Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

New York at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis 1904 by DeLancey M. Ellis

Part 7 out of 8

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.7 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Duane Purple
Eagle
Early Orange Prune
Engre
French Prune
Freestone Damson
Frost Damson
Field
General Hand
Geuii
Giant Prune
Gold
Gold Drop
Goliath
G. No. 44 Jones
Grand Duke
Grant Prune
Geuthrie Late
Hale
Harriet
Hector
Hiederman Sand Cherry
Hudson River Purple Egg
Imperial Gage
Italian Prune
Japanese Seedling
Jefferson
Juicy
King of Damson
Kirk
Late Black Orleans
Lombard
Mariana
Maru
Mary
McLaughlin
Merunka
Middleburgh
Mikado
Miles
Mogul
Monarch
Monroe
Newman
Niagara
Normand
Ocheeda
Octi Smomo
October Purple
Orient
Oullin Golden
Pacific
Palatine
Paragon
Palmer's Favorite
Pearl
Pond's Seedling
Poole's Pride
Pottowatamie
Pringle Blue
Pringle Purple
Prunus Simoni
Quackenboss
Red June
Red Negate
Reine Claude
Robe de Sargent
Royal Hative
Saratoga
Satsuma
Saunders
Shipper
Shipper's Pride
Shiro
Shropshire
Shropshire Damson
Smith's Late Blue
Spalding
Stanton
Stanton's Seedling
St. Lawrence
Sweet Botan
Tragedy Prune
Transparent
Tennant Prune
Uchi Beni
Ungarrish Prune
Union Purple
Victoria
Washington
Wickson
Wild Goose
White Japan
White Kelsey
White Nicholas
World Beater
Yeddo
Yellow Egg
Yellow Gage
Yosebe

_Cherries_

Abesse d'Oignies
Bay State
Black Tartarian
Centennial
Downer's Late
Double Nattie
Dyehouse
Early Purple Guigne
Elton
Esel Kirsche
Governor Wood
Hole
Ida
King's Amarelle
Knight's Early Red
Large Montmorency
Luelling
May Duke
Mercer
Mezel
Montmorency
Napoleon
Olivet
Orel No. 23
Rapp
Reine Hortense
Rockport Bigarreau
Sparhawk's Honey
Transcendant
Windsor
Yellow Spanish

_Currants_

Perfection
Black Champion
Filler
President Wilder

_Peaches_

Carman
Champion
Crosby
Elberta
Greensboro
Hill's Chili
Horton River
Kalamazoo
Late Crawford
Lemon Cling
Old Mixon
Stevens' Rare Ripe
Waddell
Willet

_Quinces_

Champion
Japanese
Orange
Pink Japan
Red Japan
Rea's Mammoth
Sweet Winter
White Japan

[Illustration: VIEWING THE GUNS]

CHAPTER XIII

Forest, Fish and Game Exhibit and Schedule of Awards

FOREST, FISH AND GAME EXHIBIT

BY A. B. STROUGH

Special Agent of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission, State of New York

The State exhibit in the Forest Fish and Game Department was prepared
and installed by the Forest, Fish and Game Commission, with funds
furnished by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State
of New York.

A SPORTSMAN'S CAMP

A modern sportsman's camp of rustic design, fourteen feet by seventeen
feet in size, was constructed and furnished after the general style and
appearance of the usual summer residence in the Adirondack mountains.
The contractor for the erection of this camp was the firm of Messrs. D.
B. & D. F. Sperry, of Old Forge, N. Y. Mr. D. F. Sperry, "Frank," as he
is known to visitors to the Adirondacks, had personal charge of the
construction and was something of an exhibit himself. Being a lifelong
Adirondack guide, and having been employed by many prominent people,
among others, ex-President Harrison, any rustic work from his hand was
sure to attract attention.

It was unfortunate that it was impossible to have him, or some other
Adirondack guide, in attendance at the "camp" all through the season, as
many visitors wished to see and talk with some such person. Some of
them, seeing the Sperry name-plate on the end of a log of the camp,
inquired for "Frank," expecting to find him in attendance. He has had
many inquiries from people residing at widely separated places in
various parts of the country, for duplicates of the camp exhibit, or for
some other design of rustic building.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE CAMP

The camp was constructed of Adirondack spruce logs and the chimney was
of the same external construction. The roof was covered with spruce
bark. All the material showing inside the camp was, as far as possible,
left in natural condition, the logs with the bark on, and the underside
of the roof boards unplaned, showing the coarse saw marks.

Innumerable inquiries were made by interested visitors, particularly
those coming from the southern and western States, as to the species of
timber used in constructing the camp. When informed that the logs were
of spruce much interest was shown. Many had never seen spruce before.

THE FURNITURE

A part of the furniture was built by Mr. Sperry, and the remainder by
another Adirondack guide, Mr. E. E. Sumner, of Saranac Lake, N. Y. Mr.
Sperry made the bedstead, the window settee and the center table, after
a style that is common in the Adirondack camps. The woodwork was of
spruce, turned smooth and stained a light smoke color to give it a
finished appearance. Mr. Sumner constructed the other furniture in the
best rustic style, the framework being of white cedar with the bark on,
and the bottoms of the chairs and settees of white birch bark. Both of
these guides have had many inquiries for duplicates of their handiwork
as exhibited. The "atmosphere" of the camp was that of everyday life in
the forest. The bed was "made up" as though the owner was expected to
occupy it at night. Garments and articles that had seen service, such as
a leather hunting jacket, a gun case, "pack" baskets, fish reels and
snow shoes were hung on the walls in proper places.

ATTRACTIVE FEATURES

The mantel and fireplace particularly attracted attention. The mantel
was of spruce with the bark on, and the fireplace was constructed with a
stone facing and lining, showing andirons and birch logs in place as in
actual use. In one corner there was shelving for bric-a-brac, fishing
tackle, ammunition, etc., constructed by utilizing a discarded fishing
boat, cutting the same across the center into two parts and placing
shelves at convenient intervals, fastening the same on the ribs of the
boat.

In another corner was a swing table that could be hung up against the
wall when not in use. On the mantel were placed articles of rustic work
that harmonized with the surroundings--a rustic clock, wooden pipes and
smoking set to match, a stein and mug of wood, together with other
articles of ornament and utility. A piece of library shelving of unique
design and special construction was provided and furnished with standard
publications on fish, birds and animals, and stories of life in the
forest and of the chase. Thirty books were shown, a number of which were
kindly furnished by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York city. On
the center table were kept the current numbers of the leading sporting
magazines, both weekly and monthly.

WALL DECORATIONS

The walls were decorated with bright colored Indian blankets, flags and
souvenir paddles, on which were painted various national flags and
camping scenes. The paddles being of a very white spruce and the
background being the spruce logs of the camp with dark colored bark, the
effect was pleasing and attracted much attention.

An interesting and valuable feature of the furnishing and decoration of
the camp, and, incidentally, souvenirs of the chase, were a large fine
moose head over the mantel, an elk's head on the gable outside, bucks'
heads at the sides of the porch in front of the camp, and the furs of
red foxes, deer and black bear. Some of the furs were specially prepared
for rugs and placed on the floor of the camp, giving the interior an air
of comfort and cheerfulness.

