Part 5 out of 6
manner. With the exception of two or three coconuts nothing was brought
to barter with, but they readily parted with bows and arrows, of which
they had a very large supply. These bows appear to be made of the hard
heavy wood of the coconut-tree, pointed at each end, and varying in
length from five to six feet, with a greatest width of an inch and a
quarter and thickness of five-eighths. The string is a strip of rattan
three-eighths of an inch wide. The arrows are precisely similar to those
used by the Torres Strait Islanders, consisting of a head of coconut
wood, nine to eighteen inches in length, shipped into a light reed 2 1/2
to 3 1/2 feet in length, and secured by a neat cane plaiting. They are
variously barbed on the edges in one or more series, or furnished with
constrictions at short intervals which would cause a piece readily to
break off in a wound and remain there. Some were headed with a piece of
bamboo shaped like a gouge or scoop, and several other varieties were
observed. This is the first occasion of our meeting with these weapons,
which appear almost completely to have superseded the spear of which only
a few small ones were seen in the canoes. In exchange for their bows and
arrows the natives attached most value to articles of clothing of every
description. Glass bottles were also eagerly sought after--but iron was
not prized--indeed its use appeared to be unknown, nor had they any name
While leaning out of one of the wardroom ports, and getting words from a
very intelligent native whose attention I secured by giving him various
little presents from time to time, I had occasion to point to a bamboo
scoop* lying in the canoe in order to get its name. The man, to my
surprise, immediately bit off a narrow strip from one side, as if to
sharpen the edge, and taking up a piece of stick, showed me that this
scoop was used as a knife. Not to be outdone I took one of our common
knives and cut away vigorously at a piece of wood to show the superiority
of our knives over his one; he appeared suddenly to become terrified,
talked vehemently to the others, drew their attention to me, and repeated
my motions of cutting the wood, after which his canoe pushed off from the
ship's side. My friend refused to accept of the knife--as I afterwards
found the natives had also done to other people when iron implements were
offered them--nor would he pay any further attention to my attempts to
effect a reconciliation.
(*Footnote. Resembling that figured in Jukes' Voyage of the Fly volume 1
page 277, but smaller.)
The greatest peculiarity among these people is their mode of dressing the
hair; it is usually shaved off the temples and occasionally a little way
up the forehead, then combed out at length, and tied midway with a
string, leaving one part straight, and the remainder frizzled out into a
mop projecting horizontally backwards. Some also had a long pigtail
hanging down behind, in one case decorated with a bunch of dogs' teeth at
the end. Across the forehead they wore fillets of small shells strung
together over a broad white band of some leafy substance. The septum of
the nose was perforated, and some wore a long straight nose-stick of bone
with black bands. All our visitors had their teeth darkened with the
practice of betel chewing--we saw them use the leaf of the betel pepper,
the green areca nut, and lime, the last carried in a small calabash with
LEAVE NEW GUINEA.
We had been becalmed all the morning, but before noon the seabreeze set
in from the South-South-East, and we got underweigh, ran past South-west
Cape, and anchored in 22 fathoms mud, off a large island afterwards named
in honour of Lieutenant Yule.
This has proved a very uneasy anchorage under the combined influence of a
strong breeze from the south-east and a heavy sea. At one P.M. we got
underweigh in company with the Bramble, and left the coast of New Guinea,
running to the westward for Cape York, in order to meet the vessel with
our supplies from Sydney.
Next evening Bramble Cay was seen on our weather beam; being so low and
so small an object, we had nearly missed it. We hauled upon a wind
immediately but could not fetch its lee, so anchored two and a half miles
North-west by West from it. Great numbers of boobies and noddies came
about us, but our distance from the shore was too great and our stay too
short to send on shore for birds' eggs.
With a strong south-easterly breeze we passed to the westward of Campbell
and Stephens Islands, the Bramble leading, and anchored in the evening
near Marsden Island. On Campbell Island, numbers of the natives came down
to the edge of the reef, waving to us as we passed by, and inviting us to
land. There were many coconut-trees, and we saw a village on the
north-west side of the island, beautifully situated on the shady skirts
of the wood. The huts resemble those of Darnley Island, being shaped like
a haycock or beehive, with a projecting central pole ornamented with a
large shell or two attached to it. Most of the huts were situated in
small enclosures, and there were other portions of ground fenced in with
tall bamboo paling.
On the following day the Bramble* left us for Booby Island, to call at
the post office there, and rejoin company at Cape York, and we reached as
far as the neighbourhood of Coconut Island at noon, passing close to
Arden Island, then covered with prodigious numbers of blue and white
herons, small terns, curlews, and other waders.
(*Footnote. On his return, Lieutenant Yule reported that the boats of an
American whaler, lost on the Alert Reef (outside the Barrier) had reached
Booby Island, and the crews had been saved from starvation by the depot
of provisions there. That this supply will be renewed from time to time
is most likely, as the Legislative Council of New South Wales, last year,
voted the sum of 50 pounds for provisions to be left on Booby Island for
the use of shipwrecked people.)
We had a fine breeze and pleasant weather, and in the afternoon reached
our former anchorage in Evans Bay, Cape York, and moored ship in seven
fathoms. A party was immediately sent to examine the waterholes, which
promised, after a little clearing out, as abundant a supply as they
afforded us last year. We met some of the natives who came down to the
rocks as the boat landed, and among them I saw many old acquaintances who
joyfully greeted us.
Rescue a white Woman from Captivity among the Natives.
Bramble and boats complete the Survey of Torres Strait.
Wini and the Mulgrave Islanders.
Intercourse with the Cape York Natives.
Nearly quarrel with them at a night dance.
Witness a Native fight.
Discover some fine country.
Incidents of our stay.
Many new Birds found.
Remarks on the Climate, etc. of Cape York.
On the day after our arrival at Cape York the vessel from Sydney with our
supplies anchored beside us, and besides provisions and stores, we had
the additional pleasure of receiving five months' news from home.
HISTORY OF A WHITE WOMAN TAKEN BY THE BLACKS.
On October 16th, a startling incident occurred to break the monotony of
our stay. In the afternoon some of our people on shore were surprised to
see a young white woman come up to claim their protection from a party of
natives from whom she had recently made her escape, and who, she thought,
would otherwise bring her back. Of course she received every attention,
and was taken on board the ship by the first boat, when she told her
story, which is briefly as follows. Her name is Barbara Thomson: she was
born at Aberdeen in Scotland, and along with her parents, emigrated to
New South Wales. About four years and a half ago she left Moreton Bay
with her husband in a small cutter (called the America) of which he was
owner, for the purpose of picking up some of the oil from the wreck of a
whaler, lost on the Bampton Shoal, to which place one of her late crew
undertook to guide them; their ultimate intention was to go on to Port
Essington. The man who acted as pilot was unable to find the wreck, and
after much quarrelling on board in consequence, and the loss of two men
by drowning, and of another who was left upon a small uninhabited island,
they made their way up to Torres Strait, where, during a gale of wind,
their vessel struck upon a reef on the Eastern Prince of Wales Island.
The two remaining men were lost in attempting to swim on shore through
the surf, but the woman was afterwards rescued by a party of natives on a
turtling excursion, who, when the gale subsided, swam on board, and
supported her on shore between two of their number. One of these blacks,
Boroto by name, took possession of the woman as his share of the plunder;
she was compelled to live with him, but was well treated by all the men,
although many of the women, jealous of the attention shown her, for a
long time evinced anything but kindness. A curious circumstance secured
for her the protection of one of the principal men of the tribe a party
from which had been the fortunate means of rescuing her, and which she
afterwards found to be the Kowrarega, chiefly inhabiting Muralug, or the
Western Prince of Wales Island. This person, named Piaquai, acting upon
the belief (universal throughout Australia and the Islands of Torres
Strait so far as hitherto known) that white people are the ghosts of the
aborigines, fancied that in the stranger he recognised a long-lost
daughter of the name of Giaom, and at once admitted her to the
relationship which he thought had formerly subsisted between them; she
was immediately acknowledged by the whole tribe as one of themselves,
thus ensuring an extensive connection in relatives of all denominations.
From the headquarters of the tribe with which Giaom thus became
associated being upon an island which all vessels passing through Torres
Strait from the eastward must approach within two or three miles, she had
the mortification of seeing from twenty to thirty or more ships go
through every summer without anchoring in the neighbourhood, so as to
afford the slightest opportunity of making her escape. Last year she
heard of our two vessels (described as two war canoes, a big and a little
one) being at Cape York--only twenty miles distant--from some of the
tribe who had communicated with us and been well treated, but they would
not take her over, and even watched her more narrowly than before.
RESCUED FROM CAPTIVITY.
On our second and present visit, however, which the Cape York people
immediately announced by smoke signals to their friends in Muralug, she
was successful in persuading some of her more immediate friends to bring
her across to the mainland within a short distance of where the vessels
lay. The blacks were credulous enough to believe that as she had been so
long with them, and had been so well treated, she did not intend to leave
them--only she felt a strong desire to see the white people once more and
shake hands with them; adding, that she would be certain to procure some
axes, knives, tobacco, and other much prized articles. This appeal to
their cupidity decided the question at once. After landing at the sandy
bay on the western side of Cape York, she hurried across to Evans Bay, as
quickly as her lameness would allow, fearful that the blacks might change
their mind; and well it was that she did so, as a small party of men
followed to detain her, but arrived too late. Three of these people were
brought on board at her own request, and as they had been instrumental in
saving her from the wreck, they were presented with an axe apiece, and
Upon being asked by Captain Stanley whether she really preferred
remaining with us to accompanying the natives back to their island, as
she would be allowed her free choice in the matter, she was so much
agitated as to find difficulty in expressing her thankfulness, making use
of scraps of English alternately with the Kowrarega language, and then,
suddenly awaking to the recollection that she was not understood, the
poor creature blushed all over, and with downcast eyes, beat her forehead
with her hand, as if to assist in collecting her scattered thoughts.
At length, after a pause, she found words to say: "Sir, I am a Christian,
and would rather go back to my own friends." At the same time, it was
remarked by everyone that she had not lost the feelings of womanly
modesty--even after having lived so long among naked blacks; she seemed
acutely to feel the singularity of her position--dressed only in a couple
of shirts, in the midst of a crowd of her own countrymen.
When first seen on shore our new shipmate presented so dirty and wretched
an appearance that some people who were out shooting at first mistook her
for a gin, and were passing by without taking further notice, when she
called out to them in English: "I am a white woman, why do you leave me?"
With the exception of a narrow fringe of leaves in front, she wore no
clothing, and her skin was tanned and blistered with the sun, and showed
the marks of several large burns which had been received from sleeping
too near the fire on cold nights; besides, she was suffering from
ophthalmia, which had previously deprived her of the sight of one eye.
But good living, and every comfort (for Captain Stanley kindly provided
her with a cabin and a seat at his table) combined with medical
attention, very soon restored her health, and she was eventually handed
over to her parents in Sydney in excellent condition.
Although perfectly illiterate, Mrs. Thomson had made good use of her
powers of observation, and evinced much shrewdness in her remarks upon
various subjects connected with her residence among the blacks, joined to
great willingness to communicate any information which she possessed.
