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New York at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis 1904 by DeLancey M. Ellis

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ST. LOUIS, 1904







ALBANY, N.Y., _March_ 25, 1907

Hon. CHARLES E. HUGHES, _Governor_:

DEAR SIR.--We beg to submit herewith, in accordance
with the provisions of the statute, the final report of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of the State
of New York.

Very respectfully



_Secretary and Chief Executive Officer_

[Transcriber's note: Certain cross-references originally appearing as
"See page N" have been changed to refer to chapter and section



1. Introduction and historical sketch

2. Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, State of New York

3. New York State Building

4. Functions held in the New York State Building

5. Dedication Day

6. New York State Week

7. Brooklyn Day

8. Thanksgiving Day

9. Educational exhibit and schedule of awards

10. Fine arts exhibit and schedule of awards

11. Agriculture and live stock exhibit and schedule of awards

12. Horticulture exhibit and schedule of awards

13. Forest, fish and game exhibit and schedule of awards

14. Mines and metallurgy exhibit and schedule of awards

15. Social economy exhibit and schedule of awards

16. Financial statement

Table of Full Page Illustrations
[this table did not appear in the original book]


(See section "THE ARCHITECTURE" in chapter III)
267 DE LANCEY M. ELLIS, Director of Education and Social Economy
CHARLES H. VICK, Superintendent of Horticulture
J. H. DURKEE, Superintendent of Agriculture and Live Stock
HARRY W. WATROUS, Chairman Committee on Art
INSTALLATION" in chapter IX)
(see section "STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES" in chapter XV)
(see section "STATE DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS" in chapter XV)
(see section "SLATE" in chapter XIV)
(see section "ATTRACTIVE FEATURES" in chapter XIII)
(see section "STATE DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS" in chapter XV)
(see section "STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES" in chapter XV)
(see section "STATE COMMISSION IN LUNACY" in chapter XV)

* These photographs are also labelled "Copyright 1903 [or 1904],
by Pirie MacDonald, Photographer of Men, N.Y."


Introduction and Historical Sketch



The Louisiana Purchase Exposition was held in the city of St. Louis in
1904, in commemoration of the acquisition in 1803 of the vast territory
west of the Mississippi, then called Louisiana. The transfer is
generally regarded as one of the most important events in our national
history and stands on record as the greatest acquisition of territory
ever made by peaceful methods. An American historian of great prominence
says: "The annexation of Louisiana was an event so portentous as to defy
measurement; it gave a new face to politics and ranked in historical
importance next to the Declaration of Independence and the adoption of
the Constitution."

The territory was ceded to France by Spain by the secret treaty of San
Ildefonso in 1800. This aroused to intense excitement the people of the
West, who were inclined to give credit to the rumor that the army of
forty thousand men sent by Napoleon (who was responsible for the
negotiation of that treaty) were in reality to take military possession
of Louisiana and the Floridas instead of to suppress the insurrection in
San Domingo, the ostensible object. France and England had been
struggling for many years for supremacy in the Western Continent, and in
the possession of this vast territory Napoleon foresaw a prosperous New
France. But there were many complications arising at home. Important
political questions demanded attention, and the great Napoleon soon
realized that he could not hope to cope successfully with the two great
problems lying at such a great distance apart.


At that time our country was interested in procuring possession of the
site of New Orleans and the free passage of the Mississippi river
forever for all American citizens, and negotiations were opened for
their purchase by Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of
Independence, and at that time third President of the United States.

During the negotiations Napoleon suggested the transfer of the whole
Louisiana territory and the transaction was brought to a most successful
conclusion, the signers of the treaty being James Monroe, Robert R.
Livingston, and F.B. Marbois, the representative of Napoleon. It was a
significant bargain. By it Napoleon formed closer bonds of friendship
between France and the United States, and prevented any possibility of
the territory falling into the hands of Great Britain. He prophesied
that this Republic would eventually become a world power and a
commercial rival to England. How completely his prophecy was fulfilled.
Our country attained possession of a vast territory embracing more than
a million square miles, an area greater than the combined areas of the
British Isles, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands and
Italy, the consideration being a figure less than that representing the
value of a single square block in any one of our great cities, or an
amount much smaller than has been yielded by any one of many mines
within the boundaries of the territory. Twelve flourishing states and
two territories have since been carved out of Louisiana, and the center
of our population is rapidly moving towards that region which was once
known as the wilderness of the West.


It is a matter of the utmost gratification that the State of New York
played so important a part in this great event in the person of Robert
R. Livingston, who was then United States Minister to France. Dr.
Livingston, the title of LL.D. having been conferred upon him by the
University of the State of New York, was one of the leading statesmen of
his day. A graduate of Kings (now Columbia) College, he began his career
in the practice of law in New York city, and was made Recorder of the
city in 1773. Elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, he was
appointed one of a committee of five to draft the Declaration of
Independence, but enforced absence from Philadelphia made it impossible
for him to sign the document. He was soon after elected Chancellor of
the State of New York, and as such administered the oath of office to
George Washington as first President of the United States. His previous
training in public affairs admirably fitted him for assuming the
important duties leading to the transfer of the Louisiana territory, and
to him as much as to any individual belongs the credit for the
successful consummation of the transaction.

At the Exposition a handsome statue of Livingston, by Lukemann, was
erected in the Cascade Gardens, on the approach to the West Pavilion.
Upon the front of the New York State Building appeared this legend:
"Robert R. Livingston of New York, Minister to France 1801-1805,
inaugurated the negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase and was the
first to sign the treaty."


The first action looking towards the commemoration of the Louisiana
Purchase was taken at a meeting of the Missouri Historical Society in
September, 1898, when a committee of fifty citizens was appointed to
take the preliminary steps looking to the observance of the occasion.
This committee recommended the submission of the question to a
convention of delegates, representing all the Louisiana Purchase states,
and at this convention, which was held at the Southern Hotel, St. Louis,
January 10, 1899, it was decided to hold a World's Fair as the most
fitting commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the
acquisition of the Louisiana territory. An executive committee, with the
Hon. David R. Francis as chairman, was appointed to carry out the
undertaking, and this committee determined that at least $15,000,000,
the amount paid to France for the territory, would be needed.


Congress passed a bill in June, 1900, carrying a provisional
appropriation of $5,000,000, and pledging governmental support if the
city of St. Louis raised $10,000,000. The people went to work with a
will and had raised $5,000,000 by popular subscription early in January,
1901, and the following January thirtieth an ordinance was passed by the
St. Louis Municipal Assembly authorizing the issuance of $5,000,000 in
city bonds. On March twelfth President McKinley appointed a National
Commission of nine members, and in August issued a proclamation inviting
all the nations of the world to participate in the Exposition. Owing to
labor difficulties and delay in securing construction material it soon
became evident that it would be impossible to hold the fair during the
year 1903, as originally planned. Legislation being necessary in order
to provide for the necessary postponement, a bill was passed by Congress
and approved by President Roosevelt June 25, 1902, authorizing the
holding of the fair in 1904 instead of 1903, as originally determined.

Beginning with the basic appropriation of $15,000,000, [Footnote: In the
winter of 1904 a bill was passed by Congress authorizing a Government
loan of $4,600,000 to the Exposition Company, to be repaid in
instalments from the gate receipts. The loan was entirely canceled
early in November, 1904.] as described above, to which had been added
$1,000,000 appropriated by the State of Missouri, the great enterprise
was projected on a $50,000,000 basis. It was planned to make the
universal Exposition at St. Louis the most comprehensive and wonderful
that the world had ever seen. How well its projectors succeeded is a
matter of recent history. How completely all previous expositions were
eclipsed has been told many times in picture and in print.


The site chosen for the Exposition included the western portion of
Forest Park, one of the finest parks in the United States. Its naturally
rolling ground afforded many opportunities for effective vistas, which
were quickly embraced by the Exposition Company's landscape artists.
Containing 1,240 acres, it was a tract approximately two miles long and
one mile wide.

The grounds might be said to have been divided into two general
sections, the dividing line being Skinker road. To the east was the main
picture, so called, which was formed by the grouping of eight
magnificent exhibit palaces around Festival Hall, the Colonnade of
States and Cascade Gardens.


Festival Hall stood upon a rise of ground well above the principal
exhibit palaces, and its majestic dome surmounted by a gilded figure of
"Victory," the first "Victory" to take the form of a man, was visible
from most any part of the grounds. The grouping of the exhibit palaces
was geometric in arrangement, in shape like an open fan, the ribs of the
fan being the waterways and plazas between which the exhibit palaces
were located.


The architecture, while varied and in some instances striking, was still
so modified as to make a most harmonious whole. For purity in
architecture the best example was the Palace of Education, which was
built on the lines of the Italian Renaissance. For most striking
architectural effects the Mines and Metallurgy building was invariably
pointed out. It was of composite architecture, comprising features of
the Egyptian, Byzantine and Greek. The stately obelisks which guarded
its entrance ways and the bas-relief panels which formed its outer
facade, were objects of universal interest.

To the southeast of the main group of buildings, and gracefully
clustered among the trees, were the state pavilions. Along the extreme
northern portion of the grounds for a mile stretched the amusement
highway, known as the Pike.


To the west of Skinker road were located the Administration buildings,
and, with one or two exceptions, the pavilions of foreign governments,
the Agriculture and Horticulture buildings, the Philippine Reservation
and the Department of Anthropology. The Intramural railroad, seven miles
in length, passed the principal points of interest and enabled visitors
to get about the grounds with speed and comfort.

To convert this great tract of land into a beautiful park with well-kept
roadways embellished with velvety lawns and magnificent flower beds,
would seem to be a task greater than man could perform within the short
space of time available for the completion of the Exposition. That it
was done, and well done, is a matter of history.


It was early determined that the great Fair should be one of processes,
as well as of products; wherever possible there should be life and
motion; that the exhibits should answer the question, "How is it done?"
as well as "What is it?" The result was that the Exposition became a
constantly changing scene of moving objects and an educational force
many times greater than any of its predecessors. The student of
Mechanics, Electricity, Pedagogy, the Applied Arts, and other kindred
subjects could obtain here within a limited area valuable data, which
otherwise could only be collected at the expense of much time and
considerable money.


The formal dedication ceremonies covered three days, beginning April 30,
1903, the actual date of the Centennial Anniversary of the signing of
the treaty, and one year previous to the opening of the Exposition. Our
commonwealth was fittingly represented at that time, a special
appropriation of $50,000 for the same having been made by the
Legislature. Governor Odell and staff, State officers, a joint committee
from the Legislature and the members of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Commission attended. There were also present a provisional
regiment of infantry of the National Guard, under command of Colonel S.
M. Welch, N.G., N.Y.; a provisional division of the Naval Militia under
command of Lieutenant E.M. Harman, Second Battalion; and Squadron "A" of
New York, under command of Major Oliver H. Bridgman.


The program for the first day consisted of a grand military parade in
the morning and exercises in the Liberal Arts building at two o'clock in
the afternoon, followed by fireworks in the evening. The day was cold
and unpleasant, and a chill wind blowing from the north caused visitors
to seek comfort in heavy wraps.

The Governor of the State of New York and her troops met with a
continuous ovation along the line of march of the great military parade,
and from every side compliments and felicitations were bestowed upon the
State's representatives for so hearty and imposing a participation in an
event a thousand miles from home.

The occasion was graced by the presence of the President of the United
States, Theodore Roosevelt, and by ex-President Grover Cleveland, both
of whom made extended remarks at the afternoon exercises.


The address of President Roosevelt was replete with historical allusions
and pointed epigrams. He drew many lessons from the valor and patriotism
of the early settlers of the west, and said, among other things:

"Courage and hardihood are indispensable virtues in a people; but the
people which possesses no others can never rise high in the scale either
of power or of culture. Great peoples must have in addition the
governmental capacity which comes only when individuals fully recognize
their duties to one another and to the whole body politic, and are able
to join together in feats of constructive statesmanship and of honest
and effective administration. ... We justly pride ourselves on our
marvelous material prosperity, and such prosperity must exist in order
to establish a foundation upon which a higher life can be built; but
unless we do in very fact build this higher life thereon, the material
prosperity itself will go for but very little. ... The old days were
great because the men who lived in them had mighty qualities; and we
must make the new days great by showing these same qualities. We must
insist upon courage and resolution, upon hardihood, tenacity, and
fertility of resource; we must insist upon the strong, virile virtues;
and we must insist no less upon the virtues of self-restraint,
self-mastery, regard for the rights of others; we must show our
abhorrence of cruelty, brutality, and corruption, in public and in
private life alike."


Ex President Cleveland delivered an eloquent panegyric and in closing

"... We may well recall in these surroundings the wonderful measure of
prophecy's fulfillment, within the span of a short century, the spirit,
the patriotism and the civic virtue of Americans who lived a hundred
years ago, and God's overruling of the wrath of man, and his devious
ways for the blessing of our nation. We are all proud of our American
citizenship. Let us leave this place with this feeling stimulated by the
sentiments born of the occasion. Let us appreciate more keenly than ever
how vitally necessary it is to our country's wealth that every one
within its citizenship should be clean minded in political aim and
aspiration, sincere and honest in his conception of our country's
mission, and aroused to higher and more responsive patriotism by the
reflection that it is a solemn thing to belong to a people favored of


The second day was designated "Diplomatic Day," and was devoted to a
luncheon to the visiting diplomats in the Administration Building,
followed by exercises in Festival Hall, at which time addresses were
made by Honorable John M. Thurston of the National Commission, who was
president of the day; Honorable David R. Francis, president of the
Exposition Company; M. Jean J. Jusserand, the French Ambassador, and
Senor Don Emilio de Ojeda, the Spanish Minister. In the evening a
brilliant reception was given to the Diplomatic Corps at the St. Louis


The third day, Saturday, May second, was officially designated "State
Day," and the exercises consisted of a huge civic parade, which consumed
two hours in passing a given point, and exercises at two o'clock in the
Liberal Arts building, over which ex-Senator William Lindsay of the
National Commission presided. Addresses were made by Governor Dockery,
who welcomed the governors and delegations from the various states and
by Governor Odell of New York, who responded. His brilliant address,
which was frequently punctuated by applause, follows:


"_Governor Dockery, Ladies and Gentlemen:_

"There is no phase of American history which should inspire us with
greater pride than the consummation of the purchase of the Louisiana
tract, an event which opened the pathway to the West, and made possible
the powerful nation to which we owe our allegiance. Trade, the
inspiration for travel, which brought about the discovery and
civilization of the Western Hemisphere, would have demanded inevitably
the cession to the United States of the vast regions beyond the
Mississippi. Except, however, for the peaceful and diplomatic measures
adopted through the wisdom of Thomas Jefferson, this territory could
only have been acquired by the sacrifice of human life and the
expenditure of untold treasure. That Robert Livingston, a citizen of the
Empire State, became the ambassador of the great commoner at the court
of France and that it was due to his skill and intelligence that
Napoleon was brought to an understanding of the conditions as they
existed and of the determination of our then young Republic to prevent
the building up of foreign colonies at our very threshold, is a cause
for congratulation to the people of the State I represent, and renders
the duty which has been assigned to me, therefore, doubly pleasant.
Memorable as was this event, and of great importance to the future
growth of the Republic, it left its imprint not only upon America, but
upon Europe as well. Through it the Napoleonic ambition to develop a
vast plan of colonization which threatened the peace of the world was
thwarted. The dismemberment of the French possessions which soon
followed resulted in the grouping together of the various states of
Europe into vast empires whose relations with our country are such that
encroachment or territorial aggrandizement upon this hemisphere are
forever impossible. Spain, whose waning power was then apparent, was no
longer a menace, and thus rendered possible the acquisition of the
remaining stretch of territory which made our possessions secure from
the Gulf to the Canadian line. While, therefore, as Americans we are
prone to the belief that if the necessity had arisen we should have been
able to wrest this rich and fertile territory from even the strongest
hands, it is well for us to understand, however, that even the diplomacy
of which we boast would have been futile except for the failure of
Napoleon in San Domingo and his pressing need of funds to permit him to
face the enemies of the French. 'Westward Ho!' was the cry of the Old
World. From the time when the genius of Columbus accepted the theories
of the earlier astronomers the imagination and cupidity of adventurous
spirits had been excited by tales of 'far off Cathay.' One hundred years
ago the protocol for this territory was signed; one hundred years of
history has been written; a nation of three millions has expanded into
an empire of eighty millions of souls. Our country has not only become a
power among the nations of the world, but has taken an advanced position
in the progress and work of civilization. A westward passage to India
was sought by Columbus and was still the aim of La Salle in his
adventurous voyage along the mighty Mississippi. To-day the American
flag floats at the very gates of China, and almost in sight of its
walls, placed there by American valor and by American arms in a struggle
for human rights, and liberty. Trackless forests and undulating prairies
have become the highways for the speeding engines bearing the burdens of
traffic to the Orient. No longer are they the pasturage for the buffalo,
but the source of food supply for the whole world. Treasures of untold
value have been laid bare by the ingenuity of man, but far beyond this
wealth are the products in grain and lowing kine which add their
hundreds of millions to the resources of our country, extending even
beyond the dreams or the imagination of those who sought only the
precious metals with which to return with a competence to their native

"This is but the span of a century and to commemorate its glories we
come from the eastern section, from the earlier colonies to congratulate
the people of the West upon the results which we as a nation have
achieved. So few the years, yet how notable the history. Upon this soil
began those battles which ended in the emancipation of the slave. From
this border, and almost from within this territory, came the great
Emancipator, a man who struggled with the vicissitudes of fortune in
early life, who aided in developing the great West, and whose name will
be forever enshrined as the one who in his act as chief magistrate of
this country removed the stain which the earlier Dutch had fastened upon
our body politic like a 'festering sore.' The past, with all of its
achievements, with all of its successes, is to us but an incentive and
guide for the future progress of our country. America still beckons to
the oppressed of all lands and holds out the gifts of freedom, and we at
this time, and upon this occasion, should renew our adherence to those
policies which have made us great as a nation. The future is before us,
and the patriotism and self-sacrifice of those who made the country's
history so glorious should be an inspiration to us all for higher ideals
of citizenship. Through the golden gates of commerce pours an unceasing
stream of immigration, which must be amalgamated with American ideas and
American principles. From the earlier settlers has come a blending of
the vigor of the Anglo-Saxon with the Teutonic and Latin races,
resulting in that composite type which we are wont to recognize and
regard as the type of the true American. Aside from the commercial and
industrial results which followed the acquisition of this vast and
fertile territory, and the building up of the large marts and towns
which everywhere blend with its magnificent scenery, the definition of
the power and extent of our Constitution was most important. At its
inception, coming at a time when the framers of the Constitution were
not only able to interpret their work, but to give to it their moral
force and support, it was demonstrated that no constitutional
limitations should retard the onward growth, the onward rush of American
civilization, until it should have reached the farthermost bounds of the
far-off Pacific. The barriers to human progress were by this
interpretation removed and ranges of new States have given effect to the
democratic principles of our great Republic, and have made of our
country a Union--not of weak, impotent States--but a commonwealth of
nations, bound to each other through a centralized government by ties of
allegiance, common interest and patriotism, where freemen rule and where
suffrage is more esteemed than wealth.

"These rights and their protection should receive our earnest thought.
The battles of the past have been for freedom and liberty, and the
struggles of the future will be for their preservation, not, however, by
force of arms, but through the peaceful methods which come through the
education of our people. The declaration which brought our Republic into
existence has insured and guaranteed that liberty of conscience and that
freedom of action which does not interfere with the prerogatives or
privileges of a man's neighbors. Capital and labor are the two great
elements upon which the prosperity and happiness of our people rest, and
when, therefore, aggregations of the one are met by combinations of the
other, it should be the aim of all to prevent the clashing of these
great interests. The products of toil are worthless unless there be some
means by which they can be substituted or transferred for that which
labor requires. The concrete form in which these transactions are
conducted is the money power or the capital of the land. Without work
all of these fertile fields, these teeming towns, would have been
impossible, and without a desire to benefit and elevate humanity, its
onward progress would have been useless. To work, to labor, is man's
bounden duty, and in the performance of the tasks which have been placed
upon him, he should be encouraged, and his greatest incentive should be
the knowledge that he may transmit to his children and his children's
children a higher civilization and greater advantages than he himself
possessed. Trade conditions which would permit to the toiler but a bare
sustenance, the bare means of a livelihood, would be a hindrance to
human progress, a hindrance not to be removed by all of the maxims of
the philosopher or the theories of the doctrinaire. Promise without
fulfillment is barren, but when you can place before the mechanic the
assured fact that the performance of his duty means success in life, and
that his non-performance means failure; when you can show him that this
law is immutable, you have made of him a useful citizen and have
instilled into his mind a firm belief that the freedom and liberty of
which we boast is not an inchoate substance to be dreamed of and not
enjoyed. But this desired result cannot be secured if combinations of
capital, which produce the necessaries of life cheaper and better, are
assailed as the enemies of mankind. There is always a mean between those
who seek only a fair recompense and return for that which they produce,
and those who seek undue advantages for the few at the expense of the
many. The laws which have been enacted, if properly executed, are
sufficient in their force and effect to encourage the one and to punish
the other, but in our condemnation let us not forget that with the
expansion that has come to our country, an expansion of our business
relations is also necessary. This growth has brought us into intimate
contact with the markets of the world, and in the struggle that is
always before us, the competition of trade, if we are to hold our own
among the world's producers, we should encourage and not hinder those
who by their energy, their capital and their labor have banded together
for the purpose of meeting these new conditions--problems which our
individual efforts alone cannot solve, but which require the
concentrated force and genius of both capital and labor. Incentive for
good citizenship would indeed be lacking if there were taken from us the
opportunities for development, the opportunities for the young man to
follow in the footsteps of those who have written their names in the
history of our country as the great captains of industry. Success will
always follow perseverance and genius. Every heresy, every doctrine
which would teach the young man of this country differently, is an
insult to the intelligence of our people, and is in the direction of
building up a dangerous element in American society which in time would
threaten not only the peace and prosperity we enjoy, but our very
institutions themselves. When you have placed before the young man all
of his possibilities, you have made it impossible to make of our
Republic a plutocracy controlled by the few at the expense of the many.
The individual should count for as much as the aggregation of
individuals, because an injury to the one will lead to the destruction
of the many. The question of adjusting and harmonizing the relations of
capital and labor is the problem before us to-day and is one which will
become more urgent in the future. Its solution must be along those lines
of constitutional right which every citizen has been guaranteed. Every
man is entitled in the prosecution of his work to the broadest possible
liberty of action and the protection of law, of that law which is the
outgrowth of necessity and which seeks to encourage and not to oppress.
Such recognition can always be secured if there is a determination upon
the part of those charged with the responsibility of government to have
it. And who is not? Every man possessed of a ballot is responsible and
has the power, not only to formulate but to criticise and to punish as
well. If this right be properly exercised, an honest and efficient
administration of our affairs can always be secured. To aid in this work
we have given to the press the broadest possible liberty, a freedom
which, however, should never be abused. It should never be used as the
medium for the circulation of charges or of calumnies which are without
foundation, and which please but the fancies of those in whose minds
there always exists envy and discontent. Such a misuse of privileges
should be condemned by all right-minded citizens. In its virtuous
indignation with those who abuse public place and power, it should be
careful to do exact justice because in our busy and active lives we have
come to depend to a very great extent upon the wisdom and the honesty of
these who edit our newspapers for the information rightly to judge of
the conditions, events and necessities of our country. By means of the
press, and with an intelligent citizenship, we may always feel sure that
there will come into our public life influences for good which will
render our government more stable, will add to its renown and to its
glory and will insure for all the perpetuation of those principles which
have come down to us through the wisdom of our forefathers and which
have been amplified by the knowledge of succeeding generations.

"The greatest solvent for political heresies, for doctrines which are
antagonistic to popular government, is education. To the educated mind
there comes a conception of duty which is not possible to the ignorant.
The great colleges and schools with which we are blessed are performing
a vital work, and these institutions for developing a higher order of
citizenship are of far more worth and of greater importance than all of
the ships of war or the arms of the nation in maintaining and upholding
those policies which have been adopted for our protection against
foreign and domestic foes. But it is not alone a theoretical education
which is necessary for this higher citizenship. It must be linked with
the knowledge which comes of the study of the character, of the manner
and methods of other nations than our own, which leads the artisan to
inspect and to improve upon the ingenuity of his fellows of other lands.
It is this feature in the exposition which is to take place upon this
ground next year that is particularly significant and important in the
solution of the problems to which I have referred. It is the contact,
the friendly rivalry thus created, which brings about a betterment and
improvement of conditions. It is appropriate, therefore, that at the one
hundredth anniversary of this great event of our nation's history, we
should gather here all of the ingenuity and the genius of the past and
the present, that we may contrast and make note of our progress. This
will be an inspiration for us in the performance of our duty, and will
add to our affection for our native and adopted land, and thus make of
America a still greater power for good. A patriotic people is possible
only when there exists a love of country which has been inspired by the
stories of the past. It is the stories of the glorious past which
encourage us to grapple with the problems of the present and to look
with disdain upon those who fail to solve them. What fills our mind with
more gratitude; what inspires us with greater heroism; what instills
more patriotism than the struggles of the early colonial wars? The
Anglo-Saxon energy which swept from this continent the dominion of those
who sought only wealth, and which substituted the thrift of the voyagers
of the _Mayflower_ and of the settlers of Jamestown--which Speaks
of the battles with the Indians, which tells of the glories not only of
victories but of the defeats of the heroes of the Revolution--all are
incentives for purer and better citizenship. And so, too, as we recall
the struggles to the death of the descendants of these earlier settlers
in the greatest civil war that the world has ever known, let us to-day,
both in charity and in patriotism, remember them all as heroes. While we
may differ as to the principles for which they fought, there is no
conflict of opinion, no divergence in thought, which bids us to-day to
withhold our admiration for all those who took part in that great
struggle. It was but a page in our nation's history, but a page shaded
by human blood. It was but the working out the will of Divine
Providence, so that from its baptism of blood our republic might emerge
greater, stronger and more powerful than ever before, that there might
thereafter be no sectional hate, no dividing line in the patriotism of
our people. This it is which should inspire us to-day. More progress, a
further advance in civilization, the extending of a helping hand to the
afflicted and the welcoming word to the oppressed, should be concrete
evidence of America's greatness and of the devotion of her people. Then
it will be that our flag, now honored and respected, honored because of
the power and the intelligence of our people, will take on additional
lustre and additional significance as that of a nation that has accepted
its duty to protect humanity at home and abroad, and to stand as the
pacificator and preserver of the peace of the world."

At the conclusion of the afternoon exercises Governor Odell reviewed the
New York State troops on the plaza in Forest Park. The review was held
in the presence of a large assemblage and was an inspiring sight.


One year later, on April 30, 1904, the Exposition was formally opened to
the public; elaborate exercises being held at eleven o'clock at the foot
of the Louisiana Purchase Monument on the Plaza St. Louis. There were
present a distinguished assemblage, including a delegation of the Senate
and the House of Representatives, the National Commission, the Board of
Lady Managers, representatives of foreign governments, Governors of
States and their staffs, State Commissions, United States Government
Board, Exposition officials, and others. The exercises were opened by a
prayer by Rev. Frank W. Gunsaulus of Chicago, which was followed by an
address by President Francis. The Treasurer of the Exposition, William
H. Thompson, as chairman of the committee on grounds and buildings,
introduced Isaac S. Taylor, who delivered the gold key to the buildings
to President Francis and presented diplomas to his staff. An address
followed by Director of Exhibits F.J.V. Skiff, who presented commissions
to his staff, the chiefs of the various exhibit departments. Next
followed addresses in behalf of the city of St. Louis by Hon. Rolla
Wells, Mayor; in behalf of the National Commission by Hon. Thomas H.
Carter, its President; in behalf of the United States Senate by Senator
Henry E. Burnham; in behalf of the House of Representatives by Hon.
James A. Tawney. New York State was especially honored in the selection
of the president of her commission to speak in behalf of the domestic
exhibitors. Hon. Edward H. Harriman was then introduced by President


After briefly complimenting the President and Directors of the
Exposition, Mr. Harriman said:

"Our 'Domestic Exhibitors' could have no higher testimonial than that
furnished by the magnificent buildings and grounds of this Exposition.
We have here combined in brilliant variety the charms and beauties of
garden, forest, lake and stream, embellished by these splendid
structures, forming an harmonious whole certainly not equaled by any
former Exposition. All credit is due the President and Directors, whose
intelligence and untiring labors have conquered all obstacles and
brought this World's Fair to a most auspicious and successful opening.
One cannot view the result of their labors without being deeply
impressed with the magnitude of their undertaking, and when we consider
the exhibits which have been assembled within these grounds, we are led
irresistibly to an appreciation of the multitude of forces which
contributed to this great work, and particularly to the co-operation
which must have existed to produce the result before us.

"I have the honor on this occasion to speak for our 'Domestic
Exhibitors.' They are well represented by their works before you, and by
these works you can know them.

"These exhibits represent in concrete form the artistic and industrial
development of this country, and in viewing them one cannot but be
impressed with the great improvement in the conditions affecting our
material and physical welfare and with the corresponding advancement in
our intellectual and esthetic life.

"Let us consider for a moment the processes by which this result has
been reached. We have here collected the products of our artistic,
scientific and industrial life. The raw materials of the farm, the
vineyard, the mine and the forest have been transformed by the skilled
artisan, the artist and the architect into the finished products before
you. By the co-operation of all these resources, of all these
activities, of all these workers, this result has been accomplished.
From the felling of the trees in the forest, the tilling of the soil and
the mining of the ore, through all the steps and processes required to
produce from the raw material the complicated machine or the costly
fabric, there must have been co-operation, and all incongruous elements
and resistant forces must have been eliminated or overcome.

"The chief factor, therefore, which has contributed to these results is
the co-operation of all our people. The first law of our civilization is
the co-operation of all individuals to improve the conditions of life.
By division of labor each individual is assigned to or takes his special
part in our social organization. This specialization of labor has become
most minute. Not only is this true in scientific and philosophic
research, in professional and business life, but in the simplest and
earliest occupations of men, such as the tilling of the soil, the
specialist is found bringing to the aid of his industry expert and
scientific knowledge.

"... In the division of labor and the resultant specialization of human
activity we have necessarily different classes of workers, some of whom
have adopted the co-operative idea by forming organizations by which
they seek to better their conditions. No doubt each class of workers has
its particular interests which may be legitimately improved by
co-operation among its members, and thus far the labor organization has
a lawful purpose, but while standing for its rights it cannot
legitimately deny to any other class its rights, nor should it go to the
extent of infringing the personal and inalienable rights of its members
as individuals. On the contrary, it must accord to its own members and
to others the same measure of justice that it demands for itself as an

"In working out this problem there has been much conflict. Indeed,
according to human experience, such conflict could not entirely be
avoided, but in the end each class must recognize that it cannot exist
independently of others; it cannot strike down or defeat the rights or
interests of others without injuring itself. Should capital demand more
than its due, by that demand it limits its opportunities, and,
correspondingly, the laborer who demands more than his due thereby takes
away from himself the opportunity to labor. No one can escape this law
of co-operation. Self-interest demands that we must observe its just
limitations. We must be ready to do our part and accord to all others
the fair opportunity of doing their part. We must co-operate with and
help our colaborer. We should approach the solution of each question
which may arise with a reasonable and, better still, a friendly spirit.
He who obstructs the reasonable adjustment of these questions, who
fosters strife by appealing to class prejudice, may justly be regarded
by all as an enemy to the best public interests....

"In conclusion, permit me to advert to the Louisiana Purchase, which we
are now celebrating, and call attention to the importance of that event
in securing to our people the fullest benefit of the co-operative idea.
Manifestly, if our Government were restricted to the original territory
of the United States, as defined by the Treaty of 1783, we must have
encountered in many ways the opposition of governments, some of them
European, which would have occupied the territory beyond our original
south and west boundaries. Our trade and commerce moving from or to our
original territory would, necessarily, have been largely restricted by
hostile foreign powers. The Louisiana Purchase not only more than
doubled our territory by adding a country rich in material resources,
but gave us control of the Mississippi river, and made possible the
acquisition of the Oregon Territory, the Mexican cessions and the
annexation of Texas. ...

"Though much has been done towards the development of this imperial
domain, yet we may truly say that we have only seen the beginning of
that development. The possibilities for the future are boundless. With a
land of unparalleled resources, occupied by a people combining the best
elements of our modern civilization and governed by laws evolved from
the highest and best progress of the human race, no eye can foresee the
goal to which a co-operation of all these forces must lead."

The Mexican Commissioner, A. R. Nuncio, spoke in behalf of the foreign
exhibitors. The concluding address was made by Hon. William H. Taft,
Secretary of War, who attended as the special representative of the
President. At its conclusion the President of the United States, in the
White House at Washington, pressed a key that started the machinery,
unfurled the flags, set the cascades in motion, and thus opened the


To the question "Was the Louisiana Purchase Exposition a success?" the
answer must be an unqualified affirmative. The value of any great
exposition cannot be measured in dollars and cents any more than it can
be measured in pounds and ounces. The great Fair at St. Louis was not
projected as a money-making undertaking. It was held to commemorate a
great event in American history and was designed to arouse a popular
interest in the story of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory and
its glorious results; to more closely knit together the peoples of the
earth in good fellowship and brotherly love; to give to all nations an
opportunity to demonstrate to each other their progress in material
things; to awaken in the American people a sense of civic pride and a
determined resolution to maintain and advance the prestige which they
now enjoy among the nations of the earth. Having fulfilled all this, who
shall say that the Exposition has been a failure?


The State of New York has every reason to be proud of her connection
with the great Fair, not only in her official participation, which
through the generous action and hearty support of the Executive and the
Legislature was on a most liberal and comprehensive scale, but many of
her sons were prominent in its building, in the creation of its artistic
effects, and no less in the administration of its various departments.
At the very inception of the work New York was honored in the
appointment of Martin H. Glynn, of Albany, N. Y., as a member of the
National Commission. Mr. Glynn was afterwards elected Vice-Chairman of
the Commission and was one of its most active members. Laurence H.
Grahame, of New York city, was Secretary of the National Commission. His
genial personality, his wide acquaintance and his long experience in
newspaper work admirably fitted him for the duties of the position,
which he performed with fidelity. Mrs. Daniel Manning, of Albany, was
President of the Board of Lady Managers. The position was one requiring
marked executive ability, dignity and tact. Mrs. Manning performed the
arduous duties falling to her lot with a grace and cordiality which won
for her the love and esteem of the official delegates to the Exposition
from throughout the world. She was signally honored on many occasions
and is one of New York's most distinguished daughters. Judge Franklin
Ferriss, the general counsel for the Exposition Company, and one of St.
Louis' most eminent lawyers, went forth from our State many years ago to
seek and find his fortune in the West.


Of the thirteen chiefs of departments in the division of exhibits New
York lays claim to six. The Department of Education and Social Economy,
as well as the Department of Congresses, was under the direction of Dr.
Howard J. Rogers, now Assistant Commissioner of Education of the State
of New York, and formerly Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction;
also United States Director of Education and Social Economy at the Paris
Exposition in 1900.

Milan H. Hulbert had charge of the great Department of Manufactures and
Varied Industries. Mr. Hulbert is a native of Brooklyn and a graduate of
the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He was in charge of the Department
of Varied Industries for the United States Commission to Paris in 1900.
The Art Department was presided over by Professor Halsey C. Ives, now of
St. Louis, but formerly of New York State. The old school house in which
he received the ground work of his education still stands at Montour
Falls, Schuyler county. Professor Ives was also Chief of Arts at the
Columbian Exposition in 1893. The Chief of the Department of Machinery,
Thomas M. Moore, is a native, and has always been a resident, of New
York city. He was in charge of the Departments of Machinery,
Transportation, Agricultural Implements, Graphic Arts and Ordnance at
the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo.

Of late years Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, Chief of the Forest, Fish and Game
Department, has been a resident of New York State. In 1895 he became the
director of the Aquarium in New York city and rebuilt that
establishment. He was Chief of the Department of Forestry and Fisheries
for the United States at the Paris Exposition in 1900.

The Chief of the Department of Physical Culture, James E. Sullivan, has
always been a New Yorker. He is an acknowledged athletic record
authority and editor of the official athletic almanac. He was in charge
of the American contingent that competed in the Olympic games at the
Paris Exposition, and was also director of athletics at the Pan American


The heroic equestrian statue "The Apotheosis of St. Louis," generally
considered one of the finest works of its kind, which stood at the very
gateway to the Fair grounds, symbolizing the cordial welcome extended by
the city to her guests from every part of the world, was the work of
Charles H. Niehaus, of New York city. The sculpture of the Louisiana
Purchase monument, the surmounting figure typifying "Peace" and the base
decoration of groups representing scenes connected with the purchase,
was by Karl Bitter, chief of sculpture of the Exposition, another New
Yorker. Just in front of the monument and looking upon the grand basin
were four groups portraying frontier life, entitled "The Buffalo Dance",
"A Step to Civilization", "Peril of the Plains", and "A Cowboy at Rest",
all being the work of Solon Borglum, another New Yorker. The crowning
artistic and architectural effects of the whole Fair were embraced in
Festival Hall and the Cascades. These were the work of two New York men,
Cass Gilbert and Emanuel S. Masqueray. Mr. Gilbert was the architect of
Festival Hall and Mr. Masqueray designed the Cascades and the Colonnade
of States. Mr. Masqueray had other notable pieces of work in evidence
about the grounds.

The Palace of Manufactures, standing just to the east of the Plaza St.
Louis, was the work of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings, also New Yorkers.
It was regarded as one of the most successful structures upon the
grounds from an architect's point of view and it was appropriate that to
New York men should have been intrusted the construction of the building
in which exhibits of manufactures were displayed, in view of the
pre-eminence of our State from a manufacturing and commercial

And so throughout all the departments of the great Fair and throughout
the season, one constantly encountered those who by some tie were bound
to New York. Many of her sons who had gone forth in their youth came
back and called at the New York State building and recalled some
pleasant incident of the old days or made grateful acknowledgment of
some benefit which had come to them from their native state. One of the
most delightful features of all the experiences of those who had the
honor officially to represent the Empire State at St. Louis was the
meeting of the sons and daughters who had long since left home.


The gates had scarcely closed for the last time when the work of
destruction and demolition began. All of the beauties of the dream city
which for seven months had been the admiration of thousands and an
inspiration to all to do higher and better things, were swept away
almost in a night and soon the whole scene will be restored to a park.
To those who had come to love its majestic structures, its placid
waterways, its attractive vistas and its fairy like illumination, comes
a pang of regret tempered with the feeling of gratefulness that it ever
existed and that it was their privilege to witness it secure in the
knowledge that it shall always be theirs to remember and to dream of.
Most effectually was the whole story told in an address on Chicago Day,
by Ernest McGaphey, a poet from that city.

"In its truest sense this Exposition is epic and dramatic. The mere
prose of it will come to lie neglected on the dusty shelves of
statisticians, but its poetry will be a priceless legacy to generations
that will follow. And thus there is one light only which may not fade
from the windows of Time--one glint to illuminate the flight of the
dying years--that gleam which lives in fancy and in memory.

"And when this vision of magic departs; when the ivory towers have
vanished, and the sound of flowing waters has been stilled, there will
exist with us yet the recollection of it all. And so at the end the most
enduring fabric known to man is woven of the warp and woof of dreams.
The canvas of the great painters will crumble, the curves of noble
statuary be ground into dust by Time, and all this pageantry of art and
commerce disappear. But memory will keep a record of these days as a
woman will treasure old love letters, and in the last analysis the
height and breadth, the depth and scope of this splendid achievement
shall be measured by a dream."


The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, State of New York


The first steps looking toward the official participation of the State
of New York in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were taken by the
Legislature of 1902, which passed the following act, receiving executive
approval on April 7, 1902:


An Act to provide for the representation of the state of New York at the
Louisiana purchase exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri, and making an
appropriation therefor.

Became a law, April 7, 1902, with the approval of the Governor. Passed,
three-fifths being present.

_The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
Assembly, do enact as follows:_

SECTION 1. The governor is hereby authorized to appoint twelve
commissioners to represent the state of New York at the Louisiana
purchase exposition to be held at Saint Louis, Missouri, beginning on
the first day of May, nineteen hundred and three, and ending on the
thirtieth day of November, nineteen hundred and three, and for the
purposes of this act such commissioners shall be known as the "Louisiana
purchase exposition commission." Such commission shall encourage and
promote a full and complete exhibit of the commercial, educational,
industrial, artistic and other interests of the state and its citizens
at such exposition, and shall provide, furnish and maintain, during the
exposition, a building or room for a state exhibit and for the official
headquarters of the state, and for the comfort and convenience of its
citizens and its exhibitors.

2. The members of the commission shall receive no compensation for their
services, but shall be entitled to the actual necessary expenses
incurred while in discharge of duties imposed upon them by the
commission. Such commission may provide a secretary whose compensation,
to be fixed by it, shall be at the rate of not to exceed twenty-five
hundred dollars a year for all services to be performed in carrying out
the provisions of this act, and may also provide such other clerical
assistance and office facilities as it deems necessary, but no salaries
or expenses shall be incurred for a longer period than ninety days after
the close of the exposition.

3. The sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be
necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury not
otherwise appropriated for the purposes of this act. Such money shall be
paid by the treasurer on the warrant of the comptroller issued upon a
requisition signed by the president and secretary of the commission,
accompanied by an estimate of the expenses for the payment of which the
money so drawn is to be applied. Within ninety days after the close of
the exposition, such commission shall make a verified report to the
comptroller of the disbursements made by it, and shall return to the
state treasury the unexpended balance of money drawn in pursuance of
this act. No indebtedness nor obligation shall be incurred under this
act in excess of the appropriation herein made.

4. The commission shall, as requested by the governor, from time to
time, render to him reports of its proceedings.

5. This act shall take effect immediately.


Pursuant to the provisions of this act, Governor Odell named as the
twelve members of the Commission: Edward H. Harriman, of New York city;
Louis Stern, of New York city; Edward Lyman Bill, of New York city;
William Berri, of Brooklyn; Cyrus E. Jones, of Jamestown; Lewis Nixon,
of New York city; John C. Woodbury, of Rochester; Frank S. McGraw, of
Buffalo; John K. Stewart, of Amsterdam; James H. Callanan, of
Schenectady; John Young, of Geneseo; and Mrs. Norman E Mack, of Buffalo.

A few months after the appointment of the Commission, Cyrus E. Jones, of
Jamestown, resigned, and the Governor named Frederick R. Green, of
Fredonia, in his place.

The results accomplished by the Commission as attested by the number of
awards received in all of the exhibit departments; in the beauty and
utility of the State building; in the careful procedure as to the
expenditure of State funds, all bear testimony to the wisdom of the
Chief Executive in the appointment of a Commission, all of the members
of which were of acknowledged prominence either in professional,
business or social life.

Throughout its entire existence the Commission worked with a singular
unanimity and with a hearty interest but seldom found in commissions of
this character. It held twenty-five regular meetings and two special
meetings, the aggregate of attendance at all meetings being two hundred
thirty-one, making an average attendance of eight and fifty-nine
hundredths at each meeting. When it is considered that each member had
large personal interests, and that he served the State absolutely
without compensation, only necessary expenses being allowed by statute,
and that a majority of the members of the Commission were obliged to
travel from 160 to 450 miles to attend the meetings, its record for
faithfulness to duty as shown by the above figures is one in which it
may take a pardonable pride.


By virtue of being first named by the Governor, Edward H. Harriman, of
New York city, became President of the Commission, which completed its
organization as follows: Vice-President, William Berri; Treasurer,
Edward Lyman Bill. Executive Committee: Louis Stern, Chairman; William
Berri, Lewis Nixon, John K. Stewart and James H. Callanan. Auditing
Committee: James H. Callanan and John K. Stewart.

There was but one name presented for Secretary of the Commission, that
of Mr. Charles A. Ball, of Wellsville. He was unanimously elected, with
compensation of $2,500 per annum, the appointment taking effect December
8, 1902. In its choice of this officer the Commission was most
fortunate. Efficient, faithful and courteous and with a wide circle of
acquaintances, particularly among the prominent men of the Empire State,
Mr. Ball was peculiarly qualified for the duties of the position. He was
popular with his superiors and his subordinates, and so directed the
work of the several departments within the Commission's jurisdiction as
to procure the very best results.

Anthony Pfau was later appointed bookkeeper and assistant to the
Secretary, and in the handling of a vast amount of detail work displayed
commendable skill and patience. Seward H. French, stenographer to the
Secretary, was always at his post of duty and cheerfully and faithfully
served the Commission at all times. Herman Kandt, assistant bookkeeper,
completed the office force.

An informal meeting was held in September, 1902, shortly after the names
of the Commission were announced by the Governor. At this meeting an
invitation was extended on behalf of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Company to attend the ceremonies in connection with the allotment of
sites for the various State buildings. The President appointed
Commissioners Stewart, Woodbury and Callanan a committee to represent
the Commission on that occasion, and on behalf of the State of New York,
to accept the site for its building. The ceremonies in connection with
this occasion are described elsewhere. The first formal meeting of the
Commission was called on December 3, 1902, at 120 Broadway, New York

At this meeting the Commission determined to maintain offices at 120
Broadway, New York city, until such time as the New York State building
was opened at St. Louis, and for the expedition of business the
following by-laws were provided:


_First_. The officers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission of the State of New York shall consist of a President,
Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary.

_Second_. Regular meetings of the Commission shall be held in the
rooms of the Commission in New York city on the second Wednesday of
every month, at two o'clock P. M., and all members shall be notified by
the Secretary one week in advance of such meeting.

_Third_. Three members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum
at all regular meetings.

_Fourth_. An Executive Committee of five members, appointed by the
Commission, shall choose one of their number for Chairman, who shall act
also as Chairman at the meetings of the Commission in the absence of the
President or Vice-President. The Executive Committee shall meet at least
once a month, and shall report at the regular meetings of the
Commission. Three members of the Executive Committee shall form a quorum
for the transaction of business.

_Fifth_. Any three members of the Commission may call for a special
meeting, through the Secretary, of the entire Commission, at any time,
by giving one week's notice.

_Sixth_. There shall be an Auditing Committee of two, whose duty it
shall be to examine and audit all bills and accounts when properly
verified. Such Committee shall report to the Commission at each meeting
the amounts of bills and accounts so audited, together with the total

_Seventh_. A Treasurer shall be appointed by the Commission, who
shall pay all bills when they have been properly verified and audited by
the Auditing Committee.

_Eighth_. The Secretary shall prepare and forward to each member of
the Commission a copy of the proceedings of the previous meeting in his
regular monthly calls for meetings.

_Ninth_. The order of business at monthly meetings shall be as

1. Reading of minutes of previous meeting
2. Report of Executive Committee
3. Report of the Treasurer
4. Report of regular and special committees
5. Unfinished business
6. Communications
7. New business


These preliminary formalities over, the Commission began in earnest the
work of preparation for the State's participation at St. Louis.
Believing that the most conspicuous feature of the State's participation
in the Exposition, especially so far as the impression which would be
made upon visitors was concerned, would be her State building, the
Commission gave its first attention to this feature. Having been
assigned such a commanding site, the Commission kept in mind that it was
incumbent upon them to erect upon it a building of appropriate dignity
and dimensions. It soon became evident that, with the appropriation
already made, it would be impossible to erect a suitable building,
maintain it and make suitable exhibits in the great departments of the
Fair in which the State of New York stands pre-eminent. Steps were,
therefore, taken to procure an additional appropriation from the
Legislature of 1903, the matter being placed in the hands of the
Executive Committee.


At the April meeting Mr. Clarence Luce, of New York city, was appointed
the Commission's architect, and the plans for a State building presented
by him were accepted. On June thirtieth a special meeting was called for
the purpose of considering bids for the erection of the building and
hearing the report of a special committee, consisting of Messrs. Luce
and Van Brunt, who had visited St. Louis to further the interests of the
Commission in this matter.


Bids were received from several firms of contractors, ranging from
$80,000 down to the contract price of the building, viz., $56,518, at
which figure Messrs. Caldwell & Drake, of Columbus, Ind., contracted to
complete the building in accordance with plans and specifications of the
architect. The construction work was immediately inaugurated and was
pushed forward so rapidly that the December meeting of the Commission,
which was held on the eighteenth of that month, took place in the New
York State building on the World's Fair grounds. After inspecting the
building and carefully noting the progress which was being made, the
Commission adjourned to meet at the Planters Hotel at seven o'clock in
the evening. Through the courtesy of Honorable George J. Kobusch,
president of the St. Louis Car Company, the private car "Electra"
conveyed the members of the Commission to the grounds and return.


An offer from the Aeolian Company, of New York city, to install, at its
own expense, a pipe organ in the building was accepted, and an
appropriation of $3,500 was made for an ornamental case to contain the
organ which would be a distinctive addition to the decoration of the
entrance hallway. In the meantime the matter of furnishing the State
building had been in the hands of a Furniture Committee, who had made an
exhaustive investigation upon the subject. In March a contract was made
with Herter Brothers, of New York city, for furnishing the State
building, in accordance with specifications prepared by the Commission,
for $18,000.


By dint of prodigous effort the building was completed, entirely
furnished and ready for the reception of guests on the opening day of
the Exposition, at which time the offices of the Commission were opened
in the State building, the New York offices remaining open throughout
the summer in charge of Harry A. Sylvester.

The architect was commended for the prompt completion of his work in the
following resolutions:

"*Whereas*, in originality of design, perfection in detail and
attractiveness in equipment, the New York State building at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition is thoroughly representative of the
dignity and position of the Empire State,

"_Resolved_, therefore, that the thanks of this Commission be
tendered to the architect, Mr. Clarence Luce, as a token of our
appreciation of his skill, talent and artistic tastes in creating a
structure which meets with the warmest approval of this Commission, and
which is a fitting home for New York at the World's Fair of 1904.

"_Resolved_, that the secretary be instructed to forward to Mr.
Luce a copy of these resolutions, suitably engrossed."

Throughout the entire Exposition period there were but very few days
that from one to three Commissioners were not present at the State

By resolution the Commission determined that the lady Commissioner and
the wives of Commissioners, assisted by the official hostess, should be
hostesses of the State building during the period of the Exposition, and
in the absence of those, that the official hostess should act in that
capacity, and it was further determined that any Commissioner or a
majority of the Commissioners present at the New York State building at
any time should constitute a house committee, and have full charge of
the State building.


During the earlier meetings of the Commission they were waited upon by
representatives of the Exposition Company, and by committees or
representatives of organizations within the State either offering to
co-operate with the Commission in the preparation of exhibit material or
requesting appropriations from the Commission's funds to enable them to
prepare exhibits.

In February, 1903, Honorable George L. Parker, a representative of
President Francis, addressed the Commission, urging them to see that New
York State was properly represented. He, stated that the people of the
West expected great things of New York State; that the city of St. Louis
and the territory the acquisition of which was commemorated by the Fair,
spent large sums of money in the city of New York alone, and for that
reason it was hoped and expected that New York should lead the other
States of the Union.

Later in the year, Dr. J. A. Holmes, chief of the Department of Mines
and Metallurgy, appeared before the Commission by invitation and made
some interesting remarks concerning the scientific exhibit, which he
felt it incumbent upon the State to make. He stated that there was no
geological survey, either national or State, as valuable as that of the
State of New York, and strongly advocated that a model oil well derrick
be erected.

The Legislature of 1903 passed two acts which affected either directly
or indirectly the work of the Commission. The first act provided $50,000
for participation in the dedication ceremonies of the Exposition and is
as follows:


An Act making an appropriation for the due and appropriate participation
by the state in the ceremonies attending the dedication of buildings of
the Louisiana purchase exposition.

Became a law, April 22, 1903, with the approval of the Governor. Passed,
three-fifths being present.

_The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
Assembly, do enact as follows:_

SECTION 1. The sum of fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may
be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury,
not otherwise appropriated, payable to the order of the governor, as he
may require the same, to be expended by him in such manner as he may
deem proper, for the due and appropriate participation by the state in
the ceremonies attending the dedication of buildings of the Louisiana
purchase exposition, to be held on April thirtieth, and May first and
second, nineteen hundred and three, in the city of Saint Louis; and for
the transportation, subsistence and other necessary expenses of the
commander-in-chief and his staff, and of such portion of the national
guard or naval militia of this state as may be directed to attend, and
for the replacement by purchase of such military property of the state,
as may be rendered unserviceable by this duty; provided that officers
and men performing this duty shall serve without pay.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately.

The second act amended the original act providing for State
representation, and increased the Commission's appropriation by
$200,000, making $300,000 in all.

The act follows:


An Act to amend chapter four hundred and twenty-one of the laws of
nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act to provide for the
representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana Purchase
exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri, and making an appropriation

Became a law, May 11, 1903, with the approval of the Governor. Passed,
three-fifths being present.

_The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
Assembly, do enact as follows:_

SECTION 1. Sections one, two and three, of chapter four hundred and
twenty-one, of the laws of nineteen hundred and two, are hereby amended
so as to read as follows:

Section 1. The governor is hereby authorized to appoint twelve
commissioners to represent the state of New York at the Louisiana
purchase exposition to be held at Saint Louis, Missouri, beginning on
the first day of May, nineteen hundred and four, and ending on the
thirtieth day of November, nineteen hundred and four, and for the
purposes of this act such commissioners shall be known as the Louisiana
purchase exposition commission. Such commission shall encourage and
promote a full and complete exhibit of the commercial, educational,
industrial, artistic and other interests of the state and its citizens
at such exposition, and shall provide, furnish and maintain, during the
exposition, a building or room for a state exhibit and for the official
headquarters of the state, and for the comfort and convenience of its
citizens and its exhibitors. Such commission shall have power and
authority, in their discretion, to sell or otherwise dispose of any
building, furniture, fixtures or other property which shall have been
acquired by it pursuant to the provisions of this section.

*Sec.*2. The members of the commission shall receive no compensation for
their services, but shall be entitled to the actual necessary expenses
incurred while in discharge of duties imposed upon them by the
commission. Such commission may provide a secretary whose compensation,
to be fixed by it, shall be at the rate of not to exceed four thousand
dollars a year for all services to be performed in carrying out the
provisions of this act, and may also provide such other clerical
assistance and office facilities as it deems necessary, but no salaries
or expenses shall be incurred for a longer period than ninety days after
the close of the exposition.

*Sec.*3. The sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in addition to the sum of
one hundred thousand dollars heretofore appropriated by chapter four
hundred and twenty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred and two which is
hereby reappropriated for the above specified purposes, or so much
thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in
the treasury not otherwise appropriated for the purposes of this act.
Such money shall be paid by the treasurer on the warrant of the
comptroller issued upon a requisition signed by the president and
secretary of the commission, accompanied by an estimate of the expenses
for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be applied. Within
ninety days after the close of the exposition, such commission shall
make a verified report to the comptroller of the disbursements made by
it, and shall return to the state treasury the unexpended balance of
money drawn in pursuance of this act. No indebtedness nor obligation
shall be incurred under this act in excess of the appropriation herein
made. No member of such commission, nor such officer, shall be
personally liable for any debt or obligation created or incurred by him
as such commissioner, or such officer, or by such commission, or any
such officer.

*Sec.*2. This act shall take effect immediately.


The title of the Secretary was thereupon changed to that of Secretary
and Chief Executive Officer, and he was clothed with all the authority
and duties pertaining to the latter position, his salary being increased
to $4,000 per annum. Later his duties were further prescribed by the
following resolution:

"_Resolved_, that the Chief Executive Officer shall exercise such
direction and management of the office as shall make effective the
various agencies employed. He shall nominate to the Commission all
clerks and employees in all the departments. He shall fix and establish
all salaries of officers, clerks and employees, subject to the approval
of the Commission. He shall in like manner have power to suspend,
without pay, for cause, upon charges made in writing and filed in the
office of the Commission, with such suspended officers, clerks or
employees, and with the Chairman of the Executive Committee, any and all
officers, clerks and employees of the Commission. Discharges or removals
of such officers clerks or employees must be approved by the Executive
Committee of the Commission. He shall have power to visit and examine
the work and management of the several departments created by the
Commission. It shall be his duty to make regular monthly reports to the
Commission, and at such other times as the Commission may be in session
or request such report."


At the meeting of the Commission held in June, 1903, the following
chiefs of departments were appointed:

Charles H. Vick, of Rochester, Superintendent of Horticulture and
Floriculture, to take effect July 1, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per

J. H. Durkee, of Florida, Superintendent of Agriculture, to take effect
July 1, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per annum.

DeLancey M. Ellis, of Rochester, Director of Education, to take effect
June 15, 1903, at a salary of $2,000 per annum.

Later Mr. Ellis's title was changed to Director of Education and Social
Economy, and he was placed in charge of the exhibits in the latter
department in addition to those of the Department of Education.


The following appropriations were made for exhibits:

Horticulture and Floriculture $20,000
Agriculture, including live stock and dairy products 25,000
Education 20,000
Social Economy:
State Commission in Lunacy $1,800
State Board of Charities 1,200
State Department of Prisons 2,000
State Department of Labor 1,000
Craig Colony for Epileptics 500
General expenses 1,000
------- $7,500
Forest, Fish and Game 18,000
Scientific 7,500
Fine Arts 10,000
Total $108,000

In the departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Education and
Social Economy the work was placed in charge of the chiefs above named.
The Scientific exhibit was placed in charge of the Director of the State
Museum. All of the above exhibits were subject to the supervisory
control of the chief executive officer. The Forest, Fish and Game
exhibit was placed under direct control of the chief executive officer,
valuable assistance being rendered, however, by the Forest, Fish and
Game Commission.

The Fine Arts exhibit was provided for in the following resolution:

"_Resolved_, that Mr. W. H. Low, of the Society of American
Artists; Mr. H. W. Watrous, of the National Academy of Design; Mr. J.
Carroll Beckwith, a member of the Art Commission of the city of New
York; Mr. Louis Loeb, of the Society of Illustrators; Mr. Frank C.
Jones, delegate to the Fine Arts Federation from the National Academy of
Design; Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury, of the Architectural League of New
York, and Mr. Herbert Adams, of the National Sculpture Society, be named
as an executive committee on art for the State of New York, whose duty
it shall be to aid the chief executive officer of this Commission to
develop the New York State art exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, said executive committee to serve without expense to this

By means of the various agencies provided for the preparation of
exhibits, the work was pushed forward as rapidly as possible, the
Commission keeping in touch with its progress through monthly reports
filed with the chief executive officer by the heads of various


By the time the Commission held its meeting in St. Louis in December
space had been assigned for most all of the State exhibits. There was an
evident disposition on the part of the Exposition Company to do all in
their power to assist the State of New York in making its participation
an unqualified success. In appreciation of this attitude the following
resolution was passed at the meeting held in the city of St. Louis in

"_Resolved_, that the members of the New York Commission desire to
express to the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company
and the heads of the various departments with whom they have been
brought in personal contact, their appreciation of the delightful
courtesy extended them. It is obvious that there is a desire on the part
of the Exposition authorities to facilitate the departmental work of New
York in connection with the Exposition. We cannot fail to express our
admiration of the gigantic task which the officers of this great
international fair have carried to such a successful culmination. In the
entire history of expositions, there has been evidenced no greater
progress, and such work could not have been accomplished save through
the most prodigious efforts on the part of the projectors of this vast
enterprise. When St. Louis opens her exposition gates next year, it will
be to invite the world to witness the greatest exposition in all
history. And be it further

"_Resolved_, that the secretary be instructed to forward a copy of
this resolution to President Francis and the heads of the various
departments of the Exposition."


The Commission took considerable care in the choosing of a day to be
known as "New York Day." It was considered important that a date should
be named upon which it would be possible for the Governor to be present.
Moreover it seemed essential that no date during the heat of the summer
should be designated, as but few New Yorkers would be apt to be present
at St. Louis at that time, and, therefore, after mature consideration,
October fourth was designated as New York State Day.

The Legislature of 1904 passed an additional appropriation of $40,000,
by chapter 640, which is given below:


An act, to make an additional appropriation to provide for the
representation of the state of New York at the Louisiana purchase
exposition at Saint Louis, Missouri.

[Became a law May 9, 1904, with the approval of the Governor.

Passed, three-fifths being present.]

_The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
Assembly, do enact as follows_:

Section 1. The sum of forty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may
be necessary, in addition to the money heretofore appropriated, is
hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise
appropriated, for the purpose of providing for the representation of the
state of New York at the Louisiana purchase exposition at Saint Louis,
Missouri. The money hereby appropriated shall be applicable to the
purposes specified in chapter four hundred and twenty-one of the laws of
nineteen hundred and two, as amended by chapter five hundred and
forty-six of the laws of nineteen hundred and three, and shall be paid
out in accordance with the provisions of such act, by the treasurer on
the warrant of the comptroller issued upon a requisition signed by the
president and secretary of the commission, accompanied by an estimate of
the expenses for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be

*Sec.*2. This act shall take effect immediately.

This made possible the elaboration of some of the plans which the
Commission had in mind.


The history of the Exposition period will be found in other chapters of
this report. A description of the State building, detailed accounts of
the dedicatory exercises and the exercises upon State Day, as well as
other important functions, are given. The exhibits in the various
departments are fully described, and the results of the inspection by
the juries are given.

Throughout the entire life of the Commission death did not enter its
ranks, nor the ranks of its attaches, nor did any untoward incident
arise, although early in the morning of November twenty-first a
catastrophe was narrowly averted. In the middle of the night a fire was
found smouldering in the basement of the building, which, through the
prompt action of the watchman on duty, was extinguished without doing
extensive damage. Many were asleep in the building at the time, and but
for the presence of mind and courage of those on duty the consequences
might have been too fearful to contemplate.


At a meeting of the Commission, held just before the close of the
Exposition, the following resolution was passed:

"_Resolved_, that the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of
the State of New York hereby authorizes the Secretary and Chief
Executive Officer, Charles A. Ball, to turn over to the Lewis and Clark
Exposition Commission of the State of New York any of the exhibits, or
such part thereof as the latter may desire in the various exhibit
departments working under the auspices of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Commission of the State of New York for the use of said Lewis
and Clark Exposition Commission, State of New York, with the proviso
that in the case of individual exhibits forming a part of said exhibits
the Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission, State of New York, must get
the consent of the owners of said exhibits and relieve the Commission of
all responsibility relating thereto and return said individual exhibits
to their owners at the close of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, it being
understood, however, that said Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission
must take possession of these exhibits not later than December 15,

Upon requisition from the latter Commission the Secretary and Chief
Executive Officer turned over to the Lewis and Clark Exposition
Commission the following material: The complete exhibit of the State in
the departments of Education and Social Economy; the complete exhibit in
the Department of Forestry, Fish and Game, with the exception of the
Log-cabin and the Forest Nursery and a portion of the State exhibits in
the departments of Mines and Metallurgy and Agriculture.


President Francis and the Exposition officials generally throughout the
entire Exposition period extended to the Commission every courtesy and
evinced a hearty interest in the work of New York, endeavoring to
further the interests of the Commission in every possible direction.
Desiring to express in suitable terms its appreciation of these
courtesies the Commission also passed the following resolutions at its
meeting held at the close of the Exposition:

"WHEREAS, the Empire State is about to close its official connection
with this, the greatest of World's Fairs; and,

"WHEREAS, the members of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission of
the State of New York, appointed by the Governor, desire to express to
the officials of the Fair their sincere appreciation of the hearty
co-operation which they have rendered the members of this Commission, in
every way facilitating the work of New York in each department of State
representation; and,

"WHEREAS, in all of the Commission's relations with the officers of the
Exposition, not only has every courtesy been shown the Commission, but
there has been a friendly desire to promote their interests; therefore,
be it

"_Resolved_, that the cordial thanks of this Commission be extended
to the President of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission,
Honorable David R. Francis; to the Secretary, Honorable Walter B.
Stevens; to the Director of Exhibits, Honorable Frederick J.V. Skiff; to
the Director of Works, Honorable Isaac S. Taylor, and to the chiefs of
each exhibit department of the Exposition, with whom the Commission or
its representatives have been brought in contact; be it further

"_Resolved_, that these resolutions be spread upon the permanent
records of the Commission and a copy of the same forwarded to each of
the above named Exposition officials."


With the exception of closing up its affairs, this marked the end of the
Commission's work and before adjournment the following resolutions
commending the efficiency and faithfulness of its employees were spread
upon the minutes, and a copy was sent to each attache:

"WHEREAS, this Commission is about to close its work, and for this
reason must necessarily very soon dispense with the services of the
appointees who have served under it since its organization and during
the life of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, it is eminently fitting
that we make record of the faithfulness and loyalty with which said
appointees of every character whatsoever have discharged their
respective duties; therefore, be it

"_Resolved_, that we take pleasure in certifying to the efficient
manner in which our Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Charles
A. Ball, has discharged the important duties attached to his position.
From the very inception of the work upon which this Commission entered,
Mr. Ball has proven to be most loyal and faithful, and has ever been
ready and willing to carry out the instructions of this Commission. His
wide acquaintance with the people of New York State, and especially with
her official representatives, has been of inestimable service to this
Commission, not only while the various exhibits were being developed,
but also during the Exposition period itself. That Mr. Ball has
popularized the Commission's work at St. Louis is attested by the
universal commendation which he has received from New York people who
have come in contact with him during their visits to the Exposition and
to the New York State building. Mr. Ball has shown himself to be most
capable in directing the various appointees at the State building and in
the several exhibit departments in the discharge of their various
duties, and has not only carried an this work to the best interests of
the State, but in such a manner as to greatly endear himself to this
Commission and to all of its employees as well. His foresight in
providing for the necessary vigilance during the hours of the night in
the protection of the lives of those in the State building, once
seriously jeopardized by fire, as well as the property of the State from
loss by fire, is especially entitled to the sincere thanks and gratitude
of this Commission;

"_Resolved_, that in Chief Clerk Anthony Pfau, Stenographer Seward
H. French, Clerks Herman W. Kandt and Harry A. Sylvester, the experience
of this Commission has demonstrated that it made most worthy selections.
They have been faithful assistants to Mr. Ball in the discharge of his
duties and this Commission gladly records its commendation of the
ability with which they have discharged their duties;

"_Resolved_, that we extend to the Honorable Frank J. Le Fevre, the
Superintendent, and Mr. George B. Cowper, the Assistant Superintendent,
our sincere appreciation for the most praiseworthy manner in which they
have discharged the difficult duties falling to them, and our very
pleasant relations with them shall be ever held in grateful remembrance;

"_Resolved_, that we have been especially gratified with the highly
satisfactory manner in which Mrs. Dore Lyon, the hostess, Mrs. F. B.
Applebee, the assistant hostess, and Miss Laura C. MacMartin, the matron
at the State building, have acquitted themselves of the duties assigned
to them. We especially accord them our highest appreciation;

"_Resolved_, that this Commission especially commends the faithful
and efficient services rendered by Mr. DeLancey M. Ellis, Mr. J. H.
Durkee, Mr. Charles H. Vick, Mr. A. B. Strough, Mr. H. H. Hindshaw, Mr.
Harry Watrous and Mr. Charles M. Kurtz, and all their assistants in the
various exhibit departments, in which our State has signalized her
pre-eminence as shown by the large number of awards received. These
gentlemen have always proven loyal to the interests of the State and to
this Commission and they are entitled to the highest regard by this

"_Resolved_, that for all the subordinate employees of this
Commission throughout the State building and all the departments working
under this Commission, this Commission desires at this time to make
complete record of their efficient loyalty and faithfulness in the
discharge of the various duties assigned to them, and we especially
attest our full appreciation for their efforts at all times to make the
work of this Commission in enhancing the interests of the State a
complete success;

"_Resolved_, that we cannot forget the efficiency of Mr. Hugh J.
Baldwin, who, we believe, by his watchfulness at the time of the fire in
the State building, saved the lives of many of the occupants of the
building as well as the property of the State; for Mr. Hugh W. Bingham,
also on duty during that night, who so efficiently aided Mr. Baldwin in
protecting life and property, we here record our sincerest gratitude;
and be it further

"_Resolved_, that these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of
the proceedings of this Commission and the Secretary is hereby
authorized to transmit a copy of these resolutions to each of the
employees of this Commission."



New York State Building

The New York State building was admirably located upon one of the most
attractive sites within the gift of the Exposition Company, to whom the
Commission, in behalf of the State of New York, desire to make grateful


The building stood on the brow of a hill, the land sloping off gently to
the north, and faced upon a broad plaza, through which ran one of the
most frequented highways within the grounds, known as Commonwealth
avenue. For its neighbors were the buildings of Kansas, Iowa,
Massachusetts, Ohio, Wisconsin and Oklahoma, while westward, at the foot
of the hill, was located the great cage erected by the United States
government, which held the exhibit of live birds from the Smithsonian

To no state, with the possible exception of Missouri, the home state,
was so large a site assigned as to New York. Its extent, the undulating
character of the grounds, and the presence of many beautiful, stately
trees, afforded countless opportunities for landscape effects. From the
opening day the grounds presented a charming appearance, the well-kept
lawns giving place here and there to large beds of nasturtiums, poppies,
cannae, and rhododendrons, while at the lowest point on the grounds,
near the northeast corner, was located a lily pond. It was filled with
the choicest aquatic plants of every variety, which were furnished
through the courtesy of Shaw's Gardens and the Missouri Botanical
Society. During the season many beautiful bouquets of varicolored
blossoms were gathered and its surface was almost entirely covered by
odd shaped leaves from which peeped here and there the buds of pond


The site was formally turned over to the Commission on October 1, 1902,
and was received by a committee appointed by the president, consisting,
of Commissioners John K. Stewart, John C. Woodbury and James H.
Callanan. The ceremony took place in the presence of Honorable David R.
Francis, president of the Exposition Company, the Director of Works, and
other Exposition officials, the committee of the New York State
Commission and invited guests.

The exercises were brief but impressive. President Francis spoke as


"A universal exposition, either in the United States or elsewhere, would
be incomplete if the Empire State of the American Union were not
represented. This site has been selected for the great State of New
York, and upon this location we trust there will be erected a structure
which will be in keeping with the glorious record New York and her sons
have made from the beginning of this country. New York needs no encomium
from me, none in fact from her sons. She speaks for herself. The
Director of Works will present to the chairman of the New York
Commission the site for the building of the State of New York."

Honorable Isaac S. Taylor, Director of Works, then formally presented
the site to the Commission, handing to Commissioner John K. Stewart a
handsome banner of purple silk, upon which was painted the coat of arms
of the State of New York. Driving the staff in the ground, thus marking
the site, Commissioner Stewart said:


"Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Commission: In behalf of New York
State I receive this emblem. We shall erect here a building suitable for
the great Empire State of New York. I wish to introduce to you Honorable
James H. Callanan, of Schenectady, who will respond in behalf of the

Commissioner James H. Callanan then made the following address:


"In behalf of the Commission representing the Commonwealth of New York,
I take pleasure in accepting the site allotted for the Empire State's
building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. With this acceptance I
beg you to receive the assurance from our Commission that New York will
do her share to make the Exposition an unquestioned success. Upon this
site we expect to erect a handsome and commodious structure where New
Yorkers may meet one another during the Exposition, and where they may
welcome their fellow citizens from every section of our common country.
New York is also desirous of having exhibited here upon these spacious
grounds the evidences of her prestige in the domain of manufacture, of
commerce, of agriculture, of science and of art.

"The American people are progressive. The indomitable courage and
ambition of the American knows no cessation of effort, no lagging
behind. The expositions held in our country have celebrated great epochs
of our advancement, and they will be pointed out to future generations
as evidences of the onward march of a people unparalleled in the history
of the human race.

"To these great achievements of a mighty people it is impossible to
estimate the share contributed by the sturdy pioneers and their
descendants of this vast tract of country, the cession of which more
than doubled the area of our country a century ago. What great states
have been carved out of this territory! What wonderful wealth of
resources have been brought forth here! What a splendid citizenship has
been established in this vast region! New York rejoices with you in the
giant strides made by this newer section of our country.

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