HUNTING AND FISHING OUTFIT

The hunting and fishing outfit consisted of two repeating rifles, one a
Savage and the other a Winchester, a double-barreled shotgun, three
fishing rods, one each of steel, split lancewood and split bamboo, and a
collection which included trout flies, landing nets, minnow pail, reels,
lines, cartridge belt, loading set and other paraphernalia. A guide-boat
of the latest style and of superior workmanship was a part of the
sportsman's outfit. This boat was kindly loaned by the manufacturer, Mr.
Fred W. Rice, formerly of Saranac Lake, N. Y., but now living at
Seattle, Wash. His son continues the manufacture of guide-boats at Lake
Placid, N. Y.

BALSAM PILLOWS

On the settee and bed in the camp were a number of balsam pillows. A
large and particularly fine one came from the Higby camp on Big Moose
lake in the Adirondacks. It was made by Miss Lila Daisy Higby, a little
lady only seven years of age, whose needlework decorating the cover
showed artistic ability of great merit for one so young. Many visitors
admired it, and some of them have written her in complimentary terms.

The odor from these pillows filled the camp, and instantly attracted the
attention of visitors. One of the questions usually asked first of the
attendant was where the perfume came from and what it was. Some supposed
it to be from the logs of which the camp was constructed. Many visitors
wanted to know where they could obtain such pillows. Those purchased for
the camp came from Mr. A. M. Church, Boonville, N. Y., who also
furnished the gun rack so much admired, and also the fur rugs.

FIRE NOTICE

On the side of the camp in a conspicuous place was posted a fire notice
such as may be found in thousands of places along the trail throughout
the Adirondacks and Catskills. Visitors that had been through our
mountains recognized this feature instantly, for these notices may be
found at all the hotels and public places, and also on a great many of
the private camps. This little placard printed on cloth attracted much
attention. It contains our forest fire rules and much of the law
relative to woodland fires. Many persons interested in forestry, many of
them from foreign countries, copied the notice verbatim. It is probable
that similar rules and regulations will be incorporated in the forestry
laws of other states and countries.

An attendant was employed at the camp who answered the numerous
questions as to where the various articles of furniture and decoration
might be obtained. Much information was also sought by visitors in
relation to the Adirondack forests and the summer resorts of New York in
general.

This sportsman's camp was the only exhibit of the kind shown at the
Fair. Sportsmen and lovers of life in the woods from all parts of the
land visited it; many were ecstatic in its praises; some complimented it
by saying it was the most artistic feature of the whole forestry, fish
and game exhibit. It was photographed perhaps more than one hundred
times during the season and in one instance by nine different persons on
a single day.

ANIMALS AND BIRDS

The fur and game animals and birds of the State were represented by
mounted specimens prepared by professional taxidermists. In many
instances they were shown in pairs, male and female.

The space in front of the camp and also at one side was inclosed by a
rustic fence built of round spruce. In the yard at the side was placed a
tree about twelve feet high, and under it was prepared an artificial
ground work in imitation of a woodland area after a recent snow storm.
In and about this tree, and forming a part of the picture, were placed
in position, as true to life and natural conditions as possible,
specimens of practically all of the birds that remain with us during the
winter season, as follows:

Bald Eagle
Golden Eagle
Osprey
Red-tailed Hawk
Cooper Hawk
Marsh Hawk
Ruffed Grouse
Spruce Grouse
Quail
Kingfisher
Three-toed Woodpecker
Pileated Woodpecker
Goshawk
Red-shouldered Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Broad-winged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawk
Duck Hawk,
Gray Gyrfalcon
Snow Owl
Barred Owl
Great-horned Owl
Long-eared Owl
Short-eared Owl
Acadian Owl
Screech Owl
Great Gray Owl
Hawk Owl
Barn Owl
Richardson Owl
Hairy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpecker
Flicker
Pine Grosbeak
Red-winged Crossbill
White-winged Crossbill
Redpoll
Blue Jay
Horned Lark
Lapland Longspur
English Sparrow
Winter Wren
Chickadee
Northern Shrike
Snowflake
Moose Bird
Raven
Crow

SONG AND PERCHING BIRDS

In and about another tree placed in front of the camp were shown
practically all of the song and perching birds of the State other than
the ones shown in the winter scene at the side of the camp. The birds in
this collection were as follows:

Cardinal
Summer Tanager
Scarlet Tanager
Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Black-billed Cuckoo
Red-headed Woodpecker
Red-bellied Woodpecker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
King Bird
Cat Bird
Towhee
Robin
Meadow Lark
Prairie Horned Lark
Baltimore Oriole
Orchard Oriole
Whip-poor-will
Night Hawk
Pigeon Hawk
Sparrow Hawk
Mourning Dove
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Evening Grosbeak
Purple Finch
Red-winged Blackbird
Rusty Blackbird
Bobolink
Mocking Bird
Starling
Purple Grackle
Humming Bird
Yellow-breasted Chat
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Tufted Titmouse
Brown Creeper
House Wren
Marsh Wren
Brown Thrasher
Wood Thrush
Hermit Thrush
Wilson Thrush
Water Thrush
Chimney Swift
Bank Swallow
Rough-winged Swallow
Cliff Swallow
Barn Swallow
Song Sparrow
Tree Sparrow
Blue Bird
Indigo Bunting
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Golden-crowned Kinglet
Oven Bird
Yellow Throat
Goldfinch
Bohemian Waxwing
Cedar Waxwing
Phoebe
Wood Pewee
White-eyed Vireo
Blue-headed Vireo
Yellow-throated Vireo
Warbling Vireo
Black and White Warbler
Worm-eating Warbler
Myrtle Warbler
Prairie Warbler
Palm Warbler
Tennessee Warbler
Black-throated Blue Warbler
Cerulean Warbler
Prothonotary Warbler
Blackburnian Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler
Hooded Warbler
Golden-winged Warbler
Connecticut Warbler
Mourning Warbler
Canadian Warbler
Blue-winged Warbler
Chipping Sparrow
Field Sparrow
Swamp Sparrow
Ipswich Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow
Olive-sided Flycatcher
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Loggerhead Shrike
Purple Martin
Cow Bird
Pine Warbler
Kentucky Warbler
Nashville Warbler
Parula Warbler
Cape May Warbler
Yellow Warbler
Black-poll Warbler
Red-breasted Nuthatch
Brown-headed Nuthatch

GAME BIRDS

In cabinets within an inclosure near the camp were shown our game birds,
such as the web-footed wild fowl and shore birds which may be hunted,
grouse, marsh birds or waders, and water or sea birds, as follows:

_Wild Ducks and Geese_

American Merganser
Red-breasted Merganser
Hooded Merganser
Mallard
Pintail
Black Duck
Widgeon
Green-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal
Shoveler
Wood Duck
Redhead
Canvas-back
Broadbill
Lesser Scaup Duck
Whistler
Buffle-head
Ruddy Duck
Old Squaw
Harlequin
American Eider
King Eider
Black Coot
Sea Coot
White-winged Scoter
Canada Goose
Greater Snow Goose
Blue Goose
White-fronted Goose
Brant
Whistling Swan

_Shore Birds_

Woodcock
Wilson Snipe
Upland Plover
Black-bellied Plover
Golden Plover
Semi-palmated Plover
Belted Piping Plover
Wilson Plover
Piping Plover
Killdeer
Willett
Greater Yellow Legs
Summer Yellow Legs
Turnstone
Red Phalarope
Northern Phalarope
Avocet
Oyster Catcher
Long-billed Curlew
Jack Curlew
Hudsonian Godwit
Sanderling
Black-necked Stilt
Dowitcher
Knot
Stilt Sandpiper
Solitary Sandpiper
Spotted Sandpiper
Red-backed Sandpiper
White-rumped Sandpiper
Least Sandpiper
Buff-breasted Sandpiper

