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More Letters of Charles Darwin Volume II by Charles Darwin

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-difference between views of Darwin and.
-"Hist. Zoolog." of.
-Hopkins on Darwin and.
-Packard's book on.
-quotation from.

Lamellicorns, F. Muller on sexes in.
-stridulating organs of.

Lamont, James, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.: author of "Seasons with the Sea-horses;
etc.; Yachting in the Arctic Seas, or Notes of Five Voyages of Sport and
Discovery in the Neighbourhood of Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya,"
London, 1876; and geological papers on Spitzbergen.
-letters to.

Lampyridae, luminous organs of.

Land, fauna of sea compared with that of.
-changes in level of sea the cause of those on.

Land-birds, resting on the sea.

Land-shells, dispersal of.
-of glacial period.
-modification of.

Land-surfaces, preservation for long periods.

Landois, reference to paper by.

Language, observations bearing on origin of.
-Sir J. Herschel on study of.

Lankester, E. Ray, letter to.
-drawing of earthworm used in Darwin's book.

Lankester, E. (Senior), speech at Manchester British Association meeting
(1861), on Darwin's theory.

Lantana, in Ceylon.

Lanugo, on human foetus.

Lapland, richness of flora.

Latania Lodigesii, peculiar to Round Island.

Latent characters, tendency to appear temporarily in youth.

Lathyrus aphaca.
-L. grandiflorus, fertilisation of.
-L. nissolia, evolution of.
-explanation of grass-like leaves.
-Darwin on.
-L. maritimus, bloom on.
-L. odoratus, fertilisation of.
-intercrossing of varieties.

Lauder-Dick, Sir Thomas, on Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.

Laurel, extra-floral nectaries of.

Lava, Darwin and Scrope on separation of constituent minerals of.
-Elie de Beaumont's measurements of inclination of.
-fluidity of.
-junction between dykes and.
-and metamorphic schists.
-Scrope on basaltic and trachytic.
-subsidence due to outpouring of.

Law, of balancement.
-of growth.
-of higgledy-piggledy.
-of perfectibility by Nageli.
-of sterility.
-of succession.
-of variation.

Lawes, Sir J.B., and Sir J.H. Gilbert, Rothamsted experiments.

Laxton, T., close on the trail of Mendelian principle.

"Lay Sermons," Huxley's.

Leaves, movements of.
-used by worms in plugging burrows.

Lebanon, glacial action on.
-plants of.
-Hooker on Cedars of.

Lecky, Rt. Hon. W.E.H., Darwin's interest in book by.
-quoted in "Descent of Man."

Lecoq, "Geographie Botanique."
-on self-sterility.

Lectures, Darwin on Edinburgh University, (see also Hooker and Huxley).
-Max Muller's, on Science of Language.

Ledebour, allusion to book by.

Leeds, address by Owen at.

Leersia oryzoides, cleistogamic flowers of.

Leggett, W.H., on Rhexia virginica.

Legitimate unions, heteromorphic or.

Leguminosae, absence in Greenland.
-absent in New Zealand.
-anomalous genera in.
-crossing in.
-scarcity in humid temporate regions.
-seeds of.
-example of inherited pelorism in.
-Lord Farrer's observations on fertilisation of.
-nectar-holders in flowers.
-reason for absence of.

Leibnitz, rejection of theory of gravity by.

Lemuria, continent of.

Lepadidae, Darwin's work on, (see also Barnacles).

Lepas, nomenclature of.


Lepidoptera, Sexual Selection in.
-breeding in confinement.
-F. Muller on mimicry in.
-protection afforded by wings.
-want of colour-perception.
-Weir on apterous.

Lepidosiren, reason for preservation of.


Leschenaultia, fertilisation mechanism.
-self-fertilisation of.
-L. biloba, fertilisation mechanism of.
-L. formosa, fertilisation mechanism of.

Lesquereux, Leo (1806-89): was born in Switzerland, but his most
important works were published after he settled in the United States in
1848. Beginning with researches on Mosses and Peat, he afterwards
devoted himself to the study of fossil plants. His best known
contributions to Palaeobotany are a series of monographs on Cretaceous
and Tertiary Floras (1878-83), and on the Coal-Flora of Pennsylvania and
the United States generally, published by the Second Geological Survey
of Pennsylvania between 1880 and 1884 (see L.F. Ward, Sketch of
Palaeobotany, "U.S. Geol. Surv., 5th Ann. Rep." 1883-4; also "Quart.
Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XLVI., "Proc." page 53, 1890.
-convert to evolution.
-on Coal floras.

Leuckart, Rudolf (1822-98): Professor of Zoology at Leipzig.
-convert to Darwin's views.

Lewes, G.H., (1817-78): author of a "History of Philosophy," etc.
-letter to.

Lewy, Naphtali, letter to Darwin from.

Lias, cephalopods from the.

Life, Bastian's book on the beginnings of.
-mystery of,
-origin of.
-principle of.
-bearing of vitality of seeds on problem of.

Light, action on plants of flashing.

Lima, Darwin visits.


Linaria, peloria as reversions.

Lindley, John (1799-1865): was born at Catton, near Norwich. His first
appointment was that of Assistant Librarian to Sir Joseph Banks. He was
afterwards Assistant Secretary to the Horticultural Society, and during his
tenure of that office he organised the first fruit and flower shows held in
this country. In 1829 he was chosen to be the first Professor of Botany at
University College, London, and a few years later he became Lecturer to the
Apothecaries' Company. He is the author of a large number of botanical
books, of which the best known is the "Vegetable Kingdom," 1846. He was
one of the founders of the "Gardeners' Chronicle," and was its principal
editor up to the time of his death. He was endowed with great powers of
work and remarkable energy. He is said as a young man to have translated
Richard's "Analyse du Fruit" in a single sitting of three nights and two
days. (From the article on Lindley in the "Dictionary of National
Biography," which is founded on the "Gardeners' Chronicle," 1865, pages
1058, 1082.)
-Hooker's eloge of.
-and Royal Medal.
-"Vegetable Kingdom" by.
-on Acropera and Gongora.
-Darwin on his classification of orchids.
-letters to.
-on Melastomaceae.
-on orchids.
-Hooker reviews Darwin's Orchid book in style of.

Lingula, persistence of.
-Silurian species.

Link, on Alpine and Arctic plants.


Linnean Society, Bentham's address.
-Collier's picture of Darwin in rooms of.
-Darwin's paper on Linum.
-Darwin advises Bates to give his views on species before.
-Wallace's paper on the Malayan papilionidae.

Linnet, a migratory bird.

Linope, E. Hackel on.

Linum, Darwin's work on.
-dimorphism of.
-interaction of pollen and stigma.
-mucus in seeds of.

Linum flavum.
-L. grandiflorum, two forms of.
-L. Lewisii, experiments on.
-L. trigynum.
-L. usitatissimum, circumnutation of.

Lister, Lord, on spines of Hedgehog.

Listera, fertilisation of.
-L. cordata, fertilisation of.
-L. ovata, fertilisation of.

