Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Narrative Of The Voyage Of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By The Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During The Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries And Surveys In New Guinea, The Louisiade Archipelago, Etc. To Which Is Added The Account Of Mr. E.B. Kennedy's Expedition For The Exploration Of The Cape York Peninsula. By John Macgillivray, F.R.G.S. Naturalist To The Expedition. In Two Volumes. Volume 1. by John MacGillivray

Part 6 out of 6

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.7 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

covered with pretty regularly and quincuncially arranged minute papillae,
the apex of each of which is flattened or rounded, and of a dark brown or
black colour. The mode of subdivision of the polyzoary, and the truncated
ends of the branches, and the more numerous cells, suffice to distinguish
this species from P. proboscidea. The cells in the figure of P. deflexa
appear to be much more slender in proportion, and the branches in that
species are not truncated, but attenuated at the

3. IDMONEA, Lamouroux.

1. I. radians, M. Edwards. Ann. de Sc. N. tome 9 page 25 plate 12 figure 4.
Retepora radians, Lamarck.
Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

One minute specimen, but very perfect, has been examined; but it is
undoubtedly the one described and figured by M. Edwards, and noticed by
Lamarck as inhabiting the seas of New Holland. M. Edwards' doubt
therefore as to this locality is now removed.


4. CRISIA, Lamouroux.

1. C. denticulata, Fleming.
Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Parasitic upon a species of Salicornaria. The only difference, if there
be any, between this form and the British, consists in the rather greater
projection or freedom of the extremities of the cells, which are curved
towards the front.

2. C. acropora, n. sp.

Cells 9 to 13 in each internode; lateral branches given off between the
first and second, or between the second and third cells above a joint. A
small conical tooth, sometimes bifid, above and behind the mouth.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

A small parasitic species, distinguished from C. denticulata, which it
much resembles, by the less average number of cells in each internode,
and the less number intervening between the origin of a branch and the
joint below it, and by the small conical tooth or tubercle above and
behind, or to the outer side of the mouth.


Sec. 1. Uniserialaria. Cells disposed in a simple series.

Fam. 1. CATENICELLIDAE. Cells connected by flexible joints.

5. CATENICELLA, M. Edwards (Lamarck An. s. Vert. tome 2 page 181.)

Cells arising one from the upper and back part of another by a short
corneous tube, and disposed in a linear series, all facing the same way,
and forming dichotomously divided branches of a phytoid polyzoary; cells
geminate at the bifurcation of the branches; each cell furnished with two
lateral processes usually supporting an avicularium. Ovicells either
subglobose and terminal, or galeriform and placed below the mouth of a
cell in front.

This interesting and important genus may be regarded as characteristic,
not only of the present collection, but perhaps also of the Australian
seas, as far as the Polyzoa are concerned. Thirteen species are here
described, and as it has been found extremely difficult in most cases to
identify any of them with the very few hitherto noticed forms, the
synonyms given must be regarded as at least extremely doubtful.

Each cell arises from the upper and back part of another, with the
intervention of a short corneous tube which is prolonged from the
interior of one cell to that of the one above. The cell is furnished on
each side at the top with a usually well-developed avicularium, in some
species of huge size, and in some very minute, or entirely aborted. This
avicularian process in most cases supports above a hollow process, which
is sometimes closed and more or less elongated, constituting a conical or
acerose spine, sometimes open above and assuming the form of a shallow
cup or receptacle. In some species both modifications of this portion of
the lateral process are met with in the same specimen. This form of spine
or cup--as the case may be, is always distinctly separated by a septum
from the cavity of the avicularium itself. Below the avicularium there is
also in many cases a third distinct cavity which is usually widely open,
the opening being covered in very frequently by a convex transparent
membrane, and its bottom apparently perforated by several minute
foramina--from this part of the lateral process there is in many species
a prominent ala or keel prolonged to the bottom of the cell--which ala
not unfrequently divides into two branches, which, again coalescing at
the bottom of the cell, circumscribe a more or less oval space, the
bottom of which is also perforated by minute foramina or apparent
foramina, and which is often covered over by a transparent convex
membrane. This membrane, however, as well as that which covers in the
subavicularian space, is more usually broken off and wanting.

The inferior oval space above described is here termed the lateral area,
and it is employed in the specific characters. It would thus be correct
to say--that each cell is furnished with two lateral processes, each of
which in the fully developed state consists of three distinct
compartments--one superior, a cup or spine: a middle one, which is the
avicularium: and an inferior; and it would appear that one or more of
these elementary compartments of the lateral process may be more
developed than the next, or sometimes entirely aborted. The mouth of the
cell is situated at the upper part in front, and is of the same
conformation as in the rest of the Cheilostomatous suborder. An important
generic character consists in the gemination of the cell at each

(*Footnote. Table 1 figures 1 and 2.)

These characters are common to all the species included in the genus,
which furthermore admits of being subdivided into two extremely natural
sections or subgenera (or perhaps into three). These subdivisions are
named respectively the fenestratae, and the vittatae.

In the fenestrate division, in the whole of which the cells are of larger
size and stronger than in the other, the wall of the cell appears to be
constituted of at least two distinct laminae. The external lamina, on the
front of the cell, is perforated by a certain number of holes, is wanting
rather in a certain number of spaces, for which spaces the term fenestrae
is employed. These apparent openings do not, therefore, penetrate into
the cavity of the cell. But besides the fenestrae, there is, in some
cases, a small central opening which does penetrate through the wall. In
most cases the fenestrae are arranged in a crescentic, or rather
horseshoe-shaped line, indicative, as it were, of the limits of a regular
oval space, in the front wall of the cell, the upper part of which oval
would be formed by the mouth, and the remainder filled up by the
deposition of calcareous matter, as happens for instance in the older
cells towards the bottom of the polyzoary in certain Cellulariae, etc.

A further characteristic of the fenestrate Catenicellae is the terminal
position of the ovicells. These organs are clearly transformed cells, or
cells dilated to considerably more than their natural bulk, and assuming
a subglobose form. And what is worthy of remark, these terminal ovicells
always have a sessile avicularium on the summit.

In the Vittatae the cell is smaller, and usually more delicate and
transparent. They probably want the outer lamina, or have it very thin,
and consequently present no fenestrate spaces, and the front of the cell
is beset (sometimes very sparingly) with more or less prominent, minute,
acuminate papillae. On each side, sometimes on the anterior aspect,
sometimes quite laterally, is a narrow elongated band or vitta, as it is
here designated, from which the distinctive sectional appellation is
derived. This band or stripe varies in width and proportionate length and
position in different species; it is slightly elevated, and marked with
larger, or small circular discoid, or acuminated eminences. This
subdivision is further distinguished by the situation of the ovicells,
which are not terminal, but occur at irregular intervals on cells in the
course of the series. They are of the same galeate form as in many others
of the Escharinae, but are not as in them placed above the mouth of the
cell, but below it in front: and in all cases the shape of the
ovicell-bearing cell is much altered from the rest, and in all the
vittate species the cell upon which the ovicell is produced arises from
its predecessor, not with the intervention of a short tube, but is
immediately sessile upon it, by a broad base.

a. Fenestratae.

Cells large, fenestrate in front; ovicells terminal.

1. C. hastata, n. sp. ?

C. bicuspis ? Gray. Dieffenbach's New Zealand, Volume 2 page 293.

Fenestrae, 7 to 9, disposed in a crescent, and with elongated fissures
radiating towards them from the median line. Avicularia supporting a
large pyramidal pointed hollow process, compressed, and perforated before
and behind by five or six small circular pores.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms, dead shells.

Of a yellowish white colour, sometimes reddish. Forms fine bushy tufts,
with long wavy branches, arising from a short common stem, and it attains
a height of five or six inches. It appears sometimes to be parasitic upon
other polyzoa, and is then much smaller. Its peculiar characteristics are
the perforated and striated scutiform area on the front of the cell and
the perforated, or apparently perforated pyramidal lateral processes
above each avicularium; these processes are much developed, and give the
cell the form of a broad inverted shear-head. It seems to be an abundant
species in Bass Strait, and it occurs also in New Zealand. (Dr. Hooker's

2. C. amphora, n. sp.

Cellaria catenulata ? var. B. Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert. Volume 2 page 180
2nd edition.

Cells oval, sides rendered straight upwards by the broad avicularia which
are prolonged upwards into an acute spinous angle, and support a shallow
cup. Front of cell with nine pyriform fenestrae, with fissures proceeding
from their pointed ends towards an oval central perforation. An elevated
band, extending from the sides of the mouth to the upper angular
processes of the avicularia. An elevated flattened band along the middle
of the back, which at the top sends off a narrower lateral band to each
avicularian spine.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

A fine species of a bright reddish brown, and in the younger cells very
transparent. Forms small, irregularly branched bushes, four to six inches
high and wide. It is peculiar by its extremely regular vase-like form of
cell, which is given by the continuation upwards of the broad avicularia
in nearly a straight line, and their prolongation into a sharp angular
spine, on the inner side of which is a shallow cup-like cavity, whose
sides are usually more horny than calcareous. The number of fenestrae
appears to be very constant.

The length of the branches before their dividing, and their straightness,
together with the colour of this species, render it not improbable that
it is the form intended by Lamarck (l.c.).