_Grouse, etc._

Ruffed Grouse
Quail
Spruce Grouse
Mongolian Pheasant
English Pheasant

_Marsh Birds or Waders_

Great Blue Heron
Little Green Heron
Black-crowned Night Heron
Yellow-crowned Night Heron
Egret
Brown Pelican
Bittern
King Rail
Virginia Rail
Yellow Rail
Clapper Rail
Carolina Rail
Little Black Rail
Florida Gallinule
Mud Hen

_Water or Sea Birds_

Loon
Black-throated Loon
Red-throated Loon
Horned Grebe
Holboel Grebe
Pied-billed Grebe
Puffin
Dovekie
Cormorant
Double-crested Cormorant
Black Guillemot
Brunnich Murre
Paresitic [*sic] Jaegar
Kittiwake
Gannet
Black Skimmer
Sooty Shearwater
Great Black-backed Gull
Ring-billed Gull
Claucus Gull
Herring Gull
Laughing Gull
Bonapart Gull
Black Tern
Gull-billed Tern
Wilson Tern
Roseate Tern
Least Tern
Black-capped Petrel
Leach Petrel
Wilson Petrel

FUR AND GAME ANIMALS

All of our fur and game animals were represented as follows:

White-tail or Virginia Deer
Black Bear
Lynx
Wild Cat
Red Fox
Gray Fox
Beaver
Raccoon
Skunk
Otter
Fisher
Cottontail Rabbit
Martin
Mink
Black Squirrel
Gray Squirrel
Red Squirrel
Fox Squirrel
Flying Squirrel
Chipmunk
Musk Rat
Opossum
Varying Hare
Porcupine

Our deer were represented by a fine buck, a doe mounted in a reclining
position, and a small white doe. Arranged among bushes in the snow scene
at the side of the camp this family was most lifelike and pleasing in
appearance. White deer are very unusual, but not unnatural. One of them
is killed in this State about every two years.

Moose and elk are introduced animals with us now, and, as it is illegal
to kill any, life size specimens could not well be shown. However, very
good heads were exhibited as a part of the decoration of the camp.
Albinos of muskrat and porcupine were exhibited. Such freakish specimens
attract more attention than those of usual growth.

RARE SPECIES

In addition to the animals scheduled above were specimens of some
species that are probably extinct in the Adirondacks, viz., a gray wolf
and a panther. The gray wolf was an excellent specimen loaned by General
E. A. McAlpin, of New York city. It was killed about eight years ago on
his preserve in the northern part of Hamilton county, and none have been
seen since. The panther was killed about twenty-eight years ago by Hon.
Verplanck Colvin in the southern part of Hamilton county, and is the
last one heard of in the State of New York. The black bear was an
unusually fine specimen, killed in Sullivan county. It was mounted to
order by Mr. Fred Sauter, of New York city, for this exhibit, and
without doubt was the best representative of this species at the Fair.
Experts in the art of taxidermy and naturalists were enthusiastic in its
praise.

The great blue heron was loaned by Mr. Grant E. Winchester, of Saranac
Inn. It was a very good specimen and was mounted by Mr. H. H. Miner, of
Saranac Lake, N. Y.

The animals were placed about the camp under the trees in connection
with the collection of birds in positions as true to life as possible in
the available space, making a picture of woodland life delightful to the
eye and interesting to every person that visited the Palace of Forestry,
Fish and Game.

FISH

The fish exhibit consisted of eighty-six mounted specimens, representing
seventy-two species, most of them prepared specially for this display by
the best workmen in the country. Substantially all the food and game
fish were shown. In preparing this collection no attempt, with one
exception, was made to show abnormally large specimens. The intention
was to show the average fish true to life in color, size and contour.
Both fresh and salt water species were represented. The collection,
which is undoubtedly the best in the country, comprised the following
species:

Sea Lamphrey
Common Sturgeon
Short-nosed Sturgeon
Horned Pout
Long-nose Sucker
Common Sucker
Hog Sucker
Golden Sucker
Fallfish
Carp
Eel
Sea Herring
Hickory Shad
Frostfish
Common Whitefish
Smelt
Tullibee
Atlantic Salmon
Red-throat Trout
Brown Trout
Rainbow Trout
Lake Trout
Brook Trout
Grayling
Pickerel
Northern Pike
Shad
Menhaden
Spanish Mackerel
Pompano
Bluefish
Crappie
Calico Bass
Rock Bass
Sunfish
Small-mouth Black Bass
Large-mouth Black Bass
Wall-eyed Pike
Weakfish
Red Drum
Kingfish
Tautog
Rosefish
Tomcod
Haddock
Ling
Cusk
Summer Flounder
Flatfish
Muscallonge
Northern Muscallonge
Striped Mullet
Common Mackerel
Bonito
Sauger
Yellow Perch
White Bass
Striped Bass
White Perch
Sea Bass
Scup
Spotted Weakfish
Croaker
Bergall
Spadefish
Whiting
Cod
Burbot
Hake
Halibut
Sand Dab
Gar Pike

In addition to the above-mentioned specimens there was shown an
interesting collection of shell fish, including different varieties of
oysters, together with the enemies of the same, such as the drill and
starfish. A number of exhibits showing curiosities of oyster growth were
in this collection.

The fish were displayed in six cabinets constructed to order for the
exhibit. They were lined with black plush, thus forming a strong
contrast with the colors of the various pieces.

The land-locked salmon mentioned above is one of the finest pieces
extant, not only in relation to size but also in the mounting of the
same. It is owned by Hon. J. P. Allds, Norwich, N. Y., and was kindly
loaned by him for this exhibit.

A great northern pike that weighed twenty-five pounds when caught was in
the collection. It was loaned by Mr. Ferris J Meigs, of New York city,
and was caught in Follensbee pond, in the Adirondacks, by Miss Juliet
Wilbur Tompkins in 1902. This is the largest pike, sometimes erroneously
called pickerel, within the knowledge of the Forest, Fish and Game
Commission.

GENERAL NOMENCLATURE

All the specimens of animals, birds and fish were properly and uniformly
labeled, giving the names the various species are generally known by,
and also the scientific nomenclature adopted by naturalists. The
importance of this matter of nomenclature was demonstrated very early
during the Fair. The song birds being very small no labels were placed
upon them at first, as the labels were in some instances larger than the
birds. The fact that visitors examining the specimens would often search
for the attendant in order to obtain information as to the names of the
different birds exhibited proved the necessity of clearly labeling all
specimens. On the other hand there seemed to be a general
misunderstanding as to some species of fish, various names being applied
to the same species. Visitors were constantly requesting information on
these points. The northern pike are by many people called pickerel and
sometimes when in water with pickerel are mistaken for muscallonge. The
distinguishing marks were frequently explained to interested visitors.

FORESTRY

One of the most scientific and practical features of the New York
exhibit was that made by the Forestry department. It was prepared to
show the method by which the Forestry Commission is reforesting large
areas of State land that have been denuded by repeated fires.

A FOREST NURSERY

The most important part of this was a fully appointed forest nursery,
located out of doors close to the northeast corner of the Forest, Fish
and Game building. Its neat rustic fence, made of white cedar poles,
enclosed an area Of 7,200 square feet (120 feet long by 60 wide) and
contained about 80,000 little trees alive and green. The soil being of
heavy clay, it was covered to the depth of six inches with good loam
before any seeds were sown.

