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More Letters of Charles Darwin Volume II by Charles Darwin

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Erratic blocks, in Azores.
-in S. America.
-Darwin on transport.
-of Jura.
-Mackintosh on.
-on Moel Tryfan.

Errera, Prof. L., letter to.
-and S. Gevaert, on cross and self-fertilisation.

Eruptions, parallelism of lines of, with coast-lines.

Eryngium maritimum, bloom on.

Erythrina, MacArthur on.
-of New S. Wales.
-sleep movements of.

Erythroxylon, dimorphism of sub-genus of.

Eschscholtzia, crossing and self-fertility.
-Darwin's experiments on self-sterility.
-F. Muller's experiments in crossing.

Eschricht, on lanugo on human embryo.

Escombe, F., on vitality of seeds.
-see Brown, H.T.

Esquimaux, Natural Selection and.

"Essays and Reviews," attitude of laymen towards.

Eternity, Gapitche on.

Etheridge, Robert, F.R.S.: President of Geological Society in 1880-81.

Etna, Sir Charles Lyell's work on.
-map of.

Eucalyptus, species setting seed.

Euonymus europaeus, dispersal of seeds.

Euphorbia, Darwin on roots of.
-E. peplis, bloom on.

Euphrasia, parasitism of.

Europe, movement of.

Eurybia argophylla, musk-tree of Tasmania, an arborescent Composite.

Evergreen vegetation, connection with humid and equable climate.

Evolution, Darwin's early views.
-Fossil Cephalopods used by Hyatt as test of.
-Huxley's lectures on.
-of mental traits.
-F. Muller's contributions to.
-Nageli's Essay, "Entstehung und Begriff der Naturhistorischen Art."
-Palaeontology as illustrating.
-Romanes' lecture on.
-Saporta's belief in.
-unknown law of.
-of Angiosperms.
-of colour.
-and death.
-Heer opposed to.
-of language.
-Lyell's views (see also Lyell).
-Turner on man and.
-Wallace on.

Ewart, Prof. C., on Telegony.

Exacum, dimorphism of.

Experiments, botanical.
-Tegetmeier's on pigeons.
-time expended on.

Expression, queries on.
-Bell on anatomy of.
-Darwin at work on.

"Expression of the Emotions," Wallace's review.

External conditions, Natural Selection and.
-See also Direct Action.

Extinction, behaviour of species verging towards.
-contingencies concerned in.
-Hooker on.
-races of man and.
-Proboscidea verging towards.
-St. Helena and examples of.

Eyebrows, use of.

Eyes, behaviour during meditation.
-contraction in blind people of muscles of.
-children's habit of rubbing with knuckles.
-gorged with blood during screaming.
-contraction of iris.
-wrinkling of children's.

Fabre, J.H.: is best known for his "Souvenirs Entomologiques," in No.
VI. of which he gives a wonderfully vivid account of his hardy and
primitive life as a boy, and of his early struggles after a life of
-letters to.

"Facts and Arguments for Darwin," translation of F. Muller's "Fur
-delay in publication.
-unfavourable review in "Athenaeum."

Fairy rings, Darwin compares with fungoid diseases in man and animals.

Falconer, Hugh (1809-65): was a student at the Universities of Aberdeen and
Edinburgh, and went out to India in 1830 as Assistant-Surgeon on the Bengal
Establishment. In 1832 he succeeded Dr. Royle as the Superintendent of the
Botanic Gardens at Saharunpur; and in 1848, after spending some years in
England, he was appointed Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanical Garden
and Professor of Botany in the Medical College. Although Falconer held an
important botanical post for many years, he is chiefly known as a
Palaeozoologist. He seems, however, to have had a share in introducing
Cinchona into India. His discovery, in company with Colonel Sir Proby T.
Cautley, of Miocene Mammalia in the Siwalik Hills, was at the time perhaps
the greatest "find" which had been made. The fossils of the Siwalik Hills
formed the subject of Falconer's most important book, "Fauna Antiqua
Sivalensis," which, however, remained unfinished at the time of his death.
Falconer also devoted himself to the investigation of the cave-fauna of
England, and contributed important papers on fossils found in Sicily,
Malta, and elsewhere. Dr. Falconer was a Vice-President of the Royal
Society and Foreign Secretary of the Geological Society. "Falconer did
enough during his lifetime to render his name as a palaeontologist immortal
in science; but the work which he published was only a fraction of what he
accomplished...He was cautious to a fault; he always feared to commit
himself to an opinion until he was sure he was right, and he died in the
prime of his life and in the fulness of his power." (Biographical sketch
contributed by Charles Murchison to his edition of Hugh Falconer's
"Palaeontological Memoirs and Notes," London, 1868; "Proc. R. Soc." Volume
XV., page xiv., 1867: "Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXI., page xlv,
1865.) Hugh Falconer was among those who did not fully accept the views
expressed in the "Origin of Species," but he could differ from Darwin
without any bitterness. Two years before the book was published, Darwin
wrote to Asa Gray: "The last time I saw my dear old friend Falconer he
attacked me most vigorously, but quite kindly, and told me, 'You will do
more harm than any ten naturalists will do good. I can see that you have
already corrupted and half spoiled Hooker.'" ("Life and Letters," II.,
page 121.) The affectionate regard which Darwin felt for Falconer was
shared by their common friend Hooker. The following extract of a letter
from Hooker to Darwin (February 3rd, 1865) shows clearly the strong
friendships which Falconer inspired: "Poor old Falconer! how my mind runs
back to those happiest of all our days that I used to spend at Down twenty
years ago--when I left your home with my heart in my mouth like a
schoolboy. We last heard he was ill on Wednesday or Thursday, and sent
daily to enquire, but the report was so good on Saturday that we sent no
more, and on Monday night he died...What a mountainous mass of admirable
and accurate information dies with our dear old friend! I shall miss him
greatly, not only personally, but as a scientific man of unflinching and
uncompromising integrity--and of great weight in Murchisonian and other
counsels where ballast is sadly needed."
-article in "Natural History Review."
-Darwin's Copley medal and.
-Darwin's criticism of his elephant work.
-Darwin's regard for.
-Forbes attacked by.
-his opinion of Forbes.
-goes to India.
-Hooker's regard for.
-letter to Darwin.
-letter to Sharpey.
-letters to.
-letter to "Athenaeum."
-Lyell and.
-on Mastodon andium.
-on Mastodon of Australia.
-on elephants.
-Owen and.
-on phyllotaxis.
-on Plagiaulax.
-speech at Cambridge.

Falkland Islands, Darwin visits.
-Polyborus sp. in.
-brightly coloured female hawk.
-effect of subsidence.
-streams of stones.

Fanciers, use made of Selection by.

Fantails, see Pigeons.

Faraday, memorial to.

Faramea, dimorphism.

Farmer, Prof. J.B., and S.E. Chandler, on influence of excess of CO2 on
anatomy of plants.

Faroe Islands, Polygala vulgaris of.

Farrer, Canon, lecture on defects in Public School Education.
-letter to.