Litchfield, Mrs. (see Darwin, Henrietta).
-criticism of Huxley.

Littoral shells, glacial period and.

Liverpool, British Association meeting at (1870).

Livingstone, D., on the distribution of thorny plants.

Lobelia, Darwin's experiments on.
-fertilisation mechanism of.
-fertility of.
-L. fulgens, Scott's experiments on.

Lochaber, Parallel Roads of (see also Glen Roy).
-evidence of ice-action.

Lochs, Laggan (Loggan), ice-action in.
-Roy, Darwin disbelieves in existence of.
-Spey, shelves of.
-Treig, ice-action in.
-Milne's account of.

Locust grass, germination of.

Locusts, blown out to sea.
-plants from dung of.

Logwood, leaf-movement of.
-See Haematoxylon.

Loiseleuria procumbens.

London clay, supposed germination of seeds from.

"London Review," Darwin's opinion of.
-correspondence between Owen and editor in reference to "Origin."

Longchamps, L. de, on crossing in Gramineae.

Longevity, Darwin on animals' and man's.

Lonsdale, William (1794-1871): obtained a commission in the 4th Regiment
at the age of sixteen, and served at Salamanca and Waterloo. From 1829
to 1842 he held the office of Assistant-Secretary and Curator of the
Geological Society. Mr. Lonsdale contributed important papers on the
Devonian System, the Oolitic Rocks, and on palaeontological subjects.
("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXVIII., page xxxv., 1872.)

Lopezia, fertilisation of.

Lophura viellottii, colour of.

Loss, nature of.

Love, evidence of existence low in scale.

Loven, S.L.: published numerous papers on Cirripedes and other
zoological subjects in the Stockholm "Ofversigt" and elsewhere between
1838 and 1882.
-translation of paper on Cirripedes.

Lowe, R.T., on Madeira.

Lowell, Prof., on custom in Italy of shaking head in affirmation.

Lowland plants, ascending mountains.

Lowne, B.T., on anatomy of blowfly.

Lowness and highness.

Lubbock, Lady.

Lubbock, Sir J., see Lord Avebury.

Lucas, Dr. P., on tendency to vary independent of conditions.

Ludwig, F., letter to.

Lumbricus (see also Earthworms).

Luminosity in animals.
-result of external conditions.

Lupinus, Darwin's experiments on.


Lychnis dioica, structure of flower.
-sets seed without pollen.

Lycopodium, variation in.

Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart., F.R.S. (1797-1875): was born at Kinnordy, the
family home in central Forfarshire. At the age of seventeen he entered
at Exeter College, Oxford, and afterwards obtained a second class in the
final Honours School in Classics. As an undergraduate Lyell attended
Prof. Buckland's lectures on Geology. On leaving Oxford Lyell was
entered at Lincoln's Inn; a weakness of the eyes soon compelled him to
give up reading, and he travelled abroad, finding many opportunities for
field work. He was called to the Bar in 1825, and in the same year
published some papers on geological subjects. From 1823-26 Lyell filled
the post of Secretary to the Geological Society, and in 1826 was elected
into the Royal Society. In 1830 the first volume of the "Principles of
Geology" was published; the second volume appeared two years later.
Speaking of this greatest of Lyell's services to Geology, Huxley writes:
"I have recently read afresh the first edition of the "Principles of
Geology," and when I consider that this remarkable book had been nearly
thirty years in everybody's hands [in 1859], and that it brings home to
any reader of ordinary intelligence a great principle and a great fact--
the principle that the past must be explained by the present, unless
good cause be shown to the contrary; and the fact that, so far as our
knowledge of the past history of life on our globe goes, no such cause
can be shown--I cannot but believe that Lyell, for others, as for
myself, was the chief agent in smoothing the road for Darwin" (Huxley's
"Life and Letters," Volume II., page 190). As Professor of Geology in
King's College, London, Lyell delivered two courses of lectures in 1832-
33; in the latter year he received a Royal medal, and in 1858 he was the
recipient of the Copley medal of the Royal Society. The "Elements of
Geology" was published in 1833; this work is still used as a text-book,
a new edition having been lately (1896) brought out by Prof. Judd; in
1845 and in 1849 appeared the "Travels in North America" and "A Second
Visit to the United States of North America." The "Antiquity of Man"
was published in 1863. Lyell was knighted in 1848, and in 1864 was
raised to the rank of a Baronet. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Darwin wrote in his Autobiography: "The Science of Geology is enormously
indebted to Lyell, more so, as I believe, than to any other man who ever
lived" ("Life and Letters," Volume I., page 72). In a letter to Lyell--
November 23rd, 1859--Darwin wrote: "I rejoice profoundly that you intend
admitting the doctrine of modification in your new edition [a new edition
of the "Manual" published in 1865]; nothing, I am convinced, could be more
important for its success. I honour you most sincerely. To have
maintained, in the position of a master, one side of a question for thirty
years, and then deliberately give it up, is a fact to which I much doubt
whether the records of science offer a parallel" ("Life and Letters,"
Volume II., pages 229-30). See "Life, Letters, and Journals of Sir Charles
Lyell, Bart." edited by his sister-in-law, Mrs. Lyell, 2 Volumes, London,
1881. "Charles Lyell and Modern Geology," Prof. T.G. Bonney, London,
-"Antiquity of Man."
-on Barrande.
-cautious attitude towards "Origin of Species."
-cautious judgment of.
-on Cetacea.
-Copley medal awarded to.
-on continental extension.
-controversy with Owen.
-Darwin's pleasure in reading his "Geology."
-on distribution.
-Falconer and.
-German opinion of.
-on immutability.
-interest in celts.
-letters to.
-letters to Darwin from.
-map of Tertiary geography by.
-on mutability.
-on pangenesis.
-"Principles of Geology."
-on Ramsay's theory of lakes.
-urges Darwin to publish his views with those of Wallace.
-visits Down.
-work in France.
-address to Geological Society.
-attacked by Owen in his "Anatomy of Vertebrata."
-criticism of Murchison.
-on craters of denudation.
-Darwin's indebtedness to.
-death of.
-death of his father.
-gives up opposition to Evolution.
-on glaciers of Forfarshire.
-on glacial period in S. hemisphere.
-versus Herschel on volcanic islands.
-on iceberg action.
-memorial in Westminster Abbey.
-on Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.
-as founder of school of Geology.
-second visit to the United States.
-trip to Wales.

Lyell, Lady, letter to.
-translation of paper for Darwin.
-visits Down.

Lynch, R.I.

Lythraceae, dimorphism in.

Lythrum, cross-fertilisation of.
-Darwin's work on.
-trimorphism of.
-L. hyssopifolium, range of.
-L. salicaria, dimorphism of.
-Darwin's work on.

Macacas, Owen on.
-M. Silenus, mane as a protection.

Macalister, Prof. A.

Macarthur, Sir W., on Erythrina.

Macaw, beauty of plumage.

McClennan, on primitive man.

MacCulloch, on Glen Turret.
-on metamorphic rocks.
-on Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.

M'Donnell, Darwin on work of.

Macgillivray, reference to his "History of British Birds."

Machetes pugnax, polygamy of.

Mackintosh, Daniel (1815-91): was well-known in the South of England as a
lecturer on scientific subjects. He contributed several papers to the
Geological Society on Surface Sculpture, Denudation, Drift Deposits, etc.
In 1869 he published a work "On the Scenery of England and Wales" (see
"Geol. Mag." 1891, page 432.
-on boulders of Ashley Heath.
-letters to.
-on Moel Tryfan.
-on sources of erratic blocks in England.

McNab, Prof., J. Scott and.

Macrauchenia, skull of.

Madagascar, existence of insects capable of fertilising Angraecum in.
-fossil Hippopotamus of.
-Owen on fauna of.
-plants of.
-former extension of.
-as a geographical region.
-Viola of.

Madeira, birds of.
-British plants compared with those of.
-Canary Islands formerly connected with.
-flora of.
-insects of.
-land-extension, of.
-land-shells of.
-Lowe on.
-Tertiary plants of.
-elevation of.

Maer, the home of the Wedgwoods.

Magellan Straits, H.M.S. "Beagle" in.

Magnus, review by Krause of his work on colour.

Magpies, pairing of.

Mahon, Lord, compliment to Darwin.

Mahonia, natural crossing of.

Maillet, evolutionary views of.

Maize, hybrids of, see also Zea.

Malaxeae, and Epidendreae.

Malaxis, course of vessels in flower.
-fertilisation of.

Malaxis paludosa, epiphytic on Sphagnum.

Malay archipelago, Darwin on Wallace's book on.
-translation by Meyer of Wallace's book.

Malay region, glacial epoch and the.
-Wallace on butterflies and pigeons of.

Malpighiaceae, degraded flowers of.
-Erythroxylon included in.

Malta, Forbes on geology of.

Malthus, Darwin derives help from reading.
-Haughton sneers at.


Mammae, as rudimentary organs in man.

Mammals, alteration in skulls of.
-Australian cave-.
-birds compared with.
-Dana's classification.
-as indices of climatic changes.
-as proof of union between England and Continent since Glacial period.
-Waterhouse's "Natural History" of.
-Glacial period and extinction of.
-Origin and migration.

Mammoth (Bog).

Mammoth, Darwin's eagerness to collect bones of.
-Falconer on the.

Man, antiquity of (see "Antiquity of Man," and Lyell, Sir C.).
-and apes.
-brain of.
-criticism of Lyell's chapter on.
-Huxley's book on.
-McClennan on primitive.
-and Natural Selection.
-origin of.
-races of.
-selection by Nature contrasted with selection by.
-slow progress of.
-Darwin on Wallace's paper on.
-descent of.
-ears of.
-geological age of.
-and geological classification.
-hairyness of.
-introduction of.
-rank in classification.
-Turner on evolution of.
-Wallace on evolution of.

Mankind, descent from single pair.
-early history of.
-progress of.

Mantell, Owen's attack on.

"Manual of Scientific Inquiry," Darwin's.

Manx cats.

Maranta, sleep-movements of.

Marble, MacCulloch on metamorphism of.

Marianne Islands, subsidence of.
-want of knowledge of flora.

Marion, "L'evolution du Regne vegetal," by Saporta and.

Marlatt, C.L., on Cicada.

Marquesas Islands, subsidence of.

Marr, J.E., on the rocks of Bohemia.

Marriage, Darwin on.
-Galton's proposal to issue health-certificates for.

Marshall, W., on Elodea.

Marsupialia, compared with placentata.
-Darwin on nature of.
-evidence of antiquity.
-abundance in Secondary period.

Martens, see Martins.

Martha (=Posoqueria), F. Muller's paper on.

Martin, H.N., Darwin's opinion of "Elementary Biology" by Huxley and.

Martins, experiments on immersion of seeds in sea by.

Maruta cotula of N. America.

Masdevallia, Darwin's work on.

Massart, on regeneration after injury.

Masters, M., letters to.
-lecture at Royal Institution.
-"Vegetable Teratology."

Mastodon, Australian.
-extinction of.
-Falconer on.
-in Timor.
-migration into S. America.
-skeleton found by Darwin.
-M. andium, Falconer on intermediate character of.

"Materialism of the Present day," Janet's.

Matteucci on electric fishes.

Matthew, P., on forest trees in Scotland.
-quoted by Darwin as having enunciated principle of Natural Selection
before "Origin."

Maurienne, note on earthquake in province of.

Mauritius, craters of.
-elevation of.
-extinction of snakes of.
-oceanic character of.

Maury's map, as illustrating continental extension.


Maypu River, Darwin visits.

Mays, J.A., publishes lectures by Huxley.

-(Copley), Darwin, Lyell.
-(Wollaston), Darwin.

Medical Department of Army, statistics from Director-General of.

Meditation, expression of eyes in.

Mediterranean Islands, flora of.

Medusae, Romanes' work on.

Meehan, T., letter to.


Megatherium, Darwin collects bones of.
-Sir A. Carlisle on.

Melastoma, Darwin on.

Melastomaceae, Darwin on.
-crossing in.
-two kinds of stamens in.

Meldola, Prof. Raphael F.R.S.: Professor of Chemistry in Finsbury
Technical College (City and Guilds of London Institute), and a well-
known entomologist; translated and edited Weismann's "Studies in the
Theory of Descent," 1882-83.
-address to Entomological Society.
-letters to.
-translation of Weismann's "Studies in Descent" by.
-on Weismann and Darwin.


Meloe, Lord Avebury on.

Melrose, seeds from sandpit near.

Memorial to the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Mendel, G., W. Bateson on his "Principles of Heredity."
-Darwin ignorant of work of.
-Laxton and.

Mendoza, Darwin visits.

"Mental Evolution in Animals," Romanes'.

Mentha, of N. America.
-M. borealis, variety in N. America.

Menura superba, colour and nests of.

Menzies and Cumming, visit Galapagos Islands.


Mertensia, Darwin's experiments on.


Mesotherium, Falconer on.

Metamorphic schists.

Metamorphism, Darwin on.
-heat and.
-Sorby on.

Metamorphosis, Lord Avebury on insects and.
-F. Muller on.
-Quatrefages on.

Meteorites, Lord Kelvin suggests their agency in introduction of plants.

"Methods of Study," Agassiz' book on.

Mexicans, explanation of natural affinities of Chinese and.

Meyen, on insectivorous plants.

Meyer, Dr., translator of Wallace's "Malay Archipelago."

Meyer and Doege, on plants of Cape of Good Hope.

Mica, in foliated rocks.

Mica-slate, clay-slate and.

Mice, ears of.
-experiments by Tait on.

Microscope, Darwin on convenient form of.
-indispensable in work on flowers.
-use of compound without simple, injurious to progress of Natural

Migration of animals and plants.
-Darwin on plant-.
-of elephants.
-Glacial period and.
-of plants.
-in tropics.
-of birds.

Mikania, a leaf-climber.
-M. scandens, gradation between Mutisia and.

Mill, J.S., on Darwin's reasoning.
-on greatest happiness principle.

Miller, Hugh, "First Impressions of England and its People."

Miller, S.H., "Fenland Past and Present" by Skertchley and.

Miller, Prof. William Hallowes, F.R.S. (1801-80), held the Chair of
Mineralogy at Cambridge from 1832 to 1880 (see "Obituary Notices of
Fellows," "Proc. R. Soc." Volume XXXI., 1881). He is referred to in the
"Origin of Species" (Edition VI., page 221) as having verified Darwin's
statement as to the structure of the comb made by Melipona domestica, a
Mexican species of bee. The cells of Melipona occupy an intermediate
position between the perfect cells of the hive-bee and the much simpler
ones of the humble-bee; the comb consists "of cylindrical cells in which
the young are hatched, and, in addition, some large cells of wax for
holding honey. These latter cells are nearly spherical and of nearly equal
sizes, and are aggregated into an irregular mass. But the important point
to notice is that these cells are always made at that degree of nearness to
each other that they would have intersected or broken into each other if
the spheres had been completed; but this is never permitted, the bees
building perfectly flat walls of wax between the spheres which thus tend to
intersect." It occurred to Darwin that certain changes in the architecture
of the Melipona comb would produce a structure "as perfect as the comb of
the hive-bee." He made a calculation, therefore, to show how this
structural improvement might be effected, and submitted the statement to
Professor Miller. By a slight modification of the instincts possessed by
Melipona domestica, this bee would be able to build with as much
mathematical accuracy as the hive-bee; and by such modifications of
instincts Darwin believed that "the hive-bee has acquired, through natural
selection, her inimitable architectural powers" (loc. cit., page 222).
-letters to.

Million years, Darwin on meaning of a.

Milne-Edwards, Darwin's cirripede work and.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-on retrograde development.

Milne-Home, David (1805-90): was a country gentleman in Berwickshire who
became interested in geology at an early age. He wrote on the Midlothian
Coal-field, the Geology of Roxburghshire, the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,
and compiled the Reports presented by a Committee appointed by the Royal
Society of Edinburgh to investigate the observation and registration of
boulders in Scotland ("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XLVII., 1891;
"Proc." page 59).
-believes in connection between state of weather and earthquakes.
-on Glen Roy.
-letters to.
-letter from R. Chambers to.
-on oscillation of sea.

Milton, quotation from.

Mimicry, Bates on.
-and dimorphism.
-Volucella as an example of.
-Wallace on.
-and colour.
-F. Muller on Lepidoptera and.

Mimosa, Darwin's experiments on.
-M. albida, Darwin on.
-M. sensitiva.

Mimoseae, F. Muller's account of seeds of.

Mimulus, Pfeffer on movement of stigma.

Mind, development of.
-evolution of.
-influence on nutrition.

Miocene land.

Miquel, F.A.W., on Flora of Holland.
-on distribution of the beech.
-on flora of Japan.


Mirbel, G.F.B. de.

Miscellaneous letters, botanical.

Miscellaneous subjects, letters on.

Mississippi, Lyell on pampas and deposits of the.


Mivart, St. George F.R.S. (1827-1900): was educated at Harrow, King's
College, London, and St. Mary's College, Oscott. He was called to the Bar
in 1851; in 1862 he was appointed Lecturer in the Medical School of St.
Mary's Hospital. In the "Genesis of Species," published in 1871, Mivart
expressed his belief in the guiding action of Divine power as a factor in
-false reasoning of.
-"Genesis of Species."

Modification, Darwin's disbelief in sudden.
-explanation of.
-of insects.
-of jays and crows.
-of land and freshwater faunas.
-selection and.
-of species.
-Walsh on specific.

Moel Tryfan, Darwin on shells on.
-Mackintosh on shells on.

Moggridge, J. Traherne (1842-74): is described by a writer in "Nature"
Volume XI., 1874, page 114, as "one of our most promising young
naturalists." He published a work on "Harvesting Ants and Trap-door
Spiders," London, 1873, and wrote on the Flora of Mentone and on other
subjects. (See "The Descent of Man" Volume I., Edition II., page 104,
-letters to.
-note on.
-experiments on ants and seeds.

Mohl, von, on climbing plants.

Mojsisovics, E. von: Vice-Director of the Imperial Geological Institute,
-letters to.
-work on Palaeontology and Evolution.

Molecular movement in foliated rocks.

Moller, "Brasilische Pilzblumen."

Molliard, on Les Cecidies florales.

Mollusca, distribution by birds.
-Huxley on.
-means of dispersal of.
-Morse on protective colours of.
-Wallace on distribution of.

Molothrus, occurrence in Brazil.

Monacanthus viridis, female form of Catasetum tridentatum.

Monkeys, distribution of birds affected by.
-range of.
-ears of.
-mane as protection.
-wrinkling of eyes during screaming.

Monochaetum (Monochoetum), absence of nectar in.
-experiments on.
-flowers of.
-neglected by bees.
-seeds of.
-M. ensiferum, two kinds of stamens.

Monocotyledons, range of.
-heterostylism in.

Monotremes, birds compared with.
-as remnant of ancient fauna.

Monotropa uniflora, in New Granada.
-in Himalayas.
-in separate areas in U.S.A.

Monotypic genera, variation of.

Monstrosities, Harvey on.
-Masters' work on.
-no sharp distinction between slight variations and.
-origin of species from.
-variations and.

Monte Video, Darwin visits.
-Darwin on cleavage at.

Moon, effect on earthquakes.

Moraines, glacial.

Moral sense, J. Morley on Darwin's treatment of.

Morality, foundation of.

More, Alexander Goodman (1830-95): botanist and zoologist, distinguished
chiefly by his researches on the distribution of Irish plants and animals.
He was born in London, and was educated at Rugby and Trinity College,
Cambridge. He became Assistant in the Natural History Museum at Dublin in
1867, and Curator in 1881. He was forced by ill-health to resign his post
in 1887, and died in 1895. He is best known for the Cybele Hibernica and
for various papers published in the "Ibis." He was also the author of
"Outlines of the Natural History of the Isle of Wight," of a "Supplement to
the Flora Vectensis," and innumerable shorter papers. His "Life and
Letters" has been edited by Mr. C.B. Moffat, with a preface by Miss Frances
More (1898). There is a good obituary notice by Mr. R. Barrington in the
"Irish Naturalist," May, 1895.
-letters to.


Morley, J., letters to.

Mormodes, labellum of.
-M. ignea, flower of.

Morphological, Hooker's criticism of term.
-sense in which used by Nageli.

Morphology, Darwin's explanation of.
-Kollmann on batrachian.
-of plants.

Morse, Prof. E.S.: of Salem, Mass.
-letters to.
-on shell-mounds of Omori.

Morton, Lord, his mare.

Moscow, opinion on Darwin's work from.

Moseley, Canon H., on glacier-motion.

Moseley, Prof. Henry Nottidge F.R.S. (1844-91): was an undergraduate of
Exeter College, Oxford, and afterwards studied medicine at University
College, London. In 1872 he was appointed one of the naturalists on the
scientific staff of the "Challenger," and in 1881 succeeded his friend and
teacher, Professor Rolleston, as Linacre Professor of Human and Comparative
Anatomy at Oxford. Moseley's "Notes by a Naturalist on the Challenger,"
London, 1879, was held in high estimation by Darwin, to whom it was
dedicated. (See "Life and Letters," III., pages 237-38.)
-letter to.
-proposal to examine Kerguelen Coal beds.

Moss-rose, sudden variation in.

Mostyn, Lord, horse and quagga belonging to.

Moths, hermaphroditism in hybrid.
-survival of distinct races.
-colours of.
-and Sexual Selection.

Mould, Darwin's opinion of his paper on.

Mountain-building, Rogers on.

Mountain-chains, Darwin on.
-and earthquakes.
-and elevation.
-false views of geologists on.
-Hopkins on.
-volcanic rocks in.

Movement, of land-areas.
-of plants, Darwin on.
-F. Muller on.
-Wiesner on Darwin's book on.

Mucus of seeds, significance of.

Mukkul, Pass of.

Mules, meaning of stripes of.
-J.J. Weir's observations on.

Muller, Ferd., on advance of European plants in Australia.

Muller, (Fritz) Dr. Johann Friedrich Theodor (1822-97): was born in
Thuringia, and left his native country at the age of thirty to take up his
residence at Blumenau, Sta Catharina, South Brazil, where he was appointed
teacher of mathematics at the Gymnasium of Desterro. He afterwards held a
natural history post, from which he was dismissed by the Brazilian
Government in 1891 on the ground of his refusal to take up his residence at
Rio de Janeiro ("Nature," December 17th, 1891, page 156). Muller published
a large number of papers on zoological and botanical subjects, and rendered
admirable service to the cause of evolution by his unrivalled powers of
observation and by the publication of a work entitled "Fur Darwin" (1865),
which was translated by Dallas under the title "Facts and Arguments for
Darwin" (London, 1869). The long series of letters between Darwin and
Muller bear testimony to the friendship and esteem which Darwin felt for
his co-worker in Brazil. In a letter to Dr. Hermann Muller (March 29th,
1867), Mr. Darwin wrote: "I sent you a few days ago a paper on climbing
plants by your brother, and I then knew for the first time that Fritz
Muller was your brother. I feel the greatest respect for him as one of the
most able naturalists living, and he has aided me in many ways with
extraordinary kindness." See "Life and Letters," III., page 37; "Nature,"
October 7th, 1897, Volume LVI., page 546.
-book by.
-convert to Darwin's views.
-Darwin's opinion of his book.
-friendship with Darwin.
-Hooker on.
-letters to.
-on Lord Morton's mare.
-on mutual specialisation of insects and plants.
-on prawns.
-reference to letter from.
-on sponges.
-on Cassia and caterpillars in S. Brazil.
-on climbing plants.
-on crossing plants.
-Darwin offers to make good loss by flood.
-Darwin's admiration of.
-on Darwin's work on lepidoptera.
-Darwin urges him to write Natural History book.
-explanation of two kinds of stamens in flowers.
-on fertilisation mechanisms.
-letter to Darwin from.
-narrow escape from flood.
-article in "Kosmos" on Phyllanthus.
-on Melastomaceae.
-on orchids.
-on stripes and spots in animals.
-on Termites.
-disinclined to publish.

Muller, Hermann (1829-83): began his education in the village school of
Muhlberg, and afterwards studied in Halle and Berlin. From an early age he
was a keen naturalist, and began his scientific work as a collector in the
field. In 1855 he became Science teacher at Lippstadt, where he continued
to work during the last twenty-eight years of his life. Muller's greatest
contribution to Botany "Die Befruchtung der Blumen durch Insekten," was the
outcome to Charles Darwin's book on the "Fertilisation of Orchids." He was
a frequent contributor to "Kosmos" on subjects bearing on the origin of
species, the laws of variation, and kindred problems; like his brother,
Fritz, Hermann Muller was a zealous supporter of evolutionary views, and
contributed in no small degree to the spread of the new teaching. ("Prof.
Dr. Hermann Muller von Lippstadt: Ein Gedenkblatt," by Ernst Krause,
"Kosmos," Volume VII., page 393, 1883.)
-extract from letter to.
-Darwin's admiration for his book.
-on fertilisation of flowers.
-on clover and bees.
-on Epipactis and Platanthera.
-extract from Darwin's preface to his "Befruchtung der Blumen."
-letters to.
-on Melastoma.
-persecuted by Ultramontane party.
-review in "Kosmos" of "Forms of Flowers."

Muller, Prof. Max, "Lectures on the Science of Language."
-letter to.

Muller, Rosa, observations on circumnutation.

Mummy wheat.

Mundane cold period, Darwin on supposed.

Mundane genera, distribution of.

Munro, Col., on Bermuda.

Munro, on eyes of parrots.

Murchison, Sir R.I., apotheosis of.
-Darwin's conversations with.
-letter to.
-address to Geological Society.
-on structure of Alps.
-Lyell's criticism of.

Murder, expression of man arrested for.

Murdoch, G.B., letter to.

Murray, A., address to Botanical Society of Edinburgh.
-criticism of Wallace's theory of nests.
-Darwin criticised by.
-Darwin's criticism of work of.
-on geological distribution of mammals.
-on leaves and CO2.
-review of "Origin" by.

Murray, Sir J., Darwin on his theory of coral reefs.

Murray, J., Darwin's agreement with.
-"Journal of Researches" published by.
-MS. of "Origin" sent to.
-sale of "Origin."
-publication of "Fur Darwin."

Mus, range of.

Musca vomitoria, Lowne on.

Muscles, contraction in evacuation and in labour pains.
-in man and apes.

Museum (British), enquiry as to disposal of Natural History Collections
by Trustees of.

Music, birds and production of.
-insects, and.
-origin of taste for.

Musk-duck, hatching of eggs.

Musk-orchids, pollinia of.

Musk ox, as index of climate.
-found in gravel at Down.

Mussels, seize hold of fishing hooks.

Mutability of species, Lyell on.

Mutation, use of term.

Mutisia, a tendril-climber, compared with Mikania.

Myanthus barbatus, hermaphrodite form of Catasetum tridentatum.


Myosotis, in N. America.

Myosurus, range of.

Mytilus, as fossil in the Andes.

Nageli, Carl Wilhelm von (1817-91): was born at Kilchberg, near Zurich. He
graduated at Zurich with a dissertation on the Swiss species of Cirsium.
At Jena he came under the influence of Schleiden, who taught him
microscopic work. He married in 1845, and on his wedding journey in
England, collected seaweeds for "Die neueren Algen-systeme." He was called
as Professor to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1852; and to Munich in 1857, where
he remained until his death on May 10th, 1891. In the "Zeitschrift fur
wiss. Botanik," 1844-46, edited by Nageli and Schleiden, and of which only
a single volume appeared, Nageli insists on the only sound basis for
classification being "development as a whole." The "Entstehung und
Begriff" (1865) was his first real evolutionary paper. He believed in a
tendency of organisms to vary towards perfection. His idea was that the
causes of variability are internal to the organism: see his work, "Ueber
den Einfluss ausserer Verhaltnisse auf die Varietatenbildung. Among his
other writings are the "Theorie der Bastardbildung," 1866, and "Die
Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre," 1884. The chief
idea of the latter book is the existence of Idioplasm, a part of protoplasm
serving for hereditary transmission. (From Dr. D.H. Scott's article in
"Nature," October 15th, 1891, page 580.)
-Darwin on his work.
-Essay on Natural Selection.
-on Hieracium.
-"Ueber Entstehung und Begriff der naturhistoriscehn Art."
-Weismann on work of.
-on arrangement of leaves.
-criticism of Darwin.
-on innate principle of development.
-on physiological nature of useful adaptations in plants.

Napier, Rt. Hon. J.R., speech at British Association (1861) on Darwin's


Narborough, Sir J., description of W. coast of S. America by.

Nascent organs, rudimentary and.
-wing of Apteryx as.

Natural classification.

"Natural Conditions of Existence," Semper's.

Natural History, Darwin's taste for.
-Darwin's contributions to.
-accuracy the soul of.
-Darwin urges F. Muller to write book on.

Natural History Collections, enquiry as to disposal by British Museum
Trustees of.

"Natural History Review," Lord Avebury on Walsh's paper on dimorphism.
-Bentham in the.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-Darwin reviews Bates in.
-Falconer in the.
-founding of.
-Huxley and.

"Natural Inheritance," Galton's.

Natural preservation, as substitute for Natural Selection.

"Natural Science," A.S. Woodward on Neomylodon in.

Natural Selection, accumulation of varieties by.
-and adaptation in orchids.
-Allen on slowness of action.
-Angraecum in relation to.
-Ansted on.
-applied to politics.
-and artificial.
-Bates' belief in.
-Bronn on.
-comparison with architecture.
-with force and matter.
-with laws of gravity.
-conservative influence of.
-Cope's and Hyatt's views on.
-Darwin accused of making too much of a Deus of.
-Darwin's anxiety not to overestimate effect of.
-Darwin lays stress on importance of.
-Darwin on use of term.
-deification of.
-and direct action.
-Eocene or Secondary organisms would be beaten in competition with
recent on theory of.
-and external conditions.
-Falconer on.
-and fertility.
-Asa Gray on.
-Harvey misunderstands Darwin's meaning.
-Haughton partially admits.
-Hooker thinks Darwin probably rides too hard his hobby of.
-Hooker on supposed falling off in belief in.
-Hooker and Bates believe in.
-Huxley's belief in.
-Huxley gives in a lecture inadequate idea of.
-Hyatt and Cope on.
-importance of.
-Lamont on.
-Lyell on.
-and monstrosities.
-Nageli's Essay on.
-no limit to perfection of co-adaptations produced by.
-non-acceptance of.
-objections to.
-"plants are splendid for making one believe in."
-possibility of race of bears being rendered aquatic through.
-with the principle of divergence the keystone of "Origin."
-production of thorns through.
-tends to progression of organisation.
-providential arrangement and superfluity of.
-struggle between reversion, variability and.
-Scott on.
-slowness of action.
-and sterility.
-success of.
-tails of mice a difficulty as regards.
-Sir W. Thomson's misconception of.
-uses of.
-value of.
-and variation.
-variation of species sufficient for selection and accumulation of new
specific characters by.
-and useful characters.
-Wallace on.
-Watson on.
-applied to man and brutes.
-Australian savages and.
-beauty and.
-Darwin on action of.
-Darwin's historical sketch in "Origin" of.
-difficulties of.
-Donders nearly preceded Darwin in views on.
-evolution of man from point of view of.
-Owen's attitude towards.
-primogeniture destructive of.
-Sexual Selection less powerful than.
-Wallace attributes theory entirely to Darwin.
-Wallace on brain and.

Naturalisation, of European plants.
-of plants in India.
-of plants in islands.

Naturalised plants, Bentham on.
-comparison of variability of indigenous and.
-De Candolle on.
-variability of.
-fewness of American species of, in Britain.

"Naturalist in Nicaragua," Belt's.
-Belt's account of honey-glands of plants in.

"Naturalist on the Amazons," Bates'.
-Darwin's opinion of.

Naturalists, views on species held by.
-few care for philosophical experiments

Nature, Wallace on personification of.
-use of term.

"Nature not lying," principle of.

"Nature," Darwin's opinion of.
-letters or notes from Darwin in.
-Galton in.
-F. Muller in.
-Thiselton-Dyer in.

Naudin, C., on hybridism.
-on Melastomaceae.

Nauplius stages.

Nautilus, of Silurian age.

Necrophorus, Darwin's observations on.

Nectar, in leguminous flowers.
-Lord Farrer on secretion of, in Coronilla.

Nectaries, Belt on extra-floral.

Nectarines and peaches.
-Rivers on production from seed.
-variation in.

Negative geological evidence, Darwin and Lyell on.

Negro, resemblance between expression of Cebus and.

Nelumbium, as example of transport.

Neottia nidus-avis, fertilisation mechanism.
-pollen-tubes of.

Nepenthes, Hooker's work on.
-Thiselton-Dyer on.


Nervous system, genesis of.
-influence on nutrition.

Nests, Wallace's theory, of.
-colour in relation to.
-instinct in making.

Neumann, on Catasetum.

Neumayr, Melchior (1845-90): passed his early life at Stuttgart, and
entered the University of Munich in 1863 with the object of studying law,
but he soon gave up legal studies for Geology and Palaeontology. In 1873
he was recalled from Heidelberg, where he held a post as Privatdocent, to
occupy the newly created Chair of Palaeontology in Vienna. Dr. Neumayr was
a successful and popular writer, as well as "one of the best and most
scientific palaeontologists"; he was an enthusiastic supporter of Darwin's
views, and he devoted himself "to tracing through the life of former times
the same law of evolution as Darwin inferred from that of the existing
world." (See Obit. Notice, by Dr. W.T. Blanford, "Quart. Journ. Geol.
Soc." Volume XLVI., page 54, 1890.)
-essay on descent theory.
-services to geology.
-"Die Stamme des Thierreichs."

Nevill, Lady Dorothy.

New Zealand, absence of leguminosae opposed to continental extension of.
-British plants in.
-clover never seeded before introduction of bees.
-comparison between flora of Tasmania and.
-elevation of mountains in.
-flora of.
-flora of Australia and.
-Flora of Raoul Island and.
-Hooker on flora of.
-Darwin's opinion of Hooker's "Flora."
-former connection of islands.
-former extension of.
-naturalised plants.
-peopling of mountains by plants.
-proportion of annuals.
-species of plants common to America, Chili and.
-stocked from Antarctic land.
-colonising of.
-glacial action in.
-mountain-rat of.
-trees of.

Newton, Prof. A., note on Strickland by.
-description of partridge as agent in dispersal of seeds.

Newton's law of gravity.

Niagara, Darwin on Lyell's work on.

Nightingale, Gould on the.

Noises, observations on children's.

Nolana prostrata, Darwin's experiments on.

Nomenclature, discussion on.

"North British Review," Fleeming Jenkin's review in.
-Tait in.

Norton, Professor Charles Elliot: of Harvard, the son of the late Dr.
Andrews Norton, Professor of Theology in the Harvard Divinity School.
-visits Down.

Norway, Von Buch's travels in.
-Blytt on flora of.

Norwich, Berkeley's address at British Association (1868) meeting at.
-Hooker's address.

Nottingham, British Association meeting (1866) at.
-Hooker's lecture on insular floras at.

Notylia, F. Muller on.

Nucula, a persistent type.

Nuneham, Darwin's recollection of trip to.

Nutrition, influence of mind on.

Nyctitropic movements, see Sleep-movements.

Observation, spirit of astronomers in.
-harder work than generalisation.
-pleasure of.

Observations, not to be trusted without repetition.

Observer, a good theoriser makes a good.

Oceanic islands, difference in floras and means of stocking.
-connection between continents and.
-former extension of.
-Reade on.
-volcanic nature of.

Oceans, age and depth of.
-permanence of.
-as sinking areas.

Ogle, W., on the sense of smell.
-letter to.
-translation of book by Kerner.

Ogleby, reference to his nomenclature scheme.

Oken, on Lepas.
-Owen on.

Old characters, reappearance of.




Oliver, D., Darwin indebted to for information.
-letters to.

Olyra, sleep-movements of.

Omori, Morse on shell-mounds of.

Oncidium, J. Scott's work on.
-structure of labellum.
-O. flexuosum, observations by Muller and Scott on.
-self-sterility of.
-O. sphacelatum, Scott on fertilisation of.

-O. apifera, fertilisation-mechanism.
-self-fertilisation of.
-O. arachnites, fertilisation of.
-O. aranifera.
-O. morio, fertilisation of.
-O. muscifera, Lord Farrer's observations on.
-O. scolopax.


Oppel, service to geology.

Opuntia, Henslow describes new species from Galapagos.

Orang-utang, Rolleston on brain of.
-Wallace on.

Orange trees, grafting of.

d'Orbigny, on geology of S. America.
-theory of formation of Pampas mud.
-"Voyage dans l'Amerique meridionale.

Orchids, adaptation in.
-Darwin's work on.
-Darwin's view that seedlings are parasitic on Cryptogams.
-Falconer's estimate of Darwin's work on.
-few species in humid temperate regions.
-flourish in cool temperate regions.
-illustrate diversity of means to same end.
-quoted as argument against species arising from monstrosities.
-utility and.
-fertilisation mechanisms of.
-Darwin decides to publish his work in book-form.
-Darwin sends copy of his book to F. Muller.
-Darwin underrates power of producing seeds without insects.
-French translation of Darwin's book.
-germinative power of pollen.
-Hildebrand's paper on.
-Nectar not excreted in some English.
-and nectar secretion.
-formation of ovule after pollination.
-Scott points out error in Darwin's work.
-Scott on pollen-tubes of.
-Scott on self-sterility.
-self-fertilisation in.
-setting of seed in unopened flower.
-sterility of.
-course of vessels in flowers.
-wonderful contrivances intelligible.

Orchis, flowers of.
-nectaries of.
-pollinia of.

Orchis (Bee) (see also Ophrys apifera), Darwin's experiments on.
-O. pyramidalis, fertilisation mechanism.
-O. ustulata.

Order of Nature.


Organ mountains, Darwin on plants of.
-glacial action on.

Organisms, simultaneous change in.
-amount of change in fresh water and marine.

Organs, transition of
-use of.

"Origin of the Fittest," Cope's.

"Origin of Genera," Cope's work on.

Origin of life.

"Origin of Species," acceptance of doctrine of Evolution due to the.
-Darwin's belief in the permanence of the framework of the.
-Darwin's opinion of his book.
-Dawson's review of.
-direct action underestimated in the.
-editions of the.
-errors in.
-Falconer's estimate of.
-Huxley's Cambridge speech, and reference to the.
-Huxley's lecture on coming of age of.
-Huxley's review of.
-Lesquereux's articles in "Silliman" against the.
-publication of the Abstract of.
-publication by Murray of.
-sale of the.
-Seemann on the.
-translation of.
-Wallace's criticism of.
-Walsh on the.
-Darwin on necessity for modifications in the.
-review by Fleeming Jenkin.
-review by A. Murray.
-Owen's criticism of Darwin's Historical Sketch in 4th edition of.
-Owen's review of.
-study of natural history revolutionised by the.
-valueless criticism on.

Origin of species, Darwin's early views on.
-Darwin's views on.
-Falconer antagonistic to Darwin's views on.
-Oxford discussion (British Association, 1860) on the.
-spread of Darwin's views in America.

Origin of species and genera, Wallace in the "Nineteenth Century" on.

Original work, time taken up by, at expense of reading.

Ormerod's Index to the Geological Society's Journal.

Ornithorhynchus, aberrant nature of.
-preservation of.

Orthoptera, auditory organs of.

Oscillariae, abundance in the ocean.


Oscillation of land, Darwin's views on.

Os coccyx, as rudimentary organ.


Ostrich, modification of wings.

Outliers, plants as.

"Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy," Fiske's.

Ovary, abnormal structure in orchid.

Owen, Sir Richard (1804-92): was born at Lancaster, and educated at the
local Grammar School, where one of his schoolfellows was William Whewell,
afterwards Master of Trinity. He was subsequently apprenticed to a surgeon
and apothecary, and became deeply interested in the study of anatomy. He
continued his medical training in Edinburgh and at St. Bartholomew's
Hospital in London. In 1827 Owen became assistant to William Clift (whose
daughter Owen married in 1835), Conservator to the Hunterian Museum of the
Royal College of Surgeons. It was here that he became acquainted with
Cuvier, at whose invitation he visited Paris, and attended his lectures and
those of Geoffroy St. Hilaire. The publication, in 1832, of the "Memoir on
the Pearly Nautilus" placed the author "in the front rank of anatomical
monographers." On Clift's retirement, Owen became sole Conservator to the
Hunterian Museum, and was made first Hunterian Professor of Comparative
Anatomy and Physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1856 he
accepted the post of Superintendent of the Natural History department of
the British Museum, and shortly after his appointment he strongly urged the
establishment of a National Museum of Natural History, a project which was
eventually carried into effect in 1875. In 1884 he was gazetted K.C.B.
Owen was a strong opponent of Darwin's views, and contributed a bitter and
anonymous article on the "Origin of Species" to the "Edinburgh Review" of
1860. The position of Owen in the history of anatomical science has been
dealt with by Huxley in an essay incorporated in the "Life of Richard
Owen," by his grandson, the Rev. Richard Owen (2 volumes, London, 1894).
Huxley pays a high tribute to Owen's industry and ability: "During more
than half a century Owen's industry remained unabated; and whether we
consider the quality or the quantity of the work done, or the wide range of
his labours, I doubt if, in the long annals of anatomy, more is to be
placed to the credit of any single worker." The record of his work is
"enough, and more than enough, to justify the high place in the scientific
world which Owen so long occupied. If I mistake not, the historian of
comparative anatomy and palaeontology will always assign to Owen a place
next to, and hardly lower than, that of Cuvier, who was practically the
creator of those sciences in their modern shape, and whose works must
always remain models of excellence in their kind." On the other hand,
Owen's contributions to philosophical anatomy are on a much lower plane;
hardly any of his speculations in this field have stood the test of
investigation: "...I am not sure that any one but the historian of
anatomical science is ever likely to recur to them, and considering Owen's
great capacity, extensive learning, and tireless industry, that seems a
singular result of years of strenuous labour."
-address at Leeds (British Association, 1858) by.
-admission of descent of species.
-articles by.
-on a badger of Pliocene age.
-on the brain.
-Mrs. Carlyle's impression of.
-and Hooker.
-conduct towards Huxley.
-Darwin abused by.
-on Darwin and Maillet.
-and Darwinism.
-on ephemeral influence of the "Origin."
-Falconer and.
-Huxley on.
-on Huxley's election to the Athenaeum.
-ignores Darwin's work.
-influence of.
-isolation among scientific men.
-lecture on birds by.
-letters to.
-letter to the "Athenaeum."
-"Life of."
-on lowness of animals.
-on Macacus.
-on mammals of Old World.
-on morphology of vertebrata.
-review in the "Quarterly" of the "Origin."
-"Palaeontology" by.
-on parthenogenesis.
-review in the "Edinburgh Review" by.
-on simple and multiple organs.
-on use and disuse.
-and Bishop Wilberforce's review.
-visits Down.
-attack on Darwin in his "Anatomy of Vertebrata."
-attitude towards Natural Selection.

Owls and hawks, as agents in seed-dispersal.

Oxalis, bulbils of.
-cleistogamic flowers of.
-dimorphism of.
-pollen-tubes of.
-seeds of.
-trimorphism of.
-O. acetosella, sensitive leaves of.
-variation in length of pistil and stamens.
-O. sensitiva, Darwin's work on.
-O. corniculata, variation of.

Oxford, meeting of the British Association at (1847).
-Tuckwell's reminiscences of.

Oxlips, Darwin's experiment on cowslips, primroses, and.
-Darwin on hybrid character of.
-scarcity of.

Oxyspora paniculata, Wallich on.

Pachira, inequality of cotyledons.
-P. aquatica.

Pacific Ocean, Darwin wishes Hooker to investigate floras of.
-islands of the.
-coral reefs of.

Packard's "Lamarck the Founder of Evolution."

Paget, Sir J., on regeneration.
-address on elemental pathology.
-illness of.
-on influence of mind on nutrition.
-"Lectures on Surgical Pathology."
-letters to.

Pairing, in birds.
-vigour of birds and effect on time of.

Palaeolithic flints, in gravels near Southampton.

Palaeontology, rapid progress of.

Palaeozoic period.

Paley, idea of interference of Creator in construction of each species
due to.

"Pall Mall," article on "Dr. Hooker on Religion and Science" in.
-letter to editor of.

Pallas, Darwin's conviction of truth of doctrine of.
-doctrine of.
-on hybrids and fertility.

Palm, Malayan climbing.

Palm, L.H., work on climbing plants by.

Palma, crater of.

Pampas, geology of the.
-formation of.
-Lyell on Mississippi beds and.
-D'Orbigny's theory of formation of.
-thistle of the.

Pangenesis, adverse opinion on.
-Bentham on.
-Berkeley on.
-bud-propagation and.
-Darwin on.
-Darwin's suggestion as to term.
-difference between Galton's theory of heredity and.
-evidence from hybridisation in favour of.
-Hooker on.
-Huxley's views on.
-Jager on.
-Lyell on.
-and molecular hypothesis of Hackel.
-Ranyard on.
-Romanes on.
-self-fertilisation and.
-Wallace on.
-the idea a relief to Darwin as connecting facts.
-F. Muller and.
-bearing on regeneration.
-"will turn out true some day."


Panniculus carnosus in man.

Papilio Memnon, Wallace on.
-P. nireus, Mrs. Barber on.
-P. pammon, Wallace on.

Papilionaceaous flowers, absence in New Zealand.
-and hermaphroditism.

Papilionidae, Wallace on Malayan.

Paraheliotropism, Muller's observations on.
-in Phyllanthus.

Parallel Roads of Glen Roy (see Glen Roy).

Parana, Darwin finds Mastodon at.

Pararge, breeding in confinement.

Parasites, and degeneration.
-extermination of game by.
-bloom as protection against.
-and galls.

Parietaria, explosive stamens of.

Parrots, as agents in seed-dispersal.

Parsimony, Hamilton's law of.

Parthenogenesis, Darwin on.
-Owen's Hunterian lecture on.
-in Primula.
-J. Scott's work on.

Partridges, as agents of seed-dispersal.
-rudimentary spurs on legs of.

Parus caeruleus, protective colouring of.

Passiflora, bloom experiments on.
-Lord Farrer's work on.
-position of flowers of.
-Muller assists Lord Farrer in work on.
-Scott's work on.
-self-sterility of.
-Sprengel on.
-visited by humming-birds.
-P. gracilis, dispersal of seeds.
-P. princeps, adapted to humming birds.

Patagonia, L. Agassiz on elevation of.
-Darwin on geology of.
-gigantic land-sloth of.
-Admiral Sulivan on.

Pathology, Paget's lectures on.

Pattison, Mark.

Pavo nigripennis.

Payne, on effect of rain on plants.
-observations by.

Peaches, bud-variation in.
-raised from seed.

Peacock, evolution and Sexual Selection of.
-experiments on cutting tail of male.
-muscles of tail of.

Pearson, H.H.W., on the botany of Ceylon patanas.

Peas, course of vessels in ovary of sweet-.
-crossing in.
-fertilisation of.
-waxy secretion in.

Pecten, P. latissimus.

Pelargonium, peloric.
-Beaton on.
-Darwin's experiments on.
-flowers of.
-P. multiflora alba, Darwin's experiments on crossing.

Pelobius, Darwin on.

Peloria, effect of pollen on regular flowers.
-Darwin suggests experiments on.
-Masters on.
-in Pelargonium.
-inheritance of.

Peneus, F. Muller on.

Pentateuch, N. Lewy on.

Periodicals, Darwin's opinion of scientific.
-foreign compared with English.

Peripatus, Moseley's work on.

Peristylus viridis, Lord Farrer's observations on.

Permanence of ocean basins.

Permian period, glacial action during.
-freshwater beds in India.

"Personal Narrative," Humboldt's.

Peru, anarchy in.
-Darwin on terraces in.
-D. Forbes on geology of.

Peuquenes Pass, Darwin visits.

Pfeffer, Prof., on chemotaxis.
-considers Wiesner wrong in some of his interpretations.
-on Drosera.
-"Periodische Bewegungen."

Pfitzer, on classification of orchids.



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