About one-third of the nursery was arranged in beds each sixteen feet
long by four feet wide with paths three feet in width. In two of these
beds seeds were sown of Scotch pine, Norway spruce, hardy catalpa and
American elm, half a bed being given to each species. The seeds were
sown about the first of May. They germinated well, and the little trees
grew thriftily, the catalpa reaching a height of eighteen inches before
the Fair closed. A bed of Norway pine showed the plants on half the bed
crowded together in a thick mat as if grown from seed sown broadcast; on
the other half arranged as if from seed sown in rows across the bed,
both methods of sowing seed being followed in actual practice. Four beds
were given to two-year-old plants--Norway spruce, white pine, European
larch and Scotch pine. These were also arranged as if grown from seed
sown broadcast.

These beds, excepting the seed bed for broad-leaf species, were all
shaded with neat screens made of lath to shelter the tender plants from
the hot rays of the southern sun.

In actual nursery work, after conifers have remained in the seed bed for
two years, they are transplanted into other beds, being spaced four or
five inches apart, where they remain for two or three years more before
they are placed finally in the forest. Six beds were devoted to showing
this feature of nursery work. For this purpose four-year-old plants were
used, of the following species Norway pine, Norway spruce, white spruce,
white pine, European larch and Scotch pine.

A sample plantation which occupied nearly half the nursery showed how
the plants are, in actual practice, placed in the forest. White pine,
Norway spruce and Scotch pine were the species used. These were about
three feet high and were spaced about four feet apart.

To show how the broad-leaf species are raised for shade trees, for
planting along the highways of the State, for farmers' wood lots, for
sugar groves and hardwood forests, ten drills, stretching entirely
across the nursery between the beds and the sample plantation, were
planted with scarlet oak, red oak, honey locust, hard or sugar maple,
red or soft maple, basswood, white ash, black walnut and hardy catalpa,
a row being given to each species. These were one year old and were
spaced about six inches apart.

The names of the species were printed plainly on neat board labels ten
inches long by five inches broad. The nursery was kept free from weeds,
and was watered each evening during a long drought which began about the
first of September and continued till the Fair closed.

Thousands of people visited the nursery, attracted to it not only by the
beauty of the small green trees arranged in such interesting manner, but
also because of the instruction it afforded in the science of forestry.
Foresters, botanists, seedsmen, and others interested in trees in a
scientific or practical way, many of whom were from abroad, gave the
nursery close scrutiny.

The forester in charge who prepared the nursery, Mr. A. Knechtel,
B.S.F.E., of Albany, N. Y., was kept constantly busy answering the
numerous questions not only concerning the exhibit, but also in regard
to the important work being done by the Forestry Department in restoring
the forests upon the denuded non-agricultural lands of the State.

In a corner of the nursery stood two interesting cross-sections of white
pine and white spruce, twenty-three inches and sixteen inches in
diameter respectively, each having forty annual rings plainly visible,
showing that in forty years, under favorable conditions, trees of these
species can be grown from seed to the given diameters.

FORESTRY TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS

Within the building were exhibited thirty-nine instruments and tools
used in forestry practice, a collection of the seeds of eighty-four
native forest trees of the State, and the photographs of eighty of our
more important trees showing the same in leaf and in winter. In
connection with each pair of photographs was a life size illustration of
the bark of the tree, together with specimens of the leaf, flower and
fruit.

INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST AND SHADE TREES

The exhibit of insects affecting forest and shade trees was prepared by
E. P. Felt, D.Sc., New York State Entomologist, and was a small, though
representative collection, designed to show the life, history and habits
in particular of the more injurious forms of insects affecting shade and
forest trees in New York State. A special effort was made to depict, so
far as possible, the life, history, habits and methods of work of the
forms possessing economic importance and to show whenever possible the
natural enemies of value in keeping these species in control. This
collection was arranged in a specially designed case having a series of
three nearly horizontal trays thirty-seven and one-half inches by
eighteen and one-half inches upon each side, and an elevated central
portion bearing two nearly perpendicular ones upon each side, the middle
being occupied by a glass case containing an attractive natural group. A
brief account of the exhibit under appropriate heads is as follows:

_Insect galls_. This collection, occupying two nearly perpendicular
trays and representing the work of fifty-three species, was devoted to
the peculiar and varied vegetable deformities produced by insects. These
structures are always of great popular interest, and the insects causing
the same present biologic problems of unusual attractiveness.

_Forest insects_. The species affecting forest trees in particular
were exhibited in three horizontal trays occupying one side of the case.
This section was devoted principally to representing the biology and
methods of work of this exceedingly important group.

_Shade-tree insects_. Like that representing forest insects, the
exhibit of shade-tree pests was very largely biologic. It occupied three
horizontal trays and a nearly vertical one of the exhibit case, and was
devoted to species which are destructive largely on account of their
depredations upon shade trees.

_Adirondack insects_. This was a small collection occupying one of
the nearly perpendicular trays, and comprised over one hundred species.
This portion of the exhibit represented the more characteristic forms
occurring in the Adirondacks.

_Natural group of forest insects_. This group occupied the central
glass box and contained thirty-one species of insects or representations
of their work upon wax models of their food plants, namely, white birch,
red oak, elm and maple. Eleven species of beetles, fifteen of
butterflies and moths, two of the bee family and three of the bug family
were to be seen upon the plants or on the ground at their base. This
group gave an excellent idea of the appearance of insects when amid
their natural surroundings.

COLORED PLATES

A series of quarto and octavo colored plates illustrating the work and
various stages of some of the more important depredators upon forest and
shade trees, was exhibited in two double-faced frames attached to the
top of this case. The more important insects included in this group were
the following: Sugar maple borer, elm snout beetles, twig girdler or
twig pruner, white marked tussock moth, gypsy moth, brown tail moth, bag
worm, forest tent caterpillar, elm leaf beetle, oyster scale, scurfy
bark louse, San Jose scale, elm bark louse, cottony maple scale. One
plate was devoted to characteristic insects affecting oak, and another
to those depredating upon hard pine.

SPECIMENS OF NATIVE WOODS

The forest product of the State was represented by a collection of
specimens of all the native woods of New York, built into panel work,
showing both sides. Each species was represented by two specimens and
each of the four surfaces was finished in a different manner. One
surface was highly polished, one oiled, one planed and one rough.
Ninety-one species of native and nine species of introduced woods were
exhibited in this manner. Displaying the several species in four
different ways enabled the discriminating observer to study and compare
the various woods profitably. The manner of labeling was greatly
appreciated. Some students copied all the labels, each spending many
hours on this task.