Farrer, Lady.

Farrer, Thomas Henry, Lord (1819-99): was educated at Eton and Balliol
College, Oxford. He was called to the Bar, but gave up practice for the
public service, where he became Permanent Secretary of the Board of Trade.
According to the "Times," October 13th, 1899, "for nearly forty years he
was synonymous with the Board in the opinion of all who were brought into
close relation with it." He was made a baronet in 1883; he retired from
his post a few years later, and was raised to the peerage in 1893. His
friendship with Mr. Darwin was of many years' standing, and opportunities
of meeting were more frequent in the last ten years of Mr. Darwin's life,
owing to Lord Farrer's marriage with Miss Wedgwood, a niece of Mrs.
Darwin's, and the subsequent marriage of his son Horace with Miss Farrer.
His keen love of science is attested by the letters given in the present
volume. He published several excellent papers on the fertilisation of
flowers in the "Ann. and Mag. of Natural History," and in "Nature," between
1868 and 1874.
In Politics he was a Radical--a strong supporter of free trade: on this
last subject, as well as on bimetallism, he was frequently engaged in
public controversy. He loyally carried out many changes in the legislature
which, as an individualist, he would in his private capacity have
strenuously opposed.
In the "Speaker," October 21st, 1899, Lord Welby heads his article on Lord
Farrer with a few words of personal appreciation:--
"In Lord Farrer has passed away a most interesting personality. A great
civil servant; in his later years a public man of courage and lofty ideal;
in private life a staunch friend, abounding as a companion in humour and
ripe knowledge. Age had not dimmed the geniality of his disposition, or an
intellect lively and eager as that of a boy--lovable above all in the
transparent simplicity of his character."
-interest in Torbitt's potato experiment.
-letters to.
-on earthworms.
-observations on fertilisation of Passiflora.
-recollections of Darwin.
-seeds sent to.

Fawcett, Henry (1833-84): Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge,
1863, Postmaster-General 1880-84. See Leslie Stephen's well-known "Life."
-defends Darwin's arguments.
-letter to.
-letter to Darwin.

Fear, expression of.

Felis, range.

Fellowships, discussion on abolition of Prize-.

Felspar, segregation of.

Females, modification for protection.

"Fenland, Past and Present," by Miller and Skertchley.

Fergusson on Darwinism.

Fernando Po, plants of.

Ferns, Scott on spores.
-Darwin's ignorance of.
-variability "passes all bounds."

Ferrier, Dr., groundless charge brought against, for infringement of
Vivisection Act.

Fertilisation, articles in "Gardeners' Chronicle."
-of flowers.
-H. Muller's work on.
-and sterility.
-Darwin fascinated by study of.
-different mechanisms in same genus.
-travelling of reproductive cells in.

Fertilisation of orchids, Darwin's work on.
-paper by Darwin in "Gardeners' Chronicle" on.

"Fertilisation of Orchids," Asa Gray's review.
-Hooker's review.
-description of Acropera and Catasetum in.
-H. Muller's "Befruchtung der Blumen," the outcome of Darwin's.

Fertility, Natural Selection and.
-and sterility.
-Scott on varieties and relative.


Figs, F. Muller on fertilisation of.

Finmark, Bravais on sea-beaches of.

Fir (Silver), Witches' brooms of.

"First Principles," Spencer's.

Fish, Pictet and Humbert on fossil.

Fiske, J., letter to.


Fitton, reference to his work.

FitzRoy (Fitz-Roy), Captain, and the "Beagle" voyage.
-writes preface to account of the voyage.
-Darwin nearly rejected by.
-letter to "Times."

Flagellaria, as a climber.

Flahault, on the peg in Cucurbita.

Fleeming Jenkin, review of "Origin" by, see Jenkin.

Flinders, M., voyage to Terra Australis by.

Flint implements found near Bedford.

Flints, abundance and derivation of, at Down.
-Darwin on their upright position in gravel.

Floating ice, Darwin on agency of.
-J. Geikie underestimates its importance.
-transporting power of.

Flora, Darwin's idea of an Utopian.
-Hooker's scheme for a.
-Hooker's work on Tasmanian.

"Flora antarctica," Hooker's.

"Flora fossilis arctica," Heer's.

N. American.
New Zealand.
-distribution of.
-of islands.
-tabulation of.

Florida, A. Agassiz on Coral reefs.
-Coral reefs.

Flourens, experiments on pigeons.

Flower, Sir William H., Letter to.
-on muscles of the os coccyx.

Flowering plants, possible origin on a Southern Continent.
-sudden appearance of.

Flowers, at Down.
-Darwin's work on forms of.
-morphological characters.
-regular and irregular.
-cross-fertilisation in inconspicuous.
-ignorance of botanists on mechanism of.

"Flowers and their unbidden Guests," Dr. Ogle's translation of Kerner's
"Schutzmittel des Pollens."

Flying machine, Darwin on Popper's proposed.

Folding of strata.

Foliation and cleavage, reference by A. Harker to work on.

Foliation, aqueous deposition and.
-Darwin considers his observations on cleavage less deserving of
confidence than those on.
-Darwin on.
-parallelism with cleavage.
-relation to rock-curvature.

Food, as determining number of species.


Forbes, D., on the Cordilleras.
-on elevation in Chili.
-on nitrate of soda beds in S. America.

Forbes, Edward, F.R.S. (1815-1854): filled the office of Palaeontologist to
the Ordnance Geological Survey, and afterwards became President of the
Geological Society; in 1854--the last year of his life--he was appointed to
the chair of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Forbes
published many papers on geological, zoological, and botanical subjects,
one of his most remarkable contributions being the well-known essay "On the
Connexion between the Distribution of the Existing Fauna and Flora of the
British Isles and the Geological Changes which have affected their area"
("Mem. Geol. Surv." Volume I., page 336, 1846). (See "Proc. Roy. Soc."
Volume VII., page 263, 1856; "Quart. Journl. Geol. Soc." Volume XI., page
xxvii, 1855, and "Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist." Volume XV., 1855.
-on flora of Azores.
-on Chambers as author of the "Vestiges."
-on continental extension.
-Darwin opposed to his views on continental extension.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-Article on distribution.
-on continuity of land.
-on plant-distribution.
-introductory lecture as professor in Edinburgh.
-on former lower extension of glaciers in Cordillera.
-lecture by.
-letter to Darwin from.
-on Madagascar insects.
-on post-Miocene land.
-Polarity theory.
-on British shells.
-too speculative.
-on subsidence.
-visits Down.
-royal medal awarded to.
-essay on connection between distribution of existing fauna and flora of
the British Isles and geological changes.

Forbes, H.O., on Melastoma.

Force and Matter, Huxley on.

Forel, Auguste: the distinguished author of "Les Fourmis de la Suisse,"
Zurich, 1874, and of a long series of well-known papers.
-on ants and beetles.
-author of "Les Fourmis de la Suisse."
-letter to.

Forfarshire, Lyell on glaciers of.

"Forms of Flowers," De Candolle's criticism of Darwin's.
homomorphic and heteromorphic unions described in.

Forsyth-Major, zoological expedition to Madagascar.

"Fortnightly Review," Huxley's article on Positivism.
Romanes on Evolution.

Fossil Cephalopods, Hyatt on.

Fossil corals.

Fossil plants, small proportion of.
of Australia.
sudden appearance of Angiosperms indicated by.

Fossil seeds, supposed vivification of.

Fossils as evidence of variability.

Fournier, E., De la Fecundation dans les Phanerogames.

Fowls, difference in sexes.
-purred female.

Fox, tails of, used by Esquimaux as respirators.

Fox, Rev. W. Darwin.

Foxglove, use of hairs in flower.

France, edition of "Origin" in.
-opinion favourable to Darwin's views in.

Franco-Prussian war, opinion in England.
-Science retarded by.

Frank, Albert Bernhard (1839-1900): began his botanical career as
Curator of the University Herbarium, Leipzig, where he afterwards became
Privatdocent and finally "Ausserordentlicher Professor." In 1881 Frank
was appointed Professor of Plant-Physiology in the Landwirthschaftliche
Hochschule, Berlin. In 1899 he was appointed to the Imperial
Gesundheits-Amt in Berlin, and raised to the rank of Regierungsrath.
Frank is chiefly known for his work on "The Assimilation of Free
Nitrogen, etc.," and for his work on "The Diseases of Plants" ("Die
Krankheiten der Pflanzen," 1880). It was his brilliant researches on
growth-curvature ("Beitrage zur Pflanzen-physiologie," 1868, and "Die
Naturlichen wagerechte Richtung von Pflanzen-theilen," 1870) which
excited Darwin's admiration.
-Darwin's admiration for his work.

Franklin, Sir J., search expedition.

Fraser, G., letter to.

"Fraser's Magazine," article by Hopkins.
-article by Galton on twins.
-Huxley on review in.

Freemasons' Tavern, meeting held at.

Freewill, a preordained necessity.

Freke, Dr., paper by.

Freshwater, Bee-orchis at.

Freshwater fauna, ocean faunas compared with.
-poverty of.
-preservation of.

Friendly Islands, rats regarded as game.

Fringillidae, colour and sexual selection.

Frogs, article on spawn of.
-F. Muller on.
-salt water and spawn of.
-frozen in glaciers.

Fruits, bright colours of.

Fucus, variation in.

Fuegia, plants of, (see also Tierra del Fuego).

Fumaria (Corydalis) claviculata, Mohl on tendrils.

Fumariaceae, cross- and self-fertilisation.
-morphology of tendrils.

Funafuti, Darwin's theory supported by results of boring in coral island

Fungoid diseases, Darwin on.

Fungus, effect on roots and shoots.

"Fur Darwin," F. Muller's (see "Facts and Arguments for Darwin).
-Darwin quotes.
-Hooker's opinion of.
-publication of.

Furze, seeds and seedlings.

Galapagos Islands, visited during the "Beagle" voyage.
-birds of.
-character of species of, the beginning of Darwin's evolutionary views.
-distribution of animals.
-distribution of plants.
-flora of.
-Hooker on plants of.
-fissure eruptions in.
-restricted fauna.
-Sandwich Islands and.
-subsidence in the.

Galashiels, terraces near.

Galaxias, distribution of.

Gallinaceae, Blyth on.
-colour of.

Galls, artificial production of.
-Cynips and.
-hybrids and.
-Walsh on willow-.

Gallus bankiva, colour of wings.
-colour and environment.
-wings of.

Galton, F., experiments on transfusion of blood.
-letters to.
-letter to Darwin from.
-on twins.
-on variation.
-on heredity.
-on human faculty and its development.
-on prayer.
-proposal to issue health certificates for marriage.

Game-cock and Sexual Selection.

Gamlingay, lilies-of-the-valley at.

Ganoid fishes, preservation in fresh water.

Gapitche, A., letter to.

"Gardeners' Chronicle," Darwin's article on fertilisation.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-Darwin's experiment on immersion of seeds in salt water.
-article on Orchids.
-Harvey on Darwin.
-Rivers' articles.
-Wallace on nests.
-Darwin's index.

Gardner, G., "Travels in the Interior of Brazil."

Gartner, on Aquilegia.
-experiments on crossing and variation.
-on Primula.
-on Verbascum.
-Darwin's high opinion of his "Bastarderzeugung."
-Beaton's criticism of.
-on self-fertilisation in flowers.

Gaskell, G.A., Letter to.

Gatke, on "Heligoland as an Ornithological Observatory."

Gaudry, Albert: Professor of Palaeontology in the Natural History
Museum, Paris, Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London, author of
"Animaux Foss. et Geol. de l'Attique."
-letter to.
-on Pikermi fossils.

Gay, on lizards.


Gegenbauer, Karl: Professor of Anatomy at Heidelberg.
-as convert to Darwinism.
-views on regeneration.

Geikie, Sir A., on age of the Earth.
-edition of "Hutton's Theory of the Earth."
-memoir of Sir A.C. Ramsay.

Geikie, Prof. J., "Ice Age."
-on intercrossing of erratics.
-Letters to.
-"Prehistoric Europe."
-Presidential address, Edinburgh British Association meeting.

Geitonogamy, Kerner suggests term.

Gemmation and dimorphism.

Gemmules, in reproductive organs.
-and bud-variation.

Genealogy and classification.

Genera, aberrant.
-range of large and small.
-variation of.
-Wallace on origin of.

"Genera Plantarum," work on the.

Generalisations, evil of.
-easier than careful observation.

"Generelle Morphologie," Darwin on Hackel's.

"Genesis of Species," Mivart's

Geographical distribution, L. Agassiz on.
-Darwin on.
-Darwin's high opinion of value of.
-Darwin's interest in.
-E. Forbes on.
-Huxley on birds and.
-proposed work by Hooker on.
-relation of genera an important element in.
-Humboldt the founder of.

"Geographical Distribution of Animals," Darwin's criticism of Wallace's.

"Geographical Distribution of Mammals," A. Murray's.

Geographical regions, Darwin on.

Geological Committee on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.

"Geological Gossip," Ansted's.

"Geological Instructions," Darwin's manual of.

"Geological Observations in S. America," Darwin's.
-Darwin on his.

Geological record, imperfection of the.
-Morse on the.

Geological Society, award of medal to Darwin.
-Darwin signs Hooker's certificate.
-museum of.
-Darwin attends Council meeting.

Geological Survey, foundation of.
-investigation of the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.

Geological Time, article in "N. British Review."

Geologist, Darwin as.

Geologists, evolutionary views of.

Geology, arguments in favour of evolution from.
-chapter in "Origin" on.
-practical teaching of.
-English work in.
-Hooker talks of giving up.
-Lyellian school.
-progress of.

Geotropism, Darwin on.

German, Darwin's slight knowledge of.

Germany, converts to evolution in.
-opinion on the "Origin" in.
-Englishmen rejoice over victory of.

Germination of seeds, Darwin's experiments on effect of salt water.

