Part 13 out of 14
Phanerogams, comparison with one class of animals rather than with one
Phaseoli, crossing in.
Phaseolus vulgaris, sleep-movements of.
Pheasants, display of colour by golden.
-Hewitt on hybrids of.
-hybrids between fowls and.
Phillips, J., defines species.
-"Life on the Earth."
Phillips-Jodrell, T.T., founder of Jodrell Laboratory at Kew.
Philosophical experiments, few naturalists care for.
Philosophising, means and laws of.
Phlox, Darwin's observations on flowers of.
Phyllanthus, F. Muller's paper in "Kosmos" on.
-P. Niruri, sleep-movements of.
Phryma, de Candolle on.
-occurrence in N. America.
Phyllotaxis, Darwin and Falconer on.
Physical conditions, effect of.
"Physical Geography," Herschel's.
Physicists, disagree as to rate of cooling of earth's crust.
"Physiological Aesthetics," Grant Allen's.
Physiological selection, Romanes'.
Physiological species, Huxley's term.
Physiological units, Herbert Spencer's.
"Physiology," Huxley's "Elementary Lessons in."
-Darwin on difficulty of.
-Darwin's want of knowledge of.
-Darwin's work on plant-.
-England behind in vegetable.
-small knowledge of ordinary doctors of.
Phytophagic varieties, Walsh on.
Phytophthora, potatoes and.
"Pickwick," quotation from.
Pictet, on the succession of forms.
Pictet and Humbert, on fossil fishes of Lebanon.
Pieris, breeding in confinement.
-colour the result of mimicry.
Pigeons, breeding of.
-experiments on crossing.
-experiments bearing on direct action.
-production of varieties.
-reduction of wings.
-Tegetmeier's work on.
-Wallace on Malayan.
-Darwin's work on.
-experiments in painting.
-Flourens' experiments on.
-pairing for whole life.
Pigs, crossing of.
"Pikermi," Gaudry's "Animaux fossiles de."
Pinguicula, Darwin's observations on.
Pisum, cross-fertilisation of.
-P. sativum, visited by Bombus.
Pithecoid man, Huxley's term.
Pithecus, Owen on Homo and.
Plagiaulax, Falconer on.
Planorbis, Hyatt on genesis of species of.
-P. multiformis, graduated forms of.
Plantago, Ludwig's observations on.
Plants, change in animals compared with change in.
-comparison between high and low as regards resistance to injurious
-difference between animals and.
-resemblance to animals.
-Saporta's work on fossil.
-small proportion preserved as fossils.
-splendid for helping belief in Natural Selection.
-wide range as compared with animals.
-Darwin's interest in movements of.
-Darwin on physiology of.
-effect of stimuli on.
Plasmodiophora, action on cruciferous roots.
Platanthera, H. Muller on.
Plato, comparison between plants and man in his "Timaeus."
Platysma myoides, contraction during terror.
-Darwin's error concerning.
Pleistocene Antarctic land, plants derived from.
Pliocene, Falconer on mammal from the.
Plovers, protective colouring of.
Plumage, immature and adult.
Plumbago, Darwin's experiments on.
-said to be dimorphic.
Podostemaceae, fertilisation of.
Poisons, natives of Australia injured by vegetable.
-absorption by roots of.
-effect of injection into plants.
Polar bear, modification of.
Polar ice-cap, Darwin on the.
Polarity, E. Forbes' theory of.
Pollen, direct action of.
-time of maturity in Eucalyptus and Mimosa.
-mechanism for distribution in Martha.
-Miyoshi's experiments on tubes of.
Polyanthus, crossing in.
Polyborus Novae Zelandiae, in Falkland Islands.
Polydactylism, and inheritance.
Polyembryony, in Coffea and Pachira.
-P. vulgaris, variation of.
Polygamy, in birds.
Polygonum, germination of seeds found in sandpit.
Polymorphism, Darwin and Hooker on.
Polytypic genera, variation of.
Pontederia, heterostylism of.
Pontodrilus, Lankester on.
Poplar, Heer on fossil species.
Popper, J., letter to.
Poppig, on civilisation and savagery.
Poppy (corn-), indigenous in Sicily.
Porpoises, Flower on.
Porto-Santo, land-snails of.
Positivism, Huxley's article in "Fortnightly Review" on.
Posoqueria, F. Muller's paper on.
Potatoes, crossing experiments.
-cultivated and wild.
-sterility and variability in.
-Torbitt's experiments on.
-Darwin's work on varieties of.
-Hildebrand's experiments on.
Poulton, Prof., on Prichard as an evolutionist.
-"Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection."
Poultry, skulls of.
-Tegetmeier's book on.
-experiments on colour and sexual selection.
Powell, Prof. Baden.
"Power of Movement in Plants," Darwin's account of capacity of revolving
in plants, in his book.
-Continental opinion of.
-Wiesner's criticism of.
Prawns, F. Muller on metamorphosis of.
Prayer, Galton's article on.
Pre-Cambrian rocks, Hicks on.
"Prehistoric Europe," J. Geikie's.
"Prehistoric Times," Lord Avebury's.
Preordination, speculation as to.
Prepotency of pollen.
Prescott, reference to work by.
Preservation, suggested as an alternative term for Natural Selection.
Pressure, effect on liquefaction by heat.
Preston, S. Tolver, letter to.
Prestwich, Prof. J., letter to.
-on Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.
-on superficial deposits of S. England.
-work on Tertiaries.