The kinds of timber that grow in this State from which a five-inch board
can be sawed and which were represented as described, are as follows:

Cucumber Tree
Tulip Tree
Basswood
Linden
Holly
Striped Maple
Hard Maple
Silver Maple
Red Maple
Box Elder
Staghorn Sumach
Kentucky Coffee Tree
Honey Locust
Red or Canada Plum
Wild Plum
Green Ash
Sassafras
American Elm
Rock Elm
Slippery Elm
Wild Red Cherry
Wild Black Cherry
Wild Crab Apple
Mountain Ash
Cockspur Thorn
Black Haw
Scarlet Fruited Thorn
Shad Bush
Witch Hazel
Sweet Gum
Flowering Dogwood
Pepperidge
Persimmon
Black Ash
White Ash
Red Ash
Scarlet Oak
Black Oak
Pin Oak
Jack Oak
Hackberry
Red Mulberry
Sycamore
Butternut
Black Walnut
Bitternut
Shagbark Hickory
Mockernut Hickory
Pignut Hickory
King Nut Hickory
Small Fruited Hickory
White Oak
Post Oak
Burr Oak
Chestnut Oak
Chinquapin Oak
Yellow Oak
Swamp White Oak
Red Oak
White Pine
Red Pine
Pitch Pine
Jersey Pine
Yellow Pine
Jack Pine
Tamarack
White Poplar
Crack Willow
Weeping Willow
Lalanthus
Chestnut
Beech
Ironwood
Blue Beech
Black Birch
Yellow Birch
White Birch
Red Birch
Canoe Birch
Yellow Willow
Black Willow
Peach Willow
Aspen
Large Toothed Poplar
Swamp Cottonwood
Balm of Gilead
Cottonwood
Red Cedar
White Cedar
Arbor Vitae
Black Spruce
Red Spruce
White Spruce
Hemlock
Balsam
Lombardy Poplar
Wild Apple
Yellow Locust
Horse Chestnut
Blue Willow

These specimens of wood were built into panel work in seven frames of
the following seven species of wood, respectively:

Maple
Cherry
Chestnut
Rock Elm
White Oak
Black Ash
Black Birch

LABELING OF SPECIMENS

Each specimen was labeled on both sides, with the common or popular name
and also the botanical name. Most of the pieces were from a collection
that the Commission exhibited at the Paris Exposition in 1900, which was
there awarded a gold medal. In preparing the exhibit the collection was
enlarged so as to represent all our native woods, and built into new
frame work of substantial and attractive design.

WOOD PULP

A complete collection of the several kinds of wood pulp manufactured in
New York was also a part of the exhibit, as follows:

Ground Spruce pulp
Sulphite Spruce pulp
Sulphite Balsam pulp
Sulphite Poplar pulp
Sulphite Basswood pulp
Pulverized Pine pulp
Pulverized Poplar pulp

Ground and sulphite pulp is used in the manufacture of paper and many
household articles of utility. Pulverized pulp is used in making
linoleum and dynamite.

Although wood pulp was shown in some other exhibits, no one else made
any attempt to show a complete collection of all the various kinds of
pulp manufactured.

Articles of utility made of pulp, such as wash tubs, pails, measures,
cups, pitchers, etc., fifty-three pieces in all, were shown in
connection with the display of pulp.

BY-PRODUCTS OF THE FOREST

By-products of the forest were also displayed on a piece of circular
shelving with a suitable caption. The articles in this collection were
as follows:

Crude wood alcohol
Refined wood alcohol
Columbian spirits
Acetic acid
Refined acetic acid
Glacial acetic acid
Acetate of lime
Gray acetate of lime
Pine needle extract
Light wood tar
Heavy wood tar
Creosote
Tannic acid
Pine pitch
Spruce gum (raw)
Refined spruce gum
Basswood honey
Black walnuts
Wood ashes
Charcoal
Chestnuts
Hickory nuts
Beechnuts
Hazel nuts
Maple sugar (cakes)
Maple lozenges
Maple kisses
Maple sugar (pulverized)
Maple syrup
Mocker nuts
Butter nuts
Sassafras
Witch hazel

There was no other exhibit of this nature at the Fair.

SUMMER RESORTS

On one side of the space occupied by the exhibit was a high wall which
was covered with green burlap. On this wall were three groups of large
photographs, one of the Thousand Islands, one of Adirondack and one of
Catskill scenery.

In the Thousand Island group in addition to a collection of typical
island scenery, was a large picture of the Thousand Island House at
Alexandria Bay, N. Y., furnished by the owner, O. G. Staples; a picture
of the Hotel Frontenac on Round Island loaned by the owner, and a very
large colored picture of the excursion steamer "Ramona," on tour through
the islands, loaned by the Thousand Island Steamboat Company, Cape
Vincent, N. Y.

The Catskill pictures consisted of photographs of mountain scenery and
waterfalls, prepared specially for this exhibit. A fine group of scenes
was furnished by the Catskill Mountain Railroad of Catskill, N. Y.,
showing the Otis Elevated road, the Mountain House, etc.

The group of Adirondack views contained pictures of a number of the
largest hotels in that region, and collections of mountain and water
scenery. One group was of Lake George scenery. A large picture of
Wawbeek Hotel, on Upper Saranac Lake, was furnished by J. Ben Hart, of
Wawbeek, N. Y. The Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company kindly loaned a
large panoramic picture of Lake Placid and mountains of that locality.

Many of these pictures were in colors. They were appreciated by a great
number of people that had visited the several summer resorts
represented.

AN OPEN HUNTING CAMP

A model of a hunting camp of the open style, of which there are many in
the Adirondacks, was displayed. It was constructed of spruce with the
bark on, and the floor was covered with balsam boughs, which exhaled a
delightful odor noticeable several yards from the camp.

A large rustic table made of a cross section of a cedar tree with the
roots of a tree for the standard and legs of the table, was loaned by
Mr. Ferris J. Meigs, of Tupper Lake, N. Y. The tree from which the cross
section was taken showed by its growth of rings that it was more than
four hundred years old.

DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE

For the purpose of making this State Forestry, Fish and Game exhibit,
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission generously set aside the
sum of $18,000. Being unable to secure as much space as was needed, and
for the additional reason that the salaries of some of the persons
collaborating on the exhibit were provided for in another manner, it was
not necessary to use all of the funds available.

Dividing the disbursements into ten representative accounts, the amount
expended was as follows:
Animals and birds ------------------------- $2,211 56
Fish ---------------------------------- 1,792 51
Insects ------------------------------- 644 52
Plants for nursery, etc. -------------- 392 69
Woods, instruments, by-products, etc. - 1,119 28
Sportsman's Camp and furnishings ------ 1,507 92
Wall pictures ------------------------- 278 93
Freight and express ------------------- 697 10
Installation -------------------------- 2,481 76
Maintenance and repacking ------------- 3,717 81
------------
Total ------------------------------------- $14,844 08
------------

Had the exhibit been prepared without recourse to materials on hand and
by a separate force paid from the funds of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Commission it would have undoubtedly cost the State not less
than $20,000, but the fact that considerable material was available from
former exhibits, and from the office of the Forest, Fish and Game
Commission, and the further fact, as above stated, that some of the
collaborators received their compensation from the funds of that
Commission, enabled the State to make the elaborate and exhaustive
exhibit that it did in this department at the figures shown above.

THE ROSTER

The exhibit was prepared under the direction of Colonel William F. Fox,
Superintendent State Forests.

Following is a roster of the persons employed at the exhibit:

Arthur B. Strough, Special Agent in charge
Abraham Knechtel, Forester
Charles C. Hembree, Attendant
Victor Mahlstedt, Gardener

AWARDS

The awards were all conferred upon the Forest, Fish and Game Commission
or upon State officials. The juries in the Departments of Forestry, Fish
and Game were made up of eminent specialists, and their work was done in
a thorough and painstaking manner. They expressed themselves in
complimentary terms on the various features of the exhibit, and the
result of their deliberations cannot but be gratifying to all who are
interested in the advanced work of the Empire State in forestry, in
forest preserves and in the protection of our native fish and game.

_List of the Awards Classified Under the Several Groups of the
Official Classification_

GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWELVE

_Appliances and Processes Used in Forestry_

Collective exhibit of progressive forestry. Grand prize
Seeds of the trees
Instruments and tools used in forestry
Forest nursery and demonstration plantation
Photographs
Native trees with botanical specimens
Forest insects

William F. Fox, for services in the forestry exhibit. Gold medal
Arthur B. Strough, for services in forestry exhibit. Silver medal
Abraham Knechtel, for services in forestry exhibit. Silver medal
E. P. Felt, D. Sc., for services in entomological exhibit, forest
insects. Silver medal

GROUP ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN

_Products of the Cultivation of Forests_

Model sportsman's camp and outfit. Gold medal
Exhibit of woods, by-products, etc. Grand prize
William F. Fox, for services on sportsman's camp exhibit. Silver medal

GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE

_Products of Hunting_

Collective exhibit of animals and birds. Gold medal
Arthur B. Strough, for services on game and sporting exhibit.
Silver medal

GROUP ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO

_Fishing Equipment and Products_

Collective exhibit of fish. Grand prize
John D. Whish, for making collection of fish. Silver medal

A summary of the awards is as follows:
Three grand prizes
Three gold medals
Six silver medals

The exhibit in this department differed somewhat from the State exhibits
in other departments in that, with the exception of a very few articles,
which were loaned by private parties to complete or supplement the
collections, the showing was exclusively a State exhibit.

SOME SURPRISING FACTS

The exhibit as a whole was immensely popular from the very first day.
The people visiting the Exposition were largely from the southern and
middle western states, and seemed very generally to believe that New
York's forests, fish and game has passed away with the advance of
civilization. Most of them were greatly surprised to learn that
one-fourth of the State is wild land, which will in all probability
always be devoted largely to forests, and that the State has so many
wild deer that 6,000 of them are killed annually without any apparent
decrease of the number.

The sportsman's camp served the purpose of advertising the great
Adirondack region as a summer resort, and a great many visitors
expressed their intention of visiting that locality in the near future.

Probably one of the best features of the exhibit was the work shown by
the Commission in progressive forestry. This State being in the van of
the forestry movement was looked to to point out the path of
professional forestry, and if no other award had been made than the
grand prize by the scientific jury that served in that Department, we
would feel as though our efforts has been appreciated and that our
labors had not been in vain.

[Illustration: IGOROTE VILLAGE, PHILIPPINE RESERVATION]

CHAPTER XIV

Mines and Metallurgy Exhibit and Schedule of Awards

MINES AND METALLURGY EXHIBIT By H. H. HINDSHAW Special Agent of the
State Museum

[Illustration]

As in previous expositions at which the State of New York has been an
exhibitor, the scientific exhibits were made through the organization of
the State Museum. Dr. F. J. H. Merrill, the director of the museum,
assigned to the writer the duty of preparing the exhibit to be made
under his direction. The available time and money entered largely into
the settlement of the question of what form the exhibit should take.

SCOPE OF EXHIBIT

It was thought best to confine the scope of the main exhibit to the
technologic and commercial aspects of geology and mineralogy. A
judicious selection of materials made to show the mineral wealth of the
State was considered more desirable than to make merely a large display.
Many of the materials exhibited were taken from the State Museum
collections, supplemented where necessary by such additions as could be
obtained within the required time.

The benefit derived by the State from such exhibits is often much more
apparent than that which is to be derived by the individual exhibitors,
and on this account the Commission is particularly indebted to those
firms and individuals which went to considerable expense in preparing
exhibits along lines which were intended more to represent all phases of
an industry rather than to show the products of a single firm.

Those deserving especial mention in this connection are The Solvay
Process Company, of Syracuse; The H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate
Company, of Boston; the Helderberg Cement Company, of Howes Cave; The
Hudson River Bluestone Company, of New York; the Medina Sandstone
Company, of New York, and the United States Gypsum Company, of Chicago.

INSTALLATION

The cases used were taken from the museum, and suitable stands for the
building stone and other exhibits were constructed in Albany. On account
of the weight of the specimens exhibited the floor had to be
strengthened. This work, as well as the building of platforms and
partitions, was done under contract by Messrs. Caldwell and Drake.

The exhibits of mineral resources may be divided into the metallic and
non-metallic groups.

IRON

In the first division in our State, iron is by far the most important
and probably the one with which the people of the State are least
acquainted. A few years ago New York stood near the head of the iron
producing states. The depression in the iron industries, commencing
about 1888, and the discovery about that time of the seemingly
inexhaustible deposits of rich ores in the Lake Superior region,
however, resulted in shutting down nearly all of our mines. For the last
few years little attention has been paid to them, and they seem to have
been popularly supposed to have been worked out. The Exposition gave an
opportunity of showing this supposition to be incorrect, and recent
investigations show that the deposits are of much greater extent and
value than was known in the eighties. With but one or two exceptions
none of the mines then worked are exhausted, and immense bodies of
valuable ore have not been touched. Most of the non-mining localities
were represented by specimens from the museum collections. Messrs.
Witherbee, Sherman & Company exhibited a series of ores and concentrates
from Mineville, the Arnold Mining Company, magnetites and martite from
Arnold Hill, and the Chateaugay Ore and Iron Company, specimens from
Lyon Mountain.

MAGNETITE

A series of magnetite and associated rocks from the Tilly Foster and
other mines were supplemented by a model of the Tilly Foster mine which
was loaned to the museum for this purpose by the Columbia School of
Mines.

HEMATITES

The St. Lawrence and Jefferson county hematites were represented by
large specimens of ore and by a series of associated rocks and minerals,
including some beautiful specimens of millerite, chalcedite, etc. These
hematites are mined in a belt about thirty miles long reaching from
Philadelphia, Jefferson county, into Hermon, St. Lawrence county. They
are known as the Antwerp red hematites, and, being very easily smelted,
are mixed with more refractory ores.

The Clinton or fossil ores extend in a belt across the central part of
the State and are mined in the vicinity of Clinton, Oneida county, and
in Ontario and Wayne counties.

The limonites shown from Dutchess and Columbia counties included some
fine specimens of stalactitic ore.

Carbonate ores were shown from Columbia and Ulster counties, where there
are extensive deposits on both sides of the Hudson river.

MAGNETIC SEPARATOR

A feature of the iron ore exhibit was a magnetic separator supplied by
the Wetherill Separator Company, of New York. This was kept at work on
the magnetite ores from Mineville, and was of great interest not only in
showing the method of concentrating the magnetic ore, but also in saving
the phosphorus which occurs in the form of the mineral apatite and which
is of considerable value in the manufacture of fertilizers. A large
quantity of ore was donated for this purpose by Messrs. Witherbee,
Sherman & Company.

LEAD

Lead, generally associated with zinc and sometimes copper, has been
mined on a small scale from very early times in Ulster and Sullivan
counties, and more recently in St. Lawrence county. Many other
localities have yielded small quantities of these minerals.

A set of specimens was exhibited by the Ellenville Zinc Company,
consisting of strikingly beautiful crystalline masses of quartz galina,
sphalerite and chalcopyrite and specimens of the rare mineral, brookite.
There was also shown in the same case concentrates from the Ellenville
mine of lead, zinc and copper made both by jigging and by magnetic
separation, and a collection of ores and associated minerals and rocks
from Rossie and Wurtzboro.

NON-METALLIC MINERALS

A large part of this exhibit consisted of construction materials, stone,
slate, brick, tiling and cement. Most of the building stone was
exhibited in the form of ten-inch cubes arranged on three pyramidal
stands. Only a few of these were especially collected for this
Exposition. Many more which were considered desirable could not be
obtained in time on account of the inclement weather conditions of the
preceding winter.

GRANITES

The granitic rocks included granite, gneisses, syenites and norite. This
series only inadequately represented the New York granites. Among the
most striking examples shown were the coarse grained red granite from
Grindstone island in the St. Lawrence river, the Mohican granite from
Peekskill, Westchester county, which is being extensively used in the
Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York city, and the dark green
labradorite rock known as the Ausable granite from Keeseville, Essex
county. There are many interesting granite deposits, especially in the
Adirondack region, which have not been developed.

MARBLES

The marbles included some fine examples of decorative stone from South
Dover, Dutchess county, the black marble from Glens Falls, monumental
and building marbles from Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county, and white
building marbles from southeastern New York.

LIMESTONES

Limestones of excellent quality are quarried in a great number of
localities and were well represented, some of them showing as fine a
polished surface as the true marbles.

SANDSTONES

The State is also rich in sandstones of good quality. The Potsdam
sandstone forms an almost complete belt around the Adirondacks and is an
excellent building stone. Its color is from white to pale red, and in
many places it is an extremely hard quartzite. Specimens were shown from
Potsdam, St. Lawrence county.

The white sandstones of Washington county have been extensively used for
refractory purposes in the manufacture of steel, being almost free from
iron. The Medina sandstones are quarried in the neighborhood of Medina,
Albion and Lockport. While a pure white stone occurs at Lewiston, the
Medina stone is generally of a pinkish red color. It is extensively used
as a building stone, particularly in Buffalo and Rochester. It is
valuable for paving, curbing and flagging. The Medina Sandstone Company
exhibited a piece of wall work to show the various methods of finish,
including a finely carved lintel. A number of cubes were exhibited from
various quarries.

The sandstones of southern New York occurring in the rocks of Devonian
age are generally fine grained and blue or greenish in color and are
known as bluestones. Most of the quarries are in the counties of Greene,
Ulster, Broome, Delaware and Sullivan. They are described in New York
State Museum Bulletin 61 by Harold T. Dickinson. There is a great
variety in color and physical properties of stone from these quarries.
It is used as building stone and for trimming, and some of it is
especially valuable for large platforms. A large proportion of the
output is in the form of flagging and curbstone.

The Hudson River Bluestone Company exhibited a piece of wall built into
the base of the pyramidal stand holding the sandstone cubes. This was
designed to show the ease with which it can be worked and included some
finely carved lettering. The main entrance to the exhibit was paved with
flags and tiles of this material.

SLATE

With the sandstones were shown some ten-inch cubes of slate cut from the
quarries of the H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate Company, of Boston,
which operates a number of quarries in Washington county. The slate belt
covers an area of about 320 square miles, the larger part of which is in
Washington county, N. Y., but which extends across the line into Rutland
county, Vt. This is probably the richest slate region in the world. The
beds are of great thickness, belonging to two distinct geologic
formations. They are folded on one another in such a manner as to
present the workable beds in long parallel ridges.

On account of its great strength and easy working qualities new uses are
constantly being found for slate. One of the most striking features of
the slate exhibit was a mantel built of rough slabs of dark red slate
showing the cross fracture to have a fine satiny texture. This was a
copy of a mantel designed by Lord & Hewlet, of New York, and built in a
Poultney, Vt., residence. The main slate exhibit consisted of a stand
supporting a slated roof, one side of which was covered with unfading
green slates one inch thick, such as were laid on Senator Clark's New
York residence. The other side was covered with rough thick slabs of
unfading red. The sides of the stand were covered with the regular trade
slates in four sections--red, green, purple and variegated. The uses of
slate for construction purposes were shown by slabs and panels on the
upper part of the stand.

CEMENT

The cement exhibit was made by the Helderberg Cement Company, of Howes
Cave. One side of the exhibit stand was devoted to Portland and the
other to natural cements. Barrels and bags of finished cement formed the
base of the structure on which were glass jars containing the rock in
its stages of manufacture, with a series of photographs of the works and
of buildings of cement. On account of the rapidly extending applications
of cement a large section outside of the building was set aside for
exhibits of the uses of cement, and the exhibit was designed mainly to
show the manufacture, the materials used and the method of their
treatment.

GYPSUM

Gypsum was shown by a fine series of specimens contributed by the United
States Gypsum Company from their mines in western New York. This
material, like cement, is rapidly being adapted for a variety of
purposes, especially in the finish and ornamentation of buildings, and
the exhibit, encased in one of the square plate glass museum cases with
its cut and polished cubes of raw gypsum, selenite crystals, jars of
stucco colors and examples of plaster casts, made a very attractive
exhibit. In another case there was exhibited gypsum in various forms
from other sources.

SALT

The salt exhibit was made up from a very complete set of specimens in
sample jars taken from the Museum collections, and a large number of
packages from the manufacturers. The salt of New York is obtained from
the salina formation in the western part of the State. The industry is
of great importance. The deposits are described in State Museum Bulletin
11 by Dr. F. J. H. Merrill. One of the most interesting varieties shown
was the solar salt, which has been made on the Onondaga Salt
Reservation, Syracuse, since 1788. Blocks of rock salt were shown from
the Retsof and Livonia shafts.

Most of the salt produced, however, is from wells bored down through the
rock salt beds, and is pumped up in the form of brine and evaporated by
artificial heat.

SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY

The Solvay Process Company, of Syracuse, made a splendid display of soda
ash. The plant of this company uses an immense amount of salt which is
obtained from the Tully districts and carried by pipes to Solvay. The
raw materials used were shown in the lower sections of two cases
especially constructed for the exhibit, which also held a set of barrels
and other packages in which the soda is shipped. In the upper sections
were shown a series of large glass jars with the various products. These
were supplied with a series of labels completely describing the process
of manufacture and the chemical changes which take place. Above the case
there was a set of photographs of the works, illustrating the social
life of the work-people employed and the growth of the establishment.

USEFUL MINERALS

The exhibit of the useful minerals of the State was principally prepared
by H. P. Whitlock of the Museum staff. One case contained a set of the
abrasive materials, the most important of these being garnet, which is
found in great quantities in the Adirondacks. Crude garnet from several
mines, the ground and cleaned garnet, and grades of garnet paper were
shown. A small millstone to represent the celebrated Esopus grit, emery
ore from Peekskill, and quartz and sand from many localities were also
exhibited in this case. Another case was filled with feldspar, mica and
quartz, which usually occur associated with each other in the form of
pegmetite dikes in the crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks and the
Highlands of the Hudson. These materials are not as yet very extensively
mined but an increasing demand for them is bringing to light many
promising localities.

GRAPHITE

Another valuable mineral which occurs in the State in great quantities
is graphite. Specimens of both the crude ore and manufactured graphite
were exhibited. The deposits of this material in the form of graphitic
limestone cover miles of territory, but more satisfactory processes for
its concentration are needed to make it available for use, especially in
the higher grades.

MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS

The Museum exhibited a set of its publications on geologic subjects, a
set of published maps and maps specially prepared for this exhibit to
show the distribution of useful minerals, and a number of enlarged
photographs.

PALEONTOLOGY

The exhibit of the Department of Paleontology consisted of a set of its
publications on the paleontology of the State of New York--35
volumes--covering the period 1847-1904, and a set of wing frames with
many of the original drawings and plates used in their illustration.

SPECIAL FEATURES

The most striking feature of the exhibit was an immense slab of Potsdam
sandstone from Bidwell's Crossing, Clinton county, which was part of the
premoidial or cambrian beach laid down about the shores of the
Adirondack continental nucleus. The slab shows the trails of animals
crossing in all directions, especially those known as clemactechnites,
said by Dr. J. M. Clarke to have been made by a a simple primitive type
of mollusk. The slab, weighing over fifteen tons, was moved in six
sections and put together for exhibition.

Restorations in plaster of paris of the fossil crustaceous eurypterus
and hughmilleria were also exhibited.

CLAYS

The exhibition of clays and clay products was made by the State School
of Ceramics, at Alfred, N. Y., under the direction of Professor Charles
F. Binns, and included some large vases, the work of students.

The State of New York has long held an important place in the brick
trade on account of its unlimited quantities of clay along the Hudson
river, which have not only supplied much of the brick used for building
in New York city, but bricks have been shipped from this source long
distances by water. The finer varieties of clay have not been worked to
any extent except on Long Island, but other conditions have resulted in
the establishment of potteries at Brooklyn, Syracuse and other points,
using almost exclusively clays imported into the State. The beds of
feldspar and flint now being exploited in the Adirondacks will
materially help to put this class of potteries on a firmer basis.

The center of the exhibition space was devoted to a pagoda designed to
show the kinds of brick manufactured in the principal localities. The
roof afforded an excellent place to exhibit earthenware tiling.

The General Electric Company exhibited a case of insulators, many of
them of special types, from their Schenectady pottery. Insulators were
also exhibited by Pass & Seymour, of Syracuse, and the Empire China
Works, of Brooklyn.

PETROLEUM

The petroleum exhibit was made under the general direction of Secretary
and Chief Executive Officer Charles A. Ball. An extensive series of
crude and refined oils and by-products occupied a case showing on both
sides. On this was installed a model of a tower and drilling machinery
such as is used in sinking oil wells. The records printed on the labels
furnished data which made an important addition to our previous
knowledge of the New York oil fields.

In addition to those heretofore mentioned, the following gentlemen
assisted as indicated in the preparation of the exhibit, and are
entitled to no small credit for the valuable assistance rendered.

E. E. Engelhardt was engaged in the acquisition of the salt exhibits.

J. S. Bellamy collected the petroleum exhibit under the immediate
direction of Secretary Ball.

C. F. Binns collected the exhibit of clay products under the immediate
direction of the State Commission.

W. C. Richard assisted in installing the exhibit.

Frederick Braun installed the slab of Potsdam sandstone.

The following members of the staff of the State Museum also assisted:
H.S. Mattimore, C.A. Trask, E.C. Kenny, D.D. Luther and Joseph Morje.

_Catalogue of Exhibitors in the Department of Mines and Metallurgy,
with the Award, if Any, Received by Each_

GROUP ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN
_Minerals and Stones_
Adirondack Pyrites Co., Gouverneur
Pyrites: crude and concentrates
Alfred Clay Co., Alfred Station
Brick
Tile
Algonquin Red Slate Co., Truthville
Mineral paint
Alps Oil Co., Alma
Crude oil
Applebee & Baldwin, Scio
Crude oil
Arnold Mining Co. Bronze medal
Iron ores
Attica Brick and Tile Co., Attica
Brick
Atwood & McEwen, Andover
Crude oil
J.J. Barron, Three Mile Bay
Limestone (Trenton)
H.H. Barton Son & Co., North Creek and Minerva
Garnet and garnet paper
Herman Behr & Co., North River. Silver medal
Garnet and garnet paper
Milo M. Belding, Gouverneur
Marble
Bellamy & Elliott, Scio
Crude oil
Frank Bennett, Staten Island
Diabase
J. B. Berridge, Hudson
Limestone (Helderberg)
H. Boice & Co., Rondout
Bluestone
A. F. Bouton, Roxbury
Red sandstone (Catskill)
Burhans & Brainard, Saugerties
Bluestone
Eugene Campbell, New Baltimore
Limestone (Helderberg)
Canton Marble Quarry, Canton
Marble
B. & J. Carpenter, Lockport
Limestone (Niagara)
Celadon Roofing Co., Alfred
Tile roofs
Church & Bradley, Alma
Crude oil
Church & Co., Wellsville
Crude oil
Clark, Tracey & Co., West Union
Crude oil
Conner Paint Mfg. Co
Mineral paint
Consolidated Wheatland Plaster Co., Wheatland
Gypsum
Land plaster
Corning Brick, Tile & Terra Cotta Co., Corning
Brick
Delaware Milling, Mining & Mfg. Co., Roxbury
Mineral paint
Albert Dibble, Belvidere
Bluestone
Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Ticonderoga
Graphite
Duford & Son, Chaumont
Limestone (Trenton)
Ellenville Zinc Co., Ellenville
Lead and zinc: zinc blende, chalcopyrite, galena, lead, zinc
and copper concentrates
Empire China Works, Brooklyn
Insulators
Empire Gas and Fuel Co., Ltd., Willink
Crude oil
Empire Marble Co., Gouverneur
Marble
Empire Salt Co. Silver medal
Salt
Extra Dark Marble Co., Gouverneur
Marble
Foery & Kastner, Rochester
Limestone
D. R. & H. Fogelsinger, Buffalo
Limestone (Onondaga)
Franchot Bros., Scio
Crude oil
R. Forsyth, Grindstone Island
Granite
General Electric Co., Schenectady. Gold medal
Insulators
Genesee Salt Co., Pifford
Salt
Glens Falls Co., Glens Falls
Limestone (Trenton)
Adelbert Gordon, Batchellerville
Mica
Feldspar
Gouverneur Garnet Co., Gouverneur
Garnet
J. B. Gray, Geneseo
Oil sand and crude oil
Ezra Grinnell, Port Gibson
Plaster of paris
Land plaster
Grumply Oil Co., Rexville
Crude oil
Helderberg Cement Co., Howes Cave. Gold medal
Cement
D. C. Hewitt, Amsterdam
Limestone (Calciferous)
High Falls Pyrites Co., Canton
Pyrites
Horan Bros., Medina
Sandstone
Horseheads Brick Co., Horseheads
Brick
L. W. Hotchkiss, Lewiston
Sandstone (Medina)
Hudson River Bluestone Co., Ulster county. Silver medal
Bluestone
International Graphite Co., Ticonderoga
Graphite
International Pulp Co., Gouverneur
Talc
International Salt Co., Ithaca
Salt
Interstate Conduit & Brick Co., Ithaca
Brick
Jamestown Shale Paving Brick Co., Jamestown
Brick
Jewettville Pressed Brick & Paving Co., Jewettville
Brick
R. Jones, Prospect
Graphite
J. F. Kilgour, Lordville
Bluestone
F. H. Kinkel, Bedford
Feldspar
Quartz
A. Gracie King, Garrisons
Granite
Francis Larkins, Ossining
Granite
B. B. Mason, Keeseville
Norite
Masterton & Hall, Tuckahoe
Marble
H. H. Mathews Consolidated Slate Co., Washington county. Gold
medal
Slate
G. J. McClure, Ithaca
Bluestone
J. H. McCutcheon, Lancaster
Brick
James McEwen, Wellsville
Crude oil
J. C. & A. McMurray, Olean
Brick
Medina Quarry Co., New York city. Silver medal
Sandstone
M. Mervine, Whitesville
Crude oil
Morris & Strobel, LeRoy

Book of the day: