1712. I have now before me an edition in 8vo.
"London: printed by J.D. for Awnsham and John Churchill, at the Black
Swan, in Paternoster row; and Francis Hildyard, bookseller in York,
MDCXCV." Horace Walpole, in his _Royal and Noble Authors_, states that
the publication in 1712 was the "_second_ edition corrected;" and Mr.
Park says in a note, that the first edition was in 1695, 8vo.

C.H. COOPER

Cambridge, June 24. 1850.

* * * * *

ETYMOLOGICAL QUERIES ANSWERED.

J. MN. (Vol. ii., p. 153.) has propounded a dozen of most recondite and
puzzling archaisms, upon which I have to offer a few notes.

"_Rykelot_, a magpie?"--The popular and provincial names of animals
deserve more careful notice than they have received from glossarists. I
need scarcely observe how frequently personal names were derived from
those of birds. In the {170} Hundred Rolls we find a "Richard Rikelot"
in Huntingdonshire (vol. ii. p. 626.). I know not what has led to the
supposition that this name denotes the magpie. It may possibly be traced
to the same root as that of a cognate species, the _cornix frugivora;
Roeck_, Germ., according to Gesner; Friesic, _roek_; Ang.-S. _hroc_, the
rook: but I am at a loss to discover anything similar in old French to
explain the occurrence of the termination, which seems to be a popular
or familiar diminutive, a Gallicism, analogous to _partlot_.

"_Wrusum or Wursum._"--The latter is the correct reading. Trotter
Brockett includes the word amongst Northern Provincialisms.--"_Wursum_,
pus, particularly when foul." Jamieson is inclined to derive the word
_woursom_ or _worsum_, used in the same sense by Douglas, in his
translation of Virgil, and by other North Country writers, from Ang.-S.
_Wyr_, pus, and _sum_, as denoting quality.

"_Sabraz._"--This term has perplexed me much in preparing notes on the
portion of the _Promptorium_ I have now in hand. In the Harl. MS. 221.
is found "Sabrace, _sabracia_, Comm." The authority cited, the
_Commentarius Curialium_, is still unknown to me; and I have failed in
searching for the word _sabracia_, which is not found in Ducange, or
other glossaries of debased Latinity. Mr. Halliwell gives "_Sabras_,
salve, plaster;" but he cites no authority. It appears, however, rather
to signify a tonic or astringent solution than a salve. I have hitherto
found it only in the following passage (_Sloane MS_. 73., f. 211., late
xv. sec.) in a recipe for making "cheuerel lether of perchemyne." The
directions are, that it be "basked to and fro" in a hot solution of
"alome roche;--aftir take xelkis of eyren and breke hem smale in a
disch, as thou woldist make therof a caudel, and put these to thyn alome
water, and chaufe it; thanne take it doun fro the fier, and put it in
the cornetrey; thanne tak thi lether and basche it wel in this _sabras_,
to it be wel drunken up into the lether." A little flour is then to be
added, the mixture heated, and the "perchemyn well basked therein, and
th't that saberas be wel drunken up into the lether;" and if it enters
not well into the leather, "lay it abroad in a good long vessel that be
scheld, the fleschside upward, and poure thi _sabrace_ al abouen the
lether, and rubbe it wel yn." It is further recommended to "late the
lether ligge so still al a nyzt in his owen _sabras_."

"_I-menbred_, a girdle i-menbred." (Thus, in old French, "menbrer,
_membrer_," &c., Roquefort). Charpentier gives similar use of the Latin
word,--"Membrare, instruere, ornare, Gall. garnir;" citing a French
document, dated 1352: "Item, unam zonam de serico _Membratam_ de argento
et esmandis;" and another of 1366: "Duas zonas de serico, argento
stofatas et _Membratas_." The term was thus used also in England, as in
the inventory of valuables belonging to Edward I. in 1300 (_Liber
Garderobae_, p. 347.):--"Una zona, cum cathenis argenti annell' cum targ'
et membris argenti." It might be supposed from this expression, that the
_membra_ were, strictly speaking, the transverse bars of metals, or
_cloux_, Fr., by which the girdle was divided into several compartments,
the intervening spaces being filled by chased ornaments of goldsmiths'
work, and occasionally by armorial scutcheons, "_targie_."

But enough for the present. I should esteem it a favour if your
correspondent would inform me where these curious terms are found, as
the context would greatly facilitate their elucidation.

ALBERT WAY.

Wonham, Reigate, August 3.

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Solingen_ (Vol. ii., p. 135.).--Will you allow me to state, for the
information of T.S. LAWRENCE, who inquires who S_a_lingen, the sword
cutler, was,--that S_o_lingen is the name of a small town near
Elberfeld, in Westphalia; a sort of Sheffield for the whole of that part
of Germany. Immense quantities of cutlery of all sorts are made there,
and many knives are, I was told, made there, stamped with English names,
and imported into England as true British ware,--being equally good with
ours, and, of course, cheaper. Solingen is still, and has been for
centuries, renowned for its sword blades. You cannot ride through the
town without meeting a troop or two of girls with a load of sword blades
on their heads.

May I suggest to your inquirer JARLTZBERG that the derivation of
_blackguard_ is as likely to be _blagarode_, the Russian for _nobleman_,
as many words are to be descended from their reputed parents.

C.B.M.

P.C.S.S. believes that a little research would have enabled MR. LAWRENCE
(Vol. ii., p. 135.) to ascertain that _Solingen_ (not S_a_lingen) was
not the name of a sword cutler, but of a place in Prussian Westphalia,
long celebrated for the fabrication of that weapon, as well as of
fencing-foils. Of the latter instrument P.C.S.S. has several pairs in
his possession, all marked with the inscription "In Solingen." That the
Solingen manufactory still flourishes there, is stated in Murray's
_Handbook for Northern Germany_, p. 373.

P.C.S.S.

_Blackguard_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--In the second vol. of B. Jonson's
works by Gifford, page 169., there is the following note on this word:--

"In all great houses, but particularly in the royal residences,
there were a number of mean, dirty dependants, whose office it
was to attend the wool-yard, sculleries, &c.; of these the most
forlorn wretches seem to have been selected to carry coals to
the kitchens, halls, &c. To this smutty regiment, who attended
the {171} progresses, and rode in the carts with the pots and
kettles, the people in derision gave the name of _black_-guards"

I find also the following in Butlerts _Hudibras_, part 3.:--

"Thou art some paltry, _blackguard_ sprite,
Condemn'd to drudgery in the night;
Thou hast no work to do in the house,
Nor halfpenny to drop in shoes."

AREDJID KOOEZ.

_The Three Dukes_ (Vol. ii., p. 9.).--Perhaps a note which I have just
stumbled upon, in a MS. account of the Griffin family, may furnish some
clue as to "the Dukes who killed the Beadell."

"Edward Griffin was probably the same person, to whom a pardon
was granted, April 11. 1671, for the death of Peter Werriel; in
the like manner as _was granted to the Duke of Albemarle and
the_ Duke of Monmouth."

At all events, both casualties occurred in the same spring, and a
reference to the gazettes of the day would perhaps set the question at
rest.

BRAYBROOKE.

Audley End.

_Bonny Dundee_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.) is the name attached to one of the
most beautiful of the Scotch melodies. The song is said to be very old.
The words, which I recollect to have heard sung to it more than half a
century ago, began:

"'O, whar gat ye that hauers-meal bannock,
My bonny young lassie, now tell it to me?'
'I got it frae a sodger laddie,
Between Saint Johnstone and bonnie Dundee."

It is clear that it is to the town, not the man (though from the
portraits of him he was very handsome), that the epithet applies. My
version of the song differs from that given in Cromek's Burns, and also
from Allan Cuningham's; and I am disposed to think my memory at fault
from the so near recurrence of the word "bonnie" in the stanza.

Neither the date of the birth of Viscount Dundee, nor his age at the
time of his death, is mentioned by the Scottish Peerage writers,
Crawford, Douglas, or Wood.

F.R.S.L. and E.

_Was Quarles pensioned?_ (Vol. i., p. 201.).--I believe that no reply
has been made to this Query. The following passage, transcribed from the
"Epistle Dedicatory" to the surreptitious edition of Quarles's _Judgment
and Mercy_, affords a slight negative proof to the contrary:

"And being so usefull, I dare not doubt your patronage of this
_child_, which survives a _father_ whose utmost abilities were
(till death darkened that great light in his soule) sacrificed
to your service."

Now if Charles had conferred a pension on Quarles, is it not exceedingly
probable that the publisher and dedicator, Richard Royston, would have
recalled so honourable a circumstance to the memory of his "most
gratious sovereign King Charles" in this "Epistle Dedicatory," when he
had so excellent an opportunity of doing so?

T.M.B.

_Collar of Esses_ (Vol. ii., p. 140.).--MR. J.G. NICHOLS, in his reply
to the Query of [Greek: phi]., says, that "the judges" are among those
who are _now_ privileged to wear these collars. Allow me to suggest to
him that the privilege among them is limited to the _chiefs_ of the
three courts. The other judges certainly now never wear them, and I am
unaware that they ever did so. I have a large, though by no means a
perfect collection of legal portraits, and there is not one puisne judge
or baron so distinguished. The earliest legal worthy who is represented
with this collar is in the reign of Henry VIII., and it adorns not a
chief justice, but a chancellor, viz. Sir Thomas More; and he is the
only chancellor upon whose shoulders it appears. This collar is formed
by continuous Esses, without any ornament between them. It is united in
the front by two portcullises, with a rose pendant. The print is from
Holbein's picture, and presents him as chancellor, with the purse. The
first chief justice wearing the collar is Sir James Dyer, Ch.C.P. in the
reign of Elizabeth. The only difference between it and Sir Thomas More's
is, that the rose is placed between the portcullises. I have another, in
a later period of the same reign, of Sir Christopher Wray, Ch.K.B., in
which the Esses are alternated with ornamental knots. I am not aware of
any portrait of a chief baron before Sir Thomas Bury, in the first year
of George I.; so that I am uncertain whether the collar was previously
worn by that functionary.

It is curious that during the Commonwealth the Collar of Esses was worn
by John Glynne, the Chief Justice of the Upper Bench, with a difference;
that difference being a quatrefoil, instead of the knot, between each S;
and a large jewel, surrounded by smaller ones, being substituted for the
portcullises and rose.

These facts may, I hope, be of some use to MR. J.G. NICHOLS in the
volume I am glad to see that he contemplates. I hope he will not forget
to answer the other Query of [Greek: phi]., "Under what circumstances,
and at what dates, was the privilege of wearing these collars reduced to
its present limitation?"

EDWARD FOSS.

_The Story of the three Men and their Bag of Money_ (Vol. ii., p.
132.).--In _Tales, and quicke Answers, very mery, and pleasant to rede_,
is the following, with the title "Howe Demosthenes defended a Mayde:"--

"There were two men on a time, the whiche lefte a great somme of
money in kepyng with a maiden, on this condition, that she
shulde nat delyuer hit agayne, except they came bothe to gether
for hit. Nat lang {172} after one of them cam to hir mornyngly
arrayde, and sayde that his felowe was deed, and so required the
money, and she delyuered it to hem. Shortly came the tother man,
and required to have the moneye that was lefte with her in
kepyng. The maiden was than so sorrowfull, both for lacke of the
money, and for one to defend her cause, that she thought to
hange her selfe. But Demosthenes, that excellent oratour, spake
for her and sayd: 'Sir, this mayden is redy to quite her
fidelitie, and to deliuer agayne the money that was lefte with
her in kepyng, so that thou wylt brynge thy felowe with thee to
receyue it.' But that he coude not do."

This is the 69th tale in the collection. I cite from the reprint which
appeared in 1831, under the title of _The Hundred Merry Tales: or
Shakspeare's Jest Book_.

C.H. COOPER

Cambridge, July 29. 1850.

The story of _the three men and their bag of money_ (Vol. ii., p. 132.)
is here stated to be "in the Notes to _Rogers's Italy_": but it is in
the _body_ of the work, as a distinct story, headed, "The Bag of Gold."

ROBERT SNOW.

_Will. Robertson of Murton_ (Vol. ii., p. 155.) is stated by Douglas in
his _Baronage_, p. 413., to be descended in the fourth decree from
Alexander Robertson, fifth baron of Strowan. The pedigree of Robertson
of Strowan is given in the same vol.

F.R.S.L. and E.

_Long Meg of Westminster._--I am not quite of DR. RIMBAULT'S opinion,
that Long Meg of Westminster is a fictitious personage. I believe her to
have been as much a real wonton as Moll Cutpurse was a century later.

If the large stone shown as Long Meg's grave had been anywhere else
within the walls of Westminster Abbey than where it is, I should have
had great dockets about the Westminster tradition. But Long Meg, there
is reason to believe from the numerous allusions to her in the
Elizabethan dramatists, was a heroine after the Reformation, and her
burial, therefore, in the cloisters, where few people of wealth or good
reputation were buried between 1538 and 1638, seems to me a common
occurrence. Had Islip or Esteney buried her among the abbots in the
cloister, I could then have joined in DR. RIMBAULT'S surprise. I have
altered the passage, however, to "marking, the grave, _it is said_."
This will meet, I trust, DR. RIMBAULT'S objection, though I have Gifford
to support me in the passage as it at present stands:

"There is a penny story-book of this tremendous virago
[Westminster Meg], who performed many wonderful exploits about
the time that Jack the Giant Killer flourished. She was buried,
as all the world knows, in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey,
where a huge stone is still pointed out to the Whitsuntide
visitors as her gravestone."

--Gifford's _Ben Jonson_, viii. 78.

Let me add, that I am much obliged to DR. RIMBAULT, as well as to other
correspondents, for corrections and still more valuable additions to my
book, printed in "NOTES AND QUERIES."

PETER CUNNINGHAM

_The Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Antholin's_ (Vol. i., pp. 180,
260.).--In my additions to Mr. Cunningham's _Handbook for London_, I
noticed two folio volumes of churchwardens' accounts, belonging to the
parish of St. Antholin's, that had _accidentally_ got away from the
custody of their proper guardians. This notice roused from his slunbers
one of the said guardians, the present overseer of the parish, W.C.,
Junior, who stated in your journal of February 23. that

"The churchwardens' accounts are in good preservation, and
present (in an unbroken series) the parish expenditure for
nearly three centuries."

The worthy overseer also wishes to impress your readers with a belief
that I had been misled by Thorpe's _Catalogue_, and that the books to
which I referred were merely _extracts_. In justice to myself, I
therefore give the entries in Thorpe's _Catalogue verbatim as they
occur_. Your readers will then be better able to judge which is the
"true" Dromio:--

"The Churchwardens' Accounts from 1615 to 1752 of the Parish of
St. Antholin's, London. Folio, 3l. 3s.

"This curious and interesting volume appears to have been kept
purposely for the various clergymen to write their receipts for
preaching the morning lectures at the above church for nearly a
century and a half. It contains the autographs of many eminent
divines; among others, John Goodwin, R. Pearson, J. Berriman, J.
Withers, J. Cooksey, R. Vann, T. Shepperd. W. Scott, R. Chambre,
J. Todd, Lilly Butler, J. Botham, C. Evans, T. Clarke, J.
Williams, J. Povey, J. Hotchkis, W. Stringfellow, W. Pott, C.
Bancroft, R. Clarke, W. Gearing, and many others."

"The Chuchwarden and Overseers of the Parish of St. Antholin's
in London, Accounts from 1638 to 1700 inclusive. Folio, 3l. 3s.

"An interesting record of the expenses of this parish for
sixty-four years. It commences with the gifts of various sacks
of coals, faggots, &c., to the poor, receipts for flesh
licences, collections, interest money, the Lady Martaine's
gifts, Sir W. Craven's gifts, the Merchant Tailors' Company's
gifts, Mercers' ditto, the Company of Ironmongers _forty
fagots_, the Company of Mercers a load of charcoal, the gift of
the late King James seven loads of Newcastle coals,--_this royal
bequest appears to have been annual gift for ever. Query, if now
in payment?_ ANNUAL gifts of Lady Coventry for putting out two
poor children born in this parish. Lady Martin's, and many
others, are annual gifts, which ought to be forthcoming to the
parish at this time."

This last note contains some Queries which I should be glad to see
answered.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. {173}

_The Plant "Haemony"_ (Vol. ii. p. 88. and p. 141.).--The mystical
meaning of "Haemony" is evolved by Coleridge in a passage which occurs
in his _Statesman's Manual_, appendix B., and which cannot fail to
interest the readers of _Comus_.

"It is found in the study of the Old and New Testament, if only
it be combined with a spiritual partaking of the Redeemer's
blood, of which, mysterious as the symbol may be, the
sacramental wine is no mere or arbitrary _memento_. This is the
only certain, and this is the universal, preventive of all
debasing superstitions; this is the true haemony ([Greek:
haima], blood, [Greek: oinos], wine), which our Milton has
beautifully allegorised in a passage strangely overlooked by all
his commentators. Bear in mind, reader! the character of a
militant Christian, and the results (in this life and in the
next) of the redemption by the blood of Christ, and so peruse
the passage."

T.M.B.

_Mildew in Books_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--Your correspondent B. suggests
that "any hints as to the cause or remedy of _mildew in books_ will be
most acceptable". I venture therefore an opinion that the cause is to be
found in the defective bleaching and manufacture of the rags from which
the paper is made and the careless or intentional admixture of linen
with cotton rags. The comparatively modern method of bleaching with
oxymuriate of lime, or chlorine in substance, with the ad-libitum and
unacknowledged admixture of gypsum (to give weight and firmness to the
paper) are, I believe, the true causes of the defects in question, which
are to be found more in modern books and prints than in those of an
earlier date, and do not arise from damp, as the term "_mildew_" might
seem to imply, although the same appearance no doubt arises from that
cause alone in the older paper. But paper made and bleached by the
processes I have mentioned will become covered with brown spots, however
dry it may be kept.

I have a folio edition of _La Armeria Real de Madrid_, printed at Paris,
without date, but subsequently to 1838 by the preface. The paper is very
stout and fine, and was free from blemish when I purchased it three
years ago, but at present it is covered with brown patches, and the
beauty of the work destroyed, although it has been kept in a very dry
room.

For such defects I should be equally delighted with B. to discover a
remedy; but I fear that so long as our paper manufacturers study
expedition and economy in preference to quality, the case is hopeless.
The ashes left after the combustion of a sheet of paper clearly indicate
the amount of modern sophistication, and greatly exceed those of more
ancient paper. In fact, some paper may now be classed, with more
propriety, among mineral than vegetable productions. Mildew, arising
from damp in old books, may be arrested, if not removed, by exposure to
light, air, and a dry atmosphere.

HENRY WILKINSON.

_The Carpenter's Maggot_ (Vol. ii., p. 104.).--The ancient tune known as
the _Carpenter's Maggot_, and until lately played at the annual dinner
of the Livery of the Carpenters' Company, may be found at p. 258. of the
first volume of a rare work entitled _The Dancing Master_, sm. obl.
1721. The same volume contains a choice assemblage of "Maggots", i.e.
Barker's Maggot, Cary's Maggot, Draper's Maggot, Hill's Maggot,
Huntington's Maggot, M. Coppinger's Maggot, &c.

The word Maggot, from the French _Magot_, means a whim, or a fancy. The
bird "magpie", originally "maggoty-pie," was so called on account of its
whimsical drollery. "A maggoty-pated fellow" is often used to imply a
_whimsical_ man.

I do not trace the word, as applied to a tune, earlier than the end of
the seventeenth century. Before that time, tunes of a similar
description were termed _Fancies_.

If your correspondent F.T.P. wishes to have a copy of the tune from my
volume, he is quite welcome. I append my London address to this Reply,
in order that he may favour me with a communication.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

3. Augustus Square, Park Village East.

_Martello Towers_ (Vol. ii., p. 9. and p. 110.).--The interesting
account of Le Tellier's defence in Corsica, shows clearly what first
drew the attention of our government to these forts but E.V.'s queries
do not yet seem satisfactorily answered. The late Duke of Richmond, it
is said, gave the plan of the first erected along the British Channel.
But as to their name and origin I apprehend that (as in the case of
Charles Martel, whose blows also fell so numberless and effectual on the
heads of enemies, Vol. i., p. 86.) the old Frank word _martel_ is much
more likely to have originated the name than any _locality_, town, or
tower, in either Spain or Corsica and the following extract from Dr.
Robertson's _Life of Charles V._ (bk. c. p. 452., 8vo. ed.) should not
be passed over in their history:--

"The commerce of the Mediterranean was greatly interrupted by
his cruisers (viz. Haseen Aga's, about 1541), and such frequent
alarms given to the coast of Spain, that there was a necessity
of erecting watch towers at proper distances, and of keeping
guards constantly on foot, in order to descry the approach of
his squadrons, and to protect the inhabitants from his
descents."

The doctor then gives marginal reference to _Jovii Hist_. L. 40. p. 266.
for authority. I have not Jovius, nor access to him here but I would be
obliged by learning whether he gives any and what more specific account
of these towers, or how they were called.

LAMBDA. {174}

_Highland Kilts._--I have waited a "reasonable time" to learn a little
about _kilts_ from your correspondents; but seeing that no one has yet
entered the arena, I forward an additional glove to cast before any
member of the Scottish societies luxuriating in London. It is from a
work written by one of themselves, hight Dr. Macculloch, who, in his
_Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland_ (vol. i. p. 176.), gives a
whole chapter on northern attire, which is well worth attention. To be
sure, he is rather merciless on some of Sandy's present likings, showing
them to be of no standing as to time; and he declares that the kilt
resembles the loricated skirts of the Roman tunica, only just as much as
Macedon does Monmouth. I will not mention how he laughs at the groups of
masquerading Highlanders; but will proceed to lay an extract before you,
which may incite inquiry and reply:

"A few enthusiasts have amused themselves with deriving the
Highland kilt from one of the dresses of the Romans, to which
the resemblance is sufficiently vague. These worthy antiquaries
forget the anger they feel at the bare notion that the Romans
ever interfered with the Highlanders...."

"The Roman theory of the kilt is, indeed, demolished at one
blow, by the fact, that this article of dress in an independent
form, or the philibeg, (feala beg), is of very modern
introduction, and, what is still worse, that it was the
invention of an Englishman. It was first introduced at Tyndrum
about a century past, (_this was published in_ 1824), by
Rawlinson, the superintendent or agent for the lead mines; who,
finding his labourers encumbered with their belted plaids,
taught them to separate the two into the present form."

[Greek: S]

_Derivation of Penny._--Not from the Celtic _Pen_, but from the German
_Pfennig_, _pf_ being softened into _p_, as in _pfau, peacock_, and _ig_
into _y_, as in _hereig, hearty_.

B.H.K.

_Scarf_ (Vol. ii, p. 126.).--The custom of the Church for many
centuries, which is the authority for the wearing of the scarf, or
stole, sanctions the use of it by all orders of the clergy now existing
in the Church of England, but with certain distinctions in the manner of
wearing it. By deacons it is worn, as in ancient times, over the left
shoulder only, hanging down before and behind; by priests, over both
shoulders, hanging down in front only, and was formerly crossed on the
breast and passed through the girdle at the waist; bishops have always
worn it over both shoulders, and not crossed. It was once considered in
some sort as a mark of authority, and as peculiarly appropriate to
preachers; thus the sub-deacon wore no stole, because he had no
authority to preach the Gospel in public. So in the Roman Catholic
Church at the present day, when a number of clergymen are assembled
together, except on a few extraordinary occasions, no person wears the
stole but the presiding or principal clergyman, and the person who
preaches or officiates. The stole was originally a linen handkerchief
used for wiping the face, but being afterwards made of embroidered silk
and other rich materials, it was retained as a decoration. Previous to
the Reformation, the stole was one of the vestments used in the
celebration of the Holy Eucharist, and consequently, in preaching also,
but not at vespers or the ordinary services. The authorities for these
statements are Paley's _Gothic Architecture_, the Oxford _Manual for
Brasses, Popular Tracts illustrating the Prayer-book_, No. 2., and _An
Explanation of the Construction, &c., of a Catholic Church_.

Arun.

_Smoke-money_ (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--It may _contribute_ to answering
B.'s Query, to know that smoke-pennies are also yearly levied from most
of the inhabitants of the New Forest, and understood by them to be an
indication for their right of cutting peat in the waste of the forest.

Lambda.

_Common, Mutual, Reciprocal._--1. What is equally related to A., B.,
(C., &c.), is _common_ to them.

2. What A. and B. entertain, feel, do, &c. towards one another, is said
to be _mutual_.

3. What A. entertains, feels, does, &c. to B. in return for the same
entertained, felt, done, &c. by B. towards him, is said to be
_reciprocal_. Thus:

1. A., B., (C., &c.), have a _common_ friend X.

2. A. and B. entertain a _mutual_ esteem for each other.

3. B. has a regard for A., and A. has a _reciprocal_ regard for B.

In the passage quoted by Mr. Gatty (Vol. i., p. 440.), I think, with
deference to the eminent historian whom he cites, that _reciprocal_
should have been written instead of _mutual_.

B.H.K.

_Juice Cups._--Should no more satisfactory Reply to the Query of N.B.
(Vol. ii., p. 89.) present itself, the following suggestions may be
acceptable to him. Without pretending to _professional_ knowledge on the
point, I conceive that the use of an inverted cup in the centre of a
fruit pie is two-fold. It answers the purpose of supporting the crust,
which, being usually thin and light, has but little strength in itself,
probably less than that of a meat pie, while, by the shrinking of the
fruit in baking it is left unsupported: and it further serves, not
indeed as some good ladies seem to suppose, to increase the quantity of
juice, but to keep a portion of it in reserve; so that the pie may not
become too dry when a few spoonfuls of its more liquid contents have
been taken out. {175} This, I conceive, it effects in the following
manner. It contains, when inserted, a considerable quantity of cold air.
This expands as the pie is heated in the oven, until it drives out from
under the cup all, or nearly all, of the fluid that has originally
collected under it; and then, continuing to expand, much of the air
escapes through the air-holes of the pie into the oven. As the pie
cools, the portion of air remaining under the cup, and which, while
heated, was sufficient to fill it, contracts; and then the pressure of
the external atmosphere, entering through the air-holes of the pie, and
acting upon the surface of the juice round about the cup, forces a
portion of it into the cup, just on the same principle that water rises
into the chamber or cylinder of a pump when a partial vacuum is formed
in it. Having once risen into the cup, the same law of hydrostatic
pressure keeps it there until the cup is raised sufficiently to admit
air under its edge, when the juice of course escapes.

J.T.S.

_Curfew_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--Your correspondent Naboc will find the
information he seeks upon this subject in a valuable communication to
the _Journal of the British Archaeological Association_, vol. iv. p. 133,
by Mr. Syer Cuming. To Mr. C.'s list may be added, Charter House,
London; Newport, S.W.; and Lowestoft, Suffolk.

E.B. Price.

_Derivation of Totnes._--From the Anglo-Saxon _toten_ or _totten_, to
project, to rise above, and _ness_ or _nes_, nose, (French _nez_, German
_nase_, Latin _nasus_). Tooting, Tottenham, &c.

B.H.K.

_Dogs in Monuments._--S.S.S. (Vol. i., p. 405.) is informed that a dog,
at the feet of monumental effigies of females, is as common as a lion
accompanying male figures. It is most probable that the dog was meant to
represent affection, fidelity, &c., just as the lion signified courage,
generosity, &c. There are, however, some instances (Deerhurst,
Gloucestershire, Ingham, Norfolk) where the dog's _name_ is inscribed;
and then it was doubtless the intention to give a favourite _pet_ the
honour of a monument, that of itself, as well as of its mistress, should
"witness live in brass."

T.S. Lawrence.

* * * * *

MISCELLANEOUS.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

It is long since the students of English Archaeology received a more
welcome or valuable addition to their libraries than the recently
published _Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne, in Kent_, by
Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A., _illustrated by_ F.W. Fairholt, F.S.A.
Originally intended to have been a volume confined to Richborough, of
which the well-known collections of Mr. Rolfe were to form the basis, it
has been wisely extended to Reculver and Lymne, and now forms, both in
its literary and pictorial illustrations of those highly interesting
localities, a most valuable and instructlve Memorial.

Messrs. Sotheby and Co. (3. Wellington Street, Strand) will sell on
Wednesday, the 21st, and following Day, a rare interesting and valuable
collection of Works, chiefly relating to the History of America,
including an early edition of the Celebrated Letter of Columbus, some
curious Books relating to the Quakers and Brownists, &c.

We have received the following Catalogue:--John Petheram's (94. High
Holborn) Catalogue (Part CXIV., No. 8. for 1850) of Old and New Books.

* * * * *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

_WANTED TO PURCHASE._

ACTIO IN HENRICUM GARNETUM, &c. London, 1607.

A FRIENDLY ADVERTISEMENT TO THE PRETENDED CATHOLICS OF IRELAND, by
Christopher Sibthorp, Knt., one of H.M. Justices of His Court of Chief
Place in Ireland. 1622. Dublin.

_Odd Volumes._

Farmer's Magazine and Monthly Journal of Proceedings affecting the
Agricultural Interest (Old Series), 8vo. The Number for April, 1838.

New England Judged not by Man's but by the Spirit of the Lord: and the
Summe sealed up of New England's Persecutions, &c. by George Bishope,
8vo. From page 152 to the end.

A Thousand Notable Things of Sundrie Sorts, whereof some are wonderfull,
some strang, some pleasant, &c. Printed by John Haviland, 12mo. From the
beginning to page 27, and pages 281 to 285.

Rump Songs. Title-page and Book II., page 193 to the end.

Thomas Lyte's Ancient Ballads and Songs, 12mo. 1827.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to he
sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of NOTES AND QUERIES, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

Volume the First of Notes and Queries, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

_The Monthly Part for July, being the second of Vol. II., is also now
ready, price 1s._

Notes and Queries _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday; so
that our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in
receiving it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are, probably,
not yet aware of this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies
in their Saturday parcels._

C.W.B. _will see in this latter Notice an answer to his Query._

De Baldoc's _Query in our next._

Pray Remember the Grotto. _Several Correspondents who have applied to us
respecting the origin of this now popular cry, are referred to_ No. 1.,
p. 5., _for a very probable explanation of it._

B.M.E.H. _We believe a Life of St. Philip Neri, who founded the Order of
the Oratory in 1574, has been published by Richardson of Fleet Street._

* * * * *{176}

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for
AUGUST Price 2s. 6d., Contains,

Who wrote Shakspeare's Henry VIII.?

Contemporary Account of the Funeral of Amy Robsart.

A Record of Rambouillet.

Michael Drayton and Lodge; by J. Payne Collier, Esq., V.P.S.A.

Memoir of Paul Louis Courier: by F. Harwell, Esq.

Great Literary Piracy in the Prayer-Book published by the Ecclesiastical
History Society.

The True Principles of Church Restoration.

Memoirs of Mr. Plumer Ward.

The Chronicle of Queen Jane.

The Duke of Cambridge at Hanover: a Letter of Elizabeth dowager
Landgravine of Hesse Homburg to her brother King George the Fourth.

History of Pottery: by Joseph Marryat (_with three Plates_).

The College Plate at Oxford (_with two Plates_).

A full Report of the Meeting of the Archaeological Institute at Oxford.

With Notes and Correspondence of the Month. Review of New Publications.
Historical Chronicle, and Obituary, including Memoirs of the Duke of
Cambridge, Sir Robert Peel, Miss Jane Porter, W. C. Townsend, Esq., Rev.
William Kirby, F.R.S., &c. &c.

Nichols and Son, 25. Parliament Street.

* * * * *

Just published, 3s. each plain; 4s. tinted. Parts 15, and 16, of

RELIQUES OF ANCIENT ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE,
from Drawings by John Johnson,
Architect, F.S.A. Lithographed by Alfred Newman.

Contents:

Hedon Church, Yorkshire; Desborough, Northamptonshire; Molton,
Lincolnshire; Bingham, Notts; Billingborough, Lincolnshire; St John
Devizes, Wiltshire; Aumsby, Lincolnshire; Terrington St. Clements,
Norfolk.

To be completed in Twenty Parts.

George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Just published, No. 48., price 6s. (completing the work),

GOTHIC ORNAMENTS, Drawn from existing Authorities. BY J.K. COLLING,
Architect. Containing four plain and two coloured plates, and Title and
Index to the second volume.

Vol. II. will be ready in a few days.

George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Now ready, 600 pages, price 12s.

A SYNOPSIS of AUTHORITIES on the DOCTRINE of BAPTISM. By J.A. Wickham,
Esq. Edited by his son, the Rev. H.D. Wickham, M.A., Exeter College,
Oxford.

George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Preparing for publication, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

THE FOLK-LORE of ENGLAND. By William J. Thoms, F.S.A., Secretary of the
Camden Society, Editor of "Early Prose Romances," "Lays and Legends of
all Nations," &c. One object of the present work is to furnish new
contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore; and especially
some of the more striking Illustrations of the subject to be found in
the Writings of Jacob Grimm and other Continental Antiquaries.

Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
popular Observances, Rhyming Charms, &c. are earnestly solicited, and
will be thankfully acknowledged by the Editor. They may be addressed to
the care of Mr. Bell, Office of "Notes and Queries," 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

_ENGLISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS,_

ALL IN 8VO. BOARDS.

CHRONICON RICARDI Divisiensis de Rebus Gestis Ricardi Primi Regis
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WILLELMI MALMESBIRIENSIS Monachi Gesta Regum Angelorum, atque Historia
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CODEX DIPLOMATICUS AEvi Saxonici, opera J. M. Kemble, Vols. 111., IV.,
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ROGERI DE WENDOVER Chronica, sive Flores Historiarum, edidit H. O. Coxe,
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MS. edidit B. Thorpe, 2 vols. 1l. 1s. 1848-9

CHRONICON WALTERI DE HEMINGBURGH, de Gestis Regum Angliae, ad fidem Codd.
MS. recensult H. C. Hamilton, 2 vols. 1l. 1s. 1848-49

* * * * *

THE AGRICULTURE and RURAL ECONOMY of FRANCE, BELGIUM, and HOLLAND. By
Henry Colman, Esq. 1 vol. 8vo., pp. 307, with illustrations, cloth, 8s.
1848

THE AGRICULTURE and RURAL ECONOMY of GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND, from
Personal Observation. By Henry Colman, Esq. 2 vols. large 8vo, with
illustrations on wood and steel, cloth, 1l. 1s. 1849

EUROPEAN LIFE and MANNERS, in Familiar Letters to Friends. BY Henry
Colman, Esq. 2 vols. post 8vo., pp. 792, cloth, 12s. 1849

REMARKS on CHURCH ARCHITECTURE, with Two Hundred and Eighty
Illustrations. By the Rev. J.L. PETIT, M.A., Author of the "Remarks on
Architectural Character," 2 vols. 8vo. cloth, published at 1l. 15s.,
red. to 21s.

A HISTORY of ENGLAND under the ANGLO SAXON KINGS. Translated from the
German of Dr. J.M. Lappenberg, by Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. with Additions
and Corrections by the Author and the Translator. 2 vols. 8vo.,
including several folding Genealogical Tables (pub. 21s.), cloth, 12s.,
and in various bindings. 1845

THE ANCIENT EXCHEQUER OF ENGLAND; the Treasury, and Origin of the
present Management of the Exchequer and Treasury of Ireland with a
Copious Index. By F.S. Thomas, Secretary of the Public Record Office.
8vo., 174 closely printed pages, cloth, 10s. 1848

A HISTORY OF THE STATE PAPER OFFICE, with a View of the Documents
therein deposited, By F.S. Thomas. 8vo., cloth, 4s. 1849

CYCLOPS CHRISTIANUS: or, an Argument to disprove the supposed Antiquity
of the Stonehenge, and other Megalithic Erections in England and
Brittany. By A. Herbert, late of Merton College, and of the Inner
Temple. 8vo., cloth, 6s. 1849

A CATALOGUE OF BRITISH PORTRAITS. Just published. _Gratis and Post
free._ Also,

A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN ALL CLASSES OF LITERATURE. Part VIII. for 1850.
_Gratis and Post free._

John Petheram, 94. High Holborn.

* * * * *

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 10. 1850.

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