"Germs and Vestiges of Disease," Dobell's.

Gesneria, Darwin on dimorphism of.

Gestation of hounds.

Gibraltar, elevation and subsidence of.

Gilbert, Sir J.H.: of Rothamsted.
-letter to.
-on nitrogen in worms' casting.
-and Sir J. Lawes, Rothamsted experiments.

Glacial period, absence of phanerogams near polar regions in N. America
-Bates on.
-climatic changes since.
-conditions during.
-continental changes since.
-Darwin's views on geographical changes as cause of.
-destruction of organisms during.
-destruction of Spanish plants in Ireland.
-distribution of organisms affected by.
-duration of.
-effect on animals and plants.
-and elephants.
-S.E. England dry land during.
-Greenland depopulated during.
-introduction of Old World forms into New World subsequent to.
-migration during.
-mundane character of.
-subsidence of Alps during.
-Croll on.
-existence of Alpine plants before.
-Hooker on.
-Glen Roy and.
-Lyell on.
-extinction of mammals during.
-Wallace on.
-movement of Europe since and during.

Glaciers, Agassiz on.
-Lyell on.
-Tyndall's book on.
-as agents in the formation of lakes.
-Darwin on structure of.
-Hooker on Yorkshire.
-Moseley on motion of.
-physics of.
-Parallel Roads of Glen Roy formed by.
-rock-cavities formed by cascades in.
-in S. America.
-in Wales.

Gladstone, Herbert Spencer on criticisms by.

Glass, Dr., on grafting sugar-canes.

Glen Collarig, absence of terminal moraines.
-terraces in.

Glen Glaster, absence of terminal moraines.
-barriers of detritus.
-Milne on.
-shelves of.

Glen Gluoy, shelves of.

Glen Roy, Parallel Roads of.
-L. Agassiz on.
-Darwin on.
-Darwin's mistake over.
-Darwin on ice-lake theory of Agassiz and Buckland.
-glacier theory of.
-history of work on.
-Hooker on.
-marine theory of.
-Milne-Home's paper on.
-investigated by Geological Survey.
-coincidence of shelves with watersheds.
-measurement of terraces.

Glen Spean.

Glen Turret, MacCulloch on.

Gloriosa, Darwin's experiments on leaf-tendrils.

Glossotherium Listai.

Gloxinia, peloric forms of.


Gneiss, Darwin on.

God, Darwin on existence of personal.

Godron, on Aegilops.

Godron's "Flora of France."

Goethe, Darwin's reference to.
-Owen on.

Goldfinch, difference in beaks of male and female.

Gongora, and Acropera.
-Darwin on.
-G. fusca (see Acropera luteola).
-G. galeata (see A. Loddigesii).

Gondwana Land.

Goodenia, Hamilton on fertilisation of.


Gordon, General, Huxley on Darwin and.

Gosse, E., "Life of P.H. Gosse" by.

Gosse, Philip Henry (1810-88): was an example of that almost extinct type--
a naturalist with a wide knowledge gained at first hand from nature as a
whole. This width of culture was combined with a severe and narrow
religious creed, and though, as Edmund Gosse points out, there was in his
father's case no reconcilement of science and religion, since his
"impressions of nature" had to give way absolutely to his "convictions of
religion," yet he was not debarred by his views from a friendly intercourse
with Darwin. He did much to spread a love of Natural History, more
especially by his seaside books, and by his introduction of the aquarium--
the popularity of which (as Mr. Edmund Gosse shows) is reflected in the
pages of "Punch," especially in John Leech's illustrations. Kingsley said
of him (quoted by Edmund Gosse, page 344) "Since White's "History of
Selborne" few or no writers on Natural History, save Mr. Gosse and poor Mr.
Edward Forbes, have had the power of bringing out the human side of
science, and giving to seemingly dry disquisitions...that living and
personal interest, to bestow which is generally the special function of the
poet." Among his books are the "Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica," 1851; "A
Naturalist's Rambles on the Devonshire Coast," 1853; "Omphalos," 1857; "A
Year at the Shore," 1865. He was also author of a long series of papers in
scientific journals.
-letter to.

Gould, on sex in nightingales.

Gower Street, Darwin's house in.

Gradation in plants.

Graft-hybrids, experiments on.
-of Cytisus.
-Hildebrand on.
-of potatoes.
-of sugar-canes.

Grafting, Darwin on.
-difficulty of.
-in hyacinth bulbs.

Graham's "Creed of Science."

Gramineae, Darwin on crossing.

Granite, explanation of association with basalt.

Grasses, range of genera.
-fertilisation of.
-F. Muller on Brazilian.

Gratiolet, on behaviour of eyes in rage.

Gravity, comparison between variation and laws of.

Gray, Asa (1810-88): was born in the township of Paris, Oneida Co., New
York. He became interested in science when a student at the Fairfield
Academy; he took his doctor's degree in 1831, but instead of pursuing
medical work he accepted the post of Instructor in Chemistry, Mineralogy,
and Botany in the High School of Utica. Gray afterwards became assistant
to Professor Torrey in the New York Medical School, and in 1835 he was
appointed Curator and Librarian of the New York Lyceum of Natural History.
From 1842 to 1872 he occupied the Chair of Natural History in Harvard
College, and the post of Director of the Cambridge Botanical Gardens; from
1872 till the time of his death he was relieved of the duties of teaching
and of the active direction of the Gardens, but retained the Herbarium.
Professor Gray was a Foreign Member of the Linnean and of the Royal
Societies. The "Flora of North America" (of which the first parts appeared
in 1838), "Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, the Botany
of Commodore Wilkes' South Pacific Exploring Expedition" are among the most
important of Gray's systematic memoirs; in addition to these he wrote
several botanical text-books and a great number of papers of first-class
importance. In an obituary notice written by Sir Joseph Hooker, Asa Gray
is described as "one of the first to accept and defend the doctrine of
Natural Selection..., so that Darwin, whilst fully recognising the
different standpoints from which he and Gray took their departures, and
their divergence of opinion on important points, nevertheless regarded him
as the naturalist who had most thoroughly gauged the "Origin of Species,"
and as a tower of strength to himself and his cause" ("Proc. R. Soc."
Volume XLVI., page xv, 1890: "Letters of Asa Gray," edited by Jane Loring
Gray, 2 volumes, Boston, U.S., 1893).
-articles by.
-as advocate of Darwin's views.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-on Hooker's Antarctic paper.
-on large genera varying.
-letters to Darwin from.
-letters to.
-on Darwin's views.
-plants of the Northern States.
-on variation.
-book for children by.
-on crossing.
-visits Down.
-on dimorphism.
-on Agassiz.
-extract from letter to G.F. Wright from.
-on fertilisation of Cypripedium.
-on Gymnadenia tridentata.
-on Habenaria.
-on Passiflora.
-on relative ranges of U. States and European species.
-on Sarracenia.

Gray, Mrs.

Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S. (1800-75): became an assistant to the
Natural History Department of the British Museum in 1824, and was
appointed Keeper in 1840. Dr. Gray published a great mass of zoological
work, and devoted himself "with unflagging energy to the development of
the collections under his charge." ("Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist." Volume XV.,
page 281, 1875.)
-and British Museum.

Greatest Happiness principle.

Grebes, as seed-eaters.

Greenland, absence of Arctic Leguminosae.
-connection with Norway.
-flora of.
-introduction of plants by currents.
-as line of communication of alpine plants.
-migration of European birds to.

Greg, W.R.: Author of "The Enigmas of Life," 1872.
-Darwin on his "Enigmas of Life."
-letter to.

Grey, Sir G., on Australian Savages.

Grinnell expedition, reference to the second.

Grisebach, A.

Grisebach, A.W.


Grouse, Natural Selection and colours of.
-Owen describes as distinct creation.

Grypotherium Darwini.
-G. domesticum.

Guiana, Bates on.

Gulf-weed, Darwin on.

Gully Dr.

Gunther, Dr., visit to Down.

Gurney, E., articles in "Fortnightly" and "Cornhill."
-"Power of Sound."

Gymnadenia, course of vessels in flower of.
-Asa Gray on.
-penetration by pollen of rostellum.

Gynodioecism in Plantago.

Haast, Sir Julius von, (1824-87): published several papers on the
Geology of New Zealand, with special reference to glacial phenomena.
("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXI., pages 130, 133, 1865; Volume
XXIII., page 342, 1867.)
-on glacial deposits.

Habenaria, Azorean species (see also Peristylus viridis).
-course of vessels in flower.
-Lord Farrer on.
-morphology of flower.
-H. bifolia, flowers.
-a subspecies of H. chlorantha.
-H. chlorantha, considered by Bentham a var. of H. bifolia.
-structure of ovary.

Hackel, E., convert to Darwin's views.
-"Generelle Morphologie."
-Die Kalkschwamme.
-"Freedom in Science and Teaching."
-letters to.
-on pangenesis.
-proposed translation of his book.
-on reviews of "Origin" in Germany.
-on sponges.
-substitutes a molecular hypothesis for pangenesis.
-visits Down.
-on absence of colour-protection in lower animals.
-on change of species.
-on Linope.
-on medusae.

Haematoxylon, bloom-experiments on.

Halictus, Fabre's paper on.

Halimeda, Darwin's description of.

Halleria, woody nature of.

Hallett, on varieties of wheat.

Hamilton, on fertilisation of Dampiera.

Hamilton, Sir W., on Law of Parsimony.

Hancock, Albany (1806-73): author of many zoological and palaeontological
papers. His best-known work, written in conjunction with Joshua Alder, and
published by the Ray Society is on the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
The Royal Medal was awarded to him in 1858.
-on British shells.
-and Royal medal.

Hanley, Dr., Darwin's visit to.

Harker, A., note on Darwin's work on cleavage and foliation.

Hartman, Dr., on Cicada septendecim.

"Harvesting Ants and Trap-door Spiders," Moggridge's.

Harvey, William Henry (1811-66): was the author of several botanical
works, principally on Algae; he held the botanical Professorship at
Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1857 succeeded Professor Allman in the
Chair of Botany in Dublin University. (See "Life and Letters," II.,
pages 274-75.)
-criticism of "Origin."
-Darwin's opinion of his book.
-letter to.
-on variation in Fucus.

Haughton, Samuel (1821-97): author of "Animal Mechanics, a Manual of
Geology," and numerous papers on Physics, Mathematics, Geology, etc. In
November 1862 Darwin wrote to Sir J.D. Hooker: "Do you know whether
there are two Rev. Prof. Haughtons at Dublin? One of this name has made
a splendid medical discovery of nicotine counteracting strychnine and
tetanus? Can it be my dear friend? If so, he is at full liberty for
the future to sneer [at] and abuse me to his heart's content."
Unfortunately, Prof. Haughtons' discovery has not proved of more
permanent value than his criticism on the "Origin of Species."
-on Bees' cells.
-on depth of ocean.
-review by.

Hawaiian Islands, Hillebrand's Flora.

Hawks and owls as agents in seed-dispersal.
-bright colours in female.

Head, expression in movement of.

Hearne, on black bear.

Heat, action on rocks.

Heathcote, Miss.

Heaths, as examples of boreal plants in Azores.
-and climate.

Heberden, Dr., mentioned.


Hedgehog, movements of spines.

Hedychium, Darwin's prediction as to fertilisation of.

Hedyotis, dimorphism of.

Hedysarum, Darwin's experiments on (see Desmodium gyrans).

Heer, Oswald (1809-83): was born at Niederutzwyl, in the Canton of St.
Gall, Switzerland, and for many years (1855-82) occupied the chair of
Botany in the University of Zurich. While eminent as an entomologist Heer
is chiefly known as a writer on Fossil Plants. He began to write on
palaeobotanical subjects in 1841; among his most important publications,
apart from the numerous papers contributed to scientific societies, the
following may be mentioned: "Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae," 1855-59; the
"Flora Fossilis Arctica," 7 volumes, 1869-83; "Die Urwelt der Schweiz,"
1865; "Flora Fossilis Helvetiae," 1876-7. He was awarded the Wollaston
medal of the Geological Society in 1874, and in 1878 he received a Royal
medal. (Oswald Heer, "Bibliographie et Tables Iconographiques," par G.
Malloizel, precede d'une Notice Biographique" par R. Zeiller; Stockholm.)
-on continental extension.
-on plants of Madeira.
-on origin of species from monstrosities.
-Darwin sends photograph to.
-"Flora fossilis arctica."
-letter to.

Heeria (see also Heterocentron).
-F. Muller on.

Heifers, and sterility.

Helianthemum, Baillon's observations on pollen.

Heligoland, birds alight on sea near.

Heliotropism, experiments on.
-of roots.

Hemsley, W.B., mentioned.


Henry, I.A. (see Anderson-Henry)
-letter to.

Henslow, Prof. J.S., life of.
-Darwin's affection for.
-Darwin's Cambridge recollections of.
-death of.
-letters to.
-on Mus messorius.
-visits Down.
-Darwin on his parish work.
-work on crossing.

Henslow, Miss, mentioned.

Herbaceous orders, in relation to trees.

Herbert, Dean, on heaths of S. Africa.
-on Polygala.
-on Cytisus Adami.
-on self-fertility of Hippeastrum.

"Hereditary Genius," Francis Galton's.

Hereditary Improvement, Francis Galton on.

Heredity, Darwin's criticism of Galton's theory.

Hermaphroditism, in trees.
-Weir on Lepidoptera and.
-and nature of generative organs.

Herminium monorchis.

Heron, Sir R., on peacocks and colour.

Herons, as fruit-feeders.

Herschel, Sir J.F.W., edits "Manual of Scientific Enquiry."
-on Natural Selection.
-on the "Origin."
-"Physical Geography."
-on providential laws.
-on heating of rocks.
-on importance of generalising.
-on study of languages.
-versus Lyell on volcanic islands.

Heteranthera, two kinds of stamens.
-H. reniformis.

Heterocentron, experiments on.
-seeds of.
-two kinds of stamens.
-H. roseum, fertilisation mechanism of.

Heterogeny, Owen on.

Heteromorphic, use of term.

Heterosmilax, de Candolle on.

Heterostylism, Darwin's experiments on.
-example in monocotyledons of.

Hewitt, on pheasant-hybrids.


Hicks, H., on pre-Cambrian rocks.

Hieracium, American species.
-Nageli on.
-variability of.

Highness, lowness and.

Hilaire, A. St., see St. Hilaire.

Hildebrand, F., article in "Botanische Zeitung."
-experiments on direct action of pollen.
-"Die Lebensdauer der Pflanzen."
-letter to.
-crossing work by.
-on Delpino's work.
-on dispersal of seeds.
-self-sterility in Corydalis cava.
-"Geschlechter-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen."
-on orchids.
-on ovules formed after pollination.
-experiment on potatoes.
-on Salvia.

Hilgendorf, controversy with Sandberger.

Hillebrand's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

"Himalayan Journals," dedicated by Hooker to Darwin.

"Himalayan Plants, Illustrations of."

Himalayas, British plants in.
-commingling of temperate and tropical plants.
-tortoise of.
-ice-action in.
-mixed character of the vegetation.

Hinde, Dr., examination of Funafuti coral-reef cores by.

Hindmarsh, L., letter to.

Hippeastrum, Herbert on self-sterility of.

Hippopotamus, fossil in Madagascar.

Historic spirit, J. Morley's criticism of Darwin's lack of.

Hitcham, collection of Azorean plants made near.

Hobhouse, Sir A., Darwin meets.

Hochberg, K., letter to.

Hofmann, A.W., receives royal medal.

Holland, evolutionary opinions in.
-flora of.

Holland, Sir H., on pangenesis.
-on influence of mind on circulation.

Holly, effective work of insects in fertilisation of.

Hollyhock, Darwin's crossing experiments.


Home, see Milne-Home.

Homing experiments.

Homo, Pithecus compared with.

Homology, analogy and.
-course of vessels in flowers as guide to.

Homomorphic, use of term.

Honeysuckle, oak-leaved variety.

Hooker, Mrs., assists Sir J.D. Hooker.

Hooker, Sir J.D., addresses at British Association meetings.
-on Arctic plants.
-Australian Flora by.
-botanical appointment.
-C.B. conferred upon.
-on coal plants and conditions of growth.
-criticism on Lyell's work.
-on Darwin's MS. on geographical distribution.
-Darwin's admiration for letters of.
-Darwin assisted in his work by.
-Darwin on good gained by "squabbles" with.
-Darwin on success of.
-enjoyment of correspondence with Darwin.
-expedition to Syria.
-extract from letter to.
-Falconer and.
-first meeting with Darwin.
-on Insular Floras.
-introductory essay to Flora of Tasmania.
-lecture at Royal Institution.
-letters to.
-letters to Darwin from.
-on new colonial flora.
-on New Zealand flora.
-on Natural Selection.
-on naturalised plants.
-on the "Origin."
-and Owen.
-on pangenesis.
-on plants of Fernando Po and Abyssinia.
-on preservation of tropical plants during cool period.
-and reviews.
-royal medal awarded to.
-and J. Scott.
-on species.
-on Torbitt's potato experiments.
-on use of terms centripetal and centrifugal.
-on variation in large and small genera.
-on Welwitschia.
-on Cameroon plants.
-Darwin on his address at Belfast.
-Darwin writes testimonial for.
-Darwin values scientific opinion of.
-Darwin receives encouragement from.
-Darwin's pleasure at visits from.
-on Glacial period.
-on Glacial deposits in India.
-on glaciers in Yorkshire.
-notice in "Gardeners' Chronicle" on.
-photograph by Mrs. Cameron.
-Primer of Botany by.
-review of Darwin's "Fertilisation of Orchids."
-scheme for Flora.
-represents "whole great public" to Darwin.
-use of structure in plants.
-visits Down.
-opinion of "Fur Darwin."

Hooker, Sir William Jackson (1785-1865): was called to the Chair of Botany
at Glasgow in 1820, where by his success as a teacher he raised the annual
fees from 60 pounds to 700 pounds. In 1841 he became Director of the Royal
Botanic Gardens at Kew, which under his administration increased enormously
in activity and importance. His private Herbarium, said to be "by far the
richest ever accumulated in one man's lifetime," formed the nucleus of the
present collection. He produced, as author or editor, about a hundred
volumes devoted to Botany ("Dict. of Nat. Biog.").
-Herbarium at Kew belonging to.
-letters to.

Hopkins, William, F.R.S. (1793-1866) entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, at
the age of thirty, and in 1827 took his degree as seventh wrangler. For
some years Hopkins was very successful as a mathematical tutor; about
1833 he began to take a keen interest in geological subjects, and
especially concerned himself with the effects of elevating forces acting
from below on the earth's crust. He was President of the Geological
Society in 1851 and 1852 ("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXIII., page
xxix, 1867).
-Article in "Fraser's Magazine."
-on elevation and earthquakes.
-on mountain-building.
-researches in physical geology.

Horner, Leonard, F.R.S. (1785-1862): was born in Edinburgh, at the age
of twenty-one he settled in London, and devoted himself more
particularly to Geology and Mineralogy, returning a few years later to
Edinburgh, where he took a prominent part in founding the School of Art
and other educational institutions. In 1827 Mr. Horner was invited to
occupy the post of Warden in the London University,a position which he
resigned in 1831; he also held for some years an Inspectorship of
Factories. As a Fellow of the Royal Society, Mr. Horner "took an active
part in bringing about certain changes in the management of the Society,
which resulted in limiting to fifteen the number of new members to be
annually elected..." In 1846 Horner was elected President of the
Geological Society; and in 1860 he again presided over the Society, to
the interests of which he had long devoted himself. His contributions
to the Society include papers on Stratigraphical Geology, Mineralogy,
and other subjects.--"Memoirs of Leonard Horner," edited by his
daughter, Katherine M. Lyell (privately printed, 1890).
-letters to.
-memoirs of.
-address to Geological Society.
-on coal.
-on Darwin's "Geological Observations."
-visits Down.

Horner, Mrs. L.

Horse, ancestry.
-Arab-Turk and English race-.
-hybrids between Quagga and.
-in N. and S. America.
-equality of sexes in race-.

Horsfall, W., letter to.

Hottonia, dimorphism of.

Hounds, gestation of.

Howard, L.O.

Hoya carnosa, Darwin's work on.

Humble-bees, as agents of fertilisation of orchids.

Humboldt, Bates' description of tropical forests compared with that by.
-conversation with.
-on heath regions.
-on migration and double creation.
-"Personal Narrative."
-on violet of Teneriffe.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-on elevation and volcanic activity.

Humboldt and Webb, on Zones on Teneriffe.

Hume, Darwin on Huxley's "Life" of.

Humming-birds, agents of fertilisation.

Hunger, expression by sheldrakes of.

Husbands, resemblance between wives and.

Hutton, Frederick Wollaston, F.R.S., formerly Curator of the Canterbury
Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand, author of "Darwinism and Lamarckism, Old
and New," London, 1899.
-letter to.
-review of "Origin."

Hutton, James, (1726-97): author of "Theory of the Earth."

Huxley, L., reference to his "Life of T.H. Huxley."
-information given by.

Huxley, Prof. T.H., biographical note, Volume I.
-Article in "Annals and Magazine" in reply to Falconer.
-on Aphis.
-on automatism.
-catalogue of collections in Museum of Practical Geology.
-comparative anatomy by.
-on Comte.
-on Cuvier's classification.
-Darwin's value of his opinion.
-election to the Athenaeum.
-friendship with Darwin.
-on growth of Darwin's views.
-lectures at the Royal Institution.
-lectures on evolution by.
-lectures to working men.
-legacy and gift to.
-letters to.
-"Life of Hume."
-"Man's Place in Nature."
-misrepresented by Owen.
-founds "Natural History Review."
-obituary notice of Darwin.
-on the "Origin of Species."
-on Owen's archetype book.
-president of the British Association meeting at Liverpool (1870).
-on Priestley.
-quoted by Lord Kelvin as an unbeliever in spontaneous generation.
-reviews by.
-review of "Vestiges of Creation" by.
-on Sabine's address.
-on saltus.
-prefatory note to Hackel's "Freedom in Science and Teaching."
-address to Geological Society (1869).
-on classification of man.
-on contemporaneity.
-on Catasetum.
-on deep-sea soundings.
-legacy from A. Rich.
-on Lyell's "Principles."
-on use of term physiological species.
-on vivisection.
-and H.N. Martin, "Elementary Biology" by.

Huxley, Mrs. T.H., queries on expression sent by Darwin to.
-observations on child crying.

Hyacinth, experiment on bulbs.

Hyatt, Alpheus (1838-1902): was a student under Louis Agassiz, to whose
Laboratory he returned after serving in the Civil War, and under whom he
began the researches on Fossil Cephalopods for which he is so widely known.
In 1867 he became one of the Curators of the Essex Institute of Salem,
Mass. In 1870 he was made Custodian, and in 1881 Curator of the Boston
Society of Natural History. He held professorial chairs in Boston
University and in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and "was at
one time or another officially connected with the Museum of Comparative
Zoology and the United States Geological Survey." See Mr. S. Henshaw
("Science," XV., page 300, February 1902), where a sketch of Mr. Hyatt's
estimable personal character is given. See also Prof. Dall in the "Popular
Science Monthly," February 1902.
-and Hilgendorf.
-letters to.
-letters to Darwin from.
-on tetrabranchiata.

Hyatt and Cope, theories of.

Hybridism, chapter in "Origin" on.
-Bentham's address on.
-treatment by Darwin in "Variation of Animals and Plants."

Hybrids, and adaptation.
-Darwin's views on.
-evidence in favour of pangenesis from.
-experiments on.
-fertility of.
-intermediate character of.
-primrose and cowslip.
-article in "Quarterly Review" on.
-sterility of.
-Max Wichura on.
-Bronn on.
-F. Muller's work on.
-and heterostyled plants.
-rarity of natural.
-J. Scott's work on.
-tendency to reversion.

Hydra, sexuality of.

Hydropathy, Darwin and.

Hydrozoa, alternation of generations in.

Hymenoptera, affinities of.
-H. Muller on.

Hypericum perforatum, a social plant in U.S.A.

Hyracotherium cuniculus, Owen on.

Iberis, mucus in seeds of.

Ice, as agent in dispersal of boulders.
-agent in dispersal of plants.
-Forbes on transport by.
-agent in lake-formation.
-cleavage in.
-work of, a new factor in geology.

Ice-action, on land and sea.

Icebergs, as factor in explaining European plants in Azores.
-Croll on action of.
-Darwin on.
-evidence in S. America of.
-Hopkins on action of.

Ice-cap, of Arctic regions.

Iceland, importance of records of volcanic phenomena in.

Ignorance, Darwin on immensity of man's.

Ilkley, Darwin's visit to.

Illegitimate offspring, need for repetition of Darwin's experiments on


Immortality, Darwin on.

Immutability of species.
-Falconer disbelieves in.
-Darwin on.

Imperfection of the Geological Record, see Geological Record.

Impotence in plants.
-see also Self-sterility.

India, British rule in.
-flora of.
-Hooker in.
-varieties of domestic animals in.
-H.F. Blanford on.
-Darwin on origin of lakes in.
-evidence of colder climate in.
-J. Scott accepts post in.

Infants, Mrs. E Talbot on development of mind in.
-observations on ears of.

Infusoria, possible occurrence in underclays of coal.

Inglis, Sir R., Darwin at breakfast party.

Inheritance, atavism and.
-conservative tendency of long.
-Hackel on.
-hypothesis on.
-Jager on.
-and Natural Selection.
-power of.
-J.C. Prichard on.
-and variability.
-Darwin on.
-Galton on.

Insanity, concealment of.

"Insect Life," Howard's.

Insectivorous plants, Darwin's work on.

Insects, alpine.
-Lord Avebury on.
-Bates on.
-of Madeira.
-F. Muller on metamorphosis of.
-Sharp's book on.
-study of habits more valuable than description of new species.
-Wollaston on.
-antiquity of stridulating organs in.
-colour and Sexual Selection.
-H. Muller's work on adaptation to fertilisation of flowers.
-metamorphosis of.
-music as attraction to.
-observation on fertilisation of flowers by.
-Ramsay on.
-Riley's work on.
-tropical climate and colours of.

Instinct, Darwin and.
-in nest-making.
-selection of varying.

Insular floras.
-Hooker's lecture on.

Insular forms, in Galapagos, Canaries and Madeira.
-beaten by continental forms.

Intelligence, meaning of.
-Romanes on Animal.
-in worms.

Intercrossing, in pigeons.
-Darwin on effects of.
-and sterility.

Interglacial periods, Darwin on evidence for.

Intermediate forms.
-Bates' paper on.
-S. American types as.
-crossing and frequent absence of.
-extinction of.
-Falconer on existence of.
-as fossils.
-Asa Gray on.
-Plagiaulax as evidence of.
-Wollaston on rarity in insects.

Introduced plants, Sonchus in New Zealand as example of.
-in N. America and Australia.
-variability of.
-Darwin on.

Introductory Essay to Tasmanian "Flora," Hooker's.

Ipswich, British Association meeting (1851).

Iquique, nitrate of soda beds at.

Ireland, Spanish plants in.

Iris, flowers of.
-nectar secretion of.

Islands, comparison between species of rising and sinking.
-fauna of.
-introduction of plants.
-products of.
-plants with irregular flowers on.
-subsidence of coral.
-survival of ancient forms in.
-comparison of age of continents and.
-former greater extension of.

"Island Life," Darwin's criticism of Wallace's.

Isle of Wight, occurrence of Bee-orchis in.

Isnardia palustris, range of.

Isolation, Bentham underestimates importance of.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-importance of.
-Wagner exaggerates importance of.
-Weismann on effects of.

Itajahy, F. Muller's narrow escape from flood of.

Italy, flora of.

Ivy, difference in growth of flowering and creeping branches.

Jaeger, G., letter to.
-on pangenesis and inheritance.

James', Sir H., discussion in "Athenaeum" on change of climate.
-map of the world.

James Island, Darwin's plants from.


Jamieson, W., on S. America.
-Darwin converted to glacial theory of Glen Roy after publication of
paper by.

Janet, on Natural Selection.

Japan, American types in.
-flora of.
-Gray's work on plants of.
-progress of.

Java, botanical relation to Africa.
-Alpine plants of.
-Wallace on.

Jays, Crows and.
-repeated pairing of.

Jeffreys, Gwyn, shells sent by Darwin to.

Jenkin, Fleeming, review by.

Jenners, taste for natural history in the.

Jenyns (Blomefield), Rev. Leonard: The following sketch of the life of
Rev. Leonard Blomefield is taken from his "Chapters in my Life; Reprint
with Additions" (privately printed), Bath, 1889. He was born, as he states
with characteristic accuracy, at 10 p.m., May 25th, 1800; and died at Bath,
September 1st, 1893. His father--a second cousin of Soame Jenyns, from
whom he inherited Bottisham Hall, in Cambridgeshire--was a parson-squire of
the old type, a keen sportsman, and a good man of business. Leonard
Jenyns' mother was a daughter of the celebrated Dr. Heberden, in whose
house in Pall Mall he was born. Leonard was educated at Eton and
Cambridge, and became curate of Swaffham Bulbeck, a village close to his
father's property; he was afterwards presented to the Vicarage of the
parish, and held the living for nearly thirty years. The remainder of his
life he spent at Bath. He was an excellent field-naturalist and a minute
and careful observer. Among his writings may be mentioned the Fishes in
"Zoology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle,'" 1842, a "Manual of British
Vertebrate Animals," 1836, a "Memoir" of Professor Henslow,1862, to which
Darwin contributed recollections of his old master, "Observations in
Natural History," 1846 and "Observations in Meteorology," 1858, besides
numerous papers in scientific journals. In his "Chapters" he describes
himself as showing as a boy the silent and retiring nature, and also the
love of "order, method, and precision," which characterised him through
life; and he adds, "even to old age I have been often called a VERY
PARTICULAR GENTLEMAN." In a hitherto unpublished passage in his
autobiographical sketch, Darwin wrote, "At first I disliked him from his
somewhat grim and sarcastic expression; and it is not often that a first
impression is lost; but I was completely mistaken, and found him very kind-
hearted, pleasant, and with a good stock of humour." Mr. Jenyns records
that as a boy he was by a stranger taken for a son of his uncle, Dr.
Heberden (the younger), whom he closely resembled.
-letters to.

Jodrell Laboratory, Darwin's interest in.
-note on.

Jordanhill, Smith of, on Gibraltar.

"Journal of Researches," Darwin's.

Judd, Prof. J.W., letter to.
-recollections of Darwin.
-on Darwin's "Volcanic Islands."
-Darwin in praise of work of.

Jukes, on imperfection of the Geological Record.
-on changes of climate.
-on formation of river-valleys.
-over estimates sub-aerieal denudation.

Jumps, variation by.

Juncus, range of.
-J. bufonius.
-variation of.
-germination of seed from mud carried by woodcock.

Jura, Darwin on erratic blocks of.

Jussieu, A. de.

Kane's, E.K., "Arctic Explorations," use of foxtails by Esquimaux
referred to in.

Kelvin, Lord, Address at the British Association Meeting at Edinburgh
-on geological time.
-on age of the earth.
-on origin of plant-life from meteorites.

Kemp, W., sends seeds to Darwin.
-on vitality of seeds.

Kensington, proposed removal of British Museum (Bloomsbury) collections

Kerguelen cabbage, Chambers versus Hooker on the.

Kerguelen island, coal-beds of.
-relation of flora to that of Fuegia.
-similarity between plants of S. America and of.
-importance of collecting fossil plants on.
-moth from.
-sea-shells of.
-volcanic mountain on.

Kerner, A. von Marilaun, on Tubocytisus.
-"Schutzmittel des Pollens."
-on xenogamy and autogamy.

Kerr, on frozen snow.

Kerr, Prof. Graham.

Kew, proposed consolidation of botanical collections at.
-rarity of insects and shells in Royal Garden.
-Darwin visits Garden.
-Darwin obtains plants from.
-Darwin sends seeds to.
-Jodrell, Laboratory at.
-struggle for existence at.
-suggestion that J. Scott should work in Garden.

Kilauea, lava in crater of.

Kilfinnin, shelves in valley of.

Kilima Njaro, plants of.

King, Captain, collection of plants by.
-"Voyages of the 'Adventure' and 'Beagle.'"

King, Sir George, reminiscences of J. Scott.
-Darwin receives seeds from.

King, Dr. Richard (1811?-1876): He was surgeon and naturalist to Sir
George Back's expedition (1833-5) to the mouth of the Great Fish River
in search of Captain Ross, of which he published an account. In 1850 he
accompanied Captain Horatio Austin's search expedition in the
-Arctic expedition.

Kingfisher, sexual difference in.

Kingsley, C., quoted in the "Origin."
-story of a heathen Khan.
-reference to E. Forbes and P.H. Gosse.

Kini Balu, vegetation of.

Kirby and Spence.

Klebs, on use of mucus in seeds.

Knight, A., on crossing.
-hybrid experiments.
-on sports.

Knight's Law.

Knight-Darwin Law, F. Darwin on.

Knuth, on morphology of cruciferous flower.

Koch's "Flora Germanica."

Kolliker, visits Down.

Kollmann, Dr., on atavism.

Kolreuter, on Aquilegia.
-on hybrids.
-observations on pollen.
-on self-fertilisation.
-on varieties of tobacco.

"Kosmos," F. Muller's article on Crotolaria.
-F. Muller's paper on Phyllanthus in.

Krause, E., letter to.
-memoir of Erasmus Darwin.
-memoir of H. Muller.


Kubanka, form of Russian wheat.

Kurr, on flowers of Canna.

La Plata, H.M.S. "Beagle's" visit to.
-Cervus of.
-Mylodon of.
-plants of.
-extinct animals from.
-slates and schists of.

Labellum, nature of.

Labiatae, large genera of.

Laboratory, Darwin on the instruments for botanical.
-founding of Jodrell.

Laburnum, peloric flowers of.
-Darwin on hybrid (see also Cytisus).

Ladizabala, crossing experiments on.

Lagerstraemia (Lagerstroemia), F. Muller on.

Lakes, Darwin on Ramsay's theory of.
-as agents in forming Parallel Roads of Glen Roy.
-of Friesland.
-Geological action of.
-Ramsay on.

Lamarck, Darwin on views of.

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