3. C. margaritacea, n. sp.

Cellaria vesiculosa ? Lamarck.

Cells oval or sub-globular, much compressed; avicularia short and broad,
supporting a deep cup-like cavity. Fenestrae 5, large. Lower margin of
mouth notched in the middle; back of cell minutely sulcated; sulci short,
interrupted, and irregular. A small lateral area.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

A very beautiful species, the branches resembling strings of minute
pearls. The pearly lustre (in the dry state) owing without doubt to the
minute sulci on the backs of the cells. These sulci are not, however,
consequent upon the drying, because they are equally apparent and
constant when the specimen has been immersed in fluid. The species may
almost at once be distinguished by the notch in the lower margin of the
mouth, which notch represents the central suboral opening present in some
other species.

4. C. ventricosa, n. sp. Table 1 figure 1.

Cells oval, compressed, rather wide below; avicularia wide, supporting
sometimes a cup-like cavity, sometimes a closed broad conical spine. The
prehensile part of the avicularium itself small, seated in a deep notch
below the acuminate summit; lateral area large and well defined.
Fenestrae 7, with fissures radiating to a rounded central opening.
Anterior surface of cell studded with minute acuminate papillae;
posterior surface smooth, sometimes spotted.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour dirty white or brown. Habit stiff, stem strong, straight, branches
short and crowded--probably attains a height of four or five inches. The
only other species with which it can be confounded is C. amphora, from
which it differs in the greater size and more irregular form of the
lateral processes, in the presence of the minute papillae on the surface,
and in the absence of the narrow longitudinal band on the back; instead
of which the older cells in C. ventricosa exhibit a sort of broad scutum,
almost covering the back of the cell and sending off two lateral bands on
the sides of the cell, one passing below the avicularium and above the
lateral area, and the other towards the acuminated apex of the
avicularium. It also wants the raised bands which in C. amphora pass from
the sides of the mouth to the apex of the avicularium in front. One large
specimen presents a variety worthy of note--in this the backs of all the
cells, except one here and there, exhibit (internally ?) numerous
irregular-sized leopard-like spots.

5. C. plagiostoma, n. sp.

Cells short-ovoid; avicularia very large and long, ascending from near
the bottom of the cell into an acute spinous point, and supporting a deep
cupped cavity; mouth placed obliquely; front of cell divided into five
large subtriangular fenestrae by four broad bands. Back of cell with a
broad central band and two narrower bands branching from it on each side;
surface of spaces left uncovered by the bands on the back beset with
scattered, long setose spines.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour brownish white; habit stiff, branches short. This species is at
once recognisable by the peculiar oblique position of the mouth--the
enormously developed avicularium usually only on one side of the cell,
and by the sculpture of the cell--which appears as if it were swathed
with broad tapes or bands. The wide spaces left between the bands in
front clearly represent the true nature of the fenestrae of other
species. It is the only species furnished with elongated setose spines.

6. C. lorica, n. sp.

Cellaria catenulata ? Lamarck.

Cells elongated rhomboidal, truncated at each end. Fenestrae three,
large, the lowest the largest, arranged in a triangle. Mouth very large;
avicularia wide and strong; two lateral areae on each side, well
developed; surface in front with a few indistinct circular spots around
the fenestrae, and behind marked with faint longitudinal striae.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour white, transparent. A fine widely branching species, in which the
catenulate aspect is more evident to the eye than in almost any other. It
is at once recognisable by the rhomboidal scutate form of the cell viewed
anteriorly, and, when the back is also viewed, the resemblance of the two
aspects to the back, and breastplates of a coat of mail, is very
striking. The structure of the lateral processes is more distinctly to be
made out in this species than in any other. Each lateral process
consists, first, of a deep cup-like cavity above; second, a middle
compartment, the avicularium; and third, a third loculament below the
avicularium, the wide opening of which is covered in by a convex
transparent membrane. The bottom of this loculament appears to be
perforated, and it is to be noticed also that there is a small central
perforation in the septum separating it from the cavity of the
avicularium. Towards the bottom of the cell, on each side, is a well
developed lateral area of exactly the same conformation as the
sub-avicularian loculament, and like it covered in by a convex
transparent membrane. It might be supposed that these cavities were for
the purpose of containing air, in order to render the otherwise heavy
branches of the polyzoary buoyant. They, at all events, appear to be
perfectly empty.

7. C. cribaria, n. sp.

Cells sub-globular, compressed, more or less alate. Avicularia large,
without any superior appendage, and prolonged downwards into elevated
lateral alae. Anterior surface with numerous small round fenestrae,
placed at equal distances apart, and evenly distributed over the surface,
the circumferential fenestrae being larger than the rest. A minute
central perforation of a crescentic form, the lower lip projecting, and
the upper lip, lingulate in the middle, falling behind the lower.

Habitat: Bass Strait? This species also occurs in New Zealand.

Colour brown, loosely branched and several inches high. Distinguished
readily by the cribriform aspect of the front of the cell, and by the
curiously formed central orifice, and by the absence of any superior
appendage to the avicularium.

b. Vittatae.

Cells furnished with a narrow elongated band or vitta on each side,
without fenestrae. Ovicells not terminal, galeriform.

8. C. formosa, n. sp.

Cells oval; avicularia large, flat, or cupped above. Vittae elliptical,
rather anterior.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

Colour light plumbeous. Parasitic upon C. margaritacea. The cells are the
largest of any in the Vittate division, and very regular and uniform in
size and outline. The more distinctive characters are taken from the
comparatively broad vittae, and the flat or cupped upper surface of the
avicularia, which are usually continued downwards into a prominent ridge
or ala.

9. C. gibbosa, n. sp.

Cells pyriform, ventricose posteriorly, much attenuated at bottom.
Avicularia small, placed in front close to the sides of the mouth, at the
base of strong conical pointed processes which project in front, and are
connected across the top of the cell by a prominent toothed ridge. Vittae
long linear, entirely lateral.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms, mud.

Of a dark lead colour, when dry. Forms an elegantly branched bush about
two inches high. The gibbous form of the cells, and the peculiar anterior
position of the avicularia, at the base of the projecting lateral
processes, at once distinguish it from all the other vittate species. The
toothed (sometimes entire) ridge extending between the two lateral
processes across the top of the cell and overlapping the mouth like a
penthouse is also a very peculiar feature.

10. C. elegans, n. sp. Table 1 figure 2.

Cells elongated ovoid; avicularia large and projecting, without any
superior appendage; vittae narrow, rather anterior.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 48 fathoms. Port Dalrymple, on stones at low water.

A delicate and beautiful parasitic species; the branches slender and
spreading; colour white and very transparent. Cells regular and uniform
in size and shape. A very similar if not identical species occurs in
Algoa Bay, South Africa, the only difference between them being that the
latter is rather larger and has the vittae much longer; in the Australian
forms these bands do not reach above the middle of the cell, whilst in
the South African they extend as high as the mouth.

11. C. cornuta, n. sp.

Cells oval; avicularia in many cells wholly transformed into long pointed
retrocedent spines, on one or both sides, in others into shorter spines
or unaltered. Vittae linear, extremely narrow, entirely lateral, and
extending the whole length of the cell from the base of the avicularium.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour yellowish white, growth small; parasitic upon C. amphora. As some
difficulty might be experienced in the discrimination of this species
from C. elegans, and another South African species (not the variety of C.
elegans above noticed) it is requisite to remark that the long
retrocedent spines when present are not placed upon or superadded to the
avicularia, but that they seem to represent an aborted or transformed
state of those organs. They vary much in length and size in different
cells, and even in those of the same branch; as it frequently happens
that there is a spine, usually of diminutive size, on one side and a very
large avicularium on the other, and sometimes (but rarely) an avicularium
of more moderate size on both sides. But the character of the species by
which it is more particularly distinguished consists in the presence on a
great many cells, in one part or other of the polyzoary, of the two large
and strong spines projecting BACKWARDS. This retrocession of the spines
is alone a sufficient character to distinguish the present species from
the South African form above alluded to (C. taurina, B.) And the length
and lateral position of the vittae would distinguish the unarmed cells
from those of C. elegans.

12. C. umbonata, n. sp.

Cells more or less pyriform, alate, narrow below, bulging or ventricose
upwards. Avicularia large and strong. Vittae strap-shaped, anterior,
extending from the level of the mouth to the bottom of the cell, with
elevated acuminate papillae or short spines. A broad compressed
projecting process on the middle of the back.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

The cells in this species are small, inflated or ventricose, and as it
were sub-globular above, becoming much attenuated below--but the cavity
of the cell does not appear to extend into this contracted portion, in
which is contained the connecting tube strengthened by calcareous
matter--the inferior continuation of the lateral alae, which descend from
the base of the avicularium. Owing to the large size of the avicularia,
the upper part of the cell is much widened, and the whole acquires
somewhat of a triangular form, and has a peculiar rugose aspect, derived,
in part also, from the large size and elevation of the acuminated
papillae, not only of the vittae but on the surface of the cell itself.
The central umbo or crest posteriorly is a marked feature.

c. Without vittae or fenestrae.

13. C. carinata, n. sp.

Cells oval, narrowed at both ends; lateral processes (without avicularia
?) projecting horizontally upwards from the sides of the mouth about the
middle of the cell. Mouth nearly central, with a small tooth on each
side, and below it a triangular space with three strong conical
eminences. The cell which bears the ovicell geminate.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

This remarkable form differs so widely in many respects from any of its
congeners, as almost to deserve to be considered as the type of a
distinct sub-genus. The lateral processes, which may be taken to
represent the perfect avicularia of the other species, are, as far as can
be ascertained from specimens that have been dried, without a movable
mandible, and are probably really so, because there is no corresponding
beak. These processes are channelled in front, nearly from the base to
the extremity; they arise by a broad base on each side of the mouth, and
on the front of the cell, and from the conjoined bases is continued
upwards and downwards, or to the top and bottom of the cell, a prominent
flattened band. The expanded bases circumscribe an oval space, nearly in
the centre of the front of the cell, the upper two-thirds of which space
are occupied by the circular mouth, on each side of which is a small
calcareous tooth, to which apparently are articulated the horns of the
semilunar lateral cartilage. The lower third is filled up by a yellow,
horny (?) membrane, upon which are placed three conical eminences,
disposed in a triangular manner. The back of the cell is very convex, and
has running along the middle of it an elevated crest or keel, which is
acuminate in the middle. The ovicell is situated in front of the cell
below the mouth, and below it are three considerable-sized areolated
spots, disposed, like the three conical spines, in a triangle. The cells
upon which the ovicells are placed are always geminate, that is to say,
have a smaller cell growing out from one side.

6. Calpidium, n. gen. Table 1 figures 3 to 5.

Character: Cells with an avicularium on each side; with two or three
distinct mouths, arising one from the upper part of another, in a linear
series, all facing the same way, and forming dichotomously-divided
branches; cells at the bifurcation single; ovicells ---- ?

This very peculiar genus, remarkable as it is, seems hitherto to have
escaped notice. It is distinguishable from Catenicella, in the first
place, by the anomalous circumstance that each cell is furnished with two
or more, usually three, distinct keyhole-shaped mouths, and is doubtless
inhabited by three distinct individuals. Whether these are separated from
each other by internal partitions is unknown, but the closest examination
of cells rendered transparent by means of acid fails to discover such. In
cells thus prepared, there are apparent, however, three distinct masses,
reaching from the bottom of the cell to each orifice, and which are
probably the remains either of the body or of the retractor muscles of
the animals. Another point of difference from Catenicella is the
non-gemination of the cell at the dichotomy of a branch. The avicularia,
moreover, do not form lateral projections, but are sessile, or imbedded,
as it were, in the sides of the cell immediately below the upper angles.

1. C. ornatum, n. sp. Table 1 figures 3 to 5.

Cells triangular-urn shaped, very broad above, with a straight border,
much compressed; mouths, 2 to 3, keyhole-shaped. Five fenestrae below
each mouth; numerous branching bands on the back of the cell.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

This curious species is the only one belonging to the genus. The cells
are very large, regular, and uniform, resembling very closely an antique
sculptured urn. Colour dark brown, and the walls so thick as to be nearly
opaque. The polyzoary, which appears to attain a height of four or five
inches, is bipinnate (with all the branches on one plane) the branches
alternate, and given off with extreme regularity. The ultimate ramules
are incurved. The whole forms a very elegant object. The central stem, or
series of cells, differs in no respect as regards the size or disposition
of the cells composing it, from the branches.


7. EUCRATEA, Lamouroux.

1. Eucratea chelata, Lamouroux.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

In all respects identical with the British form. It also occurs at Port

8. ANGUINARIA, Lamarck.

1. A. spatulata, Lamarck.

Aetea anguina, Lamouroux.

Habitat: Bass Strait, and other localities.

This species (which appears to be pretty generally distributed over the
globe) is identical with the European form. It is to be remarked,
however, that a second species (A. dilatata, Busk. Annals of Natural
History second series volume 7 page 81 plate 9 figure 14) is found in
Torres Strait, but which does not occur in the Rattlesnake collection.


Sec. 2. MULTISERIALARIA. Cells disposed alternately in a double or multiple

1. Articulata.

Polyzoary divided into distinct internodes by flexible articulations.

a. Internodes elongated, or composed of numerous cells.

Fam. 1. SALICORNARIADAE. Cells disposed around an ideal axis.


a. Surface divided into more or less regular hexagonal spaces by elevated

1. S. punctata, n. sp.

Cellaria salicornioides ? Audoin. Savigny, Egypt. Plate 6 figure 7.

Hexagonal areas with an acute angle above and below; bottom of area
pyriform, surface covered with minute transparent granulations. Mouth of
cell in the upper third, with a minute tooth on each side.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms. Off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms,
fine grey mud.

Parasitic upon Sertularians and Polyzoa; branches straggling of irregular

2. S. bicornis, n. sp.

Areas with an obtuse angle above and below, sometimes rounded above; a
minute projection on each side near the top. Bottom of area long-oval,
smooth, sometimes with a perforation above the mouth. Mouth with a minute
tooth on each side.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Parasitic. Branches shorter and thicker than in the preceding species. In
the shape of the area they are very much alike, but in S. bicornis, in
some cells, and occasionally throughout the greater part of the
internode, the area differs widely from the more usual form. It is much
expanded, and presents a wide arch above. In this case there is usually a
considerable-sized perforation above the mouth of the cell, as occurs not
infrequently also in S. farciminoides in the younger cells, and which
opening is probably normal, until it becomes filled up by the gradual
disposition of calcareous matter. What more especially distinguishes the
present from the preceding species are the minute projections on either
side at the two upper lateral angles of the hexagonal area, and the
smoothness of the surface of the cell. They are both perfectly distinct
from S. farciminoides.

b. Surface not divided into distinct areas by raised ridges.

3. S. furcata, n. sp.

Mouth of cell elliptical, occupying two-thirds of its length. Two small
perforations on each side immediately above the mouth, protected by a
convex transparent hood, which has a rounded opening on its under

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, nine fathoms.

Forms small crowded tufts from one to two or three inches high; branches
very regularly dichotomous.

4. S. torresiana, n. sp.

Cell circumscribed by an acute raised border; opening oval, rather more
than half the length of the cell. Cell attenuated below the opening.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, nine fathoms.

A small broken fragment only preserved; parasitic upon Sertularia
mutulata, so that its habit cannot be satisfactorily determined. It is of
a greenish colour, but this may be adventitious, although general and
uniform throughout the specimen. This species differs from the above in
being much larger, and in wanting the two perforations on each side above
the mouth--in the less comparative size of the opening of the cell, and
in the remarkable elevation of the sharp margin surrounding the upper
half of the cell. In the looser aggregation, and in the form of the
cells, it shows the transition from Salicornaria to Cellularia.

Fam. 2. CELLULARIADAE. Cells disposed in the same plane.

10. CELLULARIA, Pallas.

Character: (B.) Cells bi-triserial, oblong* or rhomboidal, contiguous.
Opening of cell occupying at least half of the front. Margin thickened,
sometimes spinous above. A short spine or a sessile avicularium on the
upper and outer angle.

(*Footnote. This shape of the cells is given from the back view of them.)

A. inarmatae--without avicularium.

1. C. monotrypa, n. sp.

Cells oblong, narrowed below, with a single perforation, in the upper and
outer part behind. Opening oval, margin smooth; a short spinous process
at the upper and outer angle; a sharp short spine in the middle of the
upper border of the middle cell, at a bifurcation. Ovicell ? in form of a
very shallow excavation in the upper part of the cell in front.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

The only species with which this can be confounded, is C. peachii (Busk.
Annals of Natural History volume 7 second series page 82 plate 8 figure

The latter, however, is very much smaller, the cells narrower in
proportion to their length, and the margin of the opening minutely
verrucose. The cell has more than one posterior perforation; and the
central cell at a bifurcation is rounded above and without a spinous
process; lastly, the ovicell is much loftier and tesselated on the

11. SCRUPOCELLARIA, Van Beneden.

Character (modified). Cells rhomboidal, with a sinuous depression on the
outer and posterior aspect. Each furnished with a sessile avicularium at
the upper and outer angle in front, and with a vibraculum placed in the
sinus on the outer and lower part of the cell behind. Opening oval, or
subrotund, spinous above. Ovicells galeriform.

This natural genus is characterised more particularly by the presence
upon EACH cell of a sessile avicularium seated on, or in fact forming the
upper and outer angle, and of a vibraculum placed on the back of the
cell. The cells in some species are provided with a pedunculate
operculum, by which it is intended to designate a process, which arising
by a short tube from the anterior wall of the cell, immediately beyond
the inner margin of the opening, projects forwards and bends over the
front of the cell, expanding into a variously-formed limb, and serving as
protection to the mouth of the cell in front. The cavity of the tube by
which the process arises, becomes, in the expanded portion, continuous
with variously disposed grooves or channels, which terminate at the edges
of the operculum. This organ affords excellent specific characters (not
in this genus alone). Besides the sessile avicularia above noticed, many
species of this genus also possess avicularia of another kind, and which
are placed on the front of the cell below the opening and towards the
inner side, or in other words, towards the middle line of the branch. In
this genus, in all those species in which the second avicularium occurs,
each individual cell is provided with one. This additional avicularium
appears to be composed of a flexible material, and it is very easily
broken off, so that in many instances, perhaps throughout an entire
specimen the organ itself may be wanting, although its position is
clearly evidenced by the existence of a rounded opening in the usual
situation of the organ. It is necessary to distinguish this form of
flexible (if such it be) avicularium from the truly articulated and
movable avicularia, in the form of birds' heads, and which form does not
occur in the genus Scrupocellaria.

a. OPERCULATAE. Cells furnished with a pedunculate operculum.