Prevost, C., as candidate for Royal Society Foreign List.
Price, J., extract from letter from Darwin to.
Prichard, James Cowles (1786-1848): He came on both sides from Quaker
families, but, according to the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," he
ultimately joined the Church of England. He was a M.D. of Edinburgh,
and by diploma of Oxford. He was for a year at Trinity College,
Cambridge, and afterwards at St. John's and New College, Oxford, but did
not graduate at either University. He practised medicine, and was
Physician to the Infirmary at Bristol. Three years before his death he
was made a Commissioner in Lunacy. He not only wrote much on Ethnology,
but also made sound contributions to the science of language and on
medical subjects. His treatise on insanity was remarkable for his
advanced views on "moral insanity."
-quotations from his "Physical History of Mankind."
Priestley, "Green matter" of.
-Huxley's essay on.
Primogeniture, antagonistic to Natural Selection.
Primrose (see also Primula), Darwin's experiments on cowslip and.
-J. Scott on.
Primula, Darwin's work on.
-difficulty of experimenting with.
-dimorphism lost by variation.
-entrance of pollen-tubes at chalaza.
-varying fertility of.
-homomorphic unions and.
-J. Scott's work on.
-P. longiflora, non-dimorphism of.
-legitimate and illegitimate unions.
-movement of cotyledons.
Principle of divergence.
"Principles of Biology," Spencer's.
"Principles of Geology," Lyell's.
-Wallace's review of.
Pringlea antiscorbutica (Kerguelen cabbage).
Priority, Falconer and Owen on.
Proboscidean group, extinction of.
Progress, in forms of life and organisation.
Progression, tendency in organisms towards.
Pronuba, the Yucca moth, Riley on.
Proteaceae, former extension of.
Protean genera, list of N. American.
Protection, colour in butterflies and.
-colour of birds and.
-colour of caterpillars and.
-colour of shells and.
-Darwin's views on Sexual Selection and.
-evolution of colour and.
-monkeys' manes as.
-Wallace on colour and.
-Wallace on wings of lepidoptera and.
Protective resemblance, Wallace on.
Proterogyny, in Plantago.
Prunus laurocerasus, extra-floral nectaries visited by ants.
Psychology, Delboeuf on.
-Romanes' work on comparative.
Ptarmigan, protective colouring of.
Publishing, over-readiness of most men in.
Pumilio argyrolepis, Darwin on seeds of.
Purbeck, Plagiaulax from the.
Purpose, Darwin on use of term.
Pyrola, fertilisation mechanism in.
Quagga, hybrid between horse and.
Quails, seed-dispersal by migratory.
"Quarterly Journal of Science," article on Darwin and his teaching in.
-review by Wallace of the Duke of Argyll's "Reign of Law."
"Quarterly Review," Mivart's article.
-Bishop Wilberforce's review of "Origin" in.
-article on zebras, horses, and hybrids.
Quartz, segregation in foliated rocks.
Quatrefages, Jean Louis Armand de, de Breau (1810-92): was a scion of an
ancient family originally settled at Breau, in the Cevennes. His work was
largely anthropological, and in his writings and lectures he always
combated evolutionary ideas. Nevertheless he had a strong personal respect
for Darwin, and was active in obtaining his election at the Institut. For
details of his life and work see "A la Memoire de J.L.A. de Quatrefages de
Breau," 4o, Paris (privately printed); also "L'Anthropologie," III., 1892,
-translation of paper by.
-on proportion of sexes in Bombyx.
Quenstedt, work on the Lias by.
Queries on expression.
Rabbits, Angora, skeletons of.
-Darwin's work on.
Race, nature's regard for.
Racehorse, selection by man.
-Wallace on fleetness of.
-equality of sexes in.
Races of man.
-causes of difference in.
Rafflesia, parasites allied to.
Rain, effect on leaves.
-movements of leaves as means of shooting off.
Ramsay, Sir A.C., on origin of lakes.
-Geological Society hesitates to publish his paper on Lakes.
-on insects in tropics.
-memoir by Geikie of.
-on denudation and earth-movements.
-overestimates subaerial denudation.
-on Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.
-on Permian glaciers.
-proposal that he should investigate glacial deposits in S. America.
Range, De Candolle on large families and their.
-coleoptera and restricted.
-size of genera in relation to species and their.
Ranunculaceae, evidence of highness in.
Ranyard, A.C., letter to "Nature" on pangenesis.
Raoul Island, Hooker on.
Raphael's Madonna, referred to by Darwin.
Raspberry, germination of seeds from a barrow.
-waxy secretion of.
Rattlesnake, Wright on uses of rattle of.
Raven, said to pair for whole life.
Ray Society, work of.
Raymond, Du Bois, work on plants.
Reade, T.M., letters to.
-on age of the world.
"Reader," sold to the Anthropological Society.
Reading, Darwin complains of lack of time for.
-little time given by scientific workers to.
Reciprocal crosses, half-sterility of.
Rede Lecture, by Phillips (1860).
Reduction, cessation of selection as cause of.
-organs of flight and.
-wings of ostrich and.
References, Darwin on importance of giving.
Regeneration, power of.
-reference in "Variation of Animals and Plants" to.
"Reign of Law," the Duke of Argyll's.
-reviewed by Wallace.
Reindeer, of Spitzbergen.
Religion and science.
-in floras of Japan and N. America.
-in Galapagos Islands.
Reproduction, difference in amount of energy expended by male and female
Reproductive organs, St.-Hilaire's view of affaiblissement and
-in relation to theoretical questions.
Research, Huxley and.
Reseda lutea, sterile with own pollen.
-R. odorata, experiment on cross-and self-fertilisation.
Resignation, expression in.
Restiaceae, former extension of.
Retardation, Cope on.
Reversion, in ammonites.
-and degeneration of characters.
-Lord Morton's mare and.
-stripes of mules due to.
-struggle between Natural Selection and.
Review of the "Descent of Man," by J. Morley.
Reviews, Darwin on an author writing his own.
-on the "Origin of Species," by Asa Gray.
Rhexia, flowers of.
-R. virginica, W.H. Leggett on anthers.
Rhizocephala, retrograde development in.
Rhopalocera, breeding in confinement.
Rhynchoea, colour of.
Rich, Anthony (1804?-1891): Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, of
which he was afterwards an Honorary Fellow. Author of "Illustrated
Companion to the Latin Dictionary and Greek Lexicon," 1849, said to be a
useful book on classical antiquities. Mr. Darwin made his acquaintance
in a curious way--namely, by Mr. Rich writing to inform him that he
intended to leave him his fortune, in token of his admiration for his
work. Mr. Rich was the survivor, but left his property to Mr. Darwin's
children, with the exception of his house at Worthing, bequeathed to Mr.
-legacy to Huxley.
-leaves his fortune to Darwin.
Rich, Mrs., mentioned.
Richardson, R., on tablet to commemorate Darwin's lodgings at 11,
Lothian Street, Edinburgh.
Richardson, Darwin on merits of.
Rigaud, on formation of coal.
Riley, Charles Valentine (1843-95): was born in England: at the age of
seventeen he ran away from home and settled in Illinois, where at first
he supported himself as a labourer; but he soon took to science, and his
first contributions to Entomology appeared in 1863. He became
entomological editor of the "Prairie Farmer" (Chicago), and came under
the influence of B.D. Walsh. In 1868 Riley became State Entomologist of
Missouri, and in 1878 Entomologist to the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, a post he resigned in 1894 owing to ill-health; his death
was the result of a bicycle accident. (Taken principally from the
"Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington," Volume III.,
1893-6, page 293.)
Rio Janeiro, absence of erratic boulders near.
-Agassiz on drift-formation near.
Ritchie, Mrs., visit to Down.
Rivers, The late Mr. Thomas: of Sawbridgeworth, was an eminent
horticulturist and writer on horticulture.
Robin, attracted by colour of Triphaena (Triphoea).
Robinia, insect visitors of.
Rocks, bending when heated.
-condition in interior of earth.
-metamorphism of (see also Metamorphism).
Rocky Mountains, wingless insects of the.
Rogers, W.B. and H.D., on cleavage.
-on coalfields of N. America.
-on parallelism of axis-planes of elevation and cleavage.
Rolleston, George (1829-81): obtained a first-class in Classics at
Oxford in 1850; he was elected Fellow of Pembroke College in 1851, and
in the same year he entered St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Towards the
close of the Crimean War, Rolleston was appointed one of the Physicians
to the British civil hospital at Smyrna. In 1860 he was elected the
first Linacre Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, a post which he held
until his death. "He was perhaps the last of a school of English
natural historians or biologists in the widest sense of the term." In
1862 he gave the results of his work on the classification of brains in
a lecture delivered at the Royal Institution, and in 1870 published his
best known book, "Forms of Animal Life (Dict. Nat. Biography).
-address in "Nature" by.
-on the orang-utang.
-adhesion to Darwin's views.
-letter to Darwin from.
Roman villa at Abinger.
Romanes, G.J. (1848-94): was one of Mr. Darwin's most devoted disciples.
The letters published in Mrs. Romanes' interesting "Life and Letters" of
her husband (1896) make clear the warm feelings of regard and respect
which Darwin entertained for his correspondent.
-Darwin on controversy between Duke of Argyll and.
-letter to Darwin from.
-letter to "Nature" in reply to the Duke of Argyll.
-on physiological selection.
-review of Roux's book.
-lecture on animal intelligence by.
-lecture on evolution of nerves.
-letter to "Times" from.
-"Life and Letters" of.
-on minds of animals.
Roots, heliotropism of.
-sensitive tip of.
Roses, N. American species.
-raising from seed.
-resemblance of seedling moss-rose to Scotch.
Ross, Sir J.
Round Island, fauna and flora of.
Roux's "Struggle of Parts in the Organism."
Royal Commission on Vivisection.
Royal Institution, lectures at.
Royal Society, council meeting of.
Royer, Mdlle., translatress of the "Origin."
Royle, John Forbes (1800-58): was originally a surgeon in the H.E.I.C.
Medical Service, and was for some years Curator at Saharunpur. From 1837-
56 he was Professor of Materia Medica at King's College, London. He wrote
principally on economic and Indian botany. One of his chief works was
"Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of
the Himalayan Mountains and of the Flora of Cashmere." (London, 1839.)
Rubiaceae, dimorphism in.
Rubus, N. American species.
-F. Darwin on roots of.
Rubus and Hieracium, comparison of variability of N. American and
-use in classification.
Rudinger, Dr., on regeneration.
Rue, flowers of.
Ruffs, polygamy of.
Rumex, germination of old seeds.
Russia, forms of wheat cultivated in.
Rutaceae, A. St.-Hilaire on difference in ovary of same plants of.
Sabine, General Sir E. Sabine (1788-1883): President of the Royal
Society 1861-71. (See "Life and Letters," III., page 28.)
-address to Royal Society.
-award of Copley medal to Darwin during presidency of.
-recognition by Government.
Sabrina, elevation of.
St. Dabeoc's heath, in Azores.
St. Helena, Darwin suggests possibility of finding lost plants in earth
-Hooker on flora of.
-Darwin on craters of.
-White on hemiptera of.
St.-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. de, on affaiblissement.
-erect and suspended ovules in same ovary.
-"Lecons de Botanique."
St.-Hilaire, J.G., on monstrosities.
-author of "Life of A.F.C.P. de St.-Hilaire."
St. Jago, Darwin on craters of.
St. Paul's rocks, plants of.
Saintpaulia, dimorphic flowers.
St. Ventanao, conglomerates of.
Salicornia, bloom on.
Salix, varieties of.
Salsola Kali, bloom on.
Salt water, effect on plants.
Salter, on vitality of seeds after immersion in the sea.
Saltus, Darwin's views on.
Salvages, flora of the.
Salvia, Hildebrand's paper on.
Samara, Russian wheat sent to Darwin from.
Samoyedes, power of finding their way in fog.
Sandberger, controversy with Hilgendorf.
Sanderson, Sir J.B., electrical experiments on plants.
Sandwich Islands, absence of Alpine floras.
-Dana on valleys and craters.
Sanicula, occurrence of species in Azores.
Santorin, crater of.
-linear vent in.
-Lyell's account of.
Saporta, Marquis de, (1823-95): devoted himself to the study of fossil
plants, and by his untiring energy and broad scientific treatment of the
subject he will always rank as one of the pioneers of Vegetable
Palaeontology. In addition to many important monographs on Tertiary and
Jurassic floras, he published several books and papers in which Darwin's
views are applied to the investigation of the records of plant-life
furnished by rocks of all ages. ("Le Marquis G. de Saporta, sa Vie et
ses Travaux," by R. Zeiller. "Bull. Soc. Geol. France," Volume XXIV.,
page 197, 1896.)
-on rapid development of higher plants.
Sargassum, Forbes on.
Savages, civilisation of.
-comparison between animals and.
Saxifrages, destruction in Ireland of Spanish.
-formation of hairs in.
Saxonika, form of Russian wheat.
Scaevola, fertilisation mechanism of.
-S. microcarpa, fertilisation mechanism of.
Scandinavia, Hooker on potency of flora.
-Blytt on distribution of plants of.
Scarlet fever, Darwin's dread of.
"Scenery of Scotland," Sir A. Geikie's.
Scepticism, Darwin on.
Schimper, review by Hooker of "Paleontologie Vegetale" by.
Schleiden, convert to Darwin's views.
Schmankewitsch, experiments on Artemia by.
Schobl, J., on ears of mice.
Schomburgk, Sir R., on Catasetum, Monacanthus, and Myanthus.
School, Darwin at Mr. Case's.
Schrankia, a sensitive species of.
Science, and superstition.
-progresses at railroad speed.
Science Defence Association, Darwin asked to be president of.
Scientific men, attributes of.
-domestic ties and work of.
-article in "Reader" on.
Scientific periodicals, Darwin's opinion of.
Scotland, forest trees of.
-comparison between flora of T. del Fuego and that of.
-frequency of earthquakes in.
-tails of diluvium in.
"Scotsman," Forbes' lecture published in.
-Darwin's letter on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy in the.
Scott, D.H., obituary notice of Nageli by.
Scott, John (1838-80): Short obituary notices of Scott appeared in the
"Journal of Botany," 1880, page 224, and in the "Transactions of the Bot.
Soc. of Edinburgh" Volume XIV., November 11th, 1880, page 160; but the
materials for a biographical sketch are unfortunately scanty. He was the
son of a farmer, and was born at Denholm (the birthplace the poet Leiden,
to whom a monument has been erected in the public square of the village),
in Roxburghshire. At four years of age he was left an orphan, and was
brought up in his aunt's household.
He early showed a love of plants, and this was encouraged by his cousin,
the Rev. James Duncan. Scott told Darwin that he chose a gardening life as
the best way of following science; and this is the more remarkable inasmuch
as he was apprenticed at fourteen years of age. He afterwards (apparently
in 1859) entered the Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, and became head of
the propagating department under Mr. McNab. His earliest publication, as
far as we are aware, is a paper on Fern-spores, read before the Bot. Soc.,
Edinburgh, on June 12th, 1862. In the same year he was at work on orchids,
and this led to his connection with Darwin, to whom he wrote in November
1862. In 1864 he got an appointment at the Calcutta Botanic Garden, a
position he owed to Sir J.D. Hooker, who was doubtless influenced by
Darwin's high opinion of Scott. It was on his way to India that Scott had,
we believe, his only personal interview with Darwin.
We are indebted to Sir George King for the interesting notes given below,
which enable us to form an estimate of Scott's personality. He was
evidently of a proud and sensitive nature, and that his manner was pleasing
and dignified appears from Darwin's brief mention of the interview. He
must have been almost morbidly modest, for Darwin wrote to Hooker (January
24th, 1864): "Remember my URGENT wish to be able to send the poor fellow a
word of praise from any one. I have had hard work to get him to allow me
to send the [Primula] paper to the Linn. Soc., even after it was written
out!" And this was after the obviously genuine appreciation of the paper
given in Darwin's letters. Sir George King writes:--
"He had taught himself a little Latin and a good deal of French, and he had
read a good deal of English literature. He was certainly one of the most
remarkable self-taught men I ever met, and I often regret that I did not
see more of him...Scott's manner was shy and modest almost to being
apologetic; and the condition of nervous tension in which he seemed to live
was indicated by frequent nervous gestures with his hands and by the
restless twisting of his long beard in which he continuously indulged. He
was grave and reserved; but when he became interested in any matter he
talked freely, although always deliberately, and he was always ready to
deafen his opinions with much spirit. He had, moreover, a considerable
sense of humour. What struck me most about Scott was the great acuteness
of his powers of observing natural phenomena, and especially of such as had
any bearing on variation, natural selection or hybridity. While most
attentive to the ordinary duties of the chief of a large garden, Scott
always continued to find leisure for private study, and especially for the
conduct of experiments in hybridization. For the latter his position in
the Calcutta garden afforded him many facilities.
After obtaining a post in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, Scott continued to
work and to correspond with Darwin, but his work was hardly on a level with
the promise of his earlier years. According to the "Journal of Botany," he
was attacked by an affection of the spleen at Darjeeling, where he had been
sent to report on the coffee disease. He returned to Edinburgh in the
spring of 1880, and died in the June of that year.
At the time of his death many experiments were in hand, but his records of
these were too imperfect to admit of their being taken up and continued
after his death. In temper Scott was most gentle and loveable, and to his
friends he was loyal almost to a fault. He was quite without ambition to
'get on' in the world; he had no low or mean motives; and than John Scott,
Natural Science probably had no more earnest and single-minded devotee."
-criticism on the "Origin" by.
-on Natural Selection.
-on a red cowslip.
-confirms Darwin's work, also points out error.
-Darwin assists financially.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-Darwin offers to present books to.
-Darwin writes to Hooker about Indian appointment for.
-Darwin's proposal that he should work at Down as his assistant.
-Darwin suggests that he should work at Kew.
-on dispersal of seed of Adenanthera by parrots.
-on fertilisation of Acropera.
-a good observer and experimentalist.
-a lover of Natural History.
-observations on acclimatisation of seeds.
-on Oncidium flexuosum.
-letter to Darwin from.
-offered associateship of Linnean Society.
-on self-sterility in Passiflora.
-on sexes in Zea.
Scrope, P., on volcanic rocks.
Scudder, on fossil insects.
Sea, Dana underestimates power of.
-changes in level of land due to those of.
-marks left on land by action of.
Seakale, bloom on.
Seashore plants, use of bloom on.
Sea-sickness, Darwin suffers from.
"Seasons with the Sea Horses," Lamont's.
Secondary period, abundance of Araucarias and Marsupials during.
-equality of elevation in British rocks of.
-insects prior to.
Sections of earth's crust, need for accurate.
Sedgwick, Prof. A., extract from letter to Owen from.
-letter to Darwin from.
-on the "Vestiges of Creation."
-and the Philosophical Society's meeting at Cambridge.
-and the "Spectator."
-Darwin's visit to.
-Feelings towards Darwin.
-on the structure of large mineral masses.
-proposes Forbes for Royal medal.
-quotation from letter to Darwin from.
-suggested as candidate for Royal medal.
Sedgwick, A., address at the British Association (1899).
Sedimentary strata, conversion into schists.
Sedimentation, connection with elevation and subsidence.
Seedlings, sensitiveness to light.
Seeds, collected by girls in Prof. Henslow's parish.
-effect of immersion on.
-Asa Gray on Darwin's salt-water experiments.
-germination after 21 1/2 hours in owl's stomach.
-moss-roses raised from.
-bright colours of fruits and.
-difficulty of finding in samples of earth.
-dormant state of.
-germination from pond mud.
-Hildebrand on dispersal of.
-mucus emitted by.
-stored by ants.
-supposed vivification of fossil.
Seemann, on commingling of temperate and tropical plants in mountains of
-on the "Origin" in Germany.
Segregation of minerals in foliated rocks.
Selaginella, foot of, compared with organ in Welwitschia seedling.
Selection, a misleading term.
-as means of improving breeds.
-influence of speedy.
-utilised by pigeon-fanciers.
-Sexual (see Sexual Selection).
Self-fertilisation, abundance of seeds from.
-Darwin's experiments on cross- and.
-evil results of.
-comparison between seeds from cross- and.
Self-interest, Preston on.
Self-sterility, in Eschscholtzia.
-connection with unnatural conditions.
Selliera, Hamilton on fertilisation-mechanism.
Semper, Karl (1832-93): Professor of Zoology at Wurzburg. He is known
for his book of travels in the Philippine and Pelew Islands, for his
work in comparative embryology, and for the work mentioned in the above
letter. See an obituary notice in "Nature," July 20th, 1893, page 271.
-S. vulgaris, profits by cross-fertilisation.
Sensitive plants, Darwin's work on.
Sensitiveness, diversified kinds in allied plants.
Separate creations, Darwin on.
Seringe, on Aconitum flowers.
Sethia, dimorphism of.
Settegast, H., letter to.
Severn, Darwin on floods of.
Seward, A.C., "Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate."
Sexes, colour, and difference in.
-proportion at birth.
-proportion in animals.
Sexual likeness, secondary.
Sexual organs, as collectors of generative elements.
-appendages in insects complemental to.
Sexual reproduction, Galton on.
-bearing of F. Muller's work on essence of.
Sexual Selection, Bates on.
-article in "Kosmos" on.
-in moths and butterflies.
-subordinate to Natural Selection.
-Wallace on colour and.
-Wallace on difficulties of.
Sexuality, Bentham on.
-in lower forms.
Shanghai, tooth of Mastodon from.
Sharp, David, on Bombus.
Sharpe, Daniel (1806-56): left school at the age of sixteen, and became
a clerk in the service of a Portuguese merchant. At the age of
twenty-four he went for a year to Portugal, and afterwards spent a
considerable amount of time in that country. The results of his
geological work, carried out in the intervals of business, were
published in the Journal of the Geological Society of London ("Quart.
Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume V., page 142; Volume VI., page 135). Although
actively engaged in business all his life, Sharpe communicated several
papers to the Geological Society, his researches into the origin of
slaty cleavage being among the ablest and most important of his
contributions to geology ("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume III., page
74; Volume V., page 111). A full account of Sharpe's work is given in
an abituary notice published in the "Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume
XIII., page xlv.
-on cleavage and foliation.
Sharpey, W., letter from Falconer to.
-Honorary member of Physiological Society.
Shaw, J., letter to.
Sheep, varieties of.
Sheldrake, dancing on sand to make sea-worms come out.
Shells, Forbes and Hancock on British.
-distorted by cleavage.
-means of dispersal.
-protective colour of.
Sherborn, C.D., "Catalogue of Mammalia" by A.S. Woodward and.
Shetland, comparison between flora of T. del Fuego and that of.
Siberia, Rhinoceros and steppes of central.
Sicily, elephants of.
Sidgwick, Prof. H.
Sigillaria, an aquatic plant.
Silene, Gartner's crossing-experiments on.
Silurian, comparison between recent organisms and.
-Lingula from the.
Simon, Sir John: he was for many years medical officer of the Privy
Council, and in that capacity issued a well-known series of Reports.
Simple forms, existence of.
Simpson, Sir J., on regeneration in womb.
Sitaris, Lord Avebury on Meloe and.
Skertchley, S.B.J., on palaeolithic flints in boulder-clay of E. Anglia.
Skin, influence of mind on eruptions of.
Slate, cleavage of schists and.
Slave-ants, account in the "Origin" of.
Sleep, plants' so-called.
Sleep-movements, in plants.
Slime of seeds.
Smell, Ogle's work on sense of.
Smerinthus populi-ocellatus, Weir on hybrid.
Smilaceae, reference to genera of.
Smilax, De Candolle on flower of.
Smith, J., note on.
Snails of Porto Santo.
Snipe, protective colour of.
-geological action of frozen.
Snowdon, elevation in recent times.
Social instincts, actions as result of.
Social plants, De Candolle on.
-in the U.S.A.
"Sociology," H. Spencer's.
Soda, nitrate beds.
Soil, in relation to plant distribution.
Solanum rostratum, Todd on stamens of.
Solenhofen, bird-creature from.
Sollas, Prof., director of the Funafuti boring expedition.
-account of the boring operations by.
Sonchus, introduced into New Zealand.
Song, importance in animal kingdom.
Sophocles, Prof., on expression of affirmation by Turks.
Sorby, on metamorphism.
Sound, and music.
Southampton, British Association meeting (1846).
-Darwin on gravel deposits at.
-Darwin's visits to.
Spanish chesnut, variation in leaf divergence.
Spanish plants in Ireland.
-in La Plata.
Spawn, dispersal of frogs'.
Spean, terraces in valley of.
Species, antiquity of plant-.
-belief in evolution of.
-changing into one another.
-Darwin recognises difficulties in and objections to his views on.
-descriptive work influenced by Darwin's views on.
-facts from Hooker bearing on.
-food as important factor in keeping up number of.
-Asa Gray on.
-intermediate forms absent in close.
-little tendency during migration to form new.
-Nageli's views on.
-origin of (see Origin of Species).
-Prichard on meaning of term.
-separate creation of.
-sterility between allied.
-time necessary to change.
-time of creation of new.
-Wallace on origin of.
-Walsh on modification of.
-Gaudry on affiliation of.
-Hackel on change of.
-value of careful discrimination of.
"Species not transmutable," Bree's book on.
Specific character, Falconer on persistence of.
Speculation, Darwin on.
Spencer, H., Darwin on the advantage of his expression "survival of the
-on electric organs.
-on genesis of nervous system.
-on survival of the fittest.
-Romanes on his theory of nerve-genesis.
-Wallace's admiration for.
-Darwin on his work.
-extract from letter to.
Spey, terraces of.
Sphagnum, parasitism of orchids on.
Spiders, mental powers of.
Spiranthes, fertilisation of.
Spiritualism, Darwin on.
Sptizbergen, Lamont's book on.
Sponges, Clark on classification of.
-Hackel's work on.
-F. Muller on.
-Darwin's disbelief in.
-Huxley's disbelief in.
Sprengel, (C.C.) Christian Konrad (1750-1816): was for a time Rector of
Spandau, near Berlin; but his enthusiasm for Botany led to neglect of
parochial duties, and to dismissal from his living. His well-known
work, "Das Entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur," was published in 1793. An
account of Sprengel was published in "Flora," 1819, by one of his old
pupils. See also "Life and Letters," I., page 90, and an article in
"Natural Science," Volume II., 1893, by J.C. Willis.
Stag-beetle, forms of.
Stahl, Prof., on Desmodium.
Stanhopea, fertilisation of.
Stapelia, fertilisation of.
Starling, paired three times in one day.
State-entomologist, appointment of in America, not likely to occur in
Statistics, of births and deaths.
-Asa Gray's N. American plant-.
Steinheim, Lias rocks of.
Stellaria media, cross-fertilisation of.
Stephens, Miss Catherine: was born in 1794, and died, as the Countess of
Essex, in 1882.
Sterile, use of term.
Sterility, accumulation through Natural Selection.
-arguments relating to.
-artificial production of.
-between allied species aided by Natural Selection.
-connection with sexual differentiation.
-domestication and loss of.
-in human beings.
-increase of races and.
-Natural Selection and.
-in plants (see also self-sterility).
-reciprocal crosses and unequal.
-variations in amount of.
Stirling, and Huxley.
Stokes, Sir G.
Strasburger, on fertilisation of grasses.
Stratification, and cleavage.
Strephium, vertical position of leaves.
Strickland, H., letters to.
-on zoological nomenclature.
Stripes, loss and significance of.
Structural dissimilarity, and sterility.
Structure, external conditions in relation to.
Struggle for existence.
-factors concerned in.
-J. Scott on.
Strychnos, F. Muller on.
Student, Darwin as an Edinburgh.
Studer, Bernhard: Several of Studer's papers were translated and published
in the "Edinburgh New Phil. Journ." See Volume XLII., 1847; Volume XLIV.,
-on cleavage and foliation.
"Studien zur Descendenz-Theorie," Weismann's.
"Studies in the Theory of Descent," Meldola's translation of Weismann's
"Study of Sociology," H. Spencer's.
Stur, Dionys (1827-93): Director of the Austrian Geological Survey from
1885 to 1892; author of many important memoirs on palaeobotanical subjects.
Style, Darwin on.
-Darwin on Huxley's.
-effect of controversy on.
Suaeda, bloom on.
Subsidence, evidence of.
-coral reefs and.
-equable nature of.
-large areas simultaneously affected by.
Subterranean animal, existence in Patagonia of supposed.
Subularia, fertilisation of.
Succession of types.
Sudden appearance of organisms, due to absence of fossils in pre-
Sudden jumps, modification by.
-Darwin's disbelief in.
Suess, "Antlitz der Erde."
Suffolk Crag, comparison with recent strata.
Sugar-cane, Barber on hybrids of.
-new varieties of.
Sulivan, Admiral, on Patagonia.
Superficial deposits, geological nature of.
-amputation followed by regeneration of.
"Survival of the fittest," Darwin on use of the expression.
-Wallace on the expression.
-sharpness of thorns the result of.
-colour of birds and.
Swainson, on wide range of genera.
Switzerland, Tyndall on valleys of.
Symonds, William Samuel (1818-87): a member of an old West-country
family, was an undergraduate of Christ's College, Cambridge, and in 1845
became Rector of Pendock, Worcestershire. He published in 1858 a book
entitled "Stones of the Valley;" in 1859 "Old Bones, or Notes for Young
Naturalists;" and in 1872 his best-known work, "Records of the Rocks."
Mr. Symonds passed the later years of his life at Sunningdale, the house
of his son-in-law, Sir Joseph Hooker. (See "Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc."
Volume XLIV., page xliii.)
-on imperfection of geological record.
Tacsonia, Darwin on flowers of.
-fertilisation by humming-birds.
-Scott's work on.
Tahiti, coral reefs of.
Tails of diluvium, in Scotland.
Tait, Prof. P.G., article in "North British Review."
-on age of world.
Tait, L., letters to.
Tait, W.C., letter to.
-on rudimentary tails in dogs and Manx cats.
-sends Drosophyllum to Darwin.
Talbot, Mrs. E., letter to.
Tandon, Moquin, "Elements de Teratologie Vegetale."
Tasmania, comparison between floras of New Zealand and.
-Hooker's Flora of.
Taylor, W., "Life and Correspondence" of.
Tears, and muscular contraction.
Tees, Hooker on glacial moraines in valley of.
Tegetmeier, W.B., assistance rendered to Darwin by.
Telegraph-plant (see also Desmodium).
"Telliamed" (de Maillet), evolutionary views of.
Tendrils, morphology of.
Teneriffe, flora of.
-violet of Peak of.
-Webb and Humboldt on zones of.
Tennent, Sir J.E., on elephants' tears.
Tentacles, aggregation of protoplasm in cells of plant-.
Teodoresco, on effect of excess of CO2 on vegetation.
Teratology, Masters on vegetable.
-Moquin Tandon on.
Termites compared with cleistogamic flowers.
-F. Muller's paper on.
Terraces, Darwin on Patagonian.
Tertiary, Antarctic continent, Darwin on existence of.
-Mastodon from Shanghai.
-flora in Madeira.
Tertiary period, action of sea and earth-movement.
-island floras of the.
-Saporta's work on plants.
-succession of types during the.
-Prestwich's work on.
Testimonials, Darwin on.
Tetrabranchiata, Hyatt on the.
Thayer's "Letters of Chauncey Wright."
Theologians, Huxley on.
Theological articles, by Asa Gray.
Theology, Darwin's opinion on.
Theorising, observing and.
Theory, Darwin's advice to Scott to be sparing in use of.
Thibet, Hooker prohibited crossing into.
Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W., assists Darwin in bloom-experiments.
-Darwin signs his certificate for Royal Society.
-lecture on plant distribution as field for geographical research.
-letter to "Nature" from.
-notes on letter from Darwin to Bentham.
-on partial submergence of Australia.
-extract from letter to.
Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W., and Prof. Dewar, on immersion of seeds in liquid
Thlaspi alpestre, range of.
Thompson, Prof. D'Arcy, prefatory note by Darwin to his translation of
H. Muller's book.
Thompson, W., natural-historian of Ireland.
Thomson, Sir W., see Kelvin, Lord.
Thomson, Sir Wyville, on Natural Selection.
Thomson, review of Jordan's "Diagnoses d'especes" by.
Thorns, forms of.
"Three Barriers," theological hash of old abuse of Darwin.
Thury on sex.
Thwaites, Dr. G.H.K. (1811-82): held for some years the post of Director of
the Botanic Gardens at Peradenyia, Ceylon; and in 1864 published an
important work on the flora of the island, entitled "Enumeratio Plantarum
-on Ceylon plants.
-on the "Origin."
Tieghem, Prof. van, on course of vessels in orchid flowers.
-on effect of flashing light on plants.
Tierra del Fuego, flora of.
-comparison with Glen Roy.
-evidence of glaciers in.
Time, and evolutionary changes.
-meaning of millions of years.
-Niagara as measure of geological.
-rate of deposition as measure of.
-Wallace on geological.
"Times," article by Huxley in.
-letter by Fitz-Roy in.
Timor, Mastodon from.
Toad, power of Indian species to resist sea-water.
Tobacco, Kolreuter on varieties of.
Todd, on Solanum rostratum.
"Toledoth Adam," title of book on evolution by N. Lewy.
Torbitt, J., experiments on potatoes, and letter to.
Torquay, Darwin's visit to.
Tortoises, conversion of turtles into land-.
Tortugas, A. Agassiz on reefs of.
Toryism, defence of.
Toucans, colour of beaks in breeding season.
Trachyte, separation of basalt and.
Traill, experiments on grafting.
Transfusion experiments, by Galton.
Translations of Darwin's books.
Transplanting, effect on Alpine plants.
Transport, occasional means of.
Travels, Bates' book of.
Travers, H.H., on Chatham Islands.
Trecul, on Drosera.
Trees, herbaceous orders and.
-occurrence in islands.
-older forms more likely to develop into.
-Asa Gray on.
-conditions in New Zealand favourable to development of.
-separate sexes in.
Treub, M., on Chalazogamy.
Treviranus, Prof., on Primula longiflora.
Trifolium resupinatum, Darwin's observations on bloom on leaflets.
Trilobites, change of genera and species of.
Trimen, on painting butterflies.
Trimorphism, in plants.
Trinidad, Catasetum of.
-Cruger on caprification in.
Triphaena (Triphoea) pronuba, robin attracted by colour of.
Tristan d'Acunha, Carmichael on.
Triticum repens var. littorum, bloom-experiments on.
Trollope, A., quotation by Darwin from.
Tropaeolum, Darwin's experiments on.
-peloric variety of.
-waxy secretion on leaves.
Tropical climate, in relation to colouring of insects.
Tropical plants, possible existence during cooler period.
Tropics, climatic changes in.
-description of forests in.
-similarity of orders in.
Tubocytisus, Kerner on.
Tuckwell, on the Oxford British Association meeting (1860).
Tuke, D.H., on influence of mind on body.
Turkey, colour of wings, and courtship.
-muscles of tail of.
Turner, Sir W., Darwin receives assistance from.
-on Darwin's methods of correspondence.
Turtles, conversion into land-tortoises.
Tussilago, Darwin on seeds of groundsel and.
Twins, Galton's article on.
Tylor, article in "Journal of the Royal Institution" by.
-on "Early History of Mankind."
Tyndall, lack of caution.
-on the Alps.
-review in the "Athenaeum" of.
-on valleys due to glaciers.
-on Sorby's work on cleavage.
Typical forms, difficult to select.
-vagueness of phrase.
Typotherium, Falconer on.
Tyrol, Mojsisovics on the Dolomites of the.
Umbelliferae, morphological characters of.
-difference in seeds from the same flower.
Undulation of light, comparison between Darwin's views and the theory
Ungulates, development in N. America during Tertiary period.
United States, flora of.
-spread of Darwin's views in.
Unity of coloration, Walsh on.
Uredo, on Haematoxylon.
Ursus arctos, Lamont on.
-U. maritimus, Lamont on.
D'Urville, on Canary Islands.
Use and disuse.
Uses, Natural Selection and.
Utilitarianism, Darwin on.
Utility and inheritance.
Utopian "Flora," Darwin's idea of.
Utricularia, Darwin's work on.
-U. stellaris, Sir E. Tennent on.
Vaginulus, Darwin finds new species of.
Valeriana, two forms of.
Valleys, action of ice in formation of.
-Dana on Australian.
-Darwin on origin of.
Van Diemen's Land, flora of, in relation to New Zealand.
Vandeae, structure of ovary.
Vanessa, two sexual forms of.
-breeding in confinement.
Variability, backward tendency of.
-De Candolle on.
-dependent more on nature of organism than on environment.
-Huxley and Scott on.
-importance of subject of cause of.
-Natural Selection and.
-greater in bisexual than in unisexual plants.
-of ferns "passes all bounds."
-greater in male than female.
-in ovaries of flowers.
-tendency of genera at different periods towards.
-an innate principle.
-centrifugal nature of.
-checked by Natural Selection.
-Darwin attaches importance to useless.
-Darwin on favourable.
-and external conditions.
-of large genera.