Part 10 out of 10
looked over soon afterwards, and labels distinctly explaining their
situation, etc., be attached to the specimens themselves.
12. The specimens should be so packed, that the surfaces may be defended
from exposure to air, moisture, and friction: for which purpose, if
strong paper cannot be obtained, dry moss, or straw, or leaves, may be
used with advantage. Where paper is used for wrapping the specimens, they
are best secured by fastening the envelope with sealing-wax.
Lastly, The collector must not be discouraged, nor be prevented from
collecting, by finding that the place which he may chance to visit in a
remote situation, has not a striking appearance, or the rocks within his
view a very interesting character; since it frequently, and even
commonly, happens, that facts and specimens, in themselves of very little
importance, become valuable by subsequent comparison; so that scarcely
any observation, if recorded with accuracy, will be thrown away.
The Instruments required by the geological traveller will vary, according
to the acquirements and specific objects of the individual. The most
The Hammer (Sketch 5); which, for general purposes, may be of the form
The head should be of steel well tempered, about 4 inches from the face
to the edge, and 1 1/4 inch square in the middle; the face flat, and
square, or nearly so; the edge placed in the direction of the handle. The
orifice for the insertion of the handle oval, a very little wider on the
outer side than within; its diameters, about 1 inch vertically, and 0.7
across; the centre somewhat more than 1 1/2 inch from the face. The
handle should be of ash, or other tough wood; not less than 16 inches
long; fitting tight into the head at its insertion, without a shoulder;
and increasing a little in size towards the end remote from the head, to
prevent its slipping. It should be fixed in the head by means of a thin,
barbed iron wedge.
For trimming specimens, smaller hammers may be employed (Sketch 6): The
form of the head, recommended for this purpose by Dr. MacCulloch,* is
rectangular. The dimensions of the face may be 1 inch by 3/4; the height
(*Footnote. On the forms of Mineralogical Hammers, Quarterly Journal
Royal Institution volume 11 1821 page 1 etc.)
It will be expedient to have always some hammers, of different sizes, in
A small miner's pick is useful for cutting out, and splitting portions of
slaty rocks; or for obtaining specimens of clays, etc.
A small stone-cutter's chisel. A chisel with a handle, of the form here
represented, will often save the hand of an inexpert collector, and
better enable him to direct his blow.
For packing the specimens. A stock of strong paper. Sealing-wax.
Writing-paper, cut into labels. Thick gum-water, to cement the labels to
For the Conveyance of specimens. A large bag of leather, with straps for
the shoulders. Strong canvas bags, of smaller size, are very convenient
for subdivision and arrangement. For the protection of crystals, or
delicate petrifactions, etc., wool or cotton are necessary; and small
wooden boxes (like those used for holding wafers) are sometimes required.
For distant carriage, strong wooden boxes, casks, or baskets.
The following are either essential, or useful in various degrees, for
obtaining and recording observations.
Pocket Memorandum-Books, of sufficient size to admit sketches.
A Pocket Compass.
A Measuring-Tape, of fifty feet, or more.
A Camera Lucida.
A Box of Colours.
The best maps should always be sought for: And, the true economy to the
traveller being that which saves time, it is best to mark, or even colour
the map, in the field. Notes inserted on imperfect maps, or deduced
afterwards from memoranda, are less authentic; and the process is
PORTABLE-BAROMETERS, with detached thermometers, are desirable; and the
best instruments are ultimately the cheapest. But, unfortunately,
barometers of every construction are very easily damaged or deranged. The
accurate determination of heights, however, though very interesting to
physical geography, is comparatively of little importance to the
If the collector be a surveyor, he will know best to what purpose a
Pocket Sextant, or small Theodolite, is applicable: the measurement of
distances, of heights, and of the inclination of strata, etc.
CONTENTS OF APPENDIX C.
GENERAL SKETCH OF THE COAST.
1. List of Rocks.
2. Rocks identical with those of Europe.
3. Aspect of the Shores.
4. Information wanting respecting Diluvial deposits: no Specimens of
Limestone: no Volcanoes.
5. Recent calcareous breccia.
6. Range of the Coastlines.
DETAILED LIST OF SPECIMENS.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLLECTING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NATIVES, WITH SOME GENERAL
COLUMN 1: ENGLISH WORD.
COLUMN 2: CALEDON BAY, GULF OF CARPENTARIA. FROM CAPTAIN FLINDERS.
COLUMN 3: ENDEAVOUR RIVER, NORTH-EAST COAST. PARTLY FROM CAPTAIN COOK AND
COLUMN 4: KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND, SOUTH-WEST COAST.
COLUMN 5: PORT JACKSON.
COLUMN 6: BURRAH BURRAH TRIBE. FROM MR. SCOTT.
COLUMN 7: LIMESTONE CREEK. FROM MR. OXLEY.
COLUMN 8: PORT MACQUARIE. FROM MR. HUNTER.
COLUMN 9: MACQUARIE HARBOUR, VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.
Eye : Ma-il : Me-ul : Me-al : Mi, or Me, Mego : Miki-laja : Milla : Me'-e
Nose : Ur-ro, or Hurro : Emer-da, or Poteer, Bon-joo (Cook) : Tarmul,
Moil (Flinders) : Nogro : - : Mor-ro : Na'-ag : Me-oun.
Lips : Ta-a : Yem-be (Cook) : Tar : Willing : - : - : - : -.
Teeth : Lir-ra : Mol-ear : Orlock : Era, or Da-ra : Yerrah : Er-ra :
Te'-lah : Kouk.
Tongue : Mat-ta : Unjar : Darlin, or Thalil : Tal-lang : - : - : Mal'-way
Cheeks : Tac-cal : - : Ny-a-luck : Yarrin : - : - : - : -.
Chin : Na-ing : - : - : Wal-lo : - : - : - : -.
Ears : Pon-doo-roo, or Po-door-roo : Mil-kah, Melea (Cook) : Duong :
Co-roo, Goray, or Benne : Binning-huiy : Wha-da :Mo'-ko : Goun-reek.
Hair of the head : Marra : Morye : Ka-at : Kewarra, Dewarra, or Gewarroo
: Mundar : Bulla-ye-ga : Wo'l-lack : Pipe, or Bipipe.
Neck : Mo-i-ang : Doom-boo, Forster : - : Ganga, Cadlear, or Cadleang : -
: Oro- : - : Treek, or Lan-gar-ree.
Breast : Gum-mur : Coy-or (Forster) : - : Nabung : - : Be-ning : Nam-bang
Belly : Goor-ro : Melmal (Forster) : Cop-bull, or Kopul : Barrong, or
Bende : Binda : Bur-bing : War'rah : -.
Arm : Wan-na, or War-na : Aco, or Acol : Wor-nuck : Tarrang : - : Bar-gar
: Co-pah : Yir-ra-wig.
Hand : Gong : - : - : Tam-mir-ra : Morrewalla : - : - : -.
Fingers : Mingel : Mun-gal-bah : Mai (singular), Maih (plural) :
Ber-ril-le : Maranga : Nar-ra : Mah-tra : War-ra-nook.
Elbow : Le-kal, or Le-kan : Ye-er-we : - : O-nur : - : - : - :
Posteriors : Lam-me : Booca (Forster) : Wa'l-la-kah : Bo-ong, or Bayley :
- : - : - : -.
Leg : Bacca : Peegoorga (Forster) : - : Dar-ra : - : - : Woo'lo-loo : -.
Foot : Locko, or Nocka : Edamal (feet) : Ja-an, or Bangul : Manoe : Janna
: Dhee-nany : - : -.
Toe : Mangel-locko : Eb-e-rah : Kea (singular) Kean (plural) : - : - : -
: Teel-nah : Pe-une.
Sun : Laran-gai, or Car-ran-ghie : Gallan (Forster) : Djaat : Goona,
Coing, or Con-do-in : Bun-nail, or Mo-mat : - : Too-nigh, or Win-gin : -.
Water : Lucka, or Lucko : Poorai (Forster) : - : Ba-doo : Ajung- : - :
Bah-do : -.
Stone : Punda : Wal-bah : - : Keba : Wy-juck : - : - : -.
Kangaroo : Loi-tyo : Men-u-ah, Kan-goo-roo (Cook) : Beango : Tungo,
Patagorang, Bag-gar-ray, Wal-li-bah, Wal-lar-roo, Bou-rou, Barro-melon,
Betong, Wy-rung, Pademalion : - : - : Womboy, Pool-cot (tame), Mah-koke
(the Pademalion of Port Jackson) : Raguar.
Throwing-stick : Kail lepo : Melpairo, or Melpier (Forster) : Me-a-ra :
Wo-me-rah : - : - : - : -.
Nipples (of a man) : - : Coy-o-ber-rah, Cayo (Cook) : Be-ep : Mou-tral :
- : - : - : Nerrinook.
Dog : - : Cotta, or Kota : Tiara : Teingo, Dingo, Worregal : Med-di-gen,
War-ri-gal : - : - : -.
Nails : - : Kolke : Pera : Currungal, or Car-rung-un : - : - : - : -.
Beard : - : Wol-lar : Nyanuck : Chinis, or Wallo : - : Anany : - :
Mouth : - : - : Tatah : Karga : - : Chuang : Wel'-leck : -.
Fire : - : - : - : Gwee-yong, or Too-yong : Canby : Warrenur : Cor-yal :
Membrum virile : - : - : Yaw-de-wit : - : - : - : Cool-kah : Lune.
Head : - : Wageegee (Forster) : - : Cob-bra : Ulangar, or Nattang :
Cah-brah : - : -.
The preceding brief collection, of words used by the natives in various
parts of the Coasts of Australia and Van Diemen's Land, has been inserted
to show the great dissimilarity that exists in the languages of the
several tribes: and it may be remarked, that of thirty-three objects, one
only, the Eye, is expressed by nearly the same term at each place. In
this list, it is true, there is a striking resemblance between the terms
used to signify the hair at Port Jackson, namely, dewarra, or kewarra, or
gewarroo, and those which denote the same thing in the language of some
of the islands of the Eastern Seas; such, for instance, as arouroo or
hooroo-hooroo of the Society Islands; lo-ooroo of the Friendly Islands;
hooroo of New Zealand; and, perhaps, oouho of the Marquesas:* but at New
Caledonia, which is situated between these places and Port Jackson, the
same thing is expressed by poon, a sound totally distinct. And to render
the anomaly still more decisive, it is only necessary to remark, that,
within two hundred miles of Port Jackson, the natives of three tribes,
Port Macquarie. Burrah-Burrah, and Limestone Creek, signify the hair, by
the words wollack, mundar, and bulla-ye-ga.
(*Footnote. Forster Observations page 283.)
The aboriginal connexion of Australia with other lands must be proved, as
far as language is concerned, by a general resemblance of the words, and
not merely by a few examples of coincidence, which can only be considered
as accidental: and as our knowledge of the Australian languages, except
in the vicinity of Port Jackson, does not yet exceed thirty or forty
words, no comparison, derived from such limited information, can be
employed with any certainty to determine the question. The connexion must
be sought for, probably, where the continent, at its north-eastern
extremity, most nearly approaches other lands; but even then the chain
will remain imperfect until New Guinea and its neighbouring islands are
explored, and correct and extensive vocabularies of their languages
obtained. Forster,* who has paid considerable attention to this subject,
and whose opinions are the more valuable from their being the result of
personal observation, seems to be convinced that the New Hollanders are
not an original race, but have derived their origin from New Guinea. It
is therefore to be hoped, that this subject will not be forgotten by our
trans-Atlantic and Australian colonists; more particularly by those of
the new settlement on the north coast at Melville Island, who, from their
vicinity to New Guinea, have the best opportunities of throwing light
upon the question.
SITUATIONS OF THE PLACES MENTIONED IN THE PRECEDING LIST WITH RESPECT TO
King George the Third's Sound is on the South-west Coast, 1660 miles from
Caledon Bay is near the north-west extremity of the Gulf of Carpentaria,
1500 miles from Port Jackson.
Endeavour River, in latitude about 15 degrees South, is on the North-east
Coast, about 1180 miles from Port Jackson.
Burrah-Burrah, about 90 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.
Limestone Creek, about 140 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.
Port Macquarie, on the East Coast, 168 miles north of Port Jackson.
Macquarie Harbour, on the West Coast of Van Diemen's Land.
Bruny Island, at the south-east extremity of Van Diemen's Land.
END OF VOLUME 2.