Much of this will be found in another part of this volume, incorporated
with the result of my own observations. Several hundred words of the
Kowrarega language, and a portion of its grammar, were also obtained from
time to time, and most of these were subsequently verified. And, although
she did not understand the language spoken at Cape York, yet, as some of
the Gudang people there knew the Kowrarega, through its medium I was
usually able to make myself tolerably well understood, and thus obtain an
explanation of some matters which had formerly puzzled me, and correct
various errors into which I had fallen. It was well, too, that I took an
early opportunity of procuring these words, for my informant afterwards
forgot much of her lately-acquired language, and her value as an
authority on that subject gradually diminished.
PROCEEDINGS WHILE ON BOARD.
Giaom was evidently a great favourite with the blacks, and hardly a day
passed on which she was not obliged to hold a levee in her cabin for the
reception of friends from the shore, while other visitors, less favoured,
were content to talk to her through the port. They occasionally brought
presents of fish and turtle, but always expected an equivalent of some
kind. Her friend, Boroto, the nature of the intimacy with whom was not at
first understood, after in vain attempting by smooth words and fair
promises to induce her to go back to live with him, left the ship in a
rage, and we were not sorry to get rid of so impudent and troublesome a
visitor as he had become. Previous to leaving, he had threatened that,
should he or any of his friends ever catch his faithless spouse on shore,
they would take off her head to carry back with them to Muralug; and so
likely to be fulfilled did she consider this threat, being in perfect
accordance with their customs, that she never afterwards ventured on
shore at Cape York.
SURVEY OF TORRES STRAIT COMPLETED.
During the period of our stay at Cape York, the Bramble, Asp, and
Rattlesnake's pinnace were sent away to the western entrance of Torres
Strait to finish the survey, and returned after a month's absence.
WINI AND THE MULGRAVE ISLANDERS.
The boats had held no intercourse with any of the natives, except a small
party of Kowraregas, the inhabitants of Mulgrave and Banks Islands having
carefully avoided them. Hopes had been entertained prior to starting of
seeing something of a white man of the name of Wini, who had lived with
the Badus for many years. Giaom had seen and conversed with him during a
visit to Muralug which he had made in hopes of inducing her to share his
fortunes. She supposed him to be a foreigner, from his not appearing to
understand the English she used when asked by him to speak in her native
tongue. He had reached Mulgrave Island in a boat after having, by his own
account, killed his companions, some three or four in number. In course
of time he became the most important person in the tribe, having gained
an ascendancy by procuring the death of his principal enemies and
intimidating others, which led to the establishment of his fame as a
warrior, and he became in consequence the possessor of several wives, a
canoe, and some property in land, the cultivation of which last he pays
great attention to. Wini's character appears from the accounts I have
heard--for others corroborated part of Giaom's statement--to be a
compound of villainy and cunning, in addition to the ferocity and
headstrong passions of a thorough savage--it strikes me that he must have
been a runaway convict, probably from Norfolk Island. It is fortunate
that his sphere of mischief is so limited, for a more dangerous ruffian
could not easily be found. As matters stand at present, it is probable
that not only during his life, but for years afterwards, every European
who falls into the hands of the Badu people will meet with certain
(*Footnote. In further illustration of this assertion I give the
following note with which I have lately been furnished by Mr. J.
Sweatman, R.N., who served in the Bramble at the time of the occurrence
of the murder to which it alludes. In June 1846 the supercargo and a
boat's crew of a small vessel from Sydney procuring trepang and
tortoise-shell in Torres Strait, landed upon Mulgrave Island (the vessel
being about seven miles off) in order to barter for tortoise-shell. The
natives appeared at first to be friendly enough, but, towards evening
some circumstances occurred which induced the boat's crew to re-embark,
and they then went to a small sandbank about a mile off to pass the night
there. The supercargo and three men landed, leaving two men in the boat
at anchor; about midnight the latter were alarmed at hearing shouts and
yells on shore, and, landing in haste, found that the natives had
attacked their comrades, whose muskets being damp, were quite useless.
The supercargo and two men were killed--a shot from the boat however
dispersed the natives sufficiently for the two men to drag their
surviving comrade into the boat, but he had an arrow through the body,
and his hands were partially severed, and he soon died. The bodies of the
three people on the sandbank could not be recovered, the natives
returning to the attack with showers of arrows, nor could the small force
on board the schooner attempt to punish the perpetrators of this
The inhabitants of the neighbouring Banks Island are described by Giaom
as evincing the same hostility towards Europeans. Only a few years ago
the Italegas, one of the two tribes inhabiting that island, murdered two
white men and a boy, who had reached their inhospitable shores in a small
boat, probably from a wreck. Such savage outrages committed by the
inhabitants of the north-western islands would probably be completely
prevented were they oftener visited by Europeans; such was the case with
the people of Darnley Island, once dangerous savages, now safely to be
dealt with by taking the usual precautions, and where, as at the Murray
Islands, I believe strangers in distress, without valuable property,
would now be kindly treated.
INTERCOURSE WITH CAPE YORK NATIVES.
We remained nine weeks at our anchorage in Evans Bay. The natives, of
whom there were usually a number encamped in the neighbourhood, attracted
by the presence of the ship, as vultures by a carcass, continued on
perfectly friendly terms, assisted the wooding and watering parties,
brought off fish and portions of turtle to the ship, and accompanied us
on our walks on shore. The usual remuneration for their services was
biscuit, and, next to that, tobacco, besides which axes and knives were
highly prized and occasionally given them. Immediately on landing for the
purpose of an excursion, each of us looked out for his kotaiga* from
among a crowd of applicants surrounding the boat, the haversack was
thrown across his shoulders, and away we started for the bush. It was
often difficult for the possessor of a good stock of biscuit to shake off
other useless volunteers; these hangers-on, with few exceptions, were
more remarkable for their capacity for food than for their powers of
endurance, showing a deeply rooted antipathy to any exertion not actually
necessary, and for every trifling additional service asking for bisiker
muro, choka muro, neipa, or some such thing. Still a few of these same
blacks make a very agreeable addition to a shooting party, as besides
their services as guides, and in pointing out game, they formed amusing
companions and enlivened many a noonday bivouac or dull thirsty march in
the hot sun with their songs, jokes, and mimicry.
(*Footnote. Derived from the Kowrarega word Kutaig (younger brother);
here in the jargon used between us it signified friend, associate,
INDUCE THEM TO GET UP A NIGHT DANCE.
One evening I was asked to join a party made up for the purpose of
witnessing a native dance. Many strange blacks were then encamped on the
margin of the beach, and altogether about 150 people belonging to four or
five tribes had collected. Not being apprised of our coming they showed
much surprise and suspicion at our landing after dark, but, with some
trouble, a number were induced by the promise of a quantity of biscuit to
get up a dance round a large fire on the sand to the music of a drum
which we had taken with us to announce our approach. The dance after all
was a very poor affair--none of the performers were painted and
decorated, there was little scenic effect, and they seemed glad when it
was over. The bag containing the promised biscuit was most injudiciously
handed over to an old woman named Baki, or queena woman Baki, as someone
had taught her to call herself, for distribution among the party. She
doled out a few handfuls to some women and children who had not been at
all concerned in the matter, and would have marched off with the
remainder had she not been prevented. The appointment of a woman to this
office gave great offence to the men who had been dancing--while not one
among them would have scrupled forcibly to deprive her of the whole on
the very first opportunity, yet every man there scorned the idea of
having to ASK a woman for anything--the consequence was that the
performers were not rewarded, and naturally imagined that we had broken
faith with them. The discontent increased, some of the men left in a
state of great excitement, and went for their spears and throwing sticks.
One or two rockets were sent up soon after to amuse them, on which the
few remaining women and children hurried to their sheds of bark and hid
their faces in terror. When a blue light was burned, and lit up the
gloomy shadows of the neighbouring bush, it disclosed the spectral
figures of many armed men among the trees, singly and in groups, intently
watching our motions. Paida, who with other native allies of ours still
remained with us, was very urgent for us to be off, telling me that
spears would be thrown immediately (kaibu kalaka muro); being a kotaig of
mine, he considered himself bound to attend to my safety, so conducted me
to the boat which he assisted in shoving off, nor did he retire from the
beach until we had got into deep water.
NEARLY QUARREL WITH THEM.
I have alluded to this occurrence, trivial as it may appear, not without
an object. It serves as an illustration of the policy of respecting the
known customs of the Australian race, even in apparently trifling
matters, at least during the early period of intercourse with a tribe,
and shows how a little want of judgment in the director of our party
caused the most friendly intentions to be misconstrued, and might have
led to fatal results.
OBSERVATIONS ON CAUSE OF OFFENCE.
I must confess that I should have considered any injury sustained on our
side to have been most richly merited; moreover, I am convinced that some
at least of the collisions which have taken place in Australia, between
the first European visitors and the natives of any given district, have
originated in causes of offence brought on by the indiscretion of one or
more of the party, and revenged on others who were innocent. As a
memorable instance I may give that which happened during Leichhardt's
overland journey to Port Essington, when his camp was attacked one
evening, and Mr. Gilbert lost his life. Long afterwards the undoubted
cause of this apparently unaccountable attack transpired in the
acknowledgment, while intoxicated, by one of the persons concerned, that
a gross outrage had been committed upon an aboriginal woman a day or two
previously, by the two blacks belonging to the expedition.
One day I witnessed a native fight, which may be described here, as such
occurrences, although frequent enough in Australia, have by Europeans
been witnessed only in the settled districts. It was one of those smaller
fights, or usual modes of settling a quarrel when more than two people
are concerned, and assumed quite the character of a duel upon a large
scale. At daybreak, I landed in company with six or seven people who were
going out on different shooting parties. The natives came down to the
boat as usual, but all carried throwing-sticks--contrary to their usual
practice of late; and at the place where they had slept, numbers of
spears were stuck up on end in the sand. These preparations surprised me,
but Paida would not explain the cause and seemed anxious to get me away.
The shooters marched off--each with his black--but I loitered behind,
walking slowly along the beach.
WITNESS A NATIVE FIGHT.
About 200 yards from the first camping-place, two groups of strange
natives, chiefly men, were assembled with throwing-sticks in their hands
and bundles of spears. While passing them they moved along in twos and
threes towards the Evans Bay party, the men of which advanced to meet
them. The women and children began to make off, but a few remained as
spectators on the sands, it being then low water. A great deal of violent
gesticulation and shouting took place, the parties became more and more
excited, and took up their position in two scattered lines facing each
other, extending from the margin of the beach to a little way in the
bush, and about twenty-five yards apart. Paida, too, partook of the
excitement and could refrain no longer from joining in the fight; he
dropped my haversack and bounded away at full speed to his camping-place,
where he received his spears from little Purom his son, and quickly made
his appearance upon the scene of action.
The two parties were pretty equally matched--about fifteen men in each.
The noise now became deafening; shouts of defiance, insulting
expressions, and every kind of abusive epithet were bandied about, and
the women and children in the bush kept up a wailing cry all the while
rising and falling in cadence. The pantomimic movements were of various
descriptions; besides the singular quivering motion given to the thighs
placed wide apart (common to all the Australian dances) they frequently
invited each other to throw at them, turning the body half round and
exposing the breech, or dropping on one knee or hand as if to offer a
fair mark. At length a spear was thrown and returned, followed by many
others, and the fighting became general, with an occasional pause.
DEXTERITY IN THROWING THE SPEAR.
The precision with which the spears were thrown was not less remarkable
than the dexterity which with they were avoided. In nearly every case the
person thrown at would, apparently, have been struck had he stood still,
but, his keenness of sight enabled him to escape by springing aside as
required, variously inclining the body, or sometimes merely lifting up a
leg to allow the spear to pass by, and had two been thrown at one person
at the same moment he could scarcely have escaped, but this I observed
was never attempted, as it would have been in war, here each individual
appeared to have a particular opponent. I had a capital view of the whole
of the proceedings, being seated about fifty yards behind and slightly on
the flank of one of the two contending parties. One spear thrown higher
than usual passed within five yards of me, but this I was satisfied was
the result of accident, as I had seen it come from Paida's party. Soon
afterwards I observed a man at the right extreme of the line next me, who
had been dodging round a large scaevola bush for some time back, make a
sudden dart at one of the opposite party and chop him down the shoulder
with an iron tomahawk. The wounded man fell, and instantly a yell of
triumph denoted that the whole matter was at an end.
Paida rejoined me five minutes afterwards, apparently much refreshed by
this little excitement, and accompanied me on my walk, still he would not
explain the cause of the fight. The wounded man had his arm tied up by
one of our people who landed soon afterwards, and, although the cut was
both large and deep, he soon recovered.
DISCOVERY OF MEW RIVER.
The frequent excursions of our shooting parties being more extended than
during our last visit became the means of adding considerably to our
knowledge of the surrounding country. One of the immediate consequences
was the discovery of several small streams of fresh water. The principal
of these, which we named Mew River (after its first finder, the sergeant
of marines on board) has its mouth in a small mangrove creek three
quarters of a mile to the eastward of Evans Bay. About five miles further
up its source was found to be a spring among rocks in a dense calamus
scrub. It waters a fine valley running nearly east and west behind the
range of hills to the southward of Evans Bay, and its line is marked by a
belt of tangled brush exceeding in luxuriance anything of the same
description which I had seen elsewhere. The variety of trees in this
dense brush is very great, and many were quite new to me. The Seaforthia
palm attained the height of 60 to 80 feet, and the rattan was very
abundant, and from the recurved prickles catching and tearing the
clothes, it was often no easy matter to penetrate the thickets. Among the
plants along the river the most interesting is an indigenous species of
banana or plantain, probably the same as that found at Endeavour River
during Cook's first voyage. The fruit is of small size with numerous hard
seeds and a small quantity of delicious pulp; cultivation would,
doubtless, wonderfully improve it. Another remarkable plant found on the
grassy borders of the jungle and characteristic of rich damp soil is a
beautiful species of Roscoea (?) (one of the Scitamineae or ginger
family) about a foot high, with a solitary leaf and large bracteae, the
lower green and the upper ones pink, partially concealing handsome yellow
flowers. From its succulent nature I failed in preparing specimens for
the herbarium, but some roots were preserved and given to the Botanical
Garden at Sydney.
THE VALLEY OF THE MEW.
The lower part of the valley is open forest land, or nearly level and
thinly wooded country covered with tall coarse grass. Further up it
becomes more beautiful. From the belt of wood, concealing the windings of
the river, grassy sloping meadows extend upwards on each side to the
flanking ridges which are covered with dense scrub occasionally extending
in straggling patches down to the water, and forming a kind of imperfect
natural fence. The soil of these meadows is rich sandy loam, affording
great apparent facilities for cultivation from their proximity to what is
probably a never-failing supply of fresh water. Here, at the end of the
dry season, and before the periodical rains had fairly set in, we found
the stream at halfway up to be about six feet in average breadth, slowly
running over a shallow, gravelly, or earthy bed, with occasional pools
from two to four feet in depth.
PROPOSED SETTLEMENT AT CAPE YORK.
I have alluded to this subject at greater length than under ordinary
circumstances I would have done, in the belief that, should a settlement
ever be established at Cape York, the strip of good land that runs along
the upper part of Mew River may hereafter be turned to good account.
Several other valleys watered by small and apparently permanent streams
were discovered by our shooting parties, chiefly by Wilcox and the
sergeant of marines; these were afterwards visited by me, and my opinion
of the productiveness of the country about Cape York almost daily became
more and more favourable the further I extended my excursions.
I need scarcely repeat the arguments which have been adduced in favour of
the expediency, I may almost say necessity, of establishing a military
post, or small settlement of some kind, in the vicinity of Cape York,
simply because, while perfectly agreeing with Mr. Jukes* and several
other persons who have drawn the public attention to the subject, I have
little in addition to offer. Still a few words on the question may not be
out of place.
(*Footnote. Voyage of the Fly volume 1 page 302.)
The beneficial results to be looked for were such a settlement to be
formed would be:
1. A port of refuge would be afforded to the crews of vessels wrecked in
Torres Strait, and its approaches, who otherwise must make for Booby
Island, and there await the uncertainty of being picked up by some
passing vessel, or even attempt in the boats to reach Coupang in Timor, a
distance of 1100 miles further. And now that the settlement at Port
Essington has been abandoned the necessity for such a place of refuge is
2. Passing vessels might be supplied with water and other refreshments,
also stores, such as anchors, etc., which last are frequently lost during
the passage of the Strait.
3. The knowledge of the existence of such a post would speedily exercise
a beneficial influence over our intercourse with the natives of Torres
Strait, and induce them to refrain from a repetition of the outrages
which they have frequently committed upon Europeans; the little trade in
tortoiseshell which might be pushed in the Strait (as has frequently been
done before by small vessels from Sydney and even from Hong Kong) would
no longer be a dangerous one--and protection would be afforded to the
coaling depot for steamers at Port Albany.*
(*Footnote. I adduce this last advantage on the presumption, which now
assumes a greater degree of probability than before--that the steam
communication before alluded to will be established, and that the Torres
Strait route, the one which is almost generally advocated, will be the
4. In a military point of view the importance of such a post has been
urged upon the ground, that in the event of war, a single enemy's ship
stationed in the neighbourhood, if previously unoccupied, could
completely command the whole of our commerce passing through the Strait.
5. From what more central point could operations be conducted with the
view of extending our knowledge of the interior of New Guinea by
ascending some of the large rivers of that country, disemboguing on the
shores of the Great Bight?
6 and last. But on this point I would advance my opinion with much
diffidence--I believe that were a settlement to be established at Cape
York, missionary enterprise, JUDICIOUSLY CONDUCTED, might find a useful
field for its labours in Torres Strait, beginning with the Murray and
Darnley Islanders, people of a much higher intellectual standard than the
Australians, and consequently more likely to appreciate any humanising
influence which might be exercised for their benefit.
KANGAROOS AND NEW BIRDS.
Several kangaroos or wallabies, the largest of which weighed forty
pounds, were killed during our stay at Cape York. A kangaroo dog
belonging to Captain Stanley made several fine runs, all of them
unsuccessful however, as the chase was seldom upon open ground, and there
was little chance of overtaking the kangaroo before it got into some
neighbouring thicket where the dog could not follow it. This wallaby
proved to be the Halmaturus agilis, first found at Port Essington, and
afterwards by Leichhardt in Carpentaria. A singular bat of a
reddish-brown colour was shot one day while asleep suspended from a
branch of a tree; it belonged to the genus Harpyia, and was therefore a
contribution to the Australian fauna.
Among many additions to the ornithological collections of the voyage were
eight or nine new species of birds, and about seven others previously
known only as inhabitants of New Guinea and the neighbouring islands.*
The first of these which came under my notice was an enormous black
parrot (Microglossus aterrimus) with crimson cheeks; at Cape York it
feeds upon the cabbage of various palms, stripping down the sheath at the
base of the leaves with its powerful, acutely-hooked upper mandible. The
next in order of occurrence was a third species of the genus Tanysiptera
(T. sylvia) a gorgeous kingfisher with two long, white, central
tail-feathers, inhabiting the brushes, where the glancing of its bright
colours as it darts past in rapid flight arrests the attention for a
moment ere it is lost among the dense foliage.
(*Footnote. Many of these have since been figured and described, with
accompanying notes on their habits, etc., in the recently published
Supplement to Mr. Gould's Birds of Australia.)
I may next allude to Aplonis metallica--a bird somewhat resembling a
starling, of a dark glossy green and purple hue, with metallic
reflections--in connection with its singular nest. One day I was taken by
a native to the centre of a brush, where a gigantic cotton-tree standing
alone was hung with about fifty of the large pensile nests of this
After I had made several unsuccessful attempts to shoot down one of the
nests by firing with ball at the supporting branch, the black volunteered
to climb the tree, provided I would give him a knife. I was puzzled to
know how he proposed to act, the trunk being upwards of four feet in
diameter at the base, and the nearest branch being about sixty feet from
the ground. He procured a tough and pliant shoot of a kind of vine
(Cissus) of sufficient length to pass nearly round the tree, and holding
one end of this in each hand and pressing his legs and feet against the
tree, he ascended by a series of jerks, resting occasionally, holding on
for half a minute at a time with one end of the vine in his mouth. At
length he reached the branches and threw me down as many nests as I
required. He afterwards filled the bag which he carried round his neck
with the unfledged young birds, which on our return to the native camp on
the beach were thrown alive upon the fire, in spite of my remonstrances,
and when warmed through were devoured with great apparent relish by
himself and his friends.
A NEW BOWERBIRD.
Two days before we left Cape York I was told that some bowerbirds had
been seen in a thicket, or patch of low scrub, half a mile from the
beach, and after a long search I found a recently constructed bower, four
feet long and eighteen inches high, with some fresh berries lying upon
it. The bower was situated near the border of the thicket, the bushes
composing which were seldom more than ten feet high, growing in smooth
sandy soil without grass.
Next morning I was landed before daylight, and proceeded to the place in
company with Paida, taking with us a large board on which to carry off
the bower as a specimen. I had great difficulty in inducing my friend to
accompany me, as he was afraid of a war party of Gomokudins, which tribe
had lately given notice that they were coming to fight the Evans Bay
people. However I promised to protect him, and loaded one barrel with
ball, which gave him increased confidence, still he insisted upon
carrying a large bundle of spears and a throwing-stick. Of late Paida's
tribe have taken steps to prevent being surprised by their enemies. At
night they remove in their canoes to the neighbouring island Robumo, and
sleep there, returning in the morning to the shore, and take care not to
go away to a distance singly or unarmed.
While watching in the scrub I caught several glimpses of the tewinya (the
native name) as it darted through the bushes in the neighbourhood of the
bower, announcing its presence by an occasional loud churrrr, and
imitating the notes of various other birds, especially the leatherhead. I
never before met with a more wary bird, and for a long time it enticed me
to follow it to a short distance, then flying off and alighting on the
bower, it would deposit a berry or two, run through, and be off again (as
the black told me) before I could reach the spot. All this time it was
impossible to get a shot. At length, just as my patience was becoming
exhausted, I saw the bird enter the bower and disappear, when I fired at
random through the twigs, fortunately with effect. So closely had we
concealed ourselves latterly, and so silent had we been, that a kangaroo
while feeding actually hopped up within fifteen yards, unconscious of our
presence until fired at. My bowerbird proved to be a new species, since
described by Mr. Gould as Chlamydera cerviniventris, and the bower is
exhibited in the British Museum.
Among the gamebirds of Cape York, the emu is entitled to the first rank.
Only two or three, however, were seen, and we were not fortunate enough
to procure one. One day an emu allowed me to approach within fifty yards
by stalking it cautiously, holding up a large green bough before me,
when, becoming alarmed, it darted in its fright into a thicket and was
lost to view.
Many brush turkeys (Talegalla lathami) were shot by our sportsmen, and
scarcely a day passed on which the natives did not procure for us some of
their eggs. The mode in which these and other eggs are cooked by the
blacks is to roll them up in two or three large leaves, and roast them in
the ashes; the eggs burst, of course, but the leaves prevent the contents
from escaping. Both bird and eggs are excellent eating; the latter,
averaging three and a half inches in length, of a pure white colour, are
deposited in low mounds of earth and leaves in the dense brushes in a
similar manner to those of the megapodius, and are easily dug out with
the hand. I have seen three or four taken out of one mound where they
were arranged in a large circle, a foot and a half from the surface. The
laying bird carefully effaces any mark she may have made in scooping out
a place for the eggs, but the keen eye of a native quickly detects the
slightest sign of recent disturbance of the mound, and he seldom fails to
hit upon the eggs.
As at Port Essington, the year at Cape York is divided into two seasons,*
the dry and the rainy. From personal observation and other sources of
information, it would appear that the limits and duration of these admit
of so much variation that it is impossible to determine with certainty,
even within a month, when one ceases and the other begins. It would
appear however that the dry season, characterised by the prevalence of
the south-east trade, usually terminates in November, the change having
for some time previous been indicated by calms, light winds, sometimes
from the westward, a gloomy unsettled appearance in the weather, and
occasional showers--violent squalls of wind and rain are frequent about
this time until the westerly breezes set in, when the weather becomes
moderate with frequent rain, occasionally very heavy, and intervals,
often of many days duration, of dry weather. In the month of March the
south-east trade usually resumes its former influence, the change being
often attended with the same thick squally weather, and perhaps a gale
from the north-west, which ushered in the westerly monsoon.
(*Footnote. The natives of the neighbouring Prince of Wales Island
distinguish the dry season (aibu or the fine weather) the wet (kuki or
the North-West wind which then prevails) and the period of change
(malgui) equivalent to our Spring and Autumn.)
Our own experience of the winds during our last stay at Cape York, at the
period when the change of the monsoon was to be expected, may be summed
up as follows. During the month of October the trade-wind prevailed,
keeping pretty steady at East-South-East, and generally blowing rather
strongly, with hazy weather and an occasional shower. For three days in
the middle of the month we experienced light north-westerly winds dying
away again in the evening, and on the 25th a violent squall from the same
quarter accompanied by very heavy rain rendered it expedient that the
ship should next day be moved a cable's length further offshore. During
the four last days in the month we had calms and light winds from the
northward of east, as if the trade were about to cease, but it commenced
afresh and continued until the 26th of November, generally very moderate,
with fine weather. During the last six days of our stay we had light airs
from about North-West, succeeded in the evening by a slight puff of
south-easterly wind followed by a calm lasting all night. Last year,
during the month of October, we experienced no northerly or westerly
winds, but a moderate trade prevailed throughout, pretty steady at
East-South-East, but varying much in strength.
In a place situated like Cape York, only about 640 miles distant from the
equator, the atmospheric temperature may be expected to be very high;
still the heat, although occasionally very oppressive for a time, caused
very different sensations from those experienced during the almost
stifling calms of Port Essington. At Cape York, however, calms seldom
lasted above a few hours, as from its peninsular position the land
receives the full influence of nearly every breeze. An abstract of the
thermometrical observations made on board the Rattlesnake shows the
COLUMN 1: DATE.
COLUMN 2: AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES AND MINUTES.
COLUMN 3: AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES AND MINUTES.
COLUMN 4: AVERAGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES AND MINUTES.
October 1848 : 81 : 85 : 77 5.
October 1849 : 81 : 83 8 : 78 7.
November 1849 : 81 9 : 84 8 : 79.
During the above period, the highest and lowest temperatures recorded by
the self-registering maximum and minimum thermometer are, for October
1848, 88 and 73 degrees; for October 1849, 83.8 .and 77 degrees; and for
November 1849, 88 and 76 degrees.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SEA, MADE DURING THE VOYAGE OF
H.M.S. RATTLESNAKE, DECEMBER 1846 TO JULY 1847,
BY LIEUTENANT J. DAYMAN, R.N. LIEUTENANT AND ASSISTANT SURVEYOR.
COLUMN 1: DATE.
COLUMN 2: POSITION OF SHIP. LATITUDE IN DEGREES AND MINUTES.
COLUMN 3: POSITION OF SHIP. LONGITUDE IN DEGREES AND MINUTES.
COLUMN 4: TEMPERATURE OF AIR.
COLUMN 5: TEMPERATURE OF SEA. SURFACE.
COLUMN 6: TEMPERATURE OF SEA. DEPTH IN FATHOMS.
COLUMN 7: TEMPERATURE OF SEA. DEPTH IN FATHOMS.
December 17 : 34 52 N : 16 24 W : 59 : 61 : 61 132.
December 28 : 28 34 : 18 38 : 66 : 67 : 63 130.
December 30 : 23 22 : 20 58 : 68 : 69 : 66 66 : 61 190.
December 31 : 21 13 : 22 1 : 66 : 71 : 61 193.
January 1 : 18 40 : 23 18 : 68 : 73 : 70 78 : 57 178.
January 2 : 15 28 : 23 22 : 72 : 73 : 53 180.
January 3 : 8 55 : 22 38 : 78 : 82 : 59 191.
January 5 : 6 28 : 22 39 : 82 : 84 : 51 185.
January 6 : 5 54 : 22 34 : 79 : 82 : 50 361.
January 7 : 5 8 : 22 19 : 82 : 83 : 49 340.
January 12 : 1 5 : 22 32 : 77 : 83 : 52 335.
January 14 : 2 37 S : 26 15 : 79 : 80 : 53 268.
January 15 : 5 9 : 27 51 : 78 : 80 : 54 153 : 60 293.
January 16 : 7 55 : 29 11 : 79 : 80 : 53 183 : 47 273.
January 17 : 12 49 : 32 23 : 79 : 81 : 80 59.
January 19 : 15 5 : 34 44 : 79 : 80 : 59 226 : 62 317.
January 20 : 17 48 : 36 20 : 80 : 81 : 67 132.
January 21 : 20 10 : 37 58 : 78 : 80 : 59 146 : 50 306.
February 4 : 26 7 : 40 30 : 66 : 77 : 60 231 : 51 351.
February 5 : 27 21 : 38 1 : 73 : 76 : 65 182 : 51 342.
February 8 : 30 52 : 36 48 : 71 : 73 : 61 200 : 51 360.
February 9 : 33 22 : 36 54 : 68 : 70 : 60 184 : 50 324.
February 10 : 35 21 : 35 31 : 68 : 68 : 62 168 : 49 309.
February 12 : 37 20 : 30 58 : 69 : 66 : 57 205 : 45 355.
February 13 : 36 50 : 27 50 : 66 : 66 : 62 215 : 45 370.
February 15 : 36 31 : 24 7 : 63 : 64 : 58 194 : 45 339.
February 16 : 36 7 : 21 4 : 59 : 66 : 55 196 : 47 336.
February 17 : 35 30 : 19 34 : 64 : 69 : 58 215 : 51 366.
February 18 : 36 47 : 18 47 : 64 : 68 : 57 128 : 50 257.
February 19 : 38 7 : 16 43 : 65 : 63 : 48 370.
February 21 : 37 54 : 10 28 : 59 : 62 : 53 205 : 43 345.
February 23 : 36 54 : 4 53 : 62 : 67 : 61 205 : 48 345.
February 24 : 34 42 : 4 15 : 69 : 70 : 51 364 : 44 650.
February 25 : 35 28 : 3 6 : 68 : 69 : 54 195 : 46 335.
February 26 : 36 57 : 1 31 : 65 : 67 : 53 195 : 49 335.
February 27 : 38 22 : 0 28 : 64 : 62 : 55 192 : 45 338.
March 1 : 38 25 : 4 1 E : 56 : 55 : 48 195 : 44 335.
March 3 : 36 47 : 10 24 : 63 : 66 : 54 208 : 46 348.
March 4 : 36 41 : 12 1 : 66 : 64 : 55 188 : 46 328.
March 5 : 36 22 : 13 40 : 66 : 68 : 52 217 : 46 367.
March 6 : 36 24 : 14 42 : 71 : 70 : 65 147 : 56 284.
April 13 : 36 17 : 26 43 : 61 : 68 : 62 215 : 60 360.
April 14 : 36 53 : 27 49 : 66 : 69 : 65 215 : 56 360.
April 15 : 38 10 : 29 39 : 67 : 69 : 67 205 : 58 350.
April 16 : 38 8 : 32 54 : 69 : 69 : 64 128 : 60 278.
April 19 : 37 49 : 39 50 : 64 : 59 : 51 266 : 53 316.
April 21 : 38 13 : 45 36 : 66 : 60 : 55 158 : 52 293.
April 24 : 34 24 : 54 14 : 60 : 64 : 60 157 : 58 287.
April 26 : 30 13 : 56 50 : 65 : 71 : 61 162 : 60 283.
April 27 : 28 16 : 57 18 : 70 : 73 : 60 210 : 57 360.
April 28 : 26 56 : 57 31 : 70 : 74 : 60 200 : 57 350.
May 1 : 25 48 : 61 6 : 74 : - : 62 165 : 59 320.
May 3 : 20 42 : 58 47 : 76 : 77 : 74 140 : 57 300.
May 18 : 21 53 : 56 45 : 77 : 77 : 63 182.
May 19 : 24 16 : 56 58 : 76 : 75 : 71 182.
May 20 : 26 9 : 58 45 : 74 : 71 : 63 140 : 73 360.
May 21 : 27 36 : 61 9 : 69 : 73 : 54 333.
May 22 : 28 6 : 63 30 : 68 : 69 : 53 300.
May 24 : 28 1 : 67 28 : 67 : 69 : 54 286.
May 25 : 29 49 : 67 14 : 66 : 66 : 54 360.
May 26 : 32 4 : 68 6 : 65 : 65 : 55 340.
May 27 : 33 48 : 70 11 : 63 : 63 : 54 350.
May 28 : 35 33 : 72 6 : 61 : 60 : 55 350.
May 29 : 36 6 : 74 15 : 60 : 59 : 52 350.
June 1 : 35 0 : 80 56 : 61 : 59 : 55 346.
June 6 : 36 42 : 97 54 : 55 : 56 : 51 320.
June 12 : 39 57 : 118 0 : 48 : 54 : 45 320.
June 14 : 40 46 : 123 26 : 49 : 53 : 48 380.
July 9 : 15 miles East of Cape Pillar, Van Diemen's Land : 53 : 55 : 48 375.
ABSTRACTS OF MERIDIAN DISTANCES MEASURED DURING THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S.
RATTLESNAKE, 1847 TO 1850, BY CAPTAIN OWEN STANLEY, R.N., F.R.S., AND
LIEUTENANT C.B. YULE, R.N.
The following pages contain abstracts of the meridian distances measured
in H.M. Surveying Ship Rattlesnake and her tender the Bramble, in the
survey of the Inner Route through Torres Strait, the Louisiade
Archipelago, and the South-east Coast of New Guinea, during the years
1847, 1848, 1849 and 1850, under the command of the late Captain Owen
Stanley, R.N. F.R.S.
The first three columns require no explanation.
The fourth (interval of days) is the elapsed time between the last day at
the first station and first day at the second.
The seventh (meridian distance in arc) is the result of the particular
measurement specified between the two places named.
The eighth (mean meridian distance from Sydney) is that deduced by a mean
value of two or more distances by the same T.K.'s, and in some instances
of ONE ONLY, in some of the principal stations connected with the survey.
The times throughout these abstracts have been determined by equal
altitudes of the sun, excepting in those instances where the contrary is
specified by A.A. The interpolations in the Rattlesnake's distances have
been calculated by Owen's method: those of the Bramble by a method of
In the Rattlesnake's distances interpolation has been employed
throughout; in the Bramble's only where an intermediate distance is
measured between two rates.
The asterisks point out the place to which the mean meridian from Sydney
ABSTRACTS OF MERIDIAN DISTANCES MEASURED IN H.M. SURVEYING SHIP
RATTLESNAKE, BY CAPTAIN OWEN STANLEY, R.N., F.R.S.
COLUMN 1: YEAR.
COLUMN 2: PLACES MEASURED BETWEEN.
COLUMN 3: NUMBER OF T.K.'S USED.
COLUMN 4: INTERVAL IN DAYS.
COLUMN 5: EX. DIFFERENCE OF RESULTS IN SECONDS OF TIME.
COLUMN 6: RANGE OF TEMPERATURE.
COLUMN 7: MERIDIAN DISTANCE IN ARC IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 8: MEAN MERIDIAN DISTANCE FROM FORT MACQUARIE, SYDNEY IN DEGREES,
MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 9: SPOT OF OBSERVATION.
COLUMN 10: LATITUDE OF SPOT OF OBSERVATION IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 11: REMARKS.
1846 : Greenwich and Madeira : 14 : 10 : 7.7 : - : 16 53 22 W : - : Mr.
Veitch's Garden, Funchal : 32 37 42 N : 16 53 22 West of Greenwich : -.
1847 : Madeira and Rat Island Rio de Janeiro : 12 : 31 : 31.6 : - : 26 14
38 W : - : Rat Island Rio de Janeiro : 22 53 30 S : 43 8 0 West of
Greenwich : -.
1847 : Rat Island Rio de Janeiro and Simon's Bay : 12 : 36 : 50 : - : 61
32 52 E : - : North-west end of Dockyard, Simon's Bay : 34 11 28 S : - :
1847 : Simon's Bay and Mauritius Island : 13 : 28 : 20 : - : 39 1 6 E : -
: West side of Tonnelier's Island : - : - : -.
1847 : Mauritius Island and Hobart, Van Diemen's Land : 14 : 40 : 40 : -
: 89 45 43 E : - : Ross Bank Observatory : 42 52 10 S : - : AA.
1847 : Hobart and Sydney : 11 : 11 : 5 : - : 3 52 39 E : - : Fort
Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : AA.
1847 : Sydney and *Parramatta : 10 : 1 : 0.6 : - : 0 13 13 W : *0 13 13 W
: Parramatta Observatory : 33 48 50 S : *By the Bramble's T.K.'s : -.
1847 : Sydney and *Twofold Bay : 9 : 3.5 : 3 : - : 1 17 53 W : *1 17 53 W
: Jetty at Eden, Twofold Bay : 37 4 20 S : *By the Bramble's T.K.'s mean
of 2 measurements : AA.
1847 : Twofold Bay and *Gabo Island : 8 : 5 : 2.1 : - : 0 00 37 W : *1 18
35 W : Landing-place on West side : 37 34 0 S : *By the Bramble's T.K.'s
mean of 2 measurements : AA.
1847 : Gabo Island and Fort Macquarie : 8 : 4 : 9.5 : - : 1 18 40 E : - :
Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : *By the Bramble's T.K.'s mean of 2
measurements : AA.
1847 : Twofold Bay and Fort Macquarie : 9 : 9 : 12.6 : - : 1 17 54 E : -
: Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : *By the Bramble's T.K.'s mean of 2
measurements : -.
1847 : Fort Macquarie and Moreton Island : 16 : 8 : 8 : 60 to 81 : 2 9 59
E : *2 9 30 E : Watering-place near the North-west end : 27 5 44 S : - : AA.
1847/8 : Moreton Island and Fort Macquarie : 15 : 10 : 10 : - : 2 8 25 W
: *2 9 30 E : Fort Macquarie, Sydney : 33 51 33 S : *Mean of 3
measurements : -.
1849 : Sydney and Moreton Island : 17 : 7.5 : 15 : 62 to 75 : 2 10 7 E :
*2 9 30 E : Watering-place near the North-west end : 27 5 44 S : - : -.
1847 : Moreton Island and *Port Curtis : 16 : 12 : 14 : 71 81 : 1 59 59 W
: *0 8 37 E : West side of Facing Island, Port Curtis : 23 51 45 S :
*Mean of 2 measurements : -.
1847 : Port Curtis and Port Molle : 15 : 11 : 8.3 : 64 84 : 2 30 48 W : -
: 1/10th mile North of Sandy Bay, East side of harbour : 20 19 48 S : - : -.
1847 : Port Molle and Cape Upstart : 16 : 2.4 : 1.5 : - : 1 5 42 W : - :
Sandy Bay, near the Cape : 19 42 3 S : - : AA.
1847 : Cape Upstart and *Port Molle : 16 : 4 : 1.5 : - : 1 5 42 E : *2 21
53 W : 1/10th mile North of Sandy Bay, East side of harbour : 20 19 48 S
: *Mean of 2 measurements : AA.
1847 : Port Molle and Moreton Island : 15 : 22.5 : 28 : - : 4 31 59 E : -
: Watering-place near the North-west end : 27 5 44 S : - : AA.
1848 : Sydney and *Port Phillip : 15 : 11 : 6.4 : - : 6 18 14 W : *6 19
48 W : Lighthouse, Point Gellibrand : 37 52 31 S : *Mean of 2
measurements : AA.
1848 : Point Gellibrand and Shortlands Bluff : 16 : 3 : 2.6 : - : 0 14 18
W : - : Lighthouse, Shortlands Bluff : 38 16 0 S : - : -.
1848 : Point Gellibrand and Port Dalrymple : 16 : 9 : 12.5 : - : 1 55 30
E : - : North point of Lagoon Bay : 41 5 0 S : Latitude from Chart : -.
1848 : Port Dalrymple and Sydney : 16 : 14 : 14.2 : - : 4 25 53 E : - :
Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : -.
1848 : Sydney and *Rockingham Bay : 16 : 31 : 28.9 : 64 to 84 : 5 3 27 W
: *5 3 27 W : Summit of Mound Islet : 17 55 25 S : *One measurement : AA.
1848 : Sydney and *Cape Upstart : 16 : 22 : 25.8 : 64 to 79 : 3 27 00 W :
*3 27 37 W : Sandy Bay, near the Cape : 19 42 3 S : *Mean of 2
measurements : AA.
1848 : Rockingham Bay and Cape Upstart : 16 : 9 : 8.2 : 73 to 84 : 1 36
32 E : - : Sandy Bay, near the Cape : 19 42 3 S : - : -.
1848 : Mound Islet and Number 3 Barnard Group : 16 : 4 : 3.8 : 71 to 84 :
0 2 18 E : - : Sandy beach, West extreme : 17 40 20 S : - : AA.
1848 : Number 3 Barnard Group and Number 4 Frankland Group : 16 : 5 : 5.5
: 72 to 78 : 0 6 4 W : - : Sandy beach, West side : 17 12 22 S : - : -.
1848 : Number 4 Frankland Group and Fitzroy Island : 16 : 7 : 6.1 : 72 to
79 : 0 5 34 W : - : Sandy beach, West side : 16 55 57 S : - : -.
1848 : Mound Islet and *Fitzroy Island : 15 : 16 : 7.9 : 84 to 72 : 0 9
28 W : *5 12 55 W : Sandy beach, West side : 16 55 57 S : - : -.
1848 : Fitzroy Island and Islet Trinity Bay : 16 : 6 : 4.4 : 73 to 79 : 0
18 25 W : - : Centre of North side of Islet : 16 43 26 S : *One
measurement : AA.
1848 : Islet Trinity Bay and Low Isles : 16 : 4 : 2.4 : 73 to 77 : 0 7 23
W : - : North-east point of Western Isle : 16 22 56 S : - : AA.
1848 : Low Isles and East Hope Island : 16 : 10 : 5.4 : 72 to 78 : 0 6 2
W : - : Beach on West side of Island : 15 43 45 S : - : -.
1848 : Fitzroy Island and *East Hope Island : 16 : 20 : 9.1 : 73 to 79 :
0 31 57 W : *5 44 52 W : Beach on West side of Island : 15 43 45 S : - : -.
1848 : East Hope Island and *Lizard Island : 15 : 9 : 3.7 : 73 to 79 : 0
00 7 E : *5 44 45 W : South end of Sandy Bay on West side : 14 39 56 S :
*One measurement : -.
1848 : Lizard Island and Number 1 Howick Group : 16 : 3 : 1.4 : 73 to 79
: 0 29 49 W : - : North-west extreme of Island : 14 29 46 S : - : -.
1848 : Number 1 Howick, and Number 6 Howick Group : 16 : 3.5 : 1.3 : 76
to 79 : 0 8 56 W : - : Middle of West side of Island : 14 26 0 S : - : -.
1848 : Number 6 Howick Group and *Pipon Island : 16 : 3.5 : 2.5 : 76 to
82 : 0 17 45 W : - : South-West side of West Island : 14 7 9 S : *One
measurement : -.
1848 : Pipon Island and Pelican Island : 16 : 2 : 1.4 : 76 to 83 : 0 41
00 W : - : South-West side of Island : 13 54 21 S : - : -.
1848 : Pelican Island and Night Island : 16 : 12 : 6.9 : 78 to 84 : 0 16
14 W : - : Coral patch, North-west end of Island : 13 9 58 S : - : AA.
1848 : Night Island and C. Reef : 16 : 9 : 9.4 : 78 to 83 : 0 4 32 W : -
: Dry sand, North-west end of reef : 12 34 50 S : - : AA.
1848 : Pipon Island and *C. Reef : 16 : 23 : 9.7 : 76 to 84 : 1 1 25 W :
*7 42 24 W : Dry sand, North-west end of reef : 12 34 50 S : *One
measurement : -.
1848 : C. Reef and Piper's Island : 16 : 4 : 5.6 : 80 to 84 : 0 17 19 W :
- : North-east extreme of West Island on large reef : 12 14 30 S : - : -.
1848 : Piper's Island and Sunday Island : 16 : 4 : 4.8 : 80 to 84 : 0 1 4
W : - : South-west side on sandy beach : 11 55 54 S : - : -.
1848 : Sunday Island and Cairncross Island : 16 : 3 : 1.6 : 81 to 84 : 0
17 37 W : - : North-west extreme on sandy beach : 11 14 34 S : - : -.
1848 : Cairncross Island and Z reef : 16 : 2 : 2.5 : 81 to 84 : 0 12 7 W
: - : Dry sand on North-west end : 10 48 50 S : - : -.
1848 : Z reef and Cape York : 16 : 4 : 3.7 : 81 to 85 : 0 10 22 W : - :
Sextant Rock, Evans Bay: 10 48 50 S : - : -.
1848 : C reef and *Cape York : 16 : 17 : 13.5 : 78 to 86 : 0 58 33 W : *8
42 8 W : Sextant Rock, Evans Bay: 10 41 31 S : *The mean of 3
measurements. : -.
1848 : Cape York and *Port Essington : 16 : 10 : 8.5 : 81 to 90 : 10 23
50 W : *19 5 58 W : Government House, Victoria : 11 22 2 S : *One
measurement : -.
1848/9 : Port Essington and Sydney : 15 : 71 : 60 : 62 to 90 : 19 00 18 W
: - : Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : *Useless (interval being too long) : -.
N.B. The distances in the Louisiade and New Guinea are calculated with
the meridian distance of the Sextant Rock, Cape York, assumed to be 8
degrees 40 minutes 50 seconds West of Sydney, to adapt them to the
original delta of the North-east Coast of Australia.
1849 : Sydney and Moreton Island : 17 : 7.5 : 15.0 : 62 to 75 : 2 10 7 E
: - : Watering-place near the North-west end : 27 5 44 S : - : -.
1849 : Moreton Island and Number 1 Obs. Reef C. Haven : 17 : 21.5 : 24.8
: 66 to 85 : 0 4 46 W : - : Dry sand, West extreme of reef : 11 18 39 S :
- : -.
1849 : Number 1 Obs. Reef and Number 2 Obs. Reef C. Haven : 17 : 12 :
11.5 : 81 to 85 : 0 12 7 W : - : Dry sand, East extreme of reef : 11 21
30 S : - : -.
1849 : Number 2 Obs. Reef and *Duchateau Isles : 17 : 14 : 10.9 : 81 to
87 : 0 43 30 W : *1 9 7 E : Centre of Middle Island, North side : 11 16
51 S : - : -.
1849 : Duchateau Isles and *Brumer Island : 17 : 14 : 9.3 : 79 to 87 : 2
1 56 W : *0 53 9 W : At the ship's anchorage : 10 45 30 S : - : AA.
1849 : Brumer Island and *Dufaure Island : 17 : 16 : 20.7 : 79 to 85 : 0
37 7 W : *1 29 58 W : At the ship's anchorage : 10 30 36 S : - : AA.
1849 : Brumer Island and Redscar Bay : 17 : 30 : 14.3 : 79 to 86 : 3 32 8
W : - : At the ship's anchorage : 9 16 14 S : - : AA.
1849 : Redscar Bay and Cape York : 17 : 12 : 12.3 : 82 to 86 : 4 20 4 W :
- : Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : - : AA.
1849 : Brumer Island and Cape York : 17 : 42 : 22.7 : - : 4 20 4 W : - :
Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : - : AA.
1849 : Cape York and *Mount Ernest : 17 : 3 : 6.9 : 83 to 88 : 0 4 12 W :
*8 45 2 W : North-west end of Island : 10 14 58 S : *One measurement : -.
1849 : Middle Duchateau and Cape York : 17 : 61 : 45.1 : - : 9 51 56 W :
- : Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : - : -.
1849 : Cape York and *Bramble Cay : 15 : 16 : 17.4 : 82 to 88 : 1 19 55 E
: *7 20 55 W : Centre of Bramble Cay : 9 8 38 S : *One measurement : -.
1849 : Cape York and *Redscar Bay : 15 : 21 : 16.7 : 82 to 88 : 4 19 51 E
: *4 21 51 W : Sandy point, North extremity Pariwara Island : 9 14 21 S :
- : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Middle Duchateau : 17 : 9.5 : 6.6 : 83 to 88 : 5
29 55 E : - : Centre of Middle Island, North side : 11 16 51 S : - : -.
1850 : Middle Duchateau and Sydney : 16 : 29.5 : 43.4 : - : 1 5 59 W : -
: Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Sydney : 16 : 39 : 52.4 : 73 to 88 : 4 22 47 E : -
: Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : -.
1850 : Sydney and Bay of Islands New Zealand : 15 : 18.5 : 16.6 : 63 to
77 : 22 54 20 E : - : Kairaro Island, Kororareka Bay : 35 16 0 S : - : -.
1850 : Bay of Islands and Port Stanley, East Falkland : 15 : 56.5 : 90.5
: 44 to 67 : 128 3 9 E : - : In front of Chaplain's House : 51 41 19 S :
- : -.
1847 : Fort Macquarie and Port Stephens : 9 : 3 : 2 : 9 : 0 47 15 E : *2
9 25 E : In the Garden, Tahlee House : 32 40 18 S : - : -.
1847 : Port Stephens and *Moreton Island : 9 : 12 : 6.2 : 5 : 1 22 24 E :
*2 9 25 E : Watering-place near North-west end of Island : 27 5 44 S : - : -.
1848 : Moreton Bay and Sydney : 9 : 10 : 8.5 : 13.5 : 2 9 9 W : *2 9 25 E
: Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : The mean of 4 measurements : -.
1849 : Moreton Bay and Sydney : 10 : 18 : 15.8 : 3.5 : 2 9 41 W : *2 9 25
E : Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : -.
1849 : Fort Macquarie and Moreton Bay : 10 : 10.5 : 16.2 : 8 : 2 9 10 E :
*2 9 25 E : Watering-place near North-west end of Island : 27 5 44 S : -
1847 : Moreton Bay and Port Curtis : 10 : 8 : 2.6 : 6.5 : 2 0 7 W : *0 8
35 E : At the Observation spot West side of Facing Island : 23 51 45 S :
- : -.
1848 : Sydney and *Port Curtis : 9 : 19 : 24 : 11 : 0 7 19 E : *0 8 35 E
: At the Observation spot West side of Facing Island : 23 51 45 S :
Measured to Sail Rocks and reduced to Observation spot by charts : -.
1847 : Port Curtis and Moreton Bay : 10 : 17 : 18 : 10 : 2 0 16 E : *0 8
35 E : Watering-place near North-west end of Island : 27 5 44 S : Mean of
3 measurements : -.
1848 : Sydney and *Kent's Group, Lighthouse : 10 : 9.5 : 5.0 : 9 : 3 55
11 W : *3 55 11 W : At the Lighthouse : 39 29 58 S : One measurement : -.
1848 : Sydney and *Hobson's Bay, Port Phillip : 10 : 16.5 : 4.8 : 9 : 6
18 56 W : *6 19 00 W : Near the Lighthouse, Point Gellibrand : 37 52 31 S
: - : -.
1848 : Hobson's Bay and Sydney : 10 : 17 : 7 : 10.5 : 6 19 4 E : *6 19 00
W : Fort Macquarie : 37 52 31 S : - : -.
1848 : Sail Rocks, Point Curtis, and Rockingham Bay : 10 : 4 : 3.8 : 7 :
5 20 3 W : - : Rocky point, 1/2 mile South of North-west extremity of
Goold Island : 18 9 33 S : - : -.
1848 : Goold Island (Rockingham Bay) and *Fitzroy Island : 10 : 15 : 5.6
: 4 : 0 9 50 W : *5 14 19 W : The same as Rattlesnake's : 16 55 57 S :
One measurement : -.
1848 : Fitzroy Island and a rocky Islet, Cape Melville : 10 : 36 : 23.5 :
4 : 1 38 00 W : - : On its summit : *14 15 13 S : *By Captain King's
Sextant : -.
1848 : A rocky Islet, Cape Melville, and Pelican Island : 10 : 7 : 8.3 :
3.5 : 0 31 38 W : - : South-west side of Island : 13 54 21 S : - : -.
1848 : Pelican Island and *Cape York : 10 : 15 : 10.8 : 2.5 : 1 17 3 W :
*8 40 52 W : Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : Mean of 4
measurements : -.
1848 : Cape York and Booby Island : 10 : 2 : 0.7 : 1.5 : 0 38 18 W : - :
North-west end of Island : none observed : - : -.
1849 : Booby Island and Cape York : 10 : 2.5 : 3.4 : 2.5 : 0 38 19 W : -
: Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : 2 measurements : -.
1848 : Cape York and Moreton Island : 10 : 38 : 23.4 : 6 : 10 49 10 E : -
: Watering-place, North-west end of Island : 27 5 44 S : - : -.
1849 : Moreton Island and North Solitary Island : 10 : 7 : 4.2 : - : 0 1
7 E : - : Summit of Island : *29 56 8 S : *Captain King's Sextant Sea
horizon : -.
N.B. The distances in the Louisiade and New Guinea are calculated with
the meridian distance of the Sextant Rock, Cape York, assumed to be 8
degrees 40 minutes 50 seconds West of Sydney, to adapt them to the
original delta of the North-east Coast of Australia.
1849 : Moreton Island and Number 1 Observation Reef Coral Haven : 10 : 21
: 41 : 20 : 0 4 29 W : - : Dry sand, West extremity of reef : 11 18 39 S
: - : -.
1849 : Number 1 Observation Reef and Number 2 Observation Reef : 10 : 13
: 8.2 : 3.5 : 0 1 14 W : - : Dry sand, East extremity of reef : 11 21 30
S : - : -.
1849 : Number 2 Observation Reef and Green Island : 10 : 6 : 5.2 : 3 : 0
26 49 W : - : On Coral Islet, near Green Island (South side) : 11 8 36 S
: - : -.
1849 : Number 2 Observation Reef and Green Island : 10 : 6 : 3.2 : 3 : 0
26 48 W : - : On Coral Islet, near Green Island (South side) : 11 8 36 S
: Repeated : -.
1849 : Green Island and Duchateau Isles : 10 : 3 : 4.6 : 3 : 0 15 53 W :
- : On the North-east extremity of Eastern Duchateau : 11 16 45 S :
Repeated : -.
1849 : Green Island and *Middle Duchateau : 10 : 1 : 1.1 : 1 : 0 16 43 W
: *1 8 34 E : Rattlesnake's Observation spot : *11 16 51 S : *By
triangulation : -.
1849 : Middle Duchateau and Duperre sandbank : 10 : 3 : 1.9 : 3.5 : 0 19
54 W : - : On sandbank East of Duperre Isles : 11 10 48 S : - : AA.
1849 : Middle Duchateau and Lejeune Isle : 10 : 5 : 3.4 : 4 : 0 33 26 W :
- : On North-west extreme of the Island : 11 10 38 S : - : AA.
1849 : Lejeune Island and Kosmann Island : 10 : 2 : 2 : 3 : 0 16 52 W : -
: On middle of North side of Island : 11 4 20 S : - : AA.
1849 : Lejeune Island and East Sable Island : 10 : 2.9 : 2.8 : 3 : 0 25
47 W : - : Centre of Island : 11 10 6 S : - : AA.
1849 : Lejeune Island and West Barrier Island : 10 : 3 : 2.7 : 3 : 0 40
28 W : - : East end of Island : 11 5 36 S : - : AA.
1849 : Lejeune Island and West Dumoulin Island : 10 : 5 : 4.5 : 3 : 1 4
18 W : - : North-west end, on a detached rock : 10 54 20 S : - : AA.
1849 : Middle Duchateau and *Brumer Island : 10 : 14 : 15.6 : 4 : 2 1 13
W : *0 52 40 W : Rattlesnake's anchorage : 10 45 30 S : - : AA.
1849 : Brumer Island and *Dufaure Island : 10 : 17 : 5.0 : 2.5 : 0 35 20
W : *1 27 43 W : Rattlesnake's anchorage : 10 30 36 S : - : AA.
1849 : Brumer Island and Cape York : 10 : 43 : 17.9 : 4 : 7 48 19 W : - :
Sextant Rock, Evans Bay : 10 41 31 S : - : AA.
1849 : Cape York and Darnley Island : 10 : 12.5 : 7 : 2 : 1 13 39 E : - :
East end of Treacherous Bay : *9 35 0 S : *From chart : -.
1849 : Cape York and Bramble Cay : 10 : 16 : 10.3 : 1.5 : 1 20 34 E : - :
On the centre of the Cay : 9 8 38 S : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Bramble, off Round Island : 10 : 8 : 7 : 3 : 0 37
45 E : - : On board the Bramble, at anchor : 9 58 53 S : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Bramble, off Cape Rodney : 10 : 16 : 8.4 : 3 : 1
35 25 E : - : On board the Bramble, at anchor : 10 16 20 S : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Bramble, off Dufaure : 10 : 21 : 14.2 : 3 : 2 48
41 E : - : On board the Bramble, at anchor : - : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Bramble, off Brumer Island : 10 : 23 : 17.9 : 3 :
3 27 34 E : - : On board the Bramble, at anchor : - : - : -.
1850 : Redscar Bay and Middle Duchateau Island : 10 : 31.5 : 24.7 : 3 : 5
29 46 E : - : On centre of North side of Island : 11 16 51 S : - : -.
1850 : Middle Duchateau Island and Sydney : 8 : 28 : 41.3 : - : 1 7 30 W
: - : Fort Macquarie : 33 51 33 S : - : -.
1850 : Sydney and Bay of Islands, New Zealand : 7 : 18.5 : 7.1 : - : 22
55 24 E : - : Kairaro Island Kororareka Bay : 35 16 0 S : - : -.
1850 : Bay of Islands and Falkland Island : 7 : 57 : 95 : - : 128 3 9 E :
- : Near Chaplain's House, Stanley, East Falkland : 51 41 19 S : - : -.
The following is a summary of the results obtained from the Chronometric
measurements of H.M.S. Rattlesnake and Bramble, giving a proportionate
value to each, according to the number of T.K.'S employed.
COLUMN 1: SPOT OF OBSERVATION.
COLUMN 2: MEAN MERIDIAN DISTANCE FROM FORT MACQUARIE, SYDNEY.
COLUMN 3: EAST OR WEST.
COLUMN 4: LONGITUDE EAST OF GREENWICH, ASSUMING THE LONGITUDE OF FORT
MACQUARIE TO BE 151 DEGREES 14 MINUTES 47 SECONDS EAST.
COLUMN 5: OBSERVED LATITUDE SOUTH.
COLUMN 6: INSTRUMENT USED TO OBSERVE LATITUDE.
COLUMN 7: INITIALS OF OBSERVERS OF LATITUDE.
O.S.: Captain Owen Stanley.
C.B.Y.: Lieutenant C.B. Yule.
J.D.: Lieutenant J. Dayman.
W.H.O.: Mr. Obree.
Parramatta Observatory : 0 13 13 : W : 151 1 34 : 33 48 50 : From
Nautical Almanac : -.
Eden Jetty, Twofold Bay : 0 17 53 : W : 149 56 54 : 37 4 20 : Circle : O.S.
Gabo Island : 1 18 13 : W : 149 56 12 : None observed : - : -.
Lighthouse, Point Gellibrand, Port Phillip : 6 19 29 : W : 144 55 18 : 37
52 31 : Az. and Alt. : O.S.
Lighthouse, Kent's Group : 3 55 11 : W : 147 19 36 : 39 28 58 : Sextant :
Rossbank Observatory, Hobart : 3 52 39 : W : 147 22 8 : 42 52 10 : Circle
and Az. Alt. : O.S.
Tahlee House, Port Stephens : 0 47 15 : E : 152 2 2 : 32 40 18 : - :
North point of Lagoon Bay, Port Dalrymple : 4 24 56 : W : 146 49 51 :
None observed : - : -.
North Solitary Island : 2 10 35 : E : 153 25 22 : 29 56 8 : Sextant :
Moreton Island watering-place, North-west end : 2 9 28 : E : 153 24 15 :
27 5 44 : Sea horizon Circle and Az. Alt. : O.S.
Observation spot, West side Facing Island, Port Curtis : 0 8 36 : E : 151
23 23 : 23 51 45 : Az. and Alt. and Sextant : O.S., C.B.Y. and J.D.
Port Molle, near Sandy Bay, East side of harbour : 2 21 53 : W : 148 52
54 : 20 19 48 : Az. and Alt. : O.S.
Cape Upstart, Sandy Bay near Cape : 3 27 37 : W : 147 47 10 : 19 42 3 :
Az. and Alt. : O.S.
Mound Islet, Rockingham Bay : 5 3 27 : W : 146 11 20 : 17 55 25 : Circle
Fitzroy Island beach, West side : 5 13 27 : W : 146 1 20 : 16 55 57 :
Circle : O.S.
East Hope Island, beach on West side : 5 44 52 : W : 145 29 55 : 15 43 45
: Circle : O.S.
Lizard Island, sandy beach West side : 5 44 45 : W : 145 30 2 : 14 39 56
: Circle : O.S.
West Pipon Island, South-west side : 6 40 59 : W : 144 33 48 : 14 7 9 :
Circle : O.S.
C reef dry sand, off Restoration Island : 7 42 24 : W : 143 32 23 : 12 34
50 : Az. Alt. : W.H.O.
Sextant Rock, Evans Bay, Cape York : 8 41 33 : W : 142 33 14 : 10 41 31 :
Az. Alt. : W.H.O.
Port Essington, Government House : 19 5 23 : W : 132 9 24 : 11 22 2 : Az.
Alt. : W.H.O.
Booby Island : 9 19 51 : W : 141 54 56 : 10 35 56 : delta n : -.
Bramble Cay : 7 21 23 : W : 143 53 24 : 9 8 38 : Az. Alt. : W.H.O.
Pariwara Island (North side) Redscar Bay : 5 9 25 : W : 146 5 22 : 9 14
25 : Az. Alt. : W.H.O.
Middle Duchateau Island : 1 7 50 : E : 152 22 37 : 11 16 51 : Circle : O.S.
Number 1 Observation Reef, Coral Haven, Louisiade : 2 4 48 : E : 153 19
35 : 11 18 39 : Circle : O.S.
Kairaro Island, Bay of Islands, New Zealand : 22 54 40 : E : 174 9 27 :
35 16 0 : Sextant. : W.H.O.
Chaplain's House, Stanley, East Falkland : 150 57 49 : E : 57 47 24 : 51
41 19 : Az. Alt. : W.H.O.
OBSERVATIONS OF THE MEAN MAGNETIC INCLINATION, MADE ON SHORE IN THE
VOYAGE OF H.M.S. RATTLESNAKE, BY LIEUTENANT J. DAYMAN, R.N.
INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED: ROBINSON'S 6-INCH INCLINOMETER; FOX'S DIPPING
The following tables contain the absolute determinations of the magnetic
inclination and declination made in the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake on
shore. A very large series made almost daily at sea with Fox's instrument
and the Azimuth Compass require several corrections before they are fit
In degrees, minutes and seconds.
In Mr. Veitch's verandah, Funchal, by Robinson's Needle, A: 59 41 7 N.
In Mr. Veitch's verandah, Funchal, by Fox's Needle, A: 60 40 2 N.
On the summit of the Pico dos Bodes, by Fox's Needle, A: 64 10 5 N.
Ther. 64. on the summit of the Pico dos Bodes, angle of deflection, 2
grains by Fox's Needle, A: 33 13 6.
Ther. 59. Funchal angle of deflection, 2 grains by Fox's Needle, A: 38 8 8.
RAT ISLAND, RIO DE JANEIRO.
By Robinson's Needle, A1: 12 15 1 S.
By Robinson's Needle, A2: 12 19 1 S.
Mean: 12 17 1 S.
SIMON'S BAY, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
In the dockyard near the Observation spot of Erebus and Terror, by Fox's
Needle A, with index error applied : 53 40 0 S.
TONNELIER'S ISLAND, PORT LOUIS, MAURITIUS.
By Robinson's Needle, A1: 53 48 9 S.
By Robinson's Needle, A2: 53 48 8 S.
Mean: 53 48 8 S.
HOBART, VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.
At the Magnetic Observatory, Ross bank, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 70 36 0 S.
At the Magnetic Observatory, Ross bank, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 70 41 5 S.
Mean: 70 38 7 S.
On Garden Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 62 45 3 S.
On Garden Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 62 47 7 S.
Mean: 62 46 5 S.
PORT CURTIS, NORTH-EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.
On Facing Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 51 28 9 S.
On Facing Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 51 30 9 S.
Mean: 51 29 9 S.
NUMBER 1 PERCY ISLAND.
In a sandy Bay, on North side of Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 49 3 5 S.
In a sandy Bay, on North side of Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 49 0 2 S.
Mean: 49 1 8 S.
In a small Bay, on North side, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 50 46 6 S.
In a small Bay, on North side, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 50 49 6 S.
Mean: 50 48 0 S.
Near the North-west end of Moreton Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 55
20 1 S.
Near the North-west end of Moreton Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 55
13 5 S.
Mean: 55 16 8 S.
Near Captain Bunbury's House, Williamstown, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 67
12 7 S.
Near Captain Bunbury's House, Williamstown, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 67
16 7 S.
Mean: 67 14 7 S.
In Lagoon Bay, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 69 29 0 S.
In Lagoon Bay, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 69 19 5 S.
Mean: 69 24 2 S.
SWAN ISLAND, BANKS STRAIT.
Near the Lighthouse, by Fox's Needle B, with index error applied: 68 56 1 S.
On Garden Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 62 48 9 S.
On Garden Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 62 39 1 S.
April 1848 Mean: 62 44 0 S.
ROCKINGHAM BAY, NORTH-EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.
On Mound Islet, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 44 15 5 S.
On Mound Islet, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 44 10 6 S.
Mean: 44 13 0 S.
NUMBER 2 BARNARD ISLAND.
On the West Point of the Island, with Fox's Needle C, with index error
applied: 44 8 8 S.
LOW ISLES, TRINITY BAY.
On the North Point of North Low Islet, with Fox's Needle C, with index
error applied: 42 22 4 S.
On the West side of the Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 39 32 9 S.
On the West side of the Island, by Robinson's Needle, A2: 39 31 8 S.
Mean: 39 32 3 S.
NUMBER 5, CLAREMONT ISLE.
On the North side of the Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 38 11 9 S.
In Evans Bay, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 33 10 2 S.
In Evans Bay, with Fox's Needle C, with index error applied: 33 8 4 S.
Mean: 33 9 3 S.
In Proa Bay, 1 mile west of Settlement, with Fox's Needle C, with index
error applied: 35 14 6 S.
On board the ship, at anchor at Port Essington, same needle corrected for
local attraction and index error: 33 48 0 S.
Note: The observations on board the ship at this station are the nearest
to the truth, there being much ironstone strewed over the country about
the observation spot onshore.
Garden Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1, March 1849: 62 44 2 S.
On the North-west side of Moreton Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 55 21 3 S.
CORAL HAVEN, LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO.
On a patch of Coral near Pig Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 32 35 2 S.
On a patch of Coral near Pig Island, by Fox's Needle, with index error
applied: 32 33 0 S.
Mean: 32 34 1 S.
DUCHATEAU ISLANDS, LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO.
On the Middle Island, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 32 48 6 S.
On the Middle Island, by Fox's Needle B, with index error applied: 32 56 4 S.
Mean: 32 52 5 S.
In Evans Bay, by Robinson's Needle, A1: 33 22 4 S.
BRAMBLE CAY, SOUTH COAST OF NEW GUINEA.
By Fox's Needle B, with index error applied: 31 49 2 S.
GARDEN ISLAND, PORT JACKSON.
By Fox's Needle A, corrected for index error etc.: 62 44 9 S.
By Fox's Needle B, corrected for index error etc.: 62 44 9 S.
By Fox's Needle C, corrected for index error etc.: 62 44 9 S.
BAY OF ISLANDS, NEW ZEALAND.
Near Kororareka Bay, by Fox's Needle A, corrected for index error: 59 37 6 S.
Near Kororareka Bay, by Fox's Needle B, corrected for index error: 59 44 2 S.
Near Kororareka Bay, by Fox's Needle C, corrected for index error: 59 28 1 S.
Mean: 59 36 6 S.
EAST FALKLAND ISLAND.
Near the Chaplain's House at Stanley, by Fox's Needle A, corrected for
index error: 52 19 6 S.
Near the Chaplain's House at Stanley, by Fox's Needle B, corrected for
index error: 51 43 3 S.
Near the Chaplain's House at Stanley, by Fox's Needle C, corrected for
index error: 50 58 8 S.
Mean: 51 40 6 S.
Zh Observation spot of the Erebus and Terror near the old settlement,
Berkeley Sound, by Fox's Needle B, corrected for index error: 51 25 6 S.
In the Consul's garden, Horta, by Fox's Needle B, corrected for index
error: 66 58 4 N.
In the Consul's garden, Horta, by Fox's Needle A, corrected for index
error: 67 26 9 N.
Mean: 67 12 6 N.
The following absolute determinations of the magnetic disinclination were
made with a declinometer, and A.M. and P.M. azimuths of the sun:
William Town, Port Phillip: 9 10 52 E.
Lagoon Bay, Port Dalrymple, Van Diemen's Land: 10 29 16 E.
Garden Island, Port Jackson, March and April 1848: 9 6 43 E.
Mound Islet, Rockingham Bay, North-east Coast of Australia: 6 19 43 E.
Lizard Island, North-east Coast of Australia: 5 46 7 E.
Evans Bay, Cape York, North coast of Australia: 4 42 31 E.
Garden Island, Port Jackson,March and April 1849: 10 9 10 E.
Moreton Island, East coast of Australia: 9 21 14 E.
Coral Haven, Louisiade Archipelago: 7 44 17 E.
Duchateau Isles, Louisiade Archipelago: 7 44 17 E.
Bramble Cay, South-east Coast of New Guinea: 4 22 37 E.
Kororareka Bay, Bay of Islands, New Zealand: 13 27 20 E.
Stanley, East Falkland Island, July 1850: 16 54 46 E.
ACCOUNT OF THE POLYZOA AND SERTULARIAN ZOOPHYTES, COLLECTED IN THE VOYAGE
OF H.M.S. RATTLESNAKE, ON THE COASTS OF AUSTRALIA AND THE LOUISIADE
ARCHIPELAGO, ETC. BY GEORGE BUSK, ESQUIRE F.R.S.
This collection includes about eighty-five species, distributed in
twenty-nine genera, and may perhaps be regarded as the largest and most
interesting of the kind ever brought to this country.
When it is stated that seventy-eight of the species are new or
undescribed, the number will appear extraordinarily great, but when the
comparatively neglected state of exotic Zoophytology is considered the
wonder will be much diminished, and still further, as it may safely be
assumed, that many of the species here given as new have been previously
noticed, though so insufficiently described, as in the absence of figures
not to admit of correct identification.
Making, however, a considerable deduction on this account, the remainder
will still stamp the present collection with extreme value. As an
instance, may be cited the genus Catenicella, of which this collection
affords about fifteen species, and of which certainly not more than three
have been previously noticed in any way, and of these no sufficient
descriptions or figures are extant by which even that small number could
be identified. The explanation of this is perhaps to be sought in the
circumstance that the species of Catenicella are deepsea forms, and only
to be obtained by dredging in deep water--very few being apparently found
on the shores.
Though the number of new or supposed new species is so great, the number
of new genera is comparatively small, not amounting to more than four. It
has, however, been found necessary considerably to modify the characters
of several other established genera, so as to include new species.
With respect to the geographical distribution of the species, my means of
comparison have been pretty extensive. They have been derived from the
examination of Mr. Darwin's and Dr. Hooker's collections, placed at my
disposal by the kind liberality of Mr. Darwin--a considerable collection
of South African species mainly procured from Mr. Bowerbank--and from the
Collection of British and exotic Zoophytes in the British Museum, for the
freest opportunities of examining which I have to thank Mr. Gray. From
these various sources, and others of less account, I have been able to
examine species from a very considerable extent of the earth's
surface--more especially in the Southern hemisphere, and to arrive
perhaps at as fair a view of the geographical distribution of species as
the present imperfect state of Zoophytology will allow.
The number of species of Polyzoa is about fifty-four--belonging to
twenty-four genera. Of these genera it is believed that four will be
found to be new, or hitherto undescribed, and it has been deemed
requisite to modify the characters of several others upon the more
extended survey of species afforded mainly by the present collection. The
new genera here instituted are:
And the genera whose characters it has been found requisite to modify
Of the twenty-four genera, three, or perhaps four, appear to be peculiar
to the Australian seas. These are:
All the rest, excepting two, Emma and Diachoris, appear to be distributed
over the globe in both hemispheres. The above two are perhaps limited to
Of the fifty-three species, about thirty-three seem to be new, or to have
been so imperfectly described as not to admit of precise identification,
and five others have synonyms more or less doubtful applied to them.
Six species only are common to the seas of Europe, namely:
Tubulipora phalangea ?
Sixteen others are met with in other parts of the Southern hemisphere,
Catenicella elegans ?
Eschara lichenoides, occurring in Algoa Bay.
Acamarchis tridentata, in Algoa Bay and New Zealand.
Bicellaria tuba, in New Zealand and
Emma tricellata, in New Zealand and Campbell's Island.
Thus of the fifty-four species, about thirty-four would seem to be
peculiar to the Australian seas. Ten of these belong to the genus
Catenicella, and one to the closely-allied Calpidium, three to Didymia
and Dimetopia, and one to Diachoris, of which genus two other species are
found in the Straits of Magellan.
The method according to which the Polyzoa are arranged, is, in the
primary divisions at least, pretty nearly identical with that indicated
in the Synopsis of the Families and Genera of Polyzoa Infundibulata,
given in Dr. Johnston's British Zoophytes.*
(*Footnote. Volume 1 page 263 2nd Edition.)
A few words, however, will be necessary to explain more particularly the
subsequent subdivisions here adopted.
The order, Polyzoa infundibulata, is divided into three suborders,
coinciding very nearly with the Tubuliporina, Celleporina, and
Vesicularina of the work above referred to, but as the characters of
these suborders are derived from the conformation of the opening of the
cell, I have thought it more convenient to name them accordingly. The
first suborder, having a round, simple opening to the cell, is here
termed the Cyclostomata; the second, with the opening of the cell filled
up by a usually thin, membranous or calcareous velum, and with a
crescentic mouth provided with a movable lip, the Cheilostomata; and the
third suborder, which might perhaps include the Halcyonellea of
Ehrenberg, as well as the Vesiculariadae, distinguished by the existence
of a more or less well-marked fringe of setae (sometimes only
rudimentary) around the opening of the cell when the animal is protruded,
The following synoptical arrangement--which it must be remarked, includes
only the genera occurring in the Rattlesnake collection--will serve to
indicate the subsequent divisions.
SYNOPTICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE POLYZOA INCLUDED IN THE RATTLESNAKE
Suborder 1. CYCLOSTOMATA (Tubuliporina).
Fam. 1. TUBULIPORIDAE.
Gen. 1. Tubulipora.
Sp. 1. T. phalangea ?
2. P. australis, n. sp.
3. I. radians.
Fam. 2. CRISIADAE.
4. C. denticulata.
5. C. acropora, n. sp.
Suborder 2. CHEILOSTOMATA (Celleporina).
Sec.. 1. UNISERIALARIA.
Fam. 1. CATENICELLIDAE.
6. C. hastata, n. sp. ?
7. C. amphora, n. sp.
8. C. margaritacea, n. sp.
9. C. ventricosa, n. sp.
10. C. plagiostoma, n. sp.
11. C. lorica, n. sp.
12. C. cribaria, n. sp.
13. C. formosa, n. sp.
14. C. gibbosa, n. sp.
15. C. elegans, n. sp.
16. C. cornuta, n. sp.
17. C. umbonata, n. sp.
18. C. carinata, n. sp.
6. Calpidium, n. g.
19. C. ornatum, n. sp.
Fam. 2. EUCRATIADAE.
20. E. chelata.
21. A. spatulata.
Sec. 2. MULTISERIALARIA.
a. internodes elongated, multicellular.
Fam. 1. SALICORNARIADAE.
22. S. punctata, n. sp. ?
23. S. bicornis, n. sp.
24. S. dichotoma, n. sp.
25. S. marginata, n. sp.
Fam. 2. CELLULARIADAE.
26. C. monotrypa, n. sp.
27. S. cervicornis, n. sp.
28. S. diadema, n. sp.
29. S. cyclostoma, n. sp.
30. S. ferox, n. sp.
31. C. arachnoides.
b. internodes short, 2-4 celled.
32. E. crystallina.
33. E. tricellata, n. sp.
Fam. 3. BICELLARIADAE.
14. Bicellaria. 1
34. B. tuba, n. sp.
35. B. gracilis, n. sp.
36. B. grandis, n. sp.
37. B. flexilis, n. sp.
38. A. neritina.
39. A. tridentata.
Fam. 4. CABEREADAE.
40. C. rudis, n. sp.
41. C. zelanica.
42. C. lata, n. sp. ?
Fam. 5. FLUSTRADAE.
43. F. pyriformis ?
44. F. denticulata, n. sp.
45. R. cornea, n. sp. ?
46. R. cellulosa.
47. R. ctenostoma, n. sp.
48. E. lichenoides.
20. Diachoris, n. g.
49. D. crotali, n. sp.
Fam. 6. CELLEPORIDAE.
50. C. bilabiata, n. sp. ?
Fam. 7. GEMELLARIADAE.
22. Didymia, n. g.
51. D. simplex, n. sp.
23. Dimetopia, n. g.
52. D. spicata, n. sp.
53. D. cornuta, n. sp.
Suborder 3. CTENOSTOMATA. (Vesicularina, etc.)
Fam. 1. VESICULARIADAE.
54. A. biseriata.
Suborder 1. CYCLOSTOMATA.
Fam. 1. TUBULIPORIDAE.
1. TUBULIPORA, Lamarck.
1. T. phalangea, Couch.
Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.
A small, imperfect specimen, which may be referred to the variety noticed
in British Zoophytes, and figured Plate 46, figures 3, 4.
2. PUSTULIPORA, Blainville.
1. P. australis, n. sp.
P. deflexa ? Couch.
Branched dichotomously; branches short, incrassated, truncate. Cells
wholly immersed, or about half free, numerous; surface minutely
papillose, summits of papillae of a dark brown or black colour.
Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms; and elsewhere in the Australian seas.
About half an inch high. The stem becomes thicker as it ascends, and
divides into two equal short branches, each of which again subdivides
into two short truncate branches, in a plane at right angles to the
primary division. The cells in the upper part of the stem appear free for
nearly half their length, and are gently curved outwards. The surface is