1. S. cervicornis, n. sp.

Veins or channels in the oral operculum, branching so as to resemble the
antlers of a stag. The marginal spine next above the pedunculated
operculum, bifurcate.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Islands, 25 fathoms, fine grey mud.

A small, delicate, parasitic species, very transparent. The very peculiar
markings on the operculum at once distinguish it. The upper margin of the
mouth is furnished with five elongated spines, the innermost of which is
forked at the extremity.

2. S. diadema, n. sp.

Cells elongate, external side nearly straight, vibraculum sublateral,
very prominent. Limit of operculum entire, or obscurely bi-trilobed. A
flexible avicularium in front. Ovicell usually with a single row of four
or five openings immediately above its mouth.

Habitat: Moreton Bay.

b. INOPERCULATAE. Cells without a pedunculate operculum.

3. S. cyclostoma, n. sp.

Opening of cell nearly or quite circular, margin much thickened, with
three or four short indistinct spines above. Vibraculum sublateral. A
flexible avicularium in front. Ovicells --- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

4. S. ferox, n. sp.

Opening of cell broad oval, pointed below; three short indistinct spines
above; vibraculum large, sinus deep. An enormous anterior avicularium, as
wide as the cell. Ovicell lofty, with numerous punctures over the

Habitat: Louisiade Archipelago. Bass Strait.

Distinguished from the former species by the enormous anterior
avicularium, and the form of the opening. Another peculiarity of this
species is the curious serrated appearance of the radical tubes.

12. CANDA, Lamouroux.

Character: (B.) cells rhomboidal, sinuated on the outer side for the
lodgment of a vibraculum. No sessile avicularium on the upper and outer
angle in front. An uncertain number of flexible avicularia, arranged
along the middle of the branches, and in much less number than the cells.

This genus is at once distinguished from Scrupocellaria, to which it is
otherwise closely allied, by the absence of the sessile avicularium on
the upper and outer angle in front, and also by the circumstance, that
although there are flexible anterior avicularia, they do not correspond
in number with the cells, but seem to be disposed in a special tract
along the middle of the branch or internode. The connection of the
branches by transverse tubular fibres is not a character of either
generic or specific importance, though it is more striking in the only
species hitherto known as belonging to this genus, than in any other.
These transverse tubular fibres are, like the radical fibres in
Scrupocellaria, always inserted, not into the body of a cell, but into a
vibraculum. They are evidently of the nature of a byssus.

1. C. arachnoides, Lamouroux.

Cells biserial; opening oval, truncated above, and the upper margin
recedent, with a spine on each side, the outer the longer surface of cell
covered with transparent granulations.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

b. Internodes composed of 2 to 4 cells.

13. EMMA, Gray. Dieffenbach's New Zealand, Volume 2 page 293.

Character. (B.) Cells in pairs or triplets. Opening more or less oblique,
subtriangular, partially filled up by a granulated calcareous expansion.
A sessile avicularium (not always present) on the outer side, below the
level of the opening.

This genus appears to be a natural one, though very closely allied to
Tricellaria (Fleming). The more important points of distinction consist
in the conformation of the opening of the cell, and in the position of
the avicularium when the latter organ is present. The lower half of what
would otherwise be the oral opening of the cell is filled up by a thin
plate of calcareous matter, granulated on the surface, and by which the
actual opening is rendered more or less subtriangular, the mouth being
placed just below the apex of the triangle. The margin of the opening is
considerably raised, especially at the oval end, so that the opening
appears to be situated in a deep depression. This character of opening,
however, occurs also in a triserial species of Cellularia from Algoa Bay.
The position of the avicularium entirely BELOW the level of the opening
on the outer side of the cell, is the peculiar characteristic of Emma as
distinguished from Tricellaria, in which that organ when present is
placed on the upper and outer angle as in Cellularia proper, and
Scrupocellaria. It is worthy of notice that avicularia may be present on
every cell in some specimens, and most usually, whilst in others of equal
size there will be none at all apparent. So that the position of these
organs in this genus, as well as in Tricellaria, is of more importance
systematically than even their existence.

1. E. crystallina, Gray, l.c.

Cells in pairs; three spines on the outer edge, the central usually the
longest and strongest.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Parasitic upon Polyzoa, etc. circinate branched--branches irregular
divaricate. The opening of the cell triangular, very obliquely placed.

2. Emma tricellata, n. sp.

Cells in triplets; three or four long spines on the upper and outer part;
a small spine on the inner and lower part of the edge of the opening.

Habitat: Bass Strait.

Parasitic upon Catenicella, etc. Habit long straggling, very like the
preceding species. The cells are more infundibuliform, and the
avicularium, which, as in E. crystallina is not always present, is
larger, but occupies the same position on the cell.

2. Polyzoary continuous throughout.

Fam. 3. BICELLARIADAE. Frond wholly divided into narrow ligulate,
dichotomous, bi or multiserial branches; no vibracula. Avicularia when
present pedunculate.

14. BICELLARIA, Blainville.

Character. (B.) Cells turbinate, distant. Opening directed more or less
upwards. Mouth submarginal. Several curved spines, marginal or

1. B. tuba, n. sp.

Opening round, looking nearly directly upwards; a digitiform hollow
process below the outer border supporting 2 to 4 long incurved spines; 2
to 3 other long curved submarginal spines behind or above the opening,
none below it in front--a solitary spine on the back a short way down the
cell. Avicularia very long, trumpet-shaped, arising on the back of the

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

This species is at once recognisable by the remarkable form and unusual
position of the avicularium, and also by the peculiar digitiform
spiniferous process on the outer side of the opening.

2. B. gracilis, n. sp.

Cells elongated, slender, opening round or suboval, looking obliquely
forwards and upwards; three marginal (sometimes slightly submarginal)
spines above and behind the opening, and two much longer curved hair-like
spines arising from the anterior and lower edge of the opening. Ovicells
globose, subpedunculate, attached to the upper and inner part of the
margin of the opening. Avicularia small, like birds' heads.

Habitat: Bass Strait.

A delicate slender species, not unlike B. ciliata or avicularis in habit.
The two long spines arising from the anterior edge of the opening suffice
to distinguish it from the former of these two species.

3. B. grandis, n. sp.

Cells much elongated outwards, horizontal or projecting portion oblong,
rounded at the extremity; 2 to 5 long curved submarginal spines,
externally a single dorsal spine about halfway down the cell; opening
oval, narrower outwards; very oblique mouth at the outer end. Avicularia
---- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Quite distinct from B. ciliata not only in its size, which is nearly
three times as great, but in the form of the cell and the opening. The
number of spines varies very much, and two or three of them, not
unfrequently, arise from a common projecting process or base.

4. B. johnstoniae.

Cells obliquely truncated above with a short spine on the outer angle;
opening large, suboval, with an obtuse angle outwardly; margin slightly
thickened, wholly unarmed.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms, fine grey mud.

Of a light grey colour: grows in large loose tufts, composed of long
forked ascending branches. It is a very peculiar species, and some
difficulty has been found in finding it a place. In the opening of the
mouth, and the external short spine, it is a Cellaria; and in the colour
and want of distinct articulation, it approaches Acamarchis; whilst in
the form of the cell, and their mode of mutual connection, it is a
Bicellaria: it differs from all other species of that genus, however, in
the absence of any long spines, and in general habit. Were it not
referred to that genus, it would probably constitute the type of a
distinct one. A curious little trident-like organ is visible in the
narrow part of some cells.

15. ACAMARCHIS, Lamouroux.

Character. (B.) Cells elliptical,* closely contiguous; opening very
large, margin simple, not thickened. Avicularia not always present, like
birds' heads.

(*Footnote. Viewed posteriorly.)

To which may be added, that the species are frequently coloured, red or

1. A. neritina, Lamouroux.

Habitat: Rio de Janeiro. Broken Bay, New South Wales.

This species appears to be one of the most generally distributed of the
Polyzoa; it occurs in nearly every latitude in both hemispheres.

2. A. tridentata. Krauss. Corall. d. Sudsee page 3 figure 2.

Habitat: Bass Strait (?)

This species is placed doubtfully in the Rattlesnake Collection. It
occurs, however, in Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand (Dr. Hooker) and is
abundant in South Africa.


Polyzoarium entirely divided into ligulate dichotomous bi or multiserial
branches; back nearly covered by large vibracula; avicularia sessile.

16. CABEREA, Lamouroux.

Selbia, Gray. op.c. Volume 2 page 292.

Cells bi-multiserial, in the latter case quincuncial. Posterior surface
of branches concealed by large vibracula, which are placed obliquely in a
double row, diverging in an upward direction from the middle line, where
the vibracula of either row decussate with those of the other. Avicularia
when present of the flexible kind, sessile on the front of the cell.

