Part 10 out of 14
Beete-Jukes, alluded to in De la Beche's presidential address.
Beetles, bivalves distributed by.
-Forel's work on.
"Befruchtung der Blumen," H. Muller's, the outcome of Darwin's
"Fertilisation of Orchids."
Begonia, monstrous flowers.
-B. frigida, Hooker on.
Begoniaceae, genera of.
Behring Straits, spreading of plants from.
Belize, coral reefs near.
Bell, on Owen's "Edinburgh Review" article.
Bell, Sir C., "Anatomy of Expression."
Belt, T., on conspicuously coloured animals distasteful to birds.
-"The Naturalist in Nicaragua."
Ben Nevis, Ice-barrier under.
Benson, Miss, on Chalazogamy in Amentiferae.
Bentham, George (1800-83): son of Sir Samuel Bentham, and nephew of Jeremy,
the celebrated authority on jurisprudence. Sir Samuel Bentham was at first
in the Russian service, and afterwards in that of his own country, where he
attained the rank of Inspector-General of Naval Works. George Bentham was
attracted to botany during a "caravan tour" through France in 1816, when he
set himself to work out the names of flowers with De Candolle's "Flore
Francaise." During this period he entered as a student of the Faculte de
Theologie at Tours. About 1820 he was turned to the study of philosophy,
probably through an acquaintance with John Stuart Mill. He next became the
manager of his father's estates near Montpellier, and it was here that he
wrote his first serious work, an "Essai sur la Classification des Arts et
Sciences." In 1826 the Benthams returned to England, where he made many
friends, among whom was Dr. Arnott; and it was in his company that Bentham,
in 1824, paid a long visit to the Pyrenees, the fruits of which was his
first botanical work, "Catalogue des Plantes indigenes des Pyrenees, etc."
1826. About this time Bentham entered Lincoln's Inn with a view to being
called to the Bar, but the greater part of his energies was given to
helping his Uncle Jeremy, and to independent work in logic and
jurisprudence. He published his "Outlines of a New System of Logic"
(1827), but the merit of his work was not recognised until 1850. In 1829
Bentham finally gave up the Bar and took up his life's work as a botanist.
In 1854 he presented his collections and books (valued at 6,000 pounds) to
the Royal Gardens, Kew, and for the rest of his life resided in London, and
worked daily at the Herbarium. His work there began with the "Flora of
Hong Kong," which was followed by that of Australia published in 1867 in
seven volumes octavo. At the same time the "Genera Plantarum" was being
planned; it was begun, with Dr. Hooker as a collaborator, in 1862, and
concluded in 1883. With this monumental work his labours ended; "his
strength...suddenly gave way...his visits to Kew ended, and lingering on
under increasing debility, he died of old age on September 10th last"
The amount of work that he accomplished was gigantic and of the most
masterly character. In speaking of his descriptive work the writer (Sir
J.D. Hooker) of the obituary notice in "Nature" (October 2nd, 1884), from
which many of the above facts are taken, says that he had "no superior
since the days of Linnaeus and Robert Brown, and he has left no equal
except Asa Gray" ("Athenaeum," December 31st, 1850; "Contemporary Review,"
May, 1873; "George Bentham, F.R.S." By Sir J.D. Hooker, "Annals Bot."
Volume XII., 1898).
-address to Linnean Society.
-Darwin's criticism on address.
-extract from letter to.
-views on species and on "Origin."
-on fertilisation mechanism in Goodeniaceae.
-runs too many forms together.
-on Scott's Primula paper.
Berberis, Pfeffer on stamens.
Berkeley, Miles Joseph (1803-89): was educated at Rugby and Christ's
College, Cambridge; he took orders in 1827. Berkeley is described by
Sir William Thiselton-Dyer as "the virtual founder of British Mycology"
and as the first to treat the subject of the pathology of plants in a
systematic manner. In 1857 he published his "Introduction to
Cryptogamic Botany." ("Annals of Botany," Volume XI., 1897, page ix;
see also an obituary notice by Sir Joseph Hooker in the "Proc. Royal
Society," Volume XLVII., page ix, 1890.)
