Part 7 out of 8
Early Orange Prune
G. No. 44 Jones
Hiederman Sand Cherry
Hudson River Purple Egg
King of Damson
Late Black Orleans
Robe de Sargent
Smith's Late Blue
Early Purple Guigne
Knight's Early Red
Orel No. 23
Stevens' Rare Ripe
[Illustration: VIEWING THE GUNS]
Forest, Fish and Game Exhibit and Schedule of Awards
FOREST, FISH AND GAME EXHIBIT
BY A. B. STROUGH
Special Agent of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission, State of New York
The State exhibit in the Forest Fish and Game Department was prepared
and installed by the Forest, Fish and Game Commission, with funds
furnished by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State
of New York.
A SPORTSMAN'S CAMP
A modern sportsman's camp of rustic design, fourteen feet by seventeen
feet in size, was constructed and furnished after the general style and
appearance of the usual summer residence in the Adirondack mountains.
The contractor for the erection of this camp was the firm of Messrs. D.
B. & D. F. Sperry, of Old Forge, N. Y. Mr. D. F. Sperry, "Frank," as he
is known to visitors to the Adirondacks, had personal charge of the
construction and was something of an exhibit himself. Being a lifelong
Adirondack guide, and having been employed by many prominent people,
among others, ex-President Harrison, any rustic work from his hand was
sure to attract attention.
It was unfortunate that it was impossible to have him, or some other
Adirondack guide, in attendance at the "camp" all through the season, as
many visitors wished to see and talk with some such person. Some of
them, seeing the Sperry name-plate on the end of a log of the camp,
inquired for "Frank," expecting to find him in attendance. He has had
many inquiries from people residing at widely separated places in
various parts of the country, for duplicates of the camp exhibit, or for
some other design of rustic building.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE CAMP
The camp was constructed of Adirondack spruce logs and the chimney was
of the same external construction. The roof was covered with spruce
bark. All the material showing inside the camp was, as far as possible,
left in natural condition, the logs with the bark on, and the underside
of the roof boards unplaned, showing the coarse saw marks.
Innumerable inquiries were made by interested visitors, particularly
those coming from the southern and western States, as to the species of
timber used in constructing the camp. When informed that the logs were
of spruce much interest was shown. Many had never seen spruce before.
A part of the furniture was built by Mr. Sperry, and the remainder by
another Adirondack guide, Mr. E. E. Sumner, of Saranac Lake, N. Y. Mr.
Sperry made the bedstead, the window settee and the center table, after
a style that is common in the Adirondack camps. The woodwork was of
spruce, turned smooth and stained a light smoke color to give it a
finished appearance. Mr. Sumner constructed the other furniture in the
best rustic style, the framework being of white cedar with the bark on,
and the bottoms of the chairs and settees of white birch bark. Both of
these guides have had many inquiries for duplicates of their handiwork
as exhibited. The "atmosphere" of the camp was that of everyday life in
the forest. The bed was "made up" as though the owner was expected to
occupy it at night. Garments and articles that had seen service, such as
a leather hunting jacket, a gun case, "pack" baskets, fish reels and
snow shoes were hung on the walls in proper places.
The mantel and fireplace particularly attracted attention. The mantel
was of spruce with the bark on, and the fireplace was constructed with a
stone facing and lining, showing andirons and birch logs in place as in
actual use. In one corner there was shelving for bric-a-brac, fishing
tackle, ammunition, etc., constructed by utilizing a discarded fishing
boat, cutting the same across the center into two parts and placing
shelves at convenient intervals, fastening the same on the ribs of the
In another corner was a swing table that could be hung up against the
wall when not in use. On the mantel were placed articles of rustic work
that harmonized with the surroundings--a rustic clock, wooden pipes and
smoking set to match, a stein and mug of wood, together with other
articles of ornament and utility. A piece of library shelving of unique
design and special construction was provided and furnished with standard
publications on fish, birds and animals, and stories of life in the
forest and of the chase. Thirty books were shown, a number of which were
kindly furnished by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York city. On
the center table were kept the current numbers of the leading sporting
magazines, both weekly and monthly.
The walls were decorated with bright colored Indian blankets, flags and
souvenir paddles, on which were painted various national flags and
camping scenes. The paddles being of a very white spruce and the
background being the spruce logs of the camp with dark colored bark, the
effect was pleasing and attracted much attention.
An interesting and valuable feature of the furnishing and decoration of
the camp, and, incidentally, souvenirs of the chase, were a large fine
moose head over the mantel, an elk's head on the gable outside, bucks'
heads at the sides of the porch in front of the camp, and the furs of
red foxes, deer and black bear. Some of the furs were specially prepared
for rugs and placed on the floor of the camp, giving the interior an air
of comfort and cheerfulness.
HUNTING AND FISHING OUTFIT
The hunting and fishing outfit consisted of two repeating rifles, one a
Savage and the other a Winchester, a double-barreled shotgun, three
fishing rods, one each of steel, split lancewood and split bamboo, and a
collection which included trout flies, landing nets, minnow pail, reels,
lines, cartridge belt, loading set and other paraphernalia. A guide-boat
of the latest style and of superior workmanship was a part of the
sportsman's outfit. This boat was kindly loaned by the manufacturer, Mr.
Fred W. Rice, formerly of Saranac Lake, N. Y., but now living at
Seattle, Wash. His son continues the manufacture of guide-boats at Lake
Placid, N. Y.
On the settee and bed in the camp were a number of balsam pillows. A
large and particularly fine one came from the Higby camp on Big Moose
lake in the Adirondacks. It was made by Miss Lila Daisy Higby, a little
lady only seven years of age, whose needlework decorating the cover
showed artistic ability of great merit for one so young. Many visitors
admired it, and some of them have written her in complimentary terms.
The odor from these pillows filled the camp, and instantly attracted the
attention of visitors. One of the questions usually asked first of the
attendant was where the perfume came from and what it was. Some supposed
it to be from the logs of which the camp was constructed. Many visitors
wanted to know where they could obtain such pillows. Those purchased for
the camp came from Mr. A. M. Church, Boonville, N. Y., who also
furnished the gun rack so much admired, and also the fur rugs.
On the side of the camp in a conspicuous place was posted a fire notice
such as may be found in thousands of places along the trail throughout
the Adirondacks and Catskills. Visitors that had been through our
mountains recognized this feature instantly, for these notices may be
found at all the hotels and public places, and also on a great many of
the private camps. This little placard printed on cloth attracted much
attention. It contains our forest fire rules and much of the law
relative to woodland fires. Many persons interested in forestry, many of
them from foreign countries, copied the notice verbatim. It is probable
that similar rules and regulations will be incorporated in the forestry
laws of other states and countries.
An attendant was employed at the camp who answered the numerous
questions as to where the various articles of furniture and decoration
might be obtained. Much information was also sought by visitors in
relation to the Adirondack forests and the summer resorts of New York in
This sportsman's camp was the only exhibit of the kind shown at the
Fair. Sportsmen and lovers of life in the woods from all parts of the
land visited it; many were ecstatic in its praises; some complimented it
by saying it was the most artistic feature of the whole forestry, fish
and game exhibit. It was photographed perhaps more than one hundred
times during the season and in one instance by nine different persons on
a single day.
ANIMALS AND BIRDS
The fur and game animals and birds of the State were represented by
mounted specimens prepared by professional taxidermists. In many
instances they were shown in pairs, male and female.
The space in front of the camp and also at one side was inclosed by a
rustic fence built of round spruce. In the yard at the side was placed a
tree about twelve feet high, and under it was prepared an artificial
ground work in imitation of a woodland area after a recent snow storm.
In and about this tree, and forming a part of the picture, were placed
in position, as true to life and natural conditions as possible,
specimens of practically all of the birds that remain with us during the
winter season, as follows:
Great Gray Owl
SONG AND PERCHING BIRDS
In and about another tree placed in front of the camp were shown
practically all of the song and perching birds of the State other than
the ones shown in the winter scene at the side of the camp. The birds in
this collection were as follows:
Prairie Horned Lark
Black and White Warbler
Black-throated Blue Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler
Cape May Warbler
In cabinets within an inclosure near the camp were shown our game birds,
such as the web-footed wild fowl and shore birds which may be hunted,
grouse, marsh birds or waders, and water or sea birds, as follows:
_Wild Ducks and Geese_
Lesser Scaup Duck
Greater Snow Goose
Belted Piping Plover
Greater Yellow Legs
Summer Yellow Legs
_Marsh Birds or Waders_
Great Blue Heron
Little Green Heron
Black-crowned Night Heron
Yellow-crowned Night Heron
Little Black Rail
_Water or Sea Birds_
Paresitic [*sic] Jaegar
Great Black-backed Gull
FUR AND GAME ANIMALS
All of our fur and game animals were represented as follows:
White-tail or Virginia Deer
Our deer were represented by a fine buck, a doe mounted in a reclining
position, and a small white doe. Arranged among bushes in the snow scene
at the side of the camp this family was most lifelike and pleasing in
appearance. White deer are very unusual, but not unnatural. One of them
is killed in this State about every two years.
Moose and elk are introduced animals with us now, and, as it is illegal
to kill any, life size specimens could not well be shown. However, very
good heads were exhibited as a part of the decoration of the camp.
Albinos of muskrat and porcupine were exhibited. Such freakish specimens
attract more attention than those of usual growth.
In addition to the animals scheduled above were specimens of some
species that are probably extinct in the Adirondacks, viz., a gray wolf
and a panther. The gray wolf was an excellent specimen loaned by General
E. A. McAlpin, of New York city. It was killed about eight years ago on
his preserve in the northern part of Hamilton county, and none have been
seen since. The panther was killed about twenty-eight years ago by Hon.
Verplanck Colvin in the southern part of Hamilton county, and is the
last one heard of in the State of New York. The black bear was an
unusually fine specimen, killed in Sullivan county. It was mounted to
order by Mr. Fred Sauter, of New York city, for this exhibit, and
without doubt was the best representative of this species at the Fair.
Experts in the art of taxidermy and naturalists were enthusiastic in its
The great blue heron was loaned by Mr. Grant E. Winchester, of Saranac
Inn. It was a very good specimen and was mounted by Mr. H. H. Miner, of
Saranac Lake, N. Y.
The animals were placed about the camp under the trees in connection
with the collection of birds in positions as true to life as possible in
the available space, making a picture of woodland life delightful to the
eye and interesting to every person that visited the Palace of Forestry,
Fish and Game.
The fish exhibit consisted of eighty-six mounted specimens, representing
seventy-two species, most of them prepared specially for this display by
the best workmen in the country. Substantially all the food and game
fish were shown. In preparing this collection no attempt, with one
exception, was made to show abnormally large specimens. The intention
was to show the average fish true to life in color, size and contour.
Both fresh and salt water species were represented. The collection,
which is undoubtedly the best in the country, comprised the following
Small-mouth Black Bass
Large-mouth Black Bass
In addition to the above-mentioned specimens there was shown an
interesting collection of shell fish, including different varieties of
oysters, together with the enemies of the same, such as the drill and
starfish. A number of exhibits showing curiosities of oyster growth were
in this collection.
The fish were displayed in six cabinets constructed to order for the
exhibit. They were lined with black plush, thus forming a strong
contrast with the colors of the various pieces.
The land-locked salmon mentioned above is one of the finest pieces
extant, not only in relation to size but also in the mounting of the
same. It is owned by Hon. J. P. Allds, Norwich, N. Y., and was kindly
loaned by him for this exhibit.
A great northern pike that weighed twenty-five pounds when caught was in
the collection. It was loaned by Mr. Ferris J Meigs, of New York city,
and was caught in Follensbee pond, in the Adirondacks, by Miss Juliet
Wilbur Tompkins in 1902. This is the largest pike, sometimes erroneously
called pickerel, within the knowledge of the Forest, Fish and Game
All the specimens of animals, birds and fish were properly and uniformly
labeled, giving the names the various species are generally known by,
and also the scientific nomenclature adopted by naturalists. The
importance of this matter of nomenclature was demonstrated very early
during the Fair. The song birds being very small no labels were placed
upon them at first, as the labels were in some instances larger than the
birds. The fact that visitors examining the specimens would often search
for the attendant in order to obtain information as to the names of the
different birds exhibited proved the necessity of clearly labeling all
specimens. On the other hand there seemed to be a general
misunderstanding as to some species of fish, various names being applied
to the same species. Visitors were constantly requesting information on
these points. The northern pike are by many people called pickerel and
sometimes when in water with pickerel are mistaken for muscallonge. The
distinguishing marks were frequently explained to interested visitors.
One of the most scientific and practical features of the New York
exhibit was that made by the Forestry department. It was prepared to
show the method by which the Forestry Commission is reforesting large
areas of State land that have been denuded by repeated fires.
A FOREST NURSERY
The most important part of this was a fully appointed forest nursery,
located out of doors close to the northeast corner of the Forest, Fish
and Game building. Its neat rustic fence, made of white cedar poles,
enclosed an area Of 7,200 square feet (120 feet long by 60 wide) and
contained about 80,000 little trees alive and green. The soil being of
heavy clay, it was covered to the depth of six inches with good loam
before any seeds were sown.
About one-third of the nursery was arranged in beds each sixteen feet
long by four feet wide with paths three feet in width. In two of these
beds seeds were sown of Scotch pine, Norway spruce, hardy catalpa and
American elm, half a bed being given to each species. The seeds were
sown about the first of May. They germinated well, and the little trees
grew thriftily, the catalpa reaching a height of eighteen inches before
the Fair closed. A bed of Norway pine showed the plants on half the bed
crowded together in a thick mat as if grown from seed sown broadcast; on
the other half arranged as if from seed sown in rows across the bed,
both methods of sowing seed being followed in actual practice. Four beds
were given to two-year-old plants--Norway spruce, white pine, European
larch and Scotch pine. These were also arranged as if grown from seed
These beds, excepting the seed bed for broad-leaf species, were all
shaded with neat screens made of lath to shelter the tender plants from
the hot rays of the southern sun.
In actual nursery work, after conifers have remained in the seed bed for
two years, they are transplanted into other beds, being spaced four or
five inches apart, where they remain for two or three years more before
they are placed finally in the forest. Six beds were devoted to showing
this feature of nursery work. For this purpose four-year-old plants were
used, of the following species Norway pine, Norway spruce, white spruce,
white pine, European larch and Scotch pine.
A sample plantation which occupied nearly half the nursery showed how
the plants are, in actual practice, placed in the forest. White pine,
Norway spruce and Scotch pine were the species used. These were about
three feet high and were spaced about four feet apart.
To show how the broad-leaf species are raised for shade trees, for
planting along the highways of the State, for farmers' wood lots, for
sugar groves and hardwood forests, ten drills, stretching entirely
across the nursery between the beds and the sample plantation, were
planted with scarlet oak, red oak, honey locust, hard or sugar maple,
red or soft maple, basswood, white ash, black walnut and hardy catalpa,
a row being given to each species. These were one year old and were
spaced about six inches apart.
The names of the species were printed plainly on neat board labels ten
inches long by five inches broad. The nursery was kept free from weeds,
and was watered each evening during a long drought which began about the
first of September and continued till the Fair closed.
Thousands of people visited the nursery, attracted to it not only by the
beauty of the small green trees arranged in such interesting manner, but
also because of the instruction it afforded in the science of forestry.
Foresters, botanists, seedsmen, and others interested in trees in a
scientific or practical way, many of whom were from abroad, gave the
nursery close scrutiny.
The forester in charge who prepared the nursery, Mr. A. Knechtel,
B.S.F.E., of Albany, N. Y., was kept constantly busy answering the
numerous questions not only concerning the exhibit, but also in regard
to the important work being done by the Forestry Department in restoring
the forests upon the denuded non-agricultural lands of the State.
In a corner of the nursery stood two interesting cross-sections of white
pine and white spruce, twenty-three inches and sixteen inches in
diameter respectively, each having forty annual rings plainly visible,
showing that in forty years, under favorable conditions, trees of these
species can be grown from seed to the given diameters.
FORESTRY TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS
Within the building were exhibited thirty-nine instruments and tools
used in forestry practice, a collection of the seeds of eighty-four
native forest trees of the State, and the photographs of eighty of our
more important trees showing the same in leaf and in winter. In
connection with each pair of photographs was a life size illustration of
the bark of the tree, together with specimens of the leaf, flower and
INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST AND SHADE TREES
The exhibit of insects affecting forest and shade trees was prepared by
E. P. Felt, D.Sc., New York State Entomologist, and was a small, though
representative collection, designed to show the life, history and habits
in particular of the more injurious forms of insects affecting shade and
forest trees in New York State. A special effort was made to depict, so
far as possible, the life, history, habits and methods of work of the
forms possessing economic importance and to show whenever possible the
natural enemies of value in keeping these species in control. This
collection was arranged in a specially designed case having a series of
three nearly horizontal trays thirty-seven and one-half inches by
eighteen and one-half inches upon each side, and an elevated central
portion bearing two nearly perpendicular ones upon each side, the middle
being occupied by a glass case containing an attractive natural group. A
brief account of the exhibit under appropriate heads is as follows:
_Insect galls_. This collection, occupying two nearly perpendicular
trays and representing the work of fifty-three species, was devoted to
the peculiar and varied vegetable deformities produced by insects. These
structures are always of great popular interest, and the insects causing
the same present biologic problems of unusual attractiveness.
_Forest insects_. The species affecting forest trees in particular
were exhibited in three horizontal trays occupying one side of the case.
This section was devoted principally to representing the biology and
methods of work of this exceedingly important group.
_Shade-tree insects_. Like that representing forest insects, the
exhibit of shade-tree pests was very largely biologic. It occupied three
horizontal trays and a nearly vertical one of the exhibit case, and was
devoted to species which are destructive largely on account of their
depredations upon shade trees.
_Adirondack insects_. This was a small collection occupying one of
the nearly perpendicular trays, and comprised over one hundred species.
This portion of the exhibit represented the more characteristic forms
occurring in the Adirondacks.
_Natural group of forest insects_. This group occupied the central
glass box and contained thirty-one species of insects or representations
of their work upon wax models of their food plants, namely, white birch,
red oak, elm and maple. Eleven species of beetles, fifteen of
butterflies and moths, two of the bee family and three of the bug family
were to be seen upon the plants or on the ground at their base. This
group gave an excellent idea of the appearance of insects when amid
their natural surroundings.
A series of quarto and octavo colored plates illustrating the work and
various stages of some of the more important depredators upon forest and
shade trees, was exhibited in two double-faced frames attached to the
top of this case. The more important insects included in this group were
the following: Sugar maple borer, elm snout beetles, twig girdler or
twig pruner, white marked tussock moth, gypsy moth, brown tail moth, bag
worm, forest tent caterpillar, elm leaf beetle, oyster scale, scurfy
bark louse, San Jose scale, elm bark louse, cottony maple scale. One
plate was devoted to characteristic insects affecting oak, and another
to those depredating upon hard pine.
SPECIMENS OF NATIVE WOODS
The forest product of the State was represented by a collection of
specimens of all the native woods of New York, built into panel work,
showing both sides. Each species was represented by two specimens and
each of the four surfaces was finished in a different manner. One
surface was highly polished, one oiled, one planed and one rough.
Ninety-one species of native and nine species of introduced woods were
exhibited in this manner. Displaying the several species in four
different ways enabled the discriminating observer to study and compare
the various woods profitably. The manner of labeling was greatly
appreciated. Some students copied all the labels, each spending many
hours on this task.
The kinds of timber that grow in this State from which a five-inch board
can be sawed and which were represented as described, are as follows:
Kentucky Coffee Tree
Red or Canada Plum
Wild Red Cherry
Wild Black Cherry
Wild Crab Apple
Scarlet Fruited Thorn
King Nut Hickory
Small Fruited Hickory
Swamp White Oak
Large Toothed Poplar
Balm of Gilead
These specimens of wood were built into panel work in seven frames of
the following seven species of wood, respectively:
LABELING OF SPECIMENS
Each specimen was labeled on both sides, with the common or popular name
and also the botanical name. Most of the pieces were from a collection
that the Commission exhibited at the Paris Exposition in 1900, which was
there awarded a gold medal. In preparing the exhibit the collection was
enlarged so as to represent all our native woods, and built into new
frame work of substantial and attractive design.
A complete collection of the several kinds of wood pulp manufactured in
New York was also a part of the exhibit, as follows:
Ground Spruce pulp
Sulphite Spruce pulp
Sulphite Balsam pulp
Sulphite Poplar pulp
Sulphite Basswood pulp
Pulverized Pine pulp
Pulverized Poplar pulp
Ground and sulphite pulp is used in the manufacture of paper and many
household articles of utility. Pulverized pulp is used in making
linoleum and dynamite.
Although wood pulp was shown in some other exhibits, no one else made
any attempt to show a complete collection of all the various kinds of
Articles of utility made of pulp, such as wash tubs, pails, measures,
cups, pitchers, etc., fifty-three pieces in all, were shown in
connection with the display of pulp.
BY-PRODUCTS OF THE FOREST
By-products of the forest were also displayed on a piece of circular
shelving with a suitable caption. The articles in this collection were
Crude wood alcohol
Refined wood alcohol
Refined acetic acid
Glacial acetic acid
Acetate of lime
Gray acetate of lime
Pine needle extract
Light wood tar
Heavy wood tar
Spruce gum (raw)
Refined spruce gum
Maple sugar (cakes)
Maple sugar (pulverized)
There was no other exhibit of this nature at the Fair.
On one side of the space occupied by the exhibit was a high wall which
was covered with green burlap. On this wall were three groups of large
photographs, one of the Thousand Islands, one of Adirondack and one of
In the Thousand Island group in addition to a collection of typical
island scenery, was a large picture of the Thousand Island House at
Alexandria Bay, N. Y., furnished by the owner, O. G. Staples; a picture
of the Hotel Frontenac on Round Island loaned by the owner, and a very
large colored picture of the excursion steamer "Ramona," on tour through
the islands, loaned by the Thousand Island Steamboat Company, Cape
Vincent, N. Y.
The Catskill pictures consisted of photographs of mountain scenery and
waterfalls, prepared specially for this exhibit. A fine group of scenes
was furnished by the Catskill Mountain Railroad of Catskill, N. Y.,
showing the Otis Elevated road, the Mountain House, etc.
The group of Adirondack views contained pictures of a number of the
largest hotels in that region, and collections of mountain and water
scenery. One group was of Lake George scenery. A large picture of
Wawbeek Hotel, on Upper Saranac Lake, was furnished by J. Ben Hart, of
Wawbeek, N. Y. The Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company kindly loaned a
large panoramic picture of Lake Placid and mountains of that locality.
Many of these pictures were in colors. They were appreciated by a great
number of people that had visited the several summer resorts
AN OPEN HUNTING CAMP
A model of a hunting camp of the open style, of which there are many in
the Adirondacks, was displayed. It was constructed of spruce with the
bark on, and the floor was covered with balsam boughs, which exhaled a
delightful odor noticeable several yards from the camp.
A large rustic table made of a cross section of a cedar tree with the
roots of a tree for the standard and legs of the table, was loaned by
Mr. Ferris J. Meigs, of Tupper Lake, N. Y. The tree from which the cross
section was taken showed by its growth of rings that it was more than
four hundred years old.
DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE
For the purpose of making this State Forestry, Fish and Game exhibit,
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission generously set aside the
sum of $18,000. Being unable to secure as much space as was needed, and
for the additional reason that the salaries of some of the persons
collaborating on the exhibit were provided for in another manner, it was
not necessary to use all of the funds available.
Dividing the disbursements into ten representative accounts, the amount
expended was as follows:
Animals and birds ------------------------- $2,211 56
Fish ---------------------------------- 1,792 51
Insects ------------------------------- 644 52
Plants for nursery, etc. -------------- 392 69
Woods, instruments, by-products, etc. - 1,119 28
Sportsman's Camp and furnishings ------ 1,507 92
Wall pictures ------------------------- 278 93
Freight and express ------------------- 697 10
Installation -------------------------- 2,481 76
Maintenance and repacking ------------- 3,717 81
Total ------------------------------------- $14,844 08
Had the exhibit been prepared without recourse to materials on hand and
by a separate force paid from the funds of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Commission it would have undoubtedly cost the State not less
than $20,000, but the fact that considerable material was available from
former exhibits, and from the office of the Forest, Fish and Game
Commission, and the further fact, as above stated, that some of the
collaborators received their compensation from the funds of that
Commission, enabled the State to make the elaborate and exhaustive
exhibit that it did in this department at the figures shown above.
The exhibit was prepared under the direction of Colonel William F. Fox,
Superintendent State Forests.
Following is a roster of the persons employed at the exhibit:
Arthur B. Strough, Special Agent in charge
Abraham Knechtel, Forester
Charles C. Hembree, Attendant
Victor Mahlstedt, Gardener
The awards were all conferred upon the Forest, Fish and Game Commission
or upon State officials. The juries in the Departments of Forestry, Fish
and Game were made up of eminent specialists, and their work was done in
a thorough and painstaking manner. They expressed themselves in
complimentary terms on the various features of the exhibit, and the
result of their deliberations cannot but be gratifying to all who are
interested in the advanced work of the Empire State in forestry, in
forest preserves and in the protection of our native fish and game.
_List of the Awards Classified Under the Several Groups of the
GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWELVE
_Appliances and Processes Used in Forestry_
Collective exhibit of progressive forestry. Grand prize
Seeds of the trees
Instruments and tools used in forestry
Forest nursery and demonstration plantation
Native trees with botanical specimens
William F. Fox, for services in the forestry exhibit. Gold medal
Arthur B. Strough, for services in forestry exhibit. Silver medal
Abraham Knechtel, for services in forestry exhibit. Silver medal
E. P. Felt, D. Sc., for services in entomological exhibit, forest
insects. Silver medal
GROUP ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN
_Products of the Cultivation of Forests_
Model sportsman's camp and outfit. Gold medal
Exhibit of woods, by-products, etc. Grand prize
William F. Fox, for services on sportsman's camp exhibit. Silver medal
GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE
_Products of Hunting_
Collective exhibit of animals and birds. Gold medal
Arthur B. Strough, for services on game and sporting exhibit.
GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO
_Fishing Equipment and Products_
Collective exhibit of fish. Grand prize
John D. Whish, for making collection of fish. Silver medal
A summary of the awards is as follows:
Three grand prizes
Three gold medals
Six silver medals
The exhibit in this department differed somewhat from the State exhibits
in other departments in that, with the exception of a very few articles,
which were loaned by private parties to complete or supplement the
collections, the showing was exclusively a State exhibit.
SOME SURPRISING FACTS
The exhibit as a whole was immensely popular from the very first day.
The people visiting the Exposition were largely from the southern and
middle western states, and seemed very generally to believe that New
York's forests, fish and game has passed away with the advance of
civilization. Most of them were greatly surprised to learn that
one-fourth of the State is wild land, which will in all probability
always be devoted largely to forests, and that the State has so many
wild deer that 6,000 of them are killed annually without any apparent
decrease of the number.
The sportsman's camp served the purpose of advertising the great
Adirondack region as a summer resort, and a great many visitors
expressed their intention of visiting that locality in the near future.
Probably one of the best features of the exhibit was the work shown by
the Commission in progressive forestry. This State being in the van of
the forestry movement was looked to to point out the path of
professional forestry, and if no other award had been made than the
grand prize by the scientific jury that served in that Department, we
would feel as though our efforts has been appreciated and that our
labors had not been in vain.
[Illustration: IGOROTE VILLAGE, PHILIPPINE RESERVATION]
Mines and Metallurgy Exhibit and Schedule of Awards
MINES AND METALLURGY EXHIBIT By H. H. HINDSHAW Special Agent of the
As in previous expositions at which the State of New York has been an
exhibitor, the scientific exhibits were made through the organization of
the State Museum. Dr. F. J. H. Merrill, the director of the museum,
assigned to the writer the duty of preparing the exhibit to be made
under his direction. The available time and money entered largely into
the settlement of the question of what form the exhibit should take.
SCOPE OF EXHIBIT
It was thought best to confine the scope of the main exhibit to the
technologic and commercial aspects of geology and mineralogy. A
judicious selection of materials made to show the mineral wealth of the
State was considered more desirable than to make merely a large display.
Many of the materials exhibited were taken from the State Museum
collections, supplemented where necessary by such additions as could be
obtained within the required time.
The benefit derived by the State from such exhibits is often much more
apparent than that which is to be derived by the individual exhibitors,
and on this account the Commission is particularly indebted to those
firms and individuals which went to considerable expense in preparing
exhibits along lines which were intended more to represent all phases of
an industry rather than to show the products of a single firm.
Those deserving especial mention in this connection are The Solvay
Process Company, of Syracuse; The H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate
Company, of Boston; the Helderberg Cement Company, of Howes Cave; The
Hudson River Bluestone Company, of New York; the Medina Sandstone
Company, of New York, and the United States Gypsum Company, of Chicago.
The cases used were taken from the museum, and suitable stands for the
building stone and other exhibits were constructed in Albany. On account
of the weight of the specimens exhibited the floor had to be
strengthened. This work, as well as the building of platforms and
partitions, was done under contract by Messrs. Caldwell and Drake.
The exhibits of mineral resources may be divided into the metallic and
In the first division in our State, iron is by far the most important
and probably the one with which the people of the State are least
acquainted. A few years ago New York stood near the head of the iron
producing states. The depression in the iron industries, commencing
about 1888, and the discovery about that time of the seemingly
inexhaustible deposits of rich ores in the Lake Superior region,
however, resulted in shutting down nearly all of our mines. For the last
few years little attention has been paid to them, and they seem to have
been popularly supposed to have been worked out. The Exposition gave an
opportunity of showing this supposition to be incorrect, and recent
investigations show that the deposits are of much greater extent and
value than was known in the eighties. With but one or two exceptions
none of the mines then worked are exhausted, and immense bodies of
valuable ore have not been touched. Most of the non-mining localities
were represented by specimens from the museum collections. Messrs.
Witherbee, Sherman & Company exhibited a series of ores and concentrates
from Mineville, the Arnold Mining Company, magnetites and martite from
Arnold Hill, and the Chateaugay Ore and Iron Company, specimens from
A series of magnetite and associated rocks from the Tilly Foster and
other mines were supplemented by a model of the Tilly Foster mine which
was loaned to the museum for this purpose by the Columbia School of
The St. Lawrence and Jefferson county hematites were represented by
large specimens of ore and by a series of associated rocks and minerals,
including some beautiful specimens of millerite, chalcedite, etc. These
hematites are mined in a belt about thirty miles long reaching from
Philadelphia, Jefferson county, into Hermon, St. Lawrence county. They
are known as the Antwerp red hematites, and, being very easily smelted,
are mixed with more refractory ores.
The Clinton or fossil ores extend in a belt across the central part of
the State and are mined in the vicinity of Clinton, Oneida county, and
in Ontario and Wayne counties.
The limonites shown from Dutchess and Columbia counties included some
fine specimens of stalactitic ore.
Carbonate ores were shown from Columbia and Ulster counties, where there
are extensive deposits on both sides of the Hudson river.
A feature of the iron ore exhibit was a magnetic separator supplied by
the Wetherill Separator Company, of New York. This was kept at work on
the magnetite ores from Mineville, and was of great interest not only in
showing the method of concentrating the magnetic ore, but also in saving
the phosphorus which occurs in the form of the mineral apatite and which
is of considerable value in the manufacture of fertilizers. A large
quantity of ore was donated for this purpose by Messrs. Witherbee,
Sherman & Company.
Lead, generally associated with zinc and sometimes copper, has been
mined on a small scale from very early times in Ulster and Sullivan
counties, and more recently in St. Lawrence county. Many other
localities have yielded small quantities of these minerals.
A set of specimens was exhibited by the Ellenville Zinc Company,
consisting of strikingly beautiful crystalline masses of quartz galina,
sphalerite and chalcopyrite and specimens of the rare mineral, brookite.
There was also shown in the same case concentrates from the Ellenville
mine of lead, zinc and copper made both by jigging and by magnetic
separation, and a collection of ores and associated minerals and rocks
from Rossie and Wurtzboro.
A large part of this exhibit consisted of construction materials, stone,
slate, brick, tiling and cement. Most of the building stone was
exhibited in the form of ten-inch cubes arranged on three pyramidal
stands. Only a few of these were especially collected for this
Exposition. Many more which were considered desirable could not be
obtained in time on account of the inclement weather conditions of the
The granitic rocks included granite, gneisses, syenites and norite. This
series only inadequately represented the New York granites. Among the
most striking examples shown were the coarse grained red granite from
Grindstone island in the St. Lawrence river, the Mohican granite from
Peekskill, Westchester county, which is being extensively used in the
Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York city, and the dark green
labradorite rock known as the Ausable granite from Keeseville, Essex
county. There are many interesting granite deposits, especially in the
Adirondack region, which have not been developed.
The marbles included some fine examples of decorative stone from South
Dover, Dutchess county, the black marble from Glens Falls, monumental
and building marbles from Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county, and white
building marbles from southeastern New York.
Limestones of excellent quality are quarried in a great number of
localities and were well represented, some of them showing as fine a
polished surface as the true marbles.
The State is also rich in sandstones of good quality. The Potsdam
sandstone forms an almost complete belt around the Adirondacks and is an
excellent building stone. Its color is from white to pale red, and in
many places it is an extremely hard quartzite. Specimens were shown from
Potsdam, St. Lawrence county.
The white sandstones of Washington county have been extensively used for
refractory purposes in the manufacture of steel, being almost free from
iron. The Medina sandstones are quarried in the neighborhood of Medina,
Albion and Lockport. While a pure white stone occurs at Lewiston, the
Medina stone is generally of a pinkish red color. It is extensively used
as a building stone, particularly in Buffalo and Rochester. It is
valuable for paving, curbing and flagging. The Medina Sandstone Company
exhibited a piece of wall work to show the various methods of finish,
including a finely carved lintel. A number of cubes were exhibited from
The sandstones of southern New York occurring in the rocks of Devonian
age are generally fine grained and blue or greenish in color and are
known as bluestones. Most of the quarries are in the counties of Greene,
Ulster, Broome, Delaware and Sullivan. They are described in New York
State Museum Bulletin 61 by Harold T. Dickinson. There is a great
variety in color and physical properties of stone from these quarries.
It is used as building stone and for trimming, and some of it is
especially valuable for large platforms. A large proportion of the
output is in the form of flagging and curbstone.
The Hudson River Bluestone Company exhibited a piece of wall built into
the base of the pyramidal stand holding the sandstone cubes. This was
designed to show the ease with which it can be worked and included some
finely carved lettering. The main entrance to the exhibit was paved with
flags and tiles of this material.
With the sandstones were shown some ten-inch cubes of slate cut from the
quarries of the H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate Company, of Boston,
which operates a number of quarries in Washington county. The slate belt
covers an area of about 320 square miles, the larger part of which is in
Washington county, N. Y., but which extends across the line into Rutland
county, Vt. This is probably the richest slate region in the world. The
beds are of great thickness, belonging to two distinct geologic
formations. They are folded on one another in such a manner as to
present the workable beds in long parallel ridges.
On account of its great strength and easy working qualities new uses are
constantly being found for slate. One of the most striking features of
the slate exhibit was a mantel built of rough slabs of dark red slate
showing the cross fracture to have a fine satiny texture. This was a
copy of a mantel designed by Lord & Hewlet, of New York, and built in a
Poultney, Vt., residence. The main slate exhibit consisted of a stand
supporting a slated roof, one side of which was covered with unfading
green slates one inch thick, such as were laid on Senator Clark's New
York residence. The other side was covered with rough thick slabs of
unfading red. The sides of the stand were covered with the regular trade
slates in four sections--red, green, purple and variegated. The uses of
slate for construction purposes were shown by slabs and panels on the
upper part of the stand.
The cement exhibit was made by the Helderberg Cement Company, of Howes
Cave. One side of the exhibit stand was devoted to Portland and the
other to natural cements. Barrels and bags of finished cement formed the
base of the structure on which were glass jars containing the rock in
its stages of manufacture, with a series of photographs of the works and
of buildings of cement. On account of the rapidly extending applications
of cement a large section outside of the building was set aside for
exhibits of the uses of cement, and the exhibit was designed mainly to
show the manufacture, the materials used and the method of their
Gypsum was shown by a fine series of specimens contributed by the United
States Gypsum Company from their mines in western New York. This
material, like cement, is rapidly being adapted for a variety of
purposes, especially in the finish and ornamentation of buildings, and
the exhibit, encased in one of the square plate glass museum cases with
its cut and polished cubes of raw gypsum, selenite crystals, jars of
stucco colors and examples of plaster casts, made a very attractive
exhibit. In another case there was exhibited gypsum in various forms
from other sources.
The salt exhibit was made up from a very complete set of specimens in
sample jars taken from the Museum collections, and a large number of
packages from the manufacturers. The salt of New York is obtained from
the salina formation in the western part of the State. The industry is
of great importance. The deposits are described in State Museum Bulletin
11 by Dr. F. J. H. Merrill. One of the most interesting varieties shown
was the solar salt, which has been made on the Onondaga Salt
Reservation, Syracuse, since 1788. Blocks of rock salt were shown from
the Retsof and Livonia shafts.
Most of the salt produced, however, is from wells bored down through the
rock salt beds, and is pumped up in the form of brine and evaporated by
SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY
The Solvay Process Company, of Syracuse, made a splendid display of soda
ash. The plant of this company uses an immense amount of salt which is
obtained from the Tully districts and carried by pipes to Solvay. The
raw materials used were shown in the lower sections of two cases
especially constructed for the exhibit, which also held a set of barrels
and other packages in which the soda is shipped. In the upper sections
were shown a series of large glass jars with the various products. These
were supplied with a series of labels completely describing the process
of manufacture and the chemical changes which take place. Above the case
there was a set of photographs of the works, illustrating the social
life of the work-people employed and the growth of the establishment.
The exhibit of the useful minerals of the State was principally prepared
by H. P. Whitlock of the Museum staff. One case contained a set of the
abrasive materials, the most important of these being garnet, which is
found in great quantities in the Adirondacks. Crude garnet from several
mines, the ground and cleaned garnet, and grades of garnet paper were
shown. A small millstone to represent the celebrated Esopus grit, emery
ore from Peekskill, and quartz and sand from many localities were also
exhibited in this case. Another case was filled with feldspar, mica and
quartz, which usually occur associated with each other in the form of
pegmetite dikes in the crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks and the
Highlands of the Hudson. These materials are not as yet very extensively
mined but an increasing demand for them is bringing to light many
Another valuable mineral which occurs in the State in great quantities
is graphite. Specimens of both the crude ore and manufactured graphite
were exhibited. The deposits of this material in the form of graphitic
limestone cover miles of territory, but more satisfactory processes for
its concentration are needed to make it available for use, especially in
the higher grades.
The Museum exhibited a set of its publications on geologic subjects, a
set of published maps and maps specially prepared for this exhibit to
show the distribution of useful minerals, and a number of enlarged
The exhibit of the Department of Paleontology consisted of a set of its
publications on the paleontology of the State of New York--35
volumes--covering the period 1847-1904, and a set of wing frames with
many of the original drawings and plates used in their illustration.
The most striking feature of the exhibit was an immense slab of Potsdam
sandstone from Bidwell's Crossing, Clinton county, which was part of the
premoidial or cambrian beach laid down about the shores of the
Adirondack continental nucleus. The slab shows the trails of animals
crossing in all directions, especially those known as clemactechnites,
said by Dr. J. M. Clarke to have been made by a a simple primitive type
of mollusk. The slab, weighing over fifteen tons, was moved in six
sections and put together for exhibition.
Restorations in plaster of paris of the fossil crustaceous eurypterus
and hughmilleria were also exhibited.
The exhibition of clays and clay products was made by the State School
of Ceramics, at Alfred, N. Y., under the direction of Professor Charles
F. Binns, and included some large vases, the work of students.
The State of New York has long held an important place in the brick
trade on account of its unlimited quantities of clay along the Hudson
river, which have not only supplied much of the brick used for building
in New York city, but bricks have been shipped from this source long
distances by water. The finer varieties of clay have not been worked to
any extent except on Long Island, but other conditions have resulted in
the establishment of potteries at Brooklyn, Syracuse and other points,
using almost exclusively clays imported into the State. The beds of
feldspar and flint now being exploited in the Adirondacks will
materially help to put this class of potteries on a firmer basis.
The center of the exhibition space was devoted to a pagoda designed to
show the kinds of brick manufactured in the principal localities. The
roof afforded an excellent place to exhibit earthenware tiling.
The General Electric Company exhibited a case of insulators, many of
them of special types, from their Schenectady pottery. Insulators were
also exhibited by Pass & Seymour, of Syracuse, and the Empire China
Works, of Brooklyn.
The petroleum exhibit was made under the general direction of Secretary
and Chief Executive Officer Charles A. Ball. An extensive series of
crude and refined oils and by-products occupied a case showing on both
sides. On this was installed a model of a tower and drilling machinery
such as is used in sinking oil wells. The records printed on the labels
furnished data which made an important addition to our previous
knowledge of the New York oil fields.
In addition to those heretofore mentioned, the following gentlemen
assisted as indicated in the preparation of the exhibit, and are
entitled to no small credit for the valuable assistance rendered.
E. E. Engelhardt was engaged in the acquisition of the salt exhibits.
J. S. Bellamy collected the petroleum exhibit under the immediate
direction of Secretary Ball.
C. F. Binns collected the exhibit of clay products under the immediate
direction of the State Commission.
W. C. Richard assisted in installing the exhibit.
Frederick Braun installed the slab of Potsdam sandstone.
The following members of the staff of the State Museum also assisted:
H.S. Mattimore, C.A. Trask, E.C. Kenny, D.D. Luther and Joseph Morje.
_Catalogue of Exhibitors in the Department of Mines and Metallurgy,
with the Award, if Any, Received by Each_
GROUP ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN
_Minerals and Stones_
Adirondack Pyrites Co., Gouverneur
Pyrites: crude and concentrates
Alfred Clay Co., Alfred Station
Algonquin Red Slate Co., Truthville
Alps Oil Co., Alma
Applebee & Baldwin, Scio
Arnold Mining Co. Bronze medal
Attica Brick and Tile Co., Attica
Atwood & McEwen, Andover
J.J. Barron, Three Mile Bay
H.H. Barton Son & Co., North Creek and Minerva
Garnet and garnet paper
Herman Behr & Co., North River. Silver medal
Garnet and garnet paper
Milo M. Belding, Gouverneur
Bellamy & Elliott, Scio
Frank Bennett, Staten Island
J. B. Berridge, Hudson
H. Boice & Co., Rondout
A. F. Bouton, Roxbury
Red sandstone (Catskill)
Burhans & Brainard, Saugerties
Eugene Campbell, New Baltimore
Canton Marble Quarry, Canton
B. & J. Carpenter, Lockport
Celadon Roofing Co., Alfred
Church & Bradley, Alma
Church & Co., Wellsville
Clark, Tracey & Co., West Union
Conner Paint Mfg. Co
Consolidated Wheatland Plaster Co., Wheatland
Corning Brick, Tile & Terra Cotta Co., Corning
Delaware Milling, Mining & Mfg. Co., Roxbury
Albert Dibble, Belvidere
Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Ticonderoga
Duford & Son, Chaumont
Ellenville Zinc Co., Ellenville
Lead and zinc: zinc blende, chalcopyrite, galena, lead, zinc
and copper concentrates
Empire China Works, Brooklyn
Empire Gas and Fuel Co., Ltd., Willink
Empire Marble Co., Gouverneur
Empire Salt Co. Silver medal
Extra Dark Marble Co., Gouverneur
Foery & Kastner, Rochester
D. R. & H. Fogelsinger, Buffalo
Franchot Bros., Scio
R. Forsyth, Grindstone Island
General Electric Co., Schenectady. Gold medal
Genesee Salt Co., Pifford
Glens Falls Co., Glens Falls
Adelbert Gordon, Batchellerville
Gouverneur Garnet Co., Gouverneur
J. B. Gray, Geneseo
Oil sand and crude oil
Ezra Grinnell, Port Gibson
Plaster of paris
Grumply Oil Co., Rexville
Helderberg Cement Co., Howes Cave. Gold medal
D. C. Hewitt, Amsterdam
High Falls Pyrites Co., Canton
Horan Bros., Medina
Horseheads Brick Co., Horseheads
L. W. Hotchkiss, Lewiston
Hudson River Bluestone Co., Ulster county. Silver medal
International Graphite Co., Ticonderoga
International Pulp Co., Gouverneur
International Salt Co., Ithaca
Interstate Conduit & Brick Co., Ithaca
Jamestown Shale Paving Brick Co., Jamestown
Jewettville Pressed Brick & Paving Co., Jewettville
R. Jones, Prospect
J. F. Kilgour, Lordville
F. H. Kinkel, Bedford
A. Gracie King, Garrisons
Francis Larkins, Ossining
B. B. Mason, Keeseville
Masterton & Hall, Tuckahoe
H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate Co., Washington county. Gold
G. J. McClure, Ithaca
J. H. McCutcheon, Lancaster
James McEwen, Wellsville
J. C. & A. McMurray, Olean
Medina Quarry Co., New York city. Silver medal
M. Mervine, Whitesville
Morris & Strobel, LeRoy