The remarkable feature of this genus resides in the vibracula, which here
appear to attain their utmost development. Each vibraculum appears to
belong not to a single cell as in Scrupocellaria, but to be common to, or
applied to the backs of several. They are more or less pyriform or long
oval in shape, and the two rows decussate with each other along the
middle of the branch--giving in the narrower species, especially, much
the aspect of an ear of barley, and in the wider of a straw plait. The
walls of the vibracula are usually thin, and very transparent, so as to
allow the outlines of the cells to be seen imperfectly through them. The
upper and outer extremity of the vibraculum is bifid, and to the inner
horn is articulated the seta, and from the notch between the two horns
there is continued nearly, if not quite, to the inner extremity of the
organ, and along its upper border, a shallow groove, in which is lodged
the seta when in a state of rest. In most species the seta is serrated
with distant teeth on one side.

Where there are more than two rows of cells, the marginal cells differ in
conformation from the central.

As in Scrupocellaria, the opening of the cell is sometimes protected by a
pedunculate operculum. The genus, therefore, may, like that, admit of
being divided into sections, distinguished respectively by the presence
or absence of a pedunculate operculum.

a. Operculatae.

1. C. rudis, n. sp.

Multiserial; opening of cells oval, margin much thickened, with a strong
projecting upturned spine on each side in the central cells, and with
three strong and long similar spines on the outer side, and a smaller one
on the inner side in the marginal cells. Operculum spatulate, or pointed
above, entire. Each cell of the central rows with two small avicularia in
front, immediately below the mouth. Each marginal cell with a single
large vibraculum in front below the mouth. Vibracula slender, very
transparent. Setae short, not serrated.

Habitat: Bass Strait.

Colour dirty white: forms a broad frondose polyzoarium 1 1/2 to 2 inches,
or perhaps more, in height. The branches, all disposed in the same plane,
are flat, thick, and about 1/8th of an inch wide, composed of from four
to six rows of comparatively small cells, which viewed behind appear
lozenge or diamond-shaped, and arranged quincunically. It is not always
easy to observe with accuracy the outline of the vibracula, owing to the
extreme tenuity of their walls, but the groove along the upper border is
very distinct and most usually has the seta lying in it. The avicularia
on the marginal cells are very large, but not uniform in size. Along each
border of the branches runs a bundle of radical tubes, the number of
which diminishes as the branch ascends, each terminating in a vibraculum.

2. C. zelanica, Busk.

Selbia zelanica, Gray. Dieffenbach's New Zealand, volume 2 page 292.

Crisia boryi, Audouin. (Savigny Egypt plate 12 figure 4.)

Biserial; opening of cell oval or elliptical, rounded at each end,
crossed in front, and thus divided into two nearly equal parts by a
transverse calcareous band, from the lower edge of which depends a
pedunculate, falciform operculum. Cells frequently produced upwards into
a large arcuate ovicell. Vibracula ovoid, setae long, serrated.

Habitat: off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms, fine grey mud.

Slender: sufficiently distinguished by the peculiar form of the
operculum. This part is so indistinctly represented in Savigny's figures,
as to render it impossible to determine with certainty whether his
species is the present one or not. The posterior view is much more like,
but that is insufficient of itself to afford a specific character. The
back of the branches exactly resembles an ear of barley. This species
occurs in New Zealand, and also in South Africa.

b. Inoperculatae; opening of cell without an operculum.

3. C. lata, n. sp. ?

C. dichotoma ?, Lamouroux.

Branches 4 to 7 serial; opening of cells in central rows, oval, sometimes
square below; and the cell frequently produced into a shallow arcuate
cavity. A short blunt spine on each side of the mouth. Marginal cells
shallow, opening oval, margin much thickened, granulated: usually a short
conical spine at the summit; a very minute sessile avicularium behind the
outer edge, superiorly. Vibracula very large: setae serrated.

Habitat: off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms fine grey mud.

Colour white or yellowish; forms close rounded tufts 2 1/2 to 3 inches in
height and width, composed of uniform dichotomously divided branches,
about 1/8 of an inch wide, and which become wider towards their truncate
extremities. The vibracula are very large, and though distinctly defined,
are yet sufficiently transparent to allow a view of the lozenge-shaped
cells. The central rows of cells vary in number from two to five, and the
cells composing them are arranged with extreme regularity. The marginal
rows are placed in a plane posterior to the central, and as above
noticed, the cells of which they are composed are widely different from
the central.

The only other species with which the present can be confounded is
Caberea hookeri (Cellularia hookeri, Fleming) a British form. The latter
species appears to differ from C. lata, chiefly in its having a large
tubular spine on each side of the mouth of the lateral cells, and in each
of the central cells, or nearly so, being furnished with an anterior
avicularium, below the opening and to one side. The lateral sessile
avicularium on the marginal cells is also much larger.


Polyzoarium expanded, continuous or encrusting. Cells disposed in
straight series, which do not radiate from a centre.

17. Flustra, Linn.

a. Cells on one side only.

1. F. pyriformis ?, Lamouroux.

Cells pyriform, or barrel-shaped, prominent, marked with transverse
wrinkles. Ovicells lofty, keeled in front, with a strong central, and two
lateral longitudinal ribs.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Sometimes small and parasitic, upon Sertularians and Polyzoa--sometimes
independent, then of large growth, forming dichotomously divided fronds,
with strap-shaped truncate, unequal divisions.

b. Cells on both sides. (Carbasea, Gray.)

2. F. denticulata, n. sp.

Cells much elongated, narrow; sides parallel, ends square; an upturned
spine on each side at the oral end; sides of cell denticulate, denticles
very numerous, small, acute. Avicularia irregularly distributed on the
surface of the frond.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Frond divided into numerous strap-shaped, truncated segments, of various
widths; it attains a height of several inches. In habit it is very like
some forms of F. truncata, and there is a Mediterranean species
(undescribed ?) in which the cells are denticulate, much in the same way
as in the present species, but otherwise quite distinct.

18. RETEPORA, Lamarck.

Character. (B.) Polyzoarium foliaceous, calcareous, or horny, reticulate;
cells only on one side.

1. R. cornea, n. sp.

R. ambigua ? Lamarck.

Cells oval, not very regularly arranged, in a continuous, foliaceous,
subcircular frond; reticulated with oval spaces, not as wide as the
interspaces. Ovicells large, galeriform, immersed, smooth.

Habitat. Off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms, fine grey mud.

This remarkable species is so completely a Retepore in construction, that
it seems impossible to separate it from that genus, merely from the
circumstance that its composition is more horny than calcareous. The
frond is more or less orbicular, or rather is composed of more or less
orbicular or reniform folds, one over another, and attached as it were to
a common centre. The substance is very thin and transparent, and the
interspaces are much broader than the elliptical spaces.

2. R. cellulosa.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Not distinguishable from a Mediterranean specimen.

3. R. ctenostoma, n. sp.

Frond umbilicate, irregularly infundibuliform, spaces elongated, narrow,
margins subdenticulate; interspaces as wide as the spaces. Mouth of cells
tubular, projecting; with six or seven unequal acute expanding teeth.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

A very distinct and beautiful species. The frond is about half an inch
wide, and though really umbilicate and subinfundibuliform, does not at
first sight appear so, being much more expanded on one side of the centre
than on the other.

19. ESCHARA, Ray.

1. E. lichenoides, M. Edwards. Mem. sur les Eschares. Ann. d. S. N. tome
6 page 31 plate 2 figure 3.

Habitat: Australian Sea, probably Bass Strait. (It also occurs in Algoa Bay.)

20. DIACHORIS, n. gen. Table 1 figures 10 to 12.

Cells separate, each connected with six others by short tubes; disposed
in a horizontal plane, and forming a continuous irregular frond; free, or
partially adnate.

The mode of arrangement and interconnection of the cells in this genus is
remarkable, and highly interesting. It represents, in fact, a dissected
Flustra or Membranipora. The cells are disposed in linear parallel
series, and those of two contiguous series are alternate with respect to
each other. Each cell is connected with one at either end in the same
linear series by a rather wide short tubular prolongation, and with two
on each side in the contiguous series by narrower tubes, so that each
cell, except in the marginal rows, is connected with six others. It is
this mode of interconnection of the cells that affords the diagnostic
generic character. There is but one species in the present collection,
but in Mr. Darwin's there are two others from the Straits of Magellan, as
yet undescribed.

1. D. crotali, n. sp. Table 1 figures 10 to 12.

Cells erect, open in front, perforated on the sides and bottom; a
lanceolate appendage articulated to each upper angle. Ovicell conical,
placed on the upper edge.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

The frond, though not strictly speaking adnate, as it seems to have no
attachments, is usually spread loosely over other polyzoa. There is no
appearance of a movable mandible in the lanceolate appendages, but which,
nevertheless, most probably represent avicularia. These organs are of a
lanceolate form, with an elevated ridge or keel along the back, and
slightly concave beneath. They project in front, slightly depending; and
at the base of each is a rounded eminence.


Polyzoarium missive or crustaceous, composed of ovate cells in
juxtaposition and arranged, more or less regularly, in linear series,
radiating from a central point or line.

21. CELLEPORA, Otho Fabricius.

1. Cellepora bilabiata, n. sp. ?

C. labiata, Lamouroux.

Cells deeply immersed; mouths in some entire and unarmed; in others, with
two acuminated conical lips; immediately beneath the apex of the
posterior lip a small sessile avicularium. Ovicells subglobular, with a
scutiform area on the upper surface, marked with several lines on each
side, radiating from a central line.

Habitat: Bass Strait.

Parasitic on several zoophytes. This species to the naked eye exactly
resembles C. pumicosa, but on closer examination several important
differences will be observable. The cells in C. bilabiata are less
rounded and less distinct than in C. pumicosa. As in that species, some
of the cells are furnished with an avicularium, and others unprovided
with that appendage; and again, some cells support an ovicell, whilst
others do not. The mouth of the unarmed cells in both species is more or
less circular and plain, but in C. bilabiata, even in the unarmed cells,
the mouth is occasionally distinctly bilabiate. In C. pumicosa the
avicularium is placed subapically on a solitary posterior obtuse mucro,
but in C. bilabiata there are two such processes longer and more pointed,
one in front and the other behind the mouth; the avicularium, as in the
former case, being placed immediately below the apex of the posterior
mucro. The ovicells also differ very much. In C. pumicosa this organ
presents several rather large circular spots or perforations ? whilst in
C. bilabiata it exhibits a scutiform or horseshoe-shaped area, marked
with several transverse lines on each side of a middle longitudinal line.


Cells opposite, in pairs.

22. DIDYMIA, n. gen. Table 1 figure 6.

Cells joined side by side; opening large, oval; mouth subapical, central.
No avicularium. Ovicells contained within a cell, which is central at
each bifurcation.

1. Didymia simplex, n. sp. Table 1 figure 6.

Cells oblong, narrowed below, broad and truncate, with an angle
externally above. Back marked with transverse rugae.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

A fine species, growing in loosely-branched phytoid fronds, to a height
of several inches. In some (dried) specimens the branches are a little
incurved, but not in all. The situation of the ovicell is peculiar. It is
contained within the upper part of a cell placed between, or rather in
front of the pair, from which the two branches at a bifurcation take
their origin. The ovigerous cell differs widely in form from the others,
being pyriform, and much attenuated below; and the orifice is below the
middle. The upper compartment, in which the ovicell or sac itself is
lodged, appears to be separated from the lower by a transverse diaphragm.

23. DIMETOPIA, n. gen. Table 1 figures 7 to 9.

Cells joined back to back; the mouths of each alternate pair looking in
the same direction, and at rightangles to the intermediate pair.

1. D. spicata, n. sp. Table 1 figure 9.

Cells infundibuliform. Margin of opening much thickened, with six
equidistant, elongated pointed spines.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

White, transparent, forming thick tufts about 1 1/2 to 2 inches in
height. The same species also occurs in New Zealand.

2. D. cornuta, n. sp. Table 1 figures 7 and 8.

Cells suddenly contracted about the middle. Opening oval, wide above;
margins slightly thickened with a short thick conical horn on each side
above, and a long projecting spine (rarely two) in front below.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Branches narrower than in the preceding species. Colour yellowish. Tufts
loose; ovicell small in proportion to the size of the cells. It is placed
immediately above and behind the upper margin of the opening of the cell
to which it belongs.


Fam. 1. VESICULARIADAE. Cells tubular, horny.

24. AMATHIA, Lamouroux.

1. A. biseriata, Krauss. Corall. der Sudsee, page 23. Figure 1 a, b, c.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

The biserial arrangement of the cells is not a sufficient character,
because in Amathia cornuta (Lamouroux) the cells are also biserial as
well as in another South African species, very like the Australian form
probably intended by Krauss, but apparently different from it. In the
South African form the cells are shorter, narrower, and more cylindrical,
and the branches are terminated by two lanceolate tags, which are not
present in the Australian species, in which latter the cells also are
wider, longer, and prismatic, or subhexagonal, with very thin walls.



The number of species of Sertularian Zoophytes comprised in this
collection amounts to thirty-one, belonging to five genera, all of which
appear to be common to both the Northern and Southern hemispheres; and
four are European types. The fifth, Pasythea, is stated by Lamouroux, to
be found on Fucus natans and in the West Indies; so that the present
collection does not present any peculiar Australian generic form. It is
far otherwise, however, with respect to the species. Of these three only
are found in the European seas namely:

Sertularia operculata.
Campanularia dumosa.
Campanularia volubilis ?

Of which the first is a perfect cosmopolite, and the last is perhaps

There are also, what is much more strange, not more than three species
which I have been enabled to trace to any other locality, even in the
Southern hemisphere. These are:

Sertularia elongata.
Sertularia divaricata, n. sp.
Plumularia macgillivrai, n. sp.

The first occurring in New Zealand; the second on the south coast of
Patagonia and in the Straits of Magellan; and the third (which, however,
is not, strictly speaking, an Australian form, having been procured in
the Louisiade Archipelago) in the Philippine Islands. With these six
exceptions, the whole number of species would therefore, to a certain
extent, appear to be characteristic of the Australian seas.

Of the thirty-one species, it appears strange that not less than
twenty-five should here be described as new; and there can be no doubt
many so described are included under the vague and uncertain descriptions
of Lamarck and Lamouroux; but, in the absence of authentic specimens, or
trustworthy figures, I have found it impossible to identify
satisfactorily the species described by them, and have therefore thought
it better to assign new names rather than to apply former ones, which
would in all probability prove incorrect. It is hoped, at all events,
that the descriptions here given will be found sufficient to prevent any
misconception of what is intended in the following catalogue.

The mode in which the species are arranged will be seen from the
following synoptical arrangement:



Gen. 1. Sertularia.
Sec. 1. Cells alternate (Sertularia).
(a) Cells distichous.
1. S. elongata.
2. S. divaricata, n. sp.
3. S. crisoides.
(b) Cells secund.
4. S. pristis.
Sec. 2. Cells opposite (Dynamena).
(a) Cells distichous.
5. S. subcarinata, n. sp.
6. S. patula, n. sp.
7. S. orthogonia, n. sp.
8. S. mutulata, n. sp.
9. S. operculata.
10. S. divergens, n. sp.
11. S. trigonostoma, n. sp.
12. S. digitalis, n. sp.
13. S. loculosa, n. sp.
14. S. unguiculata, n. sp.
15. S. tridentata, n. sp.
2. Pasythea.
16. P. hexodon, n. sp.
3. Plumularia.
Sec. 1. Angiocarpeae.
17. P. huxleyi, n. sp.
18. P. hians, n. sp.
19. P. delicatula, n. sp.
20. P. aurita, n. sp.
21. P. brevirostris, n. sp.
22. P. ramosa, n. sp.
23. P. divaricata, n. sp.
24. P. phoenicea, n. sp.
25. P. longicornis, n. sp.
26. P. macgillivrayi, n. sp.
Sec. 2. Gymnocarpeae.
27. P. effusa, n. sp.
28. P. campanula, n. sp.
4. Campanularia.
29. C. volubilis (?)
30. C. dumosa.
5. Laomedea.
31. L. torressii, n. sp.




Gen. 1. Sertularia, Linnaeus.

1. Cells alternate (Sertularia).

a. Cells distichous.

1. S. elongata, Lamouroux.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach. Port Dalrymple,
on stones at low water. (Also New Zealand.)

2. S. divaricata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate-subtubular, or very little contracted towards the mouth,
often adnate to the rachis nearly their whole length; mouth looking
upwards, with three large acute teeth, two lateral, and one rather longer
than the others, and slightly recurved, above. Ovicells ---- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms, dead shells.

Colour dirty yellowish white; polypidom branched, from a common stem;
branches irregular (?) straggling, pinnate and bipinnate, pinnae and
pinnules divaricate at rightangles, alternate; rachis flexuose, or with
an angle at the origin of each pinna. The cells are placed at wide
distances apart; small and adnate very nearly to the top. The mouth
circular, with three large teeth, the one above frequently obscured by
adventitious substances, very acute, ascending, and a little recurved.

Sertul. gayi. (Lamouroux. Exp. page 12 plate 66 figure 89 has four

This species occurs also on the south coast of Patagonia, and the Straits
of Magellan; in the latter locality, however, the habit is much more

3. S. crisioides, Lamouroux. (Dynamena.)

Cells adnate, conical, slightly curved, truncate at bottom, narrow at
top; mouth vertical, external.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms.

Very like a Thuiaria, but the cells are not immersed, though very closely
adnate, and the outer angle of the square base of each cell is in contact
with the upper and back part of the one below it, so that a small
triangular space or opening is left below each cell. The branches are
very regularly alternate; and the polypidom is of a light brownish

(b) Cells secund.

4. S. pristis, (B.).

Idia pristis, Lamouroux.

Cells tubular, all contiguous or adnate to each other, and to the rachis,
upper half curved laterally, lower half closely adnate, almost immersed
in the rachis; mouth looking upwards, rounded, expanded, almost
infundibuliform, border slightly scalloped towards the rachis, and
projecting externally. Ovicell cyathiform, long narrow with circular
rugae. Mouth as large as the diameter of the cup, margin very slightly

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms. Off
Cumberland Islands, in 27 fathoms, fine grey mud.

I see no reason why the present species should not come under Sertularia.
It is peculiar from the position and extreme contiguity of the alternate
cells. The ovicells arise from the back of the rachis towards the side.
When viewed posteriorly, the cells are seen through the transparent
rachis, and it might thus at first sight appear as if the rachis itself
were cellular and not tubular, but such is not the case. The tube is wide
and continuous from end to end.

2. Cells opposite (sometimes alternate on the stem). (Dynamena).

(a) Cells distichous.

5. S. subcarinata, n. sp.

Cells tubular, upper half divergent, ascending. Mouth looking upwards,
circular, with an anterior and two lateral broad, expanding teeth. A
narrow angular line or keel down the front of the cell. Ovicell ---- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms dead shells.

Colour white, transparent, growth small, straggling. Branches irregular,
divaricate nearly at rightangles, subalternate. The three expanding teeth
and the anterior ridge or keel, besides its habit, distinguish it from a
Tasmanian species with which alone can it be confounded. The cells are

6. S. patula, n. sp.

Cells tubular, upper third free, divergent ascending. Mouth perfectly
round, looking upwards and outwards, margin entire everted. Ovicell ----

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms, dead shells.

Colour whitish. A small parasitic species, with opposite branches.

7. S. Orthogonia, n. sp.

Cells tubular, nearly half free, divergent laterally at a right angle.
Mouth looking directly outwards, border entire, slightly everted. Ovicell
---- ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, parasitic upon S.

Very like the preceding in habit and size, of which it may possibly prove
to be a variety. The cells, however, throughout the whole of the
polypidom are of precisely the same character, in each form, and exhibit
no intermediate steps. In the present species the cells are much longer,
rather narrower, and the upper half is turned out abruptly at a
rightangle, whilst in the former they ascend at an angle of 45 degrees,
and the free portion is much shorter. The branches in both are opposite;
the ovicells are unfortunately absent in each.

8. S. mutulata, n. sp.

Cells compressed or flattened, from side to side; sometimes angular,
lower half adnate, upper half divergent, projecting like a bracket. Mouth
looking directly upwards, narrow oblong, quadrangular. Ovicells aculeate,
with strong widely set spines, pyriform depressed.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour light olive grey. Polypidom about three inches high, irregularly ?
branched, branches not opposite. The cells are distichous, and of a very
peculiar form, but varying in some degree according to their situation.
The younger (?) cells on the secondary branches are flat on the inferior
or outer aspect, with two angles on each side, or are quadrangular;
whilst the cells on the stems or older or fertile branches are usually
rounded below, or on the outer side, and thus have only one angle on each
side. The mouth varies in shape according to the cell; in the former case
being a regular long rectangle, whilst in the latter it is rounded on the
outer side. The ovicells are placed in a single series on one side of the
rachis, as in S. digitalis, but are widely different in form.

9. S. operculata, Linn.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

This species occurs in all parts of the world. It is to be carefully
distinguished from S. bispinosa, Gray--also an Australian and New Zealand
species, but which does not occur in the present collection.

b. Cells (on the branches) secund, contiguous.

10. S. divergens, Lamouroux.

Cells urceolate, much contracted towards the mouth; upper half free,
divergent, projecting laterally almost horizontally; mouth small
elliptical, with the long axis looking directly outwards; two lateral
teeth. Ovicell smooth, rounded, ovoid; oral margin not elevated.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

Colour light yellowish: parasitic upon a fucus. Height from 1/4 to 1/2
inch; simply pinnate, branches distant, regularly alternate. The stem is
divided into internodes, from each of which arises a single branch. The
cells on the stem are alternate.

b. Cells secund.

11. S. trigonostoma, n. sp.

Cells ovoid, gibbous, much contracted towards the mouth. Very small
portion free, projecting forwards and outwards. Mouth looking outwards
and forwards, triangular, with a short blunt tooth on the external angle.
Ovicell ---- ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour very light yellowish. Polypidom simply pinnate, about two inches
high: longest pinnae about half an inch. Cells small adnate, projecting
suddenly at top, and much contracted at the mouth. The mouth is of a
triangular form, the longest side of the triangle being below. The cells
are placed in pairs, but one is always a little higher than the other
(subalternate) and one pair is placed on each internode on the pinnae.
The stem is also indistinctly divided into internodes, from each of which
a single pinna is given off alternately on opposite sides, and besides
the pinnae there are three cells on each internode, two on the side from
which the pinna springs, and on the opposite side alternate in position
to the other two.

12. S. digitalis, n. sp.

Cells digitiform, slightly curved to the front, mouth circular, looking
directly upwards. Margin entire, expanded. Ovicells long-ovoid, muricate,
spines numerous crowded, mouth prolonged, tubular.

Habitat Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour dark grey, almost black. Stem two or three inches high, rising
either from a strong main trunk (?) or from a mass of intertwined radical
tubes. Stems or branches pinnate: pinnae or branches alternate, straight,
divaricate. The cells forming a pair, are, on the branches, adnate to
each other throughout their whole length. But on the stem the cells are
distichous and wide apart. The ovicells are peculiar in their long
flask-like form, and tubular mouth. They are placed all on one side of
the rachis, generally in single file, but sometimes in pairs.

13. S. loculosa, n. sp.

D. distans ? Lamouroux.

Cells completely adnate to each other, each apparently divided into two
compartments by a transverse constriction. Upper half turned horizontally
outwards. Mouth roundish, irregular, contracted: looking outwards, and a
little downwards. Ovicell ---- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour deep brown; polypidom simple unbranched (?) about half an inch
high, parasitic upon a broad-leaved fucus. The cells are so closely
conjoined as to form but one triangular body, which appears as if divided
into five loculaments by transverse constriction. The upper apparent
constriction however seems merely to indicate the line of flexure of the
upper part of the cell upon the lower. The form of the conjoined cells is
not unlike Lamouroux' figure of S. (D.)distans; but the present is
clearly not that species.

14. S. unguiculata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, upper half free, projecting in front, and much
contracted towards the mouth; elliptical, with the long axis horizontal,
looking forwards and a little outwards; two long lateral teeth, the outer
the longer and usually incurved. Ovicell ovoid; mouth wide, with a much
elevated, thickened border.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach.

Colour bright brown; polypidom pinnate; the stems arising from creeping
radical tubes, very thickly intertwined around a long slender body. The
stems are from one to four inches long, the pinnae about 1/4 to 1/2 inch,
alternate. The rachis of the stem is divided into distinct internodes,
from each of which are given off two pinnae, and upon which are also
placed usually six cells, three on either side. The pinnae are also
divided, but less distinctly, into internodes of various lengths. The
pairs of cells on the pinnae are all secund, and in contact with each
other at their bases, though widely divergent above.

15. S. tridentata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, ventricose below, contracted towards the mouth. Mouth
looking forwards and outwards, circular, with three acute teeth, two
lateral, longer than the third, which is above.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour yellowish white. Polypidom simply pinnate, about 2 1/2 inches
high; pinnae in the middle 3/4 of an inch. The cells are ventricose
below, and almost flask-shaped. The two lateral teeth are long, acute,
and slightly everted; the upper third tooth is sharp, but not near as
long as the others; the border of the mouth is as it were excavated
below, so that the mouth is as nearly as possible vertical. Contrary to
what is the case in S. divergens, but exactly as is represented in
Savigny's figures of the so-called S. disticha (Egypt plate 14 figures 2
and 3); and S. distans (Egypt plate 14 figures 1 and 3) the lateral teeth
are sloped or bevelled off from below upwards, and not from above
downwards, as in S. divergens (Mihi).

2. Pasythea, Lamouroux.

Cells in distinct sets, at some distance apart.

1. P. hexodon, n. sp.

Cells in sets of six--three on each side; a single axillary cell in each
dichotomous division of the polypidom. Ovicell pedunculate ovoid, adnate
to the rachis, with a lateral opening.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

As this differs in the number of cells in each set, as well as in the
form of the cells, and in the form and position of the ovicell, it
appears irreconcilable with Lamouroux' P. quadridentata. According to the
figure given of the latter the ovicell is not adnate, and is spirally

3. PLUMULARIA, Lamarck.

a. Angiocarpeae--ovicells enclosed in siliquose, costate receptacles.

1. P. huxleyi, n. sp.

Plumularia--Huxley, Philosophical Transactions Part 2 1849 page 427 plate
39 figures 43 and 45.

Cells cup-shaped, shallow; mouth nearly vertical, subquadrangular, margin
subcrenate, plicate; with a small acute central denticle in front, and a
wide shallow notch behind. Rostrum twice as long as the cell, arising
from the rachis by a broad ventricose base, adnate the whole length of
the cell, narrow upwards and slightly expanded again at the summit;
lateral processes very short and wide, canalicular adnate. Costae of
ovarian receptacle numerous, each with a single branch near the bottom,
and beset with small cup-like processes, and not connected by a membrane.

Habitat: Port Curtis. Off Cumberland Islands, in 27 fathoms fine grey mud.