-experiments on saltwater and seed-dispersal.
-notice of Darwin's work by.
Bermudas, American plants in.
Berzelius, on flints.
Bhootan, Rhododendron Boothii from.
Bible, chronology of.
Biffen, R., potato grafts.
Bignonia, F. Muller's paper on.
-B. capreolata, tendrils of.
Binney, Edward William F.R.S. (1812-81): contributed numerous papers to the
Royal, Palaeontographical, Geological, and other Societies, on Upper
Carboniferous and Permian Rocks; his most important work deals with the
internal structure of Coal-Measure plants. In a paper "On the Origin of
Coal," published in the "Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and
Philosophical Society," Volume VIII., page 148, in 1848, Binney expressed
the view that the sediments of the Coal Period were marine rather than
estuarine, and were deposited on the floor of an ocean, which was
characterised by a "uniformity and shallowness unknown" in any oceanic area
of the present day.
-on marshes of Coal period.
-on coal and coal plants.
Biogenesis, Huxley's address on abiogenesis and.
Biology, Huxley's "Course of Practical Instruction" in.
Biology of plants, Hooker's scheme for a Flora, with notes on.
Birds, as agents of dispersal of plants.
-blown to Madeira.
-climate and effect on American.
-comparison with mammals.
-as isolated groups.
-Andrew Murray on Wallace's theory of nests.
-Wallace's theory of nests.
-agents in dispersal of land-molluscs.
-antics during courtship.
-courtesy towards own image.
-expression of fear by erection of feathers.
-means of producing music.
-spurs on female.
-proportion of sexes.
-sexual selection and colour.
-attracted by singing of bullfinch.
-tameness in Brazilian species.
-occurrence of unpaired.
-Weir's observations on.
Bird of paradise, and polygamy.
Birmingham, British Association meeting (1849).
Bivalves, means of dispersal of freshwater.
Bizcacha, burrowing animal of Patagonia.
Blackbird, variation in tufted.
Blair, Rev. R.H., observations on the blind.
Blake, paper on Elephants in "Geologist."
Blanford, H.F., on an Indo-oceanic continent.
Blanford, W.T., obituary notice of Neumayr by.
Blind, expression of those born.
Blomefield, L., see Jenyns, L.
Bloom, Darwin's work on.
-F. Darwin on connection between stomata and (see also Darwin, F.)
-effect of rain on.
-on leaf of Trifolium resupinatum.
-protection against parasites.
-on seashore plants.
Blow-fly, Lowne on the.
Blyth, Edward (1810-73): distinguished for his knowledge of Indian birds
and mammals. He was for twenty years Curator of the Museum of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal, a collection which was practically created by
his exertions. Gould spoke of him as "the founder of the study" of
Zoology in India. His published writings are voluminous, and include,
in addition to those bearing his name, numerous articles in the "Field,
Land and Water," etc., under the signature "Zoophilus" or "Z." He also
communicated his knowledge to others with unsparing generosity, yet--
doubtless the chief part of his "extraordinary fund of information" died
with him. Darwin had much correspondence with him, and always spoke of
him with admiration for his powers of observation and for his judgment.
The letters to Blyth have unfortunately not come into our hands. The
indebtedness of Darwin to Blyth may be roughly gauged by the fact that
the references under his name in the index to "Animals and Plants"
occupy nearly a column. For further information about Blyth see Grote's
introduction to the "Catalogue of Mammals and Birds of Burma, by the
late E. Blyth" in the "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," Part
II., Extra number, August 1875; also an obituary notice published at the
time of his death in the "Field." Mr. Grote's Memoir contains a list of
Blyth's writings which occupies nearly seven pages of the "Journal." We
are indebted to Professor Newton for calling our attention to the
sources of this note.
-reference to letter from.
Blytt, Axel Gudbrand (1843-98): the son of the well-known systematist M.N.
Blytt. He was attached to the Christiania Herbarium in 1865, and in 1880
became Professor of Botany in the University. His best-known work is the
essay referred to above, but he was also known for purely systematic work
in Botany as well as for meteorological and geological contributions to
science. The above facts are taken from C. Holtermann's obituary notice in
the "Berichte der Deutschen Bot. Gesell." Volume XVII., 1899.
-essay on immigration of Norwegian flora during alternating rainy and
Boiler, comparison with volcano.
Boissier, on plants of S. Spain.
Boissiera, crossing experiments on.
Bolbophyllum, Darwin's account of.
Bolivia, geology of.
Bollaert's "Antiquities of S. America."
Bombus, diversity in generative organs.
-Psithyrus in nests of.
-Pollen-collecting apparatus of male.
Bombycilla, protective colours.
Bombyx, sexes in.
Bonaparte, L., on Basque and Finnish language.
Bonatea speciosa, F. Muller on.
-structure of flower.
Bonney's Edition of Darwin's "Coral Reefs."
-"Charles Lyell and Modern Geology."
Bonnier, G., on alpine plants.
Boragineae, dimorphism in.
Borneo, New Zealand and Australian plants in.
-temperate plants in lowlands.
-possible region for remains of early man.
Bory's Flora of Bourbon.
Bosquet, cirripede monograph sent by Darwin to.
-gives Darwin note on fossil Chthamalus.
Botanical collections (national) consolidation at Kew.
Botanist, Darwin as.
Botany, philosophical spirit in study of.
Boulders, transport of erratic (see also Erratic blocks).
-Darwin on Ashley Heath.
-in Glen Roy.
-on Moel Tryfan.
Bourbon, Bory's Flora of.
Bournemouth, Darwin's visit to.
Bovey Tracey, Heer on fossil plants of.
Bower, Prof. F.O., on Welwitschia.
Bower-bird, Bartlett's experiments on.
-colours discriminated by.
Bowman, W., Letters to.
-supplies Darwin with facts on Expression.
Brachiopods, Morse on.
Bradshaw, H., translation of Hebrew letter by.
Brain, Owen on.
-evolution in man.
-Wallace on Natural Selection and Evolution of.
Branchipus, Schmankewitsch's experiments on.
Branta, mentioned in reference to nomenclature of Barnacles.
Brassica sinapistrum, germination at Down of old seeds.
Braun, A., convert to Darwin's views.
Bravais, on lines of old sea-level in Finmark.
Brazil, L. Agassiz's book on.
-Agassiz on glacial phenomena in.
-F. Muller's residence in.
-plants on mountains of.
-basalt in association with granite.
-Darwin on origin of lakes in.
-dimorphism of plants in S.
Bree, Dr., on Celts.
Breeders, views on Selection held by.
Breeding, chapter in "Origin" on.
Brehm, on birds.
Brewster, Sir D., on Glen Roy.
Brinton, Dr., attends Darwin.
Meetings: Belfast (1874), Birmingham (1849), Cambridge (1862), Ipswich
(1851), Leeds (1858), Liverpool (1870), Manchester (1861), Norwich
(1868), Nottingham (1866), Oxford (1847), Oxford (1860), Southampton
(1846), Swansea (1880), York (1881).
Addresses: Berkeley, Fawcett, Hooker, Hooker on Insular Floras, (see
also Hooker, Sir J.D.), Huxley on Abiogenesis, Lord Kelvin, Wallace on
British Association, Committee for investigation of Coral Atoll by
British Medical Association, undertakes defence of Dr. Ferrier.
British Museum, disposal of Botanical Collections.
Brodie, Sir Benjamin.
Brongniart, Ad., on Sigillaria.
Bronn, H.G., Letter to.
-on German translation of "Origin."
-reference in his translation of "Origin" to tails of mice as difficulty
opposed to Natural Selection.
-on Natural Selection.
-"Naturgeschische der drei Reiche."
Brougham, Lord, on Structure of Bees' cells.
-habit of writing everything important three times.
Brown, H.T., and F. Escombe, on vitality of seeds.
-on influence of varying amounts of CO2 on plants.
Brown, R., accompanies Flinders on Australian voyage.
-dilatoriness over King's collection.
-on course of vessels in orchid flowers.
-seldom indulged in theory.
Brulle, Gaspard-Auguste (1809-73): held a post in the Natural History
Museum, Paris, from 1833 to 1839; on leaving Paris he occupied the chair
of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at Dijon. ("Note sur la Vie et les
Travaux Entomologiques d'Auguste Brulle" by E. Desmarest. "Ann. Soc.
Entom." Volume II., page 513.)
-reference to work by.
-his pupils' eagerness to hear Darwin's views.
Brunonia, Hamilton on fertilisation mechanism.
Brunton, Sir T. Lauder, letters to.
-letter to Darwin from.
Brydges and Anderson, collection of S. American plants.
Bryophyllum calycinum, Duval-Jouve and F. Muller on movements of leaves.
Bryozoa, specimens found during voyage of "Beagle."
Buch, von, on craters of Albermarle I.
-Darwin's disbelief in his views.
-"Travels in Norway."
Buckland, William (1784-1856): became a scholar of Corpus Christi
College, Oxford, in 1801; in 1808 he was elected Fellow and ordained
priest. Buckland travelled on horseback over a large part of the
south-west of England, guided by the geological maps of William Smith.
In 1813 he was appointed to the Chair of Mineralogy at Oxford, and soon
afterwards to a newly created Readership in Geology. In 1823 the
"Reliquiae Diluvianae" was published, a work which aimed at supporting
the records of revelation by scientific investigations. In 1824
Buckland was President of the Geological Society, and in the following
year he left Oxford for the living of Stoke Charity, near Whitchurch,
Hampshire. "The Bridgewater Treatise" appeared in 1836. In 1845
Buckland was appointed Dean of Westminster; he was again elected
president of the Geological Society in 1840, and in 1848 he received the
Wollaston medal. An entertaining account of Buckland is given in Mr.
Tuckwell's "Reminiscences of Oxford," London, 1900, page 35, with a
reproduction of the portrait from Gordon's "Life of Buckland."
-on Glen Roy.
Buckle, Darwin reads book by.
Buckman, on N. American plants.
Buckman, Prof., experiments at Cirencester.
Bud, propagation by.
-Hooker's use of term.
Buenos-Ayres, fossils sent by Darwin from.
Bull-dog, as example of Design.
Bullfinch, experiment on colouring.
-attracted by German singing-bird.
-Weir on pairing.
Bunbury, Sir Charles James Fox, Bart. (1809-85): was born at Messina in
1809, and in 1829 entered Trinity College, Cambridge. At the end of 1837
he went with Sir George Napier to the Cape of Good Hope, and during a
residence there of twelve months Bunbury devoted himself to botanical
field-work, and afterwards (1848) published his "Journal of a Residence at
the Cape of Good Hope." In 1844 Bunbury married the second daughter of Mr.
Leonard Horner, Lady Lyell's sister.
In addition to several papers dealing with systematic and geographical
Botany Bunbury published numerous contributions on palaeobotanical
subjects, a science with which his name will always be associated as one
of those who materially assisted in raising the study of Fossil Plants
to a higher scientific level. His papers on fossil plants were
published in the "Journal of the Geological Society" between 1846 and
1861, and shortly before his death a collection of botanical
observations made in South Africa and South America was issued in book
form in a volume entitled "Botanical Fragments" (London, 1883). Bunbury
was elected into the Royal Society in 1851, and from 1847 to 1853 he
acted as Foreign Secretary to the Geological Society. "Life, Letