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New York at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis 1904 by DeLancey M. Ellis

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"It certainly is most appropriate at this time when the republic is
reaching out as a world power that we should celebrate the anniversary
of the first great chapter in the history of our national expansion.
Time has proven that Jefferson and his compeers built greater than they
knew, for by that acquisition of territory there was developed a spirit
of national progress that did not cease even when we first learned to
know no superior among the nations of the earth.

"Representatives of half a dozen different nations met in the smoking
room of an ocean liner sometime ago. It was suggested that each nation
be toasted. An Englishman paid a glowing tribute to his country. A
Frenchman lauded his nation and a Russian eulogized the land of the
Czar. Then an American arose and said: 'Here is to the United States,
bounded on the north by the North Pole, on the east by the rising sun,
on the south by the South Pole, and on the west by the setting sun.' As
he finished another American present requested that he be permitted to
attempt an improvement on the toast given by his countryman, which
request was granted. He then toasted the United States in this fashion:
'Here's to the United States, bounded on the north by the Aurora
Borealis, on the east by infinite chaos, on the south by the procession
of the Equinoxes, and on the west by the day of judgment.' This indeed
is extravagant language, but that fellow possessed the American spirit
which recognizes no limit to the possibilities of our future.

"I recognize that this is no occasion for state boasting. Each state,
territory and American possession is unselfishly interested in the
success of this Exposition. However, in connection with what New York is
expected to do for this grand enterprise, you will pardon, I know, this
very brief reference I make to New York's supremacy in population, in
wealth, in manufactures and in commerce. I think it less than twenty
years ago that New York was ahead in agricultural productions, too.
Agricultural supremacy has been tending westward for nearly a half
century, however, and we cheerfully surrender to your broad prairies.
Iowa, Ohio and Illinois now outrank us in farm industry, the first once
a part of the Louisiana tract and the other two cut from the Northwest

"An Eastern farmer on his first visit to the west asked his Western
brother how it was that 'he could plow such straight furrows over such
enormous fields.' 'That's easy,' said the native, 'we follow the
parallels of latitude and the meridians of longitude.' That reply was
significant. It demonstrates quite fully where agriculture is king in
the United States.

"The end of the great strides that you are making here in the west is
not in sight. Some day your population will be as dense as ours. Slowly,
but steadily, the center of population is creeping westward and by
another decade or so it will most likely cross the great Father of
Waters and move across the land which Jefferson's genius gave to the
republic. New York will be more powerful by reason of your greatness.
Your increasing productions will contribute to our commercial prestige
more and more as the years roll on to make our metropolis continue to be
the greatest seaport on this continent for all time.

"We share your glory in more ways than this, too. Many of the sturdy men
and women who have settled within the confines of this great region were
native New Yorkers. Our blood has been mingled with yours and our
children are first cousins of yours. New York gave to you because she
could spare and you accepted of us because you wanted the best you could

"New York then bids the people of this section All Hail! We are with you
heart and soul to make the Exposition a magnificent success. New York
has never failed when a patriotic effort was demanded and as ever before
she will now respond with enthusiasm and will do everything possible
here to sustain her imperial position.

"Let us hope that the Exposition will accomplish all that is intended.
Let our prayer be that all Americans who pass within the gates when all
shall be made ready for the opening of this Exposition in 1904, will
cherish a higher ambition and a greater love of country and be impelled
to declare with the poet, that

"'There is a land of every land the pride,
Beloved of Heaven, o'er all the world beside,
where brighter suns dispense serener light,
And milder moons imparadise the night.
Oh, thou shalt find howe'er thy footsteps roam,
That land thy country and that spot thy home.'"

At the conclusion of Commissioner Callanan's remarks the assemblage


The site was formally dedicated at the time of the formal dedication
ceremonies of the Exposition, the special ceremonies being held directly
after the general exercises held in observance of State Day, on May 2,
1903. There were present Governor and Mrs. Odell, the Governor's staff,
a joint committee of the Legislature, Exposition officials, members of
the State Commission and invited guests.

Having assembled upon the site, William Berri, Vice-President of the
Commission, addressed Governor Odell as follows:


"_Governor Odell_: It gives the New York State Commission to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition very great pleasure to have you present
here to-day to participate in the simple exercises authorized by the
Commission connected with the beginning of the work of construction of
the New York State building which is to be erected upon this site. A
more desirable grant of space on the Plateau of States could not have
been made for us by the management of this Exposition, and we hope to
place here a building that will add dignity to the location and worthily
represent the State of New York in architectural beauty and practical
usefulness. Your commission has been fortunate in securing for the
architect Mr. Clarence Luce, and the plans and drawings which we have
decided upon from his hand give promise of a structure that the State we
represent will be proud of, and we shall also endeavor to so furnish it
and utilize its facilities as to make it a serviceable and attractive
addition to the large number of State buildings that are to be erected
in its vicinity.

"Everything has to have a beginning, so we are here to-day to begin our
work of actual construction, and it is specially fitting that we should
have present the Governor of New York to assist in the ceremonies
attendant therewith, for he has always heartily supported the project of
the St. Louis Exposition and has furthered its interests on every
occasion. Therefore, on behalf of the New York State Commission, I ask
you, Governor Odell, to honor the great World's Fair of 1904 by
performing the first actual work upon the structure we propose to erect
by turning the first spadeful of earth for the State of New York and the
New York State building."

The Governor responded briefly, commending the Commission for its work,
predicting wonderful benefits to accrue from the Exposition and
prophesying that New York would be at the forefront in all of its
departments, after which he lifted the first spadeful of earth upon the
site. He then handed the spade to Mrs. Odell, who lifted another sod;
after which various ladies in the party performed the same act; at the
conclusion of which the assemblage adjourned.


The building of the State of New York was the only building on the
Terrace of States entirely ready for the reception of guests on the
opening day of the Exposition. It was a structure thoroughly in keeping
with the dignity and prestige of the great Empire State. Of marked
simplicity in design, there was in its every line and appointment
evidence of the utmost refinement and culture.

The building was planned primarily for the comfort, accommodation and
convenience of visitors from the Empire State, for the holding of such
functions as the Commission were required to give in the name of the
State, and for the meetings of any associations or delegations from New
York attending the Exposition. It contained no exhibits of any kind, all
of the exhibits being placed in the main exhibit palaces under the
proper subdivision of the official classification.


The building was pure Italian in style, surmounted by a low dome and
surrounded by verandas and terraces. Through the main approach one
entered a large hall sixty feet square, running the full height of the
building, arched and domed in the Roman manner, with galleries around
the second story. From this hall ascended the grand staircase, both to
the left and to the right.


Under the four arches were handsome mural paintings, the work of Florian
Peixotto, illustrating "De Soto Discovering the Mississippi," "The
French and Indian Occupation," "New York in 1803," and "New York in
1903." The four pendentives which supported the dome contained
emblematic pictures representing the four States most benefited by the
Louisiana Purchase, Missouri, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The
lower hall was of the simple Doric order, and the staircase was
augmented by two memorial columns surrounded by dancing groups
beautifully modeled, each column surmounted by a light. To the right of
the entrance hall, and separated from it only by huge pillars, was a
large assembly hall fifty by sixty feet, which was used for receptions,
dinners and other State functions given by the Commission. This hall was
most richly decorated in old golds, Antwerp blues and siennas and, with
its crystal chandeliers and barrel vaulted ceiling running up through
the second story, was one of the most attractive features of the
building. Beyond the grand hall were small dining rooms and serving
rooms connected with the culinary department. To the left of the
entrance hall were waiting rooms, writing rooms and retiring rooms for
the accommodation of guests, while at the extreme south end of the
building were two reading rooms, in which were on file the various daily
papers of the State. But seldom were the reading rooms without visitors
eagerly familiarizing themselves with what had happened at home
subsequent to their departure. Also, on the first floor were coat rooms,
a bureau of information, postoffice, telegraph and telephone offices.


The second floor contained the offices of the Commission, which were
occupied by the Secretary and the clerical force, and also eight suites
of rooms, consisting of parlor, bedroom and bath, for the accommodation
of the members of the Commission and their guests. One of these suites,
more handsomely furnished than the others, was called the "Governor's
suite," and was reserved for his exclusive use. While not originally
contemplated, the third floor in both the north and south ends of the
building were finished and partitioned into rooms for the use of the
attaches of the Commission. This increased the capacity of the building
by eight rooms.


Eminent sculptors were employed to prepare the statuary for the building
which was generally conceded to be as fine as any upon the Exposition
grounds, being most admirably adapted to the building as to scale. There
were two massive quadrigae flanking the dome typifying the "Progress of
Art" and the "Progress of Commerce," which were the work of Phillip
Martiny, to whom was also intrusted the work of preparing the elaborate
group, crowding the main entrance to Festival Hall and entitled "Apollo
and the Muses." About the huge columns flanking the steps which formed
the approach and again about the columns at the foot of the grand
staircase were dancing groups most gracefully modeled by Oscar L. Lenz.
The same sculptor was also responsible for the figure of "Greeting"
which stood in the lower niche at the north end of the building. The
coat of arms of the State which appeared frequently in the scheme of
decoration was by Allen G. Newman. The work of reproduction in staff of
the models prepared by the artists was performed by Messrs. Barth &


The lighting of the building throughout was by electricity, and was
particularly effective in the main entrance hallway, in that the lights,
for the most part, were concealed behind cornices giving a very soft
effect, and displaying to the best advantage the mural paintings.
Throughout the building electroliers of special design were used. In the
main hallway they took the form of quaint Florentine lanterns which were
particularly rich in modeling and were an important factor in the scheme
of decoration.


The furnishings were most appropriate and harmonious throughout, much of
the furniture having been especially built for the place in which it was
to stand. In the main hallway stood massive Florentine chairs and
settees, with high backs, upholstered in mottled embossed leather, each
bearing the coat of arms of the State. The waiting and writing rooms
were appointed and finished in the same simple design which prevailed in
the main hallway, light green being the dominating color, the furniture
being of mahogany, upholstered in Bedford cord. The effect was most
restful to the tired visitor who entered the rooms upon a warm summer
day, and their popularity was attested by the number of Exposition
visitors, both from New York and elsewhere, who sought their quiet and
refreshing atmosphere to recover from the fatigue of Exposition sight


The entire work of designing the building, sculpture, decorations and
furniture was intrusted to Mr. Clarence Luce, of 246 Fourth avenue, New
York city. Thoroughly familiar with the traditions of the great Empire
State, Mr. Luce made the work committed to him a matter of State as well
as professional pride, and the result of his long experience, coupled
with his artistic temperament and sound judgment, was a building to
which each New Yorker pointed with the utmost pride and which each
stranger praised unstintingly. The prompt completion of the work so
thoroughly and satisfactorily done was a source of gratification to the
Commission, who at the first meeting held in the building passed
commendatory resolutions concerning Mr. Luce.

There were State buildings which represented an outlay of considerably
more money, but none which typified the commonwealth for which it stood
more thoroughly than did the New York State building.


A pleasant feature was a private restaurant, conducted by Messrs. Bayno
& Pindat, of New York city, the former being the inventor of an electric
range which was used in the preparation of food. The kitchen and
commissary department was in the basement at the north end of the
building. The privileges of the restaurant were by card only, and were
extended to New Yorkers, Exposition officials and prominent Exposition
visitors. The cuisine was most excellent, and throughout the season
appetizing meals were served on the spacious verandas at the north end
of the building, over which canopies had been erected, the illumination
being furnished in the evening by electric lights, contained in Japanese
lanterns. No restaurant upon the grounds enjoyed a greater popularity
among those who were privileged to use it than did that of the New York
State building.


To the Aeolian Company, of New York city, the Commission is indebted for
one of the features of the building. This company placed a magnificent
pipe organ in the east balcony of the rotunda, and in the gallery north
of the grand hall, nearly 100 feet away, was installed an echo organ,
while a set of cathedral chimes sounded softly from still another
distant part of the building. All three instruments were under control
of the organist at the console located upon the main floor of the
entrance hall, and could be played either by hand or by music rolls
manufactured by the Aeolian Company. The organ was equipped with an
electric keyboard which permitted the playing of all three instruments
or any single one, as the operator desired. The main instrument was
contained in an artistic case, which, with its decorative ornament, was
built by Charles and Jacob Blum, of New York city, and was an important
enrichment of the hall.

Mr. S. H. Grover, a representative of the company, was in attendance
throughout the summer and gave a recital each day at three o'clock in
the afternoon. These recitals soon came to be a feature of the
Exposition, and were largely attended by music lovers.

The program played on New York State day is given below, and is a fair
specimen of the programs rendered throughout the season.

Overture, "Oberon" Von Weber
Serenade Schubert
The Nightingale Delibes
Overture, "Stradella" Flotow
Berceuse, "Jocelyn" Godard
Selections, No. 11, "La Boheme" Puccini
Am Meer Schubert
Introduction, Act III, "Lohengrin" Wagner


The Commission also acknowledges the courtesy of Steinway & Co. in
placing in the State building one of the finest instruments ever turned
out by this famous firm of piano builders. Its purity of tone and
singing qualities were remarkable, and during the season several
recitals were given upon it by eminent musicians. The piano was
appropriately named "The Wave," illustrating as it did the wonderful
waterways of the Empire State. The case was made of white hard maple,
admirably adapted for fine carving. Some distance from the edge of the
top the smooth surface commenced to take the undulations of the surface
of water, gradually increasing in volume until the edge was reached,
where the waves seemed to flow over in an irregular line down the sides,
here and there forming panels. The three supports were composed of
female figures sculptured in wood; one supported by a dolphin suggested
the mythical origin of the harp, another was poised upon a dolphin's
back, and the third was a water nymph nestled among the rocks and spray.
The music desk contained a picture of sunrise on Lake Erie. All of the
carving was colored with translucent greens and blues enhancing the
graceful undulations and wave movements. The panels were all designed to
illustrate some of the most important views of the waterways of New York
State. The first represented New York harbor, the next East river
spanned by Brooklyn bridge, another the Hudson, with its palisades. The
panel over the rear support was a view of Albany, showing the Capitol on
the hill at sunset; another showed Cohoes Falls and the Erie canal; the
next contained a picture of Little Falls; the last being a picture of
Buffalo harbor. On the top, as a fitting finale, was a large picture
representing the American Falls at Niagara. Underneath the front half of
the top was painted the coat of arms of the State.


The State building was at all times in charge of a competent and
obliging staff, which always stood ready to minister to the comfort and
pleasure of the guests of the Empire State. Honorable Frank J. LeFevre,
of New Paltz, was Superintendent. He performed the arduous duties of
directing the actions of the force and attending to a multitude of
details with cheerfulness and efficiency. He was ably assisted by George
E. Cowper, of Olean, the Assistant Superintendent.

The social functions given in the name of the State Commission were
directed by Mrs. Norman E. Mack, the lady member of the Commission,
whenever she was present. In her absence the social duties fell upon
Mrs. Dore Lyon, who invariably extended the State's hospitality with
grace and tact. The assistant hostess, Mrs. F. P. Applebee, won many
friends in the course of the season through her courteous treatment
toward all guests. The comfort of the Commission and their house guests
was admirably provided for by Miss Laura MacMartin, the matron.

Acknowledgment is also due to those who faithfully served the Commission
in the State building in various capacities throughout the Exposition



Functions Held at the New York State Building


The State building was generally recognized as the social center of the
Exposition. Many functions were given throughout the season by the
Commission in the name of the State, and the building was constantly in
demand for private entertainments. The use of the building was freely
granted by the Commission so long as the date did not conflict with that
of an official function. To enumerate all of the social events taking
place in the State building is not within the province of this

A list of the official and the more important unofficial functions is
given below:

_Saturday, April 30_. Opening day. A luncheon was given to members
of the Commission and distinguished guests.

_Wednesday, May 4_. Luncheon given by the State Commission for Mrs.
Martin H. Glynn, of Albany, wife of National Commissioner Glynn, and for
Mrs. John K. Stewart, wife of Commissioner Stewart. Ladies only were
present. The guests were received by Mrs. Norman E. Mack, assisted by
Mrs. Glynn, Mrs. Stewart and Mrs. Dore Lyon.

_Friday, May 20_. Reception given by the State Commission to the
New York State delegation to the National Editorial Association, 9 to 11
P. M. The guests were received in behalf of the Commission by
Commissioner and, Mrs. James H. Callanan, of Schenectady, and by
Commissioner and Mrs. John C. Woodbury of Rochester, assisted by Mrs.
Dore Lyon.

_Monday, May 23_. Reception given by the National Society of New
England Women. The guests were received by Mrs. Swinburn, of New York,
the President of the Society, Mrs. John C. Woodbury and Mrs. James H.

_Tuesday, May 24_. Reception given by the State Commission to the
Federation of Women's Clubs, 4 to 6 P. M.

_Wednesday, June 1_. Breakfast at 12 M. given by the State
Commission to Miss Alice Roosevelt. Only ladies were present. The guests
were received by Commissioner Mrs. Norman E. Mack, Mrs. James H.
Callanan, Mrs. John Young and Mrs. Dore Lyon. There were about 200
ladies present.

_Tuesday, June 7_. Ball given by President David R. Francis and
Mrs. Francis in behalf of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to
the West Point cadets, 9 to 12 P. M. Music was furnished by two bands
stationed in the north and south galleries of the entrance hall.
Refreshments were served upon the verandas. Among the distinguished
guests were General Nelson A. Miles and General H. C. Corbin.

_Saturday, June 11_. Reception tendered by the Executive
Commissioners' Association to the State Commissioners and World's Fair
officials. This was an informal affair for the purpose of bringing the
States' representatives into closer relations. The receiving line
consisted of Honorable J. A. Yerrington, President of the Association;
Mr. Charles A. Ball, President of the Executive Committee of the
Association; Mrs. F. B. Applebee; Mr. and Mrs. F. R. Conaway and Mr.
Stacey B. Rankin.

_Wednesday, June 15_. Luncheon by the State Commission in honor of
Mrs. William Berri, wife of Vice-President Berri, and Miss Stern, of New
York city. The guests were received by Commissioner Mrs. Norman E. Mack,
Mrs. Berri and Miss Stern.

_Friday, June 18_. Dinner given at 7 P. M. by Mr. Louis Stern,
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Commission, in honor of
President and Mrs. Francis. Mr. Stern was assisted in receiving by Miss
Stern and Mrs. Norman E. Mack.

_Saturday, June 25_. Dedication of the New York State building.
Exercises described in Chapter V.

_Thursday, June 30_. Reception given by the State Commission to
officers and members of the Council of the National Educational
Association and to New York State teachers. The guests were received by
Vice-President and Mrs. William Berri; Commissioner and Mrs. John K.
Stewart; Mrs. Dore Lyon; Honorable Howard J. Rogers, Chief of the
Department of Education of the Exposition, and Mrs. Rogers; John W.
Cooke, president of the National Educational Association; and Mrs.
DeLancey M. Ellis. An organ recital was played by S. H. Grover and
refreshments were served in the grand hall.

_Monday, August 1_. Reception given by the Executive Commissioners'

_Thursday, September 1_. Reception given by the Executive
Commissioners' Association.

_Thursday, September 8_. Reception given by Mrs. Dore Lyon to the
Hostesses' Association.

_Monday, September 12_. Electrical engineers tendered a reception
to the visiting engineers assembled in convention on the Exposition

_Monday to Wednesday, October 3 to 5_. New York State week.
Exercises described in Chapter VI.

_Tuesday, October 11_. Reception given by the Liberal Arts Club.

_Friday, October 28_. Dinner given by Commissioner Frederick R.
Green, who was assisted in receiving by Commissioner Mrs. Norman E.

_Tuesday, November 15_. Brooklyn day. Exercises described in
Chapter VII.

_Saturday, November 19_. Luncheon given by the Michigan Commission
to the Governor-elect of Michigan. The invited guests included
Vice-President William Berri and Secretary Charles A. Ball, of the New
York State Commission.

_Monday, November 21_. Reception and ball given by the Beta Sigma
Chapter of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. (This function was to have been
held in the Missouri building. The use of the State building was
extended on account of the destruction of the Missouri building by fire
on Saturday, November 19th).

_Tuesday, November 22_. Young people's dance. Courtesy to Missouri
Commission on account of fire.

_Thursday, November 24_. Thanksgiving day. Exercises described in
Chapter VIII.

_Friday, November 25_. Charity ball and Kirmess given by the ladies
of St. Louis for the benefit of the Martha Parsons Free Hospital for
Children of St. Louis, and for the fund for the Trades School for Girls
of New York. The majority of the guests were in fancy costume. In
addition to the regular dancing program there were special fancy dances.

_Monday, November 28_. Dinner given by the State Commission in
honor of Honorable Oscar S. Straus and Mrs. Straus, and Honorable St.
Clair McKelway and Mrs. McKelway. Vice-President Berri of the Commission
presided, and the guests were received by Vice-President and Mrs. Berri
and Mrs. Norman E. Mack, assisted by the guests of honor.

In addition to the above entertainments two musicales were given under
the auspices of Boellman Brothers; and the Pikers' Club, an organization
composed of attaches of the State building, gave a minstrel performance
at the Inside Inn on Monday evening, September nineteenth, for the
benefit of the Model Playground and Day Nursery.

[Illustration: ON THE LAGOON]


Dedication Day

The New York State building was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies on
Saturday, June twenty-fifth. The exercises were attended by Governor
Odell and invited guests, members of the State Commission, Exposition
officials, State and foreign representatives and many others.


The program for the day was as follows:

10:30 A. M. Concert on Plaza in front of State building by Weil's band
of St. Louis

11:30 A. M. Exercises in grand hallway, William Berri, Vice-President
of the Commission, presiding

Invocation by the Rev. Carroll N. Davis, Dean of Christ Church

Address of welcome by President David R. Francis

Address transferring State building to Governor Odell by Vice-President
William Berri

Acceptance by Governor Odell

Organ recital by S. H. Grover

8 to 11 P. M. Reception given to Governor and Mrs. Odell by the State

Music by the Haskell Indian band

The day opened bright and clear, the warm rays of the sun being tempered
by a cool breeze. The building was not opened to the public until the
conclusion of the band concert, which was held between 10:30 and 11:30.
As soon as the doors were opened a large audience quickly gathered to
take part in the formal exercises of the day. In the assemblage was an
interesting couple, Mr. Horace Stowell, aged 93 years, and wife, who had
journeyed from Madison, N. Y., a distance of over a thousand miles, to
be present at the dedication ceremonies and to visit the Fair.


Promptly at 11:30 William Berri, Vice-President of the Commission,
called the assemblage to order and introduced Rev. Carroll N. Davis, who
offered the invocation. At its conclusion Mr. Berri delivered his
address. The slight change in program was due to the fact that President
Francis was necessarily detained for a short time.

Vice-President Berri said:

"Governor Odell, it is with very great pleasure your New York State
Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition welcomes you in the New
York State building here erected upon the spot where a little over one
year ago you honored us by turning the first spadeful of earth for the

"Your Commission has endeavored to carry out your expressed wishes to
provide for the people of New York who may visit this wonderful World's
Fair, a building that shall fittingly represent the State of New York
and add its share with the other state buildings to beautifying the

"We are much pleased that it is a matter of record that not only was
this building complete in every detail and its doors thrown open for
inspection on the opening day of the Exposition, but also that all
exhibits under the control of your Commission, in the various
departments, most of which are very much larger than ever before shown
by New York State, were ready and in place at the moment President
Francis officially declared that the great St. Louis Exposition was open
to receive the world.

"We wish to thank President Francis and all officials connected with him
in this great undertaking, for the uniform courtesy with which we have
been treated, and for the valuable assistance that has been so
generously given to us in carrying out our plans.

"It has been a most pleasurable task. We have fully accomplished what we
have sought to attain. There is nothing lacking in the realization of
our anticipations. As to whether we have acted wisely it is for you to
judge. If, as the executive head of our State, it shall please you to
commend the results we submit for your approval, this will be the
proudest day in the history of the Commission."

As Governor Odell rose to respond to the remarks of Mr. Berri, he
received an ovation, for which he bowed acknowledgment several times and
finally raised his hand for silence. He spoke as follows:


_"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen"_

"We are here to-day to dedicate a building which represents the interest
of New York State in this great Exposition. Here, during the period when
thousands shall visit these grounds, those who owe allegiance to the
Empire State will find a place which will typify to them their home and
impress them, let us hope, to a greater degree with the vastness of our
State and of the position which it occupies in our commonwealth of
nations. To those who have been intrusted with the work we owe thanks
for the conception of their duty and for this magnificent edifice which,
in its strength and beauty of architecture, is symbolical of the Empire
State. In every phase of our nation's history, in all that has made it
great and powerful and respected, New York has been both conservative
and wise in the aid which it offered, powerful in the resources which it
furnished in the building up of our republic. From the time when the
courage and patriotism of our forefathers wrought out the nation down to
the latest acquisition of our territory there is no page of history
which does not tell of the devotion and statesmanship of New York's

"It is always a remarkable event in the history of the world when one
nation disposes of any part of its domain to another through peaceful
methods. War has almost always been the means through which nations have
expanded and pushed forward their boundary lines. Trade requiring an
outlet has more frequently been the cause of bloodshed than almost any
other national or international question. That our country, therefore,
at an early period in its history, should have been able, through
peaceful means, to secure the vast domain beyond the Mississippi is a
tribute to the statesmanlike policies of those who conceived its
purchase. True it may be that the wars of other nations aided in its
consummation, but it is also equally true that the man who was most
directly responsible for the purchase was a son of the Empire State. Nor
did the results of this early diplomatic victory stop here. The
principle thus established has frequently led to more peaceful methods
of adjusting questions of territorial boundary, both in our own and
other countries. It may be that much that has since been accomplished
through arbitration is but the evolution of this idea, and it may lead,
let us hope, to the time when such questions will no longer render
necessary the arbitrament of the sword.

"It was proper, therefore, that our State, in its dignity, with its
conservatism and with its intense patriotism, should be among the first
to contribute of its means to make of this Exposition the grand success
which it promises. With each succeeding international exposition the
world becomes wiser, artisans more skillful, the contributions to
science and art more valuable; in a word, they raise the standard of
civilization and hasten the time when all men shall pay homage to the
ruler of the universe. As inventions are developed which make the worker
more effective, which broaden the field of usefulness, there come
responsibilities and problems which require education and discernment to
meet and solve. Under the softened touch of Christianity, religion and
education there should come about a universal brotherhood of man broad
enough in scope to embrace all humanity. In all the work of the world,
in all that is for the development of man, in everything that holds out
promise to the future, New York State we may justly say, if not the
leader, is at least in the fore ranks. Its broad acres are rich and
fertile, and the commerce of the world enters at its ports. The
manufacturer finds willing hands with remunerative wages striving to
produce that which is necessary for our comfort and which adds so much
to the wealth of the nation. Its laws are broad and ample in their
scope, with no distinction as between man and man, and beneficent in
their operation, while our citizens evince impulses which are worthy of
emulation by all those who believe in the future of our republic. We
have more of wealth and a greater population than any other State within
the Union. Our cities are cosmopolitan in character, made up of
representatives of all nations, but so nicely adjusted are our laws that
they are assimilated into our population and become Americans among
Americans, actuated by a common patriotism and a common desire for the
continued development of our land.

"In these great halls, in these magnificent buildings devoted to art, to
education, to mechanics and to agriculture, exhibits are to be found
which are on a par if they do not excel, those of other nations. The
advancement of New York, however, is but typical of every other State in
the Union, in the continued prosperity of which all are equally
interested. A nation of separate States, there is no dividing line of
envy between them, no wish except for the prosperity and development of
each, a common hope for a common country. How necessary it is,
therefore, that in all that has to do with society a broad catholic
spirit should dominate and control. Ours is not a country of classes,
but one of equality--a country whose aim is the education of its
citizens. It is our common object to perpetuate the principles of
American independence. Anything that retards human progress, or that
would make of a man a mere machine without brains, is to be deprecated.
Our object should be to encourage and to promote thrift, and to instill
into the mind of every citizen a desire for advancement. In this
direction our State will be found always in the forefront and the
evidence of her greatness will be measured rather by the intelligence of
her citizens than by mere accumulation of wealth. Therefore, that which
protects labor, which encourages capital, should be the aim of modern
legislation. While we participate in the celebration of this great
national event, as we mark our progress along every line, we feel a
natural pride in all that has been done in other States, in all that has
been accomplished by other people. As we look into the future, as we
consider its possibilities, let us hope that our nation will never
forget that this government is one by the people, and that its power and
influence among the nations of the world will continue only so long as
due weight and consideration is given to the rights of individuals.
While rejoicing as citizens of New York, let us hope for the continuance
of those policies and principles which have made our nation prosperous,
and let us not forget that moderation and conservatism should be the
measure of our efforts, and all that we do shall be for the advancement
of all the people.

"The citizens of New York extend their congratulations to the people of
the west and northwest. We hope that from this great Exposition there
shall come a closer communication between all the people of the earth, a
broadening of human effort, the advancement of civilization and a
growing respect for our country and our flag which will make us a power
for the good and peace of the world.

"It is a great pleasure for me to accept on behalf of the State of New
York this magnificent building, and again to congratulate you as the
President of the Commission, and the architect who has wrought this
wonderful work, for the painstaking care that you have exercised in the
development of New York's interests in this great Exposition."

During the address of the Governor, President Francis quietly entered
and was introduced at its conclusion. He was warmly received and made a
characteristic address. He paid a warm tribute to the Empire State and
her Chief Executive, and complimented the State Commission upon the work
it had performed and spoke of the New York State building as one of the
social centers of the Exposition.

His remarks in part follow:

"Your distinguished son, Robert R. Livingston, was the man who first
negotiated for the purchase of Louisiana. No exposition would be
complete without a representation from the Empire State. The Exposition
management has already pointed with pride to the New York building, the
social functions of which have been among the marked attractions of the

"I am here to thank New York not only for her material contribution to
the World's Fair, but for the spirit her citizens have given to this

"We of the West flatter ourselves that we have arrived at that stage of
our progress when we can invite every people on the globe to come and
see for themselves what a century of Western civilization has

At the conclusion of the ceremonies Governor Odell held an informal
reception, during which Mr. S. H. Grover, of New York, played an organ


The State building was appropriately decorated for the evening reception
given in honor of Governor and Mrs. Odell, and many hundred guests
called to pay their respects between the hours of eight and eleven. The
receiving party consisted of Governor Benjamin B. Odell, Jr., Mrs.
Odell, Mr. and Mrs. William Berri, Mrs. Norman E. Mack, Mr. and Mrs.
John K. Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. John Young, Mrs. Daniel Manning, Mr. Frank
S. McGraw, Mr. Frederick R. Green, Mr. John C. Woodbury, and Mr. William
T. Van Brunt, representing President Harriman. The guests were presented
to the receiving party by Major Harrison K. Bird, private secretary to
the Governor. Two lines of United States marines guarded the approach to
the receiving line and prevented crowding and confusion.

Music was furnished by the Haskell Indian band and later in the evening
dancing was indulged in by many of the guests present. Supper was served
at ten o'clock at small tables on the verandas, the following being the




New York State Week

The week beginning October third was set aside by the Exposition
authorities as New York week; Monday, October third, being designated
"New York City Day," and Tuesday, October fourth, "New York State Day."


New York City Day was observed with exercises in the City Building on
the Model street at eleven o'clock in the morning, which were presided
over by Thomas W. Hynes, the Commissioner officially representing the
city. Mayor McClellan was represented by Charles V. Fornes, President of
the Board of Aldermen. There were also present an official delegation
representing the city. Addresses were made by Archbishop J. J. Glennon,
of St. Louis; Right Reverend Bishop McNamara, of New York city; Walter
B. Stevens, Secretary, and F. J. V. Skiff, Director of Exhibits of the
Exposition; Howard J. Rogers, Chief of Department of Education and
Social Economy, and others. Luncheon was served at noon at the Tyrolean
Alps, and from three to five in the afternoon a reception was held in
the City Building, which was attended by exposition officials, national
and state representatives, St. Louis society and many New Yorkers. In
the evening a sumptuous banquet was served in the Town Hall of the
Tyrolean Alps, which was presided over by Commissioner Hynes.


Governor Odell and staff and invited guests reached St. Louis Monday
morning, October third. At noon the Governor was tendered a serenade by
the Philippine Constabulary band of 100 pieces. On Monday evening a
dinner was given at the State building by the New York State Commission
in honor of the Governor and Mrs. Odell, and President and Mrs. Francis.
Owing to a death in the family, President and Mrs. Francis were unable
to be present. Mr. D. M. Houser, of the Board of Directors, represented
President Francis. There were no formal speeches, Governor Odell simply
regretting that President Francis could not be present.


The program for New York State day was as follows:

11 A.M. Concert by the Garde Republicaine band, of
Paris, France, on the Plaza in front of the State

12 M. Formal exercises of the day in the grand entrance
hall, Col. Edward Lyman Bill presiding
Invocation by Rev. Dr. William W. Boyd, of St.
Louis, formerly of New York
Address of welcome by Col. Edward Lyman Bill.
Address of greeting in behalf of Exposition Company
by Hon. Franklin Ferriss
Address by Governor Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.
Organ recital by S. H. Grover, of New York city

9 to 12 P. M. Reception and ball given by the New York
State Commission in honor of Governor and Mrs.
Odell. Dancing after ten o'clock

While not marked by the presence of militia and other spectacular
features which generally accompany the celebration of a State Day, the
exercises in the State building which were held at noon were most
dignified and impressive. The day opened clear and cool, and the
spacious verandas of the State building were well filled long before the
time set for the concert.


The Garde Republicaine band is composed of 100 skilled musicians and is
considered by many to be the finest band in the world. No musical
organization which visited the Exposition during the entire season
received more compliments or more flattering press notices than those
accorded this band. They played the following program:

1. March, "Lisbon"--L. Planel
2. Overture, "La Princesse Jaime"--C. Saint-Saens
3. Fantasie On the Opera "LeCompte Ory"--G. Rossini
Soloists, MM. Paradis, Laforgue, Joseph Barthelemy,
Morfaux, Couilland, Fournier
4. Three Celebrated Menuets--
(a) Menuet--L. van Beethoven
(b) "Ox" Menuet--J. Haydn
(c) Menuet Favori--W. A. Mozart
5. March, "Egyptian"--J. Strauss

At the conclusion of the formal exercises they were entertained at
luncheon by the State Commission. Through their leader, M. Gabriel
Pares, they expressed hearty appreciation of the courteous treatment
accorded them by the State of New York, and attested the same by playing
a second concert in front of the State building between the hours of two
and four in the afternoon. It was worthy of note that the building of
the State of New York was the only State building at which this band
played during its entire stay at the Exposition, their concerts being
invariably given either in Festival Hall or in the grand bandstand in
Machinery Gardens.


At twelve o'clock the assemblage was called to order by Colonel Edward
Lyman Bill. There were present Governor and Mrs. Odell, the Governor's
staff, a joint committee of the Legislature, members of the State
Commission, invited guests, several representatives of the Exposition
Company, representatives of State and foreign commissions, and a large
audience, many of whom had journeyed all the way from New York State to
be present at the ceremonies.

The personal party of the Governor consisted of Governor Benjamin B.
Odell, Jr., Mrs. Odell, Mrs. William Kelly, Mrs. S.L. Dawes, Mrs. Hall
and Miss Odell.

The Governor's staff comprised Brigadier-General Nelson H. Henry,
Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff; Major Harrison K. Bird, Military
Secretary; Lieutenant-Colonel Charles H. Sherrill, Aide-de-camp;
Lieutenant-Commander Alfred Brooks Fry, Naval Militia, Aide-de-camp;
Major Charles C. Davis, Thirteenth Regiment, Aide-de-camp; Major Richard
H. Laimbeer, Second Brigade Staff, Aide-de-camp; Major Amos E. McIntyre,
First Regiment, Aide-de-camp; Captain John T. Sadler, Thirtieth Separate
Company, Aide-de-camp; Captain Edwin W. Dayton, Twenty-second Regiment,
Aide-de-camp; First Lieutenant William L. Thompson, Twelfth Separate
Company, Aide-de-camp; First Lieutenant Chauncey Matlock, Third Battery,
Aide-de-camp; First Lieutenant Thomas Barron, Seventh Regiment,
Aide-de-camp; First Lieutenant Augustus S. Chatfield, Eighth Regiment,
Aide-de-camp; First Lieutenant Cornelius Vanderbilt, Twelfth Regiment,

The joint committee of the Legislature comprised Hon. Jotham P. Allds,
Norwich; Hon. S. Frederick Nixon, Westfield; Hon. James T. Rogers,
Binghamton; Hon. Edwin A. Merritt, Potsdam; Hon. Robert Linn Cox,
Buffalo; Hon. Thomas D. Lewis, Oswego.

Colonel Bill called upon the Rev. W. W. Boyd, of St. Louis, formerly of
New York, to invoke the Divine blessing.

Dr. W. W. Boyd:

"Our Father, we thank Thee for this beautiful day and this assembly of
the loyal sons and daughters of our native State. We rejoice that Thou
hast gathered us into families, and so into communities, commonwealths
and the perfect union of all the states.

"We bless Thee for the history of this great State, its part in the
glorious Revolution, in the preservation of the Union, its development
in every branch of human industry, its material prosperity, but above
all, for its humanities, its growth in philanthropy, education and

"Bless, we beseech Thee, His Excellency the Governor, and all associated
with him in making, interpreting and executing the laws.

"Bless the President, Directors and all who have helped to create and
develop this marvelous Exposition, especially the Commissioners of the
State of New York, who have erected this splendid building, and by the
varied exhibits in the palaces of the Exposition portrayed the wonderful
progress of the Empire State.

"And grant, O most merciful Father, that the fruits of this great
Exposition may be enlarged national prosperity, international comity and
peace, and the strengthening of the ties of human brotherhood throughout
the world.

"May Thy special blessing be upon the exercises of this hour; may the
words of our mouth and the meditation of our hearts be acceptable in Thy
sight, O Lord, our Strength and our Redeemer. Amen."

Colonel Bill then delivered the following address:


"On behalf of the New York State Commission I extend greeting and hearty
welcome to the official representative of President Francis, to Governor
Odell, our distinguished guests, to the sons and daughters of New York,
and to all who have honored us with their presence here to-day. It was
on this site, upon May 2, 1903, Governor Odell lifted the first spadeful
of earth where this beautiful structure has since been erected. Upon
that occasion New York was represented by our Chief Executive, his
staff, and troops numbering nearly fifteen hundred men from all branches
of the military and naval service of the State. On last April thirtieth
this building, sumptuously appointed, was formally opened to the public.
I may say, with pardonable pride, that the report which the Commission
made at that time showed that not only was our building complete in
every detail, but all of the State exhibits as well were ready for
inspection. The work of our Commission has been along pleasant lines,
and we have been constantly stimulated by hearty support from the
Exposition authorities. It is fitting that we should express our sincere
appreciation to President Francis and the sterling coterie of men with
whom he is surrounded for the aid and assistance which they have so
willingly rendered this Commission in every way. Our Governor has taken
a warm interest in New York's participation at this Fair, and on many
occasions he has made manifest his desire that New York's representation
should be ample and complete in every particular. In many of the
magnificent places, such as Education, Agriculture, Horticulture,
Forestry, Fish and Game, Mines and Metallurgy, our State has collective
exhibits which show her varied resources. In this beautiful structure
will be evidenced further proof of New York's generous participation in
this great Exposition. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition has a deep
interest for New York, for one of the principal figures instrumental in
bringing about that purchase was Livingston, a distinguished son of the
Empire State, and it was he who negotiated the treaty and was first to
sign it. And yet the real authors of that great transaction on this side
of the ocean were neither Jefferson, Madison nor Livingston, and I think
historians will agree with me when I say it was more the influence of
those hardy frontiersmen of Kentucky who demanded free navigation for
the magnificent inland river which rolls by us in its eternal flow to
the Gulf of Mexico. The influence of those men, the vanguard of
civilization, could not be disregarded by those who were at the head of
our governmental affairs more than a century ago. Then, the more we look
at this transaction, the more evident it is that the outcome of it was
due to that man whose shadow even now falls sharply athwart the whole
continent of Europe--Napoleon Bonaparte. It was his ambition which threw
into the grasp of the infant republic the splendid empire out of which
have been carved twelve sovereign States and two Territories. At that
time Napoleon uttered one of those far-seeing expressions which is
important in its prophecy. 'Perhaps,' he said, 'it will be objected to
me that the Americans of two or three centuries hence may be found too
powerful for Europe, but my foresight does not embrace such remote
fears. Besides, we may hereafter expect rivalries among members of the
Union. Confederacies that are called perpetual last only until one of
the contending parties finds it is to its interests to break them. It is
to prevent the danger to which the colossal power of England subjects us
that I would provide such a remedy.' No such vision of the future came
to our American statesmen, many of whom bitterly opposed the purchase of
the Louisiana Territory. When the bill came up for discussion on the
floor of Congress, Josiah Quincy, afterwards mayor of Boston, and for
many years president of Harvard College, said, speaking of the
incorporation in the Union of the territory of Louisiana: 'It appears to
me that this measure would justify revolution in this country. I am
compelled to declare it as my deliberate opinion that if this bill
passes, the bonds of this Union are virtually dissolved; that the States
which compose it are free from their moral obligation, and that, as it
will be the right of all, so it will be the duty of some to prepare
definitely for a separation, amicably if they can, violently if they
must.' He said further: 'If this bill passes, it is a death blow to the
Constitution.' Strange words, indeed, in our ears at this time, and it
shows that the American statesmen of those days had not the imagination
of Napoleon.

"What has this purchase meant to New York to have in this Union this
great empire? What has it meant to the Union itself to have this
splendid territory incorporated in it? It has meant for New York
prosperity and increased commerce to the people of all our land and
furnished homes for the sons and daughters of New York. The States
carved out of that great Empire have all borne their share in the heat
of our national life and they have contributed immeasurably to the
nation's growth and development, and we have come in this country,
notwithstanding the immense separation and diversity of interests, to
work together under one flag, with one interest for a common country,
and this great Exposition should teach not only us of the East but of
all other sections of the country that we should avoid the danger of
finding ourselves separate in sentiment from one another. In this great
western empire we all take a common interest, and the success of this
Exposition redounds to the credit and honor, not only of the men who
have carried it to such successful issue, but upon the whole country. We
all shine in the reflected glory of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
which shows the high-water mark of human progress. It is indeed the
greatest of all international fairs and a lasting credit to the artistic
skill of the men who planned and executed it. It is the culmination of
all that has been done in the wide expanse of territory purchased from
France in 1803, and the achievements of all nations in the world since
that day. It is a far cry from the early oriental fairs in the East,
which were perhaps the early ancestors of this great Exposition, and all
honor and credit and glory is due the men who stood shoulder to shoulder
in carrying this great enterprise to such a magnificent culmination. It
represents American skill, American enterprise, American endeavor, and
its influence will be felt upon this country long after those men who
have played their successful part in this great moving drama have passed
from earth. Words are inadequate to fittingly describe the beauties of
this magnificent Exposition. It is individual effort as well as
concerted effort which has brought about these splendid results. It is
one of the brightest pages in American history, and what glorious
memories a perusal of these pages arouse! We can turn the pages of
recorded history from the time when the boats of the adventurous Genoese
unfolded their white wings in the harbor of Palos and sped across the
unknown seas to bring back upon their return evidence of the existence
of a new world far across the wide waste of waters. In fancy we picture
that sturdy band kneeling with Columbus, richly attired, upon the tropic
sands, while over them floats the blood and gold banner of Spain, as the
priest clothed in vestments of his office asks the blessings of Almighty
God upon the land which Columbus claims in the name of the House of
Castile. In the background we see waving palms and dark-skinned men who
gaze with awe upon the white discoverers. In another scene we see the
cold wintry waves surge and dash around the frail craft fighting its way
across dark tempestuous seas from Plymouth, the little bark tossed like
a feather here and there until she lands on that rock-bound coast known
as New England. We see that little colony--Freedom's seed--germinate and
thrive; first the grain, then the tender plant, ever exposed to severe
conditions, then matured into the oak of a giant nation. We see those
brave colonists who have planted the banner of human liberty upon the
inhospitable shores push ever onward, ever extending the fringe of
civilization, struggling against disheartening obstacles, fighting wild
beasts and savage men, but pushing on with indomitable courage. We see
the historical gathering at Philadelphia, resulting in that document
embodying Jefferson's superb crystallization of popular opinion that
'all men are created free and equal and endowed with certain inalienable
rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness;' that American magna charta which swept away forever the will
of kings in this land. The people became the rulers and the accident of
birth carried no rank, conferred no privilege. We see the loosely joined
colonies building a nation which contained these elements of greatness
little dreamed of by those hardy pioneers who so generously gave up
their offering of blood on Freedom's altar. The kaleidoscope still
turns. We see those intrepid founders of the school of liberty pushing
their lines ever onward across rivers, deserts, over mountains clad with
eternal snow until the golden shores of California gladden the eye of
our valiant explorers. Then a pause, and over land and sea hang dark
clouds of fratricidal war. Four long years through the valleys and over
the mountains of the Southland surges the red tide of battle. The days
were dark and full of gloom, when lo! the clouds parted and the heavens
again were blue. The nation had been born anew, and on the fair pages of
her history appear no longer the dark stain of human slavery. The strong
arm of enterprise quickly washed away the red stain of war. The word
'America' had a deeper and more sacred meaning than before, and the
nation was re-established on the indestructible foundation of national
unity; the blocks were laid in the cement of fraternal esteem. Still the
picture which we see revolves. Across the waters of the Pacific America
sweeps towards the fulfillment of her world wide destiny. The Stars and
Stripes wave over the palace of the kings in Honolulu. Still again the
nation's sword is unsheathed in the cause of human liberty, and the last
vestige of Spanish power is swept from the new world. The thunder of
Dewey's guns awakens us to the fact that the American banner is planted
into the far Orient, there to stay forever, and under its protecting
folds manifold blessings are carried to the people of those islands
lying in the purple spheres of summer seas. While the drum of all
American progress is heard around the world, it too may be truthfully
said that the sun never sets upon the soil over which Freedom's banner
proudly floats, for when the light of the dying day is fading from Porto
Rican hills the golden rays of the morning sun are reflected upon the
shimmering folds of Old Glory on the gray old battlements of Manila.

"It is indeed inspiring, the history of this great nation, guided to its
ultimate issue as a stately ship is wafted over the seas to the harbor
of its destination. I wonder if in this ceaseless struggle for gold and
gain we pause long enough to study the true character of those men to
whose valorous deeds we owe so much, those men who planted the tree of
human liberty so deep that even the shock of revolution of succeeding
wars could not uproot it, those men who demanded of Jefferson a free
Mississippi and who made this Exposition possible. All honor to those
heroes who stood shoulder to shoulder in the days which tried men's
souls, who, in the gloom and suffering of Valley Forge, saw in the
distance the rainbow of hope shining over the dark clouds of defeat.
They saw the light of a great nation which would serve as a beacon in
the world progress and a refuge for the persecuted of the nations of
earth. All races contributed to the founding of this beloved country.
The roster of the Revolution is filled with names which show that the
liberty loving of all European nations gave up a generous offering of
blood on Freedom's altar. In our veins courses blood of all nations, and
it is the healthy commingling of that blood which has produced a race of
world conquerors. It has produced the men who have made possible this
great Exposition. We have been placed in the world's crucible, have been
melted in the glowing heat of a nascent life, and have been forged into
a weapon which shall carve the world. Our ideals are worthy, the hopes
and aspirations of the nation devoted to justice and love; ideals which
shall be the steadfast inspirer of nations and individuals to
uprightness, to justice and to honor."

The presiding officer then expressed regret at the unavoidable absence
of President Francis on account of bereavement in his family. He
introduced judge Franklin Ferriss, General Counsel to the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition Company, who delivered the following address:


"I regret extremely, for your sake and his, that the brilliant man who
stands at the head of this Exposition cannot be here to-day to greet you
in person. Still I must admit that I am not unmindful of the fact that I
owe to his misfortune and yours the very great privilege of appearing
before you to extend a welcome to the people of my native State.

"The President of the Exposition bids me say to you that there has been
no occasion on these grounds--that there will be none in the future--in
which he would more gladly participate than this.

"The Exposition management feels under peculiar obligations to the State
of New York. We are indebted largely to her prompt and liberal
co-operation for the high stand which the Exposition has taken. We are
indebted to the Governor, to the New York Commission, to the gracious
hostesses of this building, to the splendid woman who has, with rare
tact and dignity, co-operated with the Exposition as President of the
Board of Lady Managers.

"In the building of this Exposition, science, invention, art,
manufacture, the field, the forest, the mine, the air and the water have
contributed their choicest treasures. How well we have succeeded in
presenting them you must judge. But I wish to say to you that no matter
how high a standard we have reached, still more important than all else
is the representation upon these grounds of our splendid American man
and womanhood. No man can walk about this Plateau of States, view these
beautiful structures, see the people coming together from the north and
the south, the east and the west, uniting in common loyalty and respect
for our institutions, without feeling his heart swell with pride and

"It is no disparagement to our sister States, for me, a loyal son of New
York, to say that it is most fitting that the Empire State should be
pre-eminent here also in the beauty of her building, the character of
her exhibits and the magnificent representation of her people.

"I am proud of the State of New York--proud of her history, her
scholars, her statesmen, her soldiers--proud of her material
prosperity--proud of the great metropolis through whose gates thunders
the commerce of the United States.

"I love the State of New York--her broad and fertile valleys, her
stately rivers, the lakes which glisten like jewels on her bosom, her
mountains which rear their tops to the clouds; but most of all I love
the quiet life of the country home--the honesty and industry of the
plain people.

"Our old home! Who can forget it? The great barn with its huge beams and
fragrant mows of hay--the sparkling brook whose shining shallows bathed
my naked feet--the broad meadow with its fence corners of luscious
berries--the old schoolhouse, whose desks are impressed with generations
of jack-knives! Was there ever so sweet a draught as that which we drew
from the shining depths of the old well?

"And yet the country boy grew restless. With his ear to the ground, he
heard the distant hum of industry. He heard the tramp of a million feet
in the great cities. He felt that the battle of life was on, and, that
he must take his place in the struggle. And so he turned his back upon
the old home.

"Ah! how many grave faced fathers and tender, sweet faced mothers have
watched their boys, one by one, go out into the world, and have turned
back in solitude, cheered by an occasional visit, an occasional letter,
to wait until their days should be fulfilled. And how many of us must
now say that their days have been fulfilled, and that a simple stone
marks their last resting place in the village churchyard.

"What have we gained by this? Contentment? They had it. Respect of our
fellowmen? They had it. Success in life? They had it. True, their
fortunes were small--and yet they had no clutching fear that
speculation, fraud or treachery would rob them of the fruit of a life's
toil. And they had an abiding faith that there would be provision for
the years to come. Aye, that there would be provision for the last
journey to that land, where, according to their simple faith: 'The
wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest.'

"I will yield to no man in loyalty to the State of my adoption; but who
can chide me if my heart clings to the home of my childhood, to the
graves of my forefathers?

"If we, who have left the old home to build a new one in the West, can
be faithful to the traditions of our childhood--if we can bequeath to
our children the lessons of industry, honesty and economy which our
fathers gave to us--we shall do more to honor the State of New York than
we could do by rearing marble to the skies."

The presiding officer then introduced Honorable Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.;
Governor of the State, who received a great ovation, it being some time
before the Governor was able to proceed with his remarks. His speech was
punctuated with liberal applause.

He said:


"The diplomacy which led up to the acquisition of the Louisiana
territory furnishes one of the most interesting incidents in the world's
history. The establishment of a republic devoted to the interests of,
and affording liberty of conscience and freedom of action to its
citizens, was an experiment in government which could not have succeeded
if any restraint had been placed upon that liberty, or if its
constitution had not been broad enough to meet the demands of a growing
country. From the settlement of America down to the Revolutionary War
sanguinary strife had been the lot of the American people. The thrifty
Dutch and the stolid determined Anglo-Saxon sought not in this country a
mere temporary home, for, unlike the Spaniards, their dream was not of
gold, but rather their hope was for a liberty so broad and catholic in
its character that it would grow with succeeding years and make certain
that peace they had sought for in vain in the land of their birth.

"The earlier colonial and Indian wars had drawn upon the resources and
heroism of our forefathers. Hardship and toil had imbued them with a
consciousness of their strength and instilled into them that spirit of
independence which enabled them, after long years of strife, to
establish our republic. It was this people, after having gained their
independence, in the belief that foreign complications were forever at
an end, who, at the close of the Revolution, turned their attention to
peaceful pursuits and endeavored to meet every requirement of a growing
country. With characteristic skill and industry they began the
development of those tremendous resources of our country, the measure of
which is almost beyond human conception. Here, under liberal laws and
wise administration, the people found that which had been heretofore
lacking in the government of the world. Invention had not yet made
possible the intercommunication facilities which we of the present
enjoy. Upon water transit, therefore, they were obliged to depend for an
outlet for the commerce of their western territory. The barriers which
were sought to be interposed to communication over the mighty river
which rises in the northwest brought forth vigorous protests from those
who had just begun to cultivate its fertile fields. Angry passions were
aroused, and the people of our country who had been so successful in
carving out the republic demanded that this barrier should be removed.
Livingston and Monroe, clothed only with power to effect a treaty which
should insure this right of transit, with no possible opportunity of
quick communication with their government, took upon themselves the
responsibility which brought to a successful consummation the
relinquishment of this vast territory.

"Thus was brought to the people of the United States a question which
had never been contemplated by the framers of the constitution. That
instrument had been the production of the wisest men of the times. They
had successfully met the problem of drawing into an indissoluble union
the thirteen states, many of which were acting under peculiar laws which
were contrary to the Declaration of Independence, under which the
battles for freedom had been fought and won. While there was authority
for the admission of new states, there was no constitutional permission
for the purchase of territory. The power of the Federal government to
perform acts of sovereignty had not yet been passed upon, and there was
grave doubt as to the wisdom of ratifying the treaty without a
constitutional amendment. When we look over the results which have
followed this expansion of our country, when we calculate our manifest
growth in population, in wealth and in industry, all of these appear
insignificant beside the result which was accomplished in showing to the
world that we were living under a constitution broad enough in its
provisions to be so interpreted as to insure success to popular
government. That Jefferson and his advisers acted wisely in so
construing their power at that time is undoubted. If there were no other
achievements of that wonderful administration, then this alone would
suffice to make it a memorable one.

"Doubt, lack of courage and insincere opposition are always the refuge
of a coward. Here was a nation demanding that which was necessary for
its trade, desirous of reaching a solution through peaceful means if
possible, but determined to acquire it at all hazards if necessary.
There was no question as to the consent of those whom we took over, and
to whom we gave the protection of our flag, or as to nice points of
constitutionality, when the greater object in view was the onward
progress of civilization, the building up of hope and the fulfillment of
our destiny as a nation, to perpetuate those principles which mean so
much in the redeeming of the world. The exigencies of a later war found
a precedent in the courage of Jefferson and enabled Lincoln to wipe from
the escutcheon of state the blot of slavery which had too long tarnished

"That the acquisition of this territory was accomplished through
peaceful means rather than by bloodshed was another triumph for
civilization. While wars have come since, and may come in the future,
the plan of arbitration which has been adopted so generally by this and
other nations may perhaps have had its inception in this peaceful
solution of a burning and important question to this country. Our Union
now is one that is composed of commonwealths bound together by all that
means common interest, the common weal and common protection of all the
people. It leads to the hope that when the representatives of all of the
states have decreed by a majority that which is for the best interest of
the whole country, then these questions should no longer be the subject
of partisanship or party differences, but the government should have the
loyal support of all who believe in America and her future. The same
laws govern us, the same protection should be and is accorded to every
citizen, and there is no individual or isolated community that does not
share in the prosperity of all others whose interests are on the same
plane of equality. For a time natural advantages may unduly favor one
section of the country, but the accumulation of wealth brings about the
development of the natural resources by which other sections are built
up, and their people share in the general prosperity. Our State perhaps
has benefited more through the development of the west and the northwest
territory than almost any other commonwealth. The natural valleys which
permitted the building of the Erie canal and the connection of the Great
Lakes with the harbor of New York brought this territory in close
communication with the Atlantic seaboard. The growing demands of the
world led to the cultivation of the fertile fields of the west, the
development of the mines and the building up of cities and manufactures,
until to-day we have other ports whose facilities have been increased by
the improvement of waterways and the building of thousands and thousands
of miles of railroad. While there may be an apparent decrease in some
localities and a corresponding benefit in others, yet so intimate are
our connections and associations that the prosperity of one, instead of
being a menace to the growth of any other locality, really aids in
building it up. So diversified are our interests, so skillful our
people, that we may compare the whole Union to a great workshop, one
vast cultivated field of industry, all laboring, not for the advancement
of separate cities or localities, but for the continued growth of our
common country.

"It is only through ignorance that people have a misconception of these
truths. The development of the human mind is no less important than the
development of the physical condition of man. His education, therefore,
is a paramount duty of the state, and his protection against the
weakening of his physical condition is equally important. That
legislation has recognized these facts is shown in laws, not only of the
nation, but of each individual state, which seek to guard and protect
the youth against unwise labor, which seek to instill into his mind that
intelligence which comes only from wise and broad educational
facilities. Every able bodied citizen of our country is an asset, and
those who through weakness, however painful the admission may be, are
incapacitated from labor, must be entered upon the debit side of the
national ledger. Therefore, the laws that guard against burdensome toil,
too long hours of labor, and against ignorance, are not only
humanitarian in their character, but are best calculated to promote the
interest of all the people. In the division of society, those who labor
and those who represent capital should always be in accord, and the
demands of either should never trespass upon the rights of the other. It
is too frequently the case that through misunderstanding of our laws and
the higher economical conditions that friction does arise between these
two great elements of society. The right of every man to sell his
products or his labor in the best market is unquestioned, and any
interference with this principle of sound government is a menace to the
republic itself. We are reaching a point in our history when
conservative and wise judgment must prevail, and the common sense of the
people dictates such a solution of these problems as will meet every
demand that is in harmony with sound government. Our own State has taken
long steps in advance upon these questions, and to us with whom these
differences more frequently occur the people will look for wise
deliberations and conclusions.

"Every man should be a part of the government. He should feel it to be
as much his duty to respond to civic responsibilities as do those living
under a monarchy, whose early tuition instills in them the belief that
they owe the best part of their lives to the military service of their
government. As they are undeterred by fear of death or disaster, so
should our young men be undeterred from entering public life by calumny,
villification and abuse, which they see too frequently and too unjustly
bestowed upon others.

"New York is here to-day by its official representatives to testify
first to its loyalty to the purposes for which this Exposition was
conceived; to show the people of the West that in their progress we are
interested, and that to them we look for such returns in dividends upon
the stock of patriotism as will give to our nation men of energy, of
right impulses. To you we owe much, and from you we expect much. Our
efforts will be to aid you in every laudable undertaking, to stand
behind you in all that means the prosperity of our common country. You
have here an Exposition of which you may be justly proud. Nothing like
it has ever been known in the annals of the world. Skilled workmen from
all parts of the earth are here to aid in its success. Here you witness
not only the steady progress that has been made in the sciences, the
arts, and agriculture, but you have before you also exhibits from some
of the possessions which have recently come under our control. We may
study here some of the problems which demand solution at the hands of
the American people. Our flag has been planted in a far-off land, and we
must face responsibilities which it would be cowardly to shirk. A
message has come to us as to all other nations, to do the Master's
bidding and to spread christianity and civilization into the remotest
parts of the earth. To us have been intrusted duties that have cost us
the blood of some of the bravest men of the north and of the south, of
the east and west. Here we may see something of that which has been
accomplished, as well as a presentation of those conditions which it is
our duty to correct. It is our privilege to give to others the same
liberty which we enjoy ourselves, to establish some form of government
such as ours whenever these people are ready for it, and it is our duty
to protect them in their weakness until they are prepared for it. It was
the dream of our forefathers that our country should be confined between
these two magnificent oceans, but despite these hopes in later years
additional responsibilities have come, Which the American people are too
proud to shirk and too courageous to abandon. There is no one who has
seen the progress which is here represented who does not believe that
the work for civilization which is ours to perform has already had such
an impetus that the time will come when we shall bless those who had the
courage to stand for it against those who demanded another solution of
this important question. To our credit be it said, that no true American
demands the surrender of these possessions, and that the only question
of difference between the people of our country is whether they shall be
given their independence now, or when they are in a condition to enjoy

"This Exposition stands, not only as a monument to our progress, but to
our united and determined effort to take a prominent part in all that
means the advancement of mankind and the prosperity of the whole world.
We owe that which we are at present to the devotion and heroism of the
men of the past, and to protect and guard the inheritance which has come
to us should be our aim. To be broad and conservative in our conception
of our duties and responsibilities should be our purpose. To instill
into the minds of our youth a determination to meet every question with
true American courage should be our object. Every effort that makes for
the good of humanity is a fitting tribute to that national policy which
has taught us that there is no responsibility too great for our citizens
to bear, and that in the onward progress of civilization America
recognizes her duty and will not fail in its performance."

At the conclusion of the Governor's address the benediction was
pronounced by the Rev. W. W. Boyd, after which Governor Odell held a
public reception, shaking hands with several hundred people, who pressed
forward to greet him. During the progress of the reception Mr. S. H.
Grover, of New York city, rendered an organ recital. Luncheon was served
the Governor and party in the offices of the Commission, and the
afternoon was devoted to sight seeing.


In the evening was held the grand reception and ball in honor of
Governor and Mrs. Odell. Six thousand invitations had been issued for
the function, those invited including the President of the United States
and his Cabinet, judges of the United States Supreme Court, United
States army and navy officers, governors of all the states, New York
State officers, members of the New York State Legislature, judges of the
Court of Appeals and Appellate Division and Supreme Court, Exposition
officials, members of the National Commission, members of State and
Foreign Commissions, the Board of Lady Managers and many prominent
citizens of the Empire State and St. Louis. In spite of the fact that
the day assigned to the State of New York, a year before by the
Exposition Company, fell upon the date of the greatest festival of all
the year in St. Louis, viz., The Veiled Prophets' ball, which is similar
to the Mardi Gras festival at New Orleans, it did not affect the
attendance at the reception in the least, many people attending both
functions. Throughout the evening the capacity of the building was taxed
to the utmost by those who came to enjoy New York's proverbial

The exterior of the building and the grounds were illuminated on a
lavish scale by the Pain Pyrotechnic Company, of New York city. The
entire building was outlined by means of thousands of fairy lamps, and
many strings of Japanese lanterns were festooned from the roof line to
the veranda balustrade. Fairy lamps were used in profusion about the
grounds, forming unique figures, and at various points spelled the words
"New York." At no other function during the entire Exposition were such
elaborate illuminations attempted on the part of any state commission.
The interior decorations consisted of the National and Exposition
colors, gracefully wound here and there about the pillars, supplemented
by festoons of smilax, which was used in profusion in the entrance
hallway. Special music for the event was furnished by Fancuilli's band,
of New York city, and Schoen's orchestra, of St. Louis, which were
stationed respectively in the south and north galleries of the grand
entrance hall.


The receiving line was stationed at the foot of the grand staircase, the
guests entering at the south portal of the building and approaching
through the reception rooms.

Receiving with the Governor and Mrs. Odell were Mrs. Norman E. Mack,
Colonel and Mrs. Edward Lyman Bill, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Woodbury, Mr.
and Mrs. Frank S. McGraw, Mr. Frederick R. Green, Mrs. Daniel Manning,
Hon. S. Frederick Nixon, Mrs. Dore Lyon and Hon. James T. Rogers. The
guests were presented to the Governor by Major Harrison K. Bird, his
military secretary, two lines of United States marines guarding the
approach to the receiving party. The Governor's military staff,
resplendent in vari-colored uniforms, formed a line directly in front of
the receiving party, and, while adding eclat to the occasion, prevented
any crowding about the receiving line.

Supper was served at eleven o'clock at small tables upon the verandas.
The following was the menu:


Dancing began at ten o'clock and continued until the wee sma' hours.


The final event of State week was a breakfast given by the State
Commission on Wednesday noon in honor of Governor and Mrs. Odell, and
Mrs. Daniel Manning, President of the Board of Lady Managers. The
breakfast was perfectly informal, no set addresses being delivered.

The functions of the entire period were voted by one and all to have
been most successful in every respect, and New York again proved its
right to the title of a most gracious and generous host.



Brooklyn Day

One of the last special days to be observed during the Exposition was
Brooklyn Day, the exercises of which were held on November fifteenth. As
one of the speakers on the occasion aptly said, it was the only day
throughout the Exposition period which was formally set apart by the
Exposition management in honor of a political division less than a
municipality. A special train bearing a large delegation of
representative Brooklynites arrived in St. Louis Monday, November
fourteenth. Although the date was late in the season, the weather was
ideal, and everything was done for the pleasure and comfort of the
visitors. The ceremonies were divided between the New York State
building and the New York City building, upon the Model street, and
consisted of exercises at 11:30 A.M., followed by a luncheon at one
o'clock at the New York State building, and a reception at the New York
City building from eight to ten in the evening.


The program for the formal exercises in the New York State building was
as follows

Address of welcome, William Berri, Vice-President, New York State

Address, Hon. J. Edward Swanstrom, on behalf of the Committee of One

Permanent Chairman, Colonel William Hester, president of the Brooklyn

Response, Major Peter J. Collins

Address, Hon. Rolla Wells, Mayor of St. Louis

Response, Hon. Charles A. Schieren, ex-mayor of Brooklyn

Oration, Hon. Thomas P. Peters, editor of the Brooklyn Times

Aeolian organ recital

Promptly at 11:30 A. M. the assemblage was called to order by
Vice-President William Berri, who, in behalf of the State Commission,
extended a cordial welcome to all present. He then called upon J. Edward
Swanstrom, who made brief remarks in behalf of the Committee of One

At the conclusion of Mr. Swanstrom's remarks, Colonel William Hester was
installed as permanent chairman. Upon taking the chair Colonel Hester


"I am very sensible of the honor conferred upon me, but will be unable
to fulfill the duties, except in a most perfunctory way. It is very much
to be regretted that the Honorable Martin W. Littleton is not able to be
with us to-day. As the official head of the government of the borough,
he was to have presided on this occasion. In his absence Major Peter J.
Collins, who was at the head of an important department, will respond
for his chief. I now introduce to you Major Collins."


"_Your Honor, Mr. Francis, and ladies and gentlemen:_ In responding
as the representative of the administration of the borough of Brooklyn,
I feel that you must realize the unenviable position I occupy of
appearing on such brief notice and of acting as the mouthpiece of our
president, the Hon. Martin W. Littleton. Mr. Littleton instructs me to
convey his most sincere regrets to your honor, to Mr. Francis and to the
ladies and gentlemen constituting the Committee of One Hundred, on his
enforced absence on this occasion. As some of you are aware, there has
been an election in this land. Previous to this election there was
carried on what some of us supposed was a political campaign. This
campaign engaged the interest of every worthy citizen and public and
private affairs of business have been neglected to some extent as a
consequence. In the business of the borough Mr. Littleton is confronted
with a vast accumulation of matters of greatest importance to Brooklyn,
both in the local work and in the various boards and committee meetings
in Manhattan, and he has reluctantly concluded that his absence from the
city at this time would amount to an almost criminal neglect of his
duty. He asks me to convey to you the congratulations and good wishes of
the many thousands of our people who are unable to be with us to-day.
Brooklyn has had a deep sympathy with your fair city in this tremendous
enterprise, and has watched with keen interest and satisfaction your
success in overcoming the many difficulties that lay in your way.
Brooklyn herself has awakened from her sleep of almost ten years, and
the sound of the hammer and the saw and the ring of the trowel are heard
on every hand. Owing to the enterprise, energy and self-sacrificing
efforts of many of the men who are with us to-day, she is astonishing
the country by the wonderful increase in population. Brooklyn can no
longer be regarded as the bedroom of Manhattan, for Manhattan is rapidly
becoming only the workshop of Brooklyn; we can no longer be regarded as
the little brother of Manhattan, for we are rapidly becoming a very big
brother. Consequently, ladies and gentlemen of St. Louis, we feel
qualified to appreciate the satisfaction and joy you may justly feel in
this your hour of triumph, and we extend to you the right hand of
fellowship and congratulate you on this wonderful creation of yours,
that must go down in history as the greatest exposition in the history
of mankind."

Mayor Wells was unavoidably detained by an important engagement. The
Chairman then introduced Mr. Schieren, and in doing so said:

"This is no fairy story, yet I will commence it that way. Once upon a
time we of Brooklyn had a city all to ourselves. We were proud of our
city and very desirous that it should be well governed, and were careful
in the selection of men to fill its highest office, and thus it came to
pass that one of our most successful efforts in that direction was the
choice for mayor of our city of the gentleman whom I shall now present
to you, Ex-Mayor Charles A. Schieren."

Mr. Schieren was warmly received and spoke as follows:


"In the name of the Brooklyn delegation I thank you sincerely for your
cordial greeting and the hearty welcome extended to us. We fully
appreciate your kind hospitality. We have come here to enjoy this
glorious Exposition which already has attained such a great fame. Its
magnificence and grandeur, both as to the magnitude of its buildings and
their exhibits, is a surprise to every visitor. You may be proud of your

"This Exposition seems to exceed all others held in this country, and in
many respects those held in the world.

"The Centennial Exposition of Philadelphia, commemorating the foundation
of our government, gave our people the first idea of the extent and
scope of our labor-saving machinery and the advance made in the
manufacture of our American goods. It stimulated the manufacturing
interests in our country.

"The Columbian Exposition at Chicago commemorated the discovery of
America. It was noted for its excellent foreign exhibits. It gave our
people an opportunity to compare the products of America with those of
other nations. The so-called White City had a peculiar charm and made a
deep impression upon every one. It seemed a perfect dream, ever to be
remembered. People declared that it could not be excelled, but hardly a
decade has passed when the enterprising, energetic citizens of the
commercial metropolis of the great southwest arranged another World's
Fair to commemorate the historical events of the famous Louisiana
purchase, even upon a larger scale and overshadowing all others in this
country. We may exclaim justly--Will there ever be another Exposition
greater and more important than the one just about to close?

"We seem to marvel at nothing in this progressive age. We always wonder
what other marvellous inventions may be in store for us to necessitate
another Exposition upon a gigantic scale, to be held somewhere in this
country. Perhaps within another decade, when the Isthmian canal is
finished, the golden stream which will connect the waters of the Pacific
and Atlantic oceans, we may celebrate at the national capital city the
greatest event of the twentieth century, bringing to the commerce of the
world peace and plenty. At the same time we may hope to celebrate the
establishment of our American merchant marine, the one thing needed to
carry our American products and goods into the harbors of the world,
floating the Stars and Stripes now so seldom witnessed upon the ocean
vessels. This country seems to forge ahead at a rapid pace, not only in
its material wealth, but in everything that tends to the happiness of
our people, even the humblest citizens sharing in the general
prosperity. Every section has cause to rejoice--the South with its
cotton, the North with its financial resources, the West with its farm
products, the East with its industries, all seem to participate in the
general welfare of the country. In conclusion let me thank you again for
the courtesy extended to our people, and we wish you great success in
this stupendous enterprise."

At the conclusion of Mr. Schieren's remarks the presiding officer said:
"For many years the _Brooklyn Times_ was owned and edited by the
late Mr. Bernard Peters. He was a man of strict integrity, high moral
ideals, and a forceful writer. The editorial chair of the _Times_
is now occupied by his son, Thomas P. Peters, a worthy son of a worthy
sire. Ladies and gentlemen, I take pleasure in introducing to you the
orator of the day, Mr. Thomas P. Peters."

Mr. Peters was greeted with hearty applause as he arose. His oration in
part follows:


"To speak a word for Brooklyn at this time, I was not the first choice
of the Committee of Arrangements. Unanimously that honor was assigned to
one of Brooklyn's favorite sons. But sickness of a most serious nature
overtook him only a few days ago, and after a brief illness, he was
early last Wednesday morning called to his final rest. Although upon
pleasure bent, our hearts are sorrowful because of this loss to

"Joseph C. Hendrix had been prominent in Brooklyn life a quarter of a
century, prominent enough to have been nominated at one time for mayor
of the old city by one of the great parties. He served Brooklyn for many
years as president of its board of education; was its postmaster, and
also represented one of its districts in the halls of Congress. Of
recent years he had withdrawn from public life and devoted himself to
the financial world. There he soon assumed a commanding position as bank
president, and his organizing abilities were constantly in demand. He
was one of Brooklyn's great men, and I regret that he is not here to-day
to fill the position for which he was so well fitted. Our borough is
rightly in deep bereavement because of the taking off of this, a
faithful servant.

"This party of Brooklynites has come over 1,000 miles to celebrate at
this magnificent exposition a day set apart for itself. We come not from
a sovereign State. Neither do we come from an independent city. We come
from but part of a great city. I will venture to claim that Brooklyn Day
at the St. Louis Exposition will be the only day set apart for any
municipal body holding a place by law of less dignity than that of a
city. Why, then, does Brooklyn send us out to make her name known here
and to extend her greetings to St. Louis? Because for years Brooklyn was
a city, and with more independent citizens to the total population than
were to be found in any other part of the known world, and she is still
true to her history. She had then a spirit that was the very
personification of municipal patriotism. She could tear down a dishonest
political rascal with greater celerity than any other city in the land.
She kept her two great parties equally balanced; each a foil to the
other, each a stimulant to the other for good government, and upon the
average she enjoyed better service than American cities usually obtain.

"It is almost seven years since Brooklyn lost her cityhood. During that
time she has been a dependent borough within the great city of New York.
Many thought that when that transition took place Brooklyn would lose
her old-time spirit, her pride would be humbled and she would sink into
the slough of despair, but we are here to-day to make known to these
United States that Brooklyn's old-time courage is as high, her spirit is
as heavily charged with municipal energy and her pride is the same pride
as of old.

"Brooklyn is a peculiar community. She differs from all others. The wits
have long fed upon her. General Horace Porter has called her a city of
4,000,000, 1,000,000 of whom are alive. Another has said that there are
two places to which every dead New Yorker goes, either to heaven or to
hades and to Brooklyn. He may escape one or the other of the two former.
He cannot escape the latter. Simeon Ford has declared that Brooklyn lies
midway between the quick and the dead, midway between reckless,
extravagant and wicked old New York and sober, sombre and serene
Greenwood. McKinley ran for President upon the issue of the full dinner
pail. The students of Princeton College recently asserted that Roosevelt
was running upon the issue of a full baby carriage. The President must
have secured his inspiration from the manner in which the cartoonists
always pictured the Brooklyn man, behind the perambulator. We ourselves
recognize that Brooklyn is peculiar and unusual. Her like is not known
to the world. That fact is proved to an extent by my former assertion,
that Brooklyn is the only community without municipal rank that will
have here a day of her own. The fact that we are here in body and that
she is here in spirit clearly shows that the old courage is still in her
heart. Brooklyn may be only a borough, she may be only an 'abutment for
bridges,' as President Littlejohn once feared she would become, but she
is to-day the same independent Brooklyn she was back in her cityhood,
and she is as proud of the things that make her great as many of the
cities of the things that make them merely flashy.

"Her former spirit lives; it lives because since consolidation Brooklyn
has assumed a commanding place in the councils of the greater city.
Brooklyn has chosen as her three borough presidents men of force, who
have been recognized as leaders by all the boroughs. At first the
borough government was a mockery of a government. It was only a
government in name. Our first president, Edward M. Grout, chafed under
its restraint. He demanded that the boroughs be allowed a voice in city
affairs, and that local improvements be given into the charge of borough
officials. To him the State Legislature listened, and his successor in
that office found himself with something beside the shadow of power, and
his administration was a marvel to Brooklyn in what it achieved. Other
boroughs looked on in envy, while J. Edward Swanstrom set a pace so
rapid that its like will be difficult to produce. Our first president,
Mr. Grout, became the comptroller in the second administration of the
greater city. The comptrollership of New York city is as important as
that of Secretary of the United States Treasury. Brooklyn was then and
is yet the dominant force in the life of the metropolis. The entire city
recognized Mr. Grout to be a man acquainted with even the minutest
details of the city's government. Brooklyn's place at the table of the
board of estimate was a commanding one with Swanstrom and Grout in their
seats, and to-day her representation there is equally good. Mr. Grout is
still there. In the place of Mr. Swanstrom sits Mr. Martin W. Littleton,
and by him the name of Brooklyn has been made famous from ocean to
ocean, and throughout the entire South, for in him Brooklyn has a
mouthpiece that thrills, and through him she speaks with a tongue of

"Since consolidation Brooklyn has been the second borough in point of
population and of wealth, but in statesmanship, in oratory and in
achievement she has stood pre-eminent. And while many believed that
after consolidation she would lose her independent spirit, she has
rather increased her old pride in herself, and this pride has been
fostered and strengthened because of the worthy sons who have
represented her in the government of the great city of New York, two of
whom we have brought with us, that St. Louis, at times herself deceived
by those she trusted, may look upon their like for once at least. Loyal
to Brooklyn have been Grout, Swanstrom and Littleton, and thus inspired,
has Brooklyn proved loyal to herself and faithful to her traditions.

"Brooklyn is a gigantic borough. She is three times as large as Buffalo,
the home of the Pan-American Exposition. She is twice as large as St.
Louis, the home of the present Exposition. Brooklyn territorially is
large enough and properly adapted to hold a population of 7,000,000, and
still remain less congested than the present borough of Manhattan.
Brooklyn is devoid of many of the characteristics that mark other great
cities. She is almost totally lacking in hotel life. A city of one-tenth
her population would have more hotels. But municipal greatness never
rested upon hotel life. It breeds corpulence, not courage. It
discourages the rearing of children, a thriving industry in Brooklyn.
Brooklyn has not the wealth in proportion to her size that she should
have. Brooklyn sat for long years under the shadow of old New York,
contributing to the wealth of the metropolis, but obtaining nothing in
return. Her population contributed to the real estate values upon
Manhattan island. Her factories and forges made many of the fortunes
that were spent across the East river. Only since consolidation have we
received any dividends upon that ever increasing investment. We now pay
$14,000,000 into the city treasury and take $17,000,000 out annually.
Brooklyn has often been described as the bedroom of old New York. The
description was apt, for Brooklyn has always been a city of homes, a
city of those of moderate means, a city of respectability. Brooklyn has
never been able to boast of her wealth, as other cities, nor has she had
to blush for her poverty and depravity as some other cities have.

"She has, however, been able to vaunt herself in the matter of those
things which by nature are companions of the home. She has always been
noted for her great churches, and has had the finest pulpit orators of
the day, and now she is as strong in that direction as she ever was in
the past. Her private schools have been known far and wide, while so
long as she controlled her public schools, they, too, stood extremely
high. Since consolidation they have fallen somewhat behind the march. In
dividing government among the boroughs, Mr. Grout achieved much. Where
the greatest good was done was where centralization was left with the
least sway. In school matters centralization rules absolutely, and to
that extent the schools have been forcibly drawn away from the people,
and the development has lain in the direction of complexity of
educational system, rather than in that of perfecting the children in
the rudiments of scholarship. Of late years we have taught our boys how
to sew, even if we did neglect their spelling. This increases the number
of special teachers, adds to the city's bills, but enables the school
superintendents to read splendid reports of new and special courses when
they attend pedagogic conventions. Your Exposition loaded New York's
educational authorities with medals and prizes and honorable mentions. I
would not censure you for this. No men ever worked harder for such
honors. The trouble is they work too hard over frills and neglect the
essentials. Were your judges to-day to hold an examination among our
grammar scholars upon the three subjects, reading, writing and
arithmetic, I am inclined to believe that you would send hurry orders
for the return of many of those prizes.

"In school matters Brooklyn is at a loss no further than are the other
boroughs of the greater city. She is at a loss because Mr. Grout's
advice was not taken. In short, we so highly prize our sewers, our
streets and our pavements that we directed that they be given directly
into our own charge and under our own borough president, and then we
held our children in such light esteem that we surrendered them into the
keeping of a centralized board of education, which is in turn in the
keeping of the board of superintendents, in which body Brooklyn has but
a small voice. It has reminded me of those people who personally care
for their own dogs and horses and leave their children to servants and
hired tutors. The system has been wrong. The wrong system has been made
top-heavy. The results have been poor.

"Brooklyn has developed the home life of America to a greater extent
than any other city has done. She has few palaces. She has few hovels.
She has a great army of American mothers and fathers that are bringing
up the next generation of men and women, and she is rearing them in
thousands of comfortable homes, where body develops with mind and where
the spiritual welfare is an important factor.

"Brooklyn has a park system of which she is proud to-day, and of which
she will grow prouder. In Prospect Park she has a jewel, in the very
heart of the community. In Forest Park she has a promise of great future
development. That new park lies upon high ground overlooking a vast
section of the borough and exhibiting to the eye the bay of Jamaica and
the ocean beyond. Forest Park is richly endowed by nature, and it will
in the days to come be in beauty above either Prospect or Central.
Brooklyn has great driveways leading to the ocean along her harbor front
and out into Long Island, and she has laid out many small parks and is
still engaged upon that work.

"In library matters Brooklyn to-day is well supplied. The system is most
extensive and has been rapidly developed. It is another indication of
what can be done when a department is decentralized. The Brooklyn Public
Library is under the control of Brooklyn men. The board of estimate
makes it an annual allowance. Andrew Carnegie gave to Brooklyn
$1,600,000 for library construction. With that money twenty branch
libraries are to be erected in time. Five are up; one is in operation.
To-day there are over twenty branch libraries; most of them are in
rented quarters, and they circulate over one million books a year among
the people.

"As another indication of the life of Brooklyn brief reference should be
made to the Institute of Arts and Sciences, the great college of those
beyond school years. It has been referred to as the intellectual bargain
counter of Brooklyn. It offers at very moderate prices literary,
historical, musical instruction and entertainment and lectures in all
the sciences. It is well supported, and the city is building it a
central building that will be the Mecca of the ambitious and the
cultured. No other city in the land supports such an institution, and it
is a great credit to us.

"Brooklyn's spirit is due in a great measure to the nature of the press
that caters to her. Her newspapers are intensely local in character.
They give to her institutions such support as is not given to the
institutions of any other city in the United States. It is this that has
encouraged an intelligent and independent breadth of mind in Brooklyn.
She keeps alive the old New England custom of a close watch over her
government and of a constant discussion of all public questions.
Englishmen are noted for their unremitting guard of their personal
rights. They are not to be compared in this with Brooklynites who, in
spite of a callous railroad system, still persist in demanding their

"Her press has called into being all over Brooklyn numerous boards of
trade and taxpayers' associations, and they, encouraged by the attention
given to them, devote themselves to their neighborhoods. Edmund Burke
referred to the journalists as a fourth estate. Aptly might we regard
these trade boards as a second government. Highly are they respected.
Many reforms, especially in transportation matters, have they achieved.

"I have outlined to you some of the features of Brooklyn life. She is in

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