Colour yellowish white. Polypidom about 6 inches high, rising with a
single flexuose stem, which is naked at bottom, and afterwards gives off
alternate branches, bifariously disposed at each angular flexure.
Branches simple, 2 to 3 inches long; pinnules about 1/4 inch. The
construction of the ovarian receptacle in the present section of the
genus Plumularia is well exemplified in this species, owing to the
comparative simplicity of the elements of which it is composed.

2. P. hians, n. sp.

Cell cup-shaped, deep, cylindrical; mouth nearly vertical; margin with
three teeth on each side, the middle one the longest, acute, much
expanded, the other more rounded; a wide notch posteriorly. Rostrum,
arising from the rachis, as long as the cell, slender, tubular, adnate;
lateral processes very small, ovarian receptacles ---- ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour bright brown, rachis shining, very dark brown; polypidom about six
inches high, simply pinnulate, pinnules about half an inch; thickly and
regularly disposed, alternate.

3. P. delicatula, n. sp.

Cell cup-shaped, rounded, mouth at an angle of 45 degrees; margin
dentate, with two lateral teeth of equal size and a central one in front
longer, all acute; entire posteriorly. Rostrum a little longer than the
cell, scarcely connected with the rachis, slender, and closely adpressed
and adnate to the cell below, wide and projecting upwards; lateral
processes large, rising above the margin of the cell, conical, tubular,
or canalicular.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour of rachis and pinnules, delicate yellowish white above; of rachis,
light brown, inferiorly; polypidom about two inches high, rising in
several straight simply pinnulated fronds from a common centre; pinnules
ascending about 1/4 inch.

4. P. aurita, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, tapering at bottom, constricted just below the top;
mouth at an angle of 45 degrees, circular; margin subcrenate, plicate,
with three folds on each side, with a wide shallow notch in front and
entire behind. Rostrum, slender, attenuated below, adnate up to the cell,
summit contracted, tubular; lateral processes very long, expanding,
rising far above the margin of the cell, conical, tubular.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

Colour bright brown; polypidom 2 to 3 inches high, consisting of straight
pinnate fronds, pinnae or branches not opposite, nor regularly alternate,
divaricate at rightangles.

5. P. brevirostris, n. sp.

Cell sub-tubular, curved; mouth expanded with two equal acute teeth on
each side, and a longer narrow and slightly incurved, central one in
front. Rostrum small, conical, projecting, about half the length of the
cell; lateral processes small, recurved at an angle, canalicular.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

Colour dirty white. In habit, and to the naked eye, very much like the
last; its growth, however, appears to be longer and less regular. The
difference in the cell is very great.

6. P. ramosa, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, deep, rounded at bottom; margin elevated on the sides,
expanding, with four teeth on each side, the first and second in front
much expanded, acute, incurved at the point; a long slender incurved
central tooth in front; margin entire behind. Rostrum not continued to
the rachis, adnate the whole length of the cell, wide and projecting,
narrowed to the point, which is tubular, opening oblique, longer than the
cell; lateral processes conical, short, tubular, closely adnate. Costae
of ovarian receptacle with short opposite tubular branches; NOT connected
by a membrane.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach.

Colour greyish brown; polypidom 4 to five inches high, much branched,
branches irregular, divaricate, rising in great numbers almost
immediately from the mass of radical fibres. A beautiful species, and the
ovarian receptacles very interesting.

7. P. divaricata, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, long, slightly contracted at bottom; mouth circular;
margin sub-expanded, dentate, with three nearly equal upright teeth on
each side, and a long, round pointed central tooth in front. Rostrum
narrow at bottom, closely adnate, scarcely rising higher than the central
tooth; lateral processes small, closely adnate.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour dark brown, almost black when dry. In habit it is extremely like
the preceding species, from which, however, it is quite distinct. The
polypidom is five or six inches high, perhaps more; stem slender,
branches long, divaricate at rightangles, not opposite.

8. P. phoenicea, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, rounded, bent over in front, so that the mouth is
nearly vertical; margin with two folds, subcrenate, and with a broad, but
pointed lateral lobe; entire posteriorly. Rostrum, arising solely from
the cell, small, upper half free, projecting, tubular; lateral processes
long, cylindrical, or tapering, free, projecting.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour bright buff, many of the branches having a piebald aspect, or
mottled with dark purple patches; when wetted these portions present a
beautiful crimson colour. Polypidom five or six inches high, rising with
a strong, tapering, longitudinally grooved stem, which is sometimes
sparingly branched, but more commonly simple. Stem and branches pinnate
or bipinnate, the pinnae and pinnules alternate. The latter are about 1/4
inch in length.

9. P. longicornis, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, deep, upper half curved abruptly upon the lower, so that
the mouth is vertical; margin subplicate, subcrenate, rising on each side
into a broad angular lobe, entire behind, and quite free from the rachis.
Rostrum, rising entirely from the cell, with a broad base, suddenly
contracting into a long slender tube, which projects in front a long way
from the cell; lateral processes very long, free, tubular, projecting
suddenly forwards and a little upwards and outwards.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour pale buff. Polypidom five or six inches high, consisting of a
strong straight, tapering stem, sometimes with a single ascending branch
given off near the bottom; stem and branches pinnate; pinnae 1 1/4 to 1
1/2 inches long; alternate, and arranged with the utmost regularity, of
uniform length, till near the summit, when they shorten rapidly, so as to
give the polypidom a rounded truncate end. The pinnules are excessively
fine and delicate, not more than 1/10 to 1/12 inch long, and very closely
set, so that the whole polypidom has the most exact resemblance to a
beautiful silky quill feather.

10. P. macgillivrayi, n. sp.

Cells campanulate, deep, rounded at bottom; margin subplicate, entire.
Rostrum large, rising from the cell, adnate the whole length of, and as
long as, the cell; the upper third constitutes a cup distinct from the
lower portion; lateral processes adnate, wide, short, curved upwards,
canalicular or tubular. Costae of ovarian receptacle connected by a
membranous expansion.

Habitat: Louisiade Archipelago, reefs at low water.

Colour bright brownish buff. Polypidom six to seven inches high,
consisting of a strong central stem, giving off opposite branches, at
regular intervals, and bifariously disposed. Pinnules about 1/8 inch
long, closely set.

b. Gymnocarpeae--ovicells naked.

11. P. effusa, n. sp.

Cells urceolate; deeply emarginate posteriorly, entire in front,
ventricose below; a small pedunculate infundibuliform process attached in
front to the projecting portion of the rachis on a level with upper
border of the cell. Ovicell ---- ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait.

Colour buff. Habit very peculiar. The polypidom rises to a height of
seven or eight inches, with a long slender waving, but upright stem,
which is naked inferiorly, and above gives off numerous straight or
waving branches, again subdividing into other shorter straight ramules,
about an inch long. The branches and branchlets are both pinnulated; the
pinnules are not more than 1/10 to 1/12 inches long, extremely delicate
and minute, so as in the dry state to be scarcely visible. The transition
from the former section of the genus Plumularia to the present, is well
shown, through P. macgillivrayi and the present species.

12. P. campanula, n. sp.

Cells campanulate, border entire; lateral and anterior appendages
canalicular. Branches alternate. Ovicells ---- ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms dead shells.

There appear to be two varieties of this species, or that different
portions of the same polypidom may assume very different characters. The
larger and probably more common form, is at first sight extremely like P.
catharina, but it will soon be noticed that the branches are alternate
instead of opposite. The shape of the cells and their average size is
precisely the same as in that species. The lateral and anterior
appendages differ in form very considerably. In P. catharina these organs
are longer, more slender, infundibuliform, whilst in P. campanula they
are shorter and thicker and the terminal cup is open on one side or
canalicular. The ovicells might perhaps afford a more striking
characteristic, but they are unfortunately wanting in all the specimens
of P. campanula. The second variety is much slenderer, unbranched, the
cells and their appendages smaller but of the same form, and the cells
usually contain a mass of opaque black matter. This species is parasitic,
and appears to attain a height of several inches.



1. C. volubilis (?) Ellis.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait.

As one or two ovicells, parasitic upon Sertularia pristis, are the only
evidences of this species that have come under observation, some doubt as
to identity of the species with the British form may be entertained.

1. C. dumosa, Pallas.

Habitat: Bass Strait.

Parasitic upon Sertulariae. Rather more slender than the usual British
form, but otherwise identical.

5. LAOMEDEA, Lamouroux.

1. Laomedea torressii, n. sp.

Cells campanulate, nearly sessile upon an incrassated collar projecting
from the stem. Margin of mouth not thickened, with four shallow

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait.

Of a light brown colour, two or three inches high. At first sight it is
very like Laomedea antipathes, Lamouroux, which occurs in New Zealand,
but differs materially in its smaller size and in the four shallow
emarginations of the mouth, which part in L. antipathes is entire and
with the margin a little thickened.

Note. Circumstances having prevented the insertion here of descriptions
of new species of Lunulites (Table 1 figures 13 to 16) and a few other
Zoophytes of the Voyage of the Rattlesnake--examined by Mr. Busk
subsequently to the preceding paper having been placed in the printer's
hands--I may mention that the descriptions in question will shortly be
published elsewhere. J. MCG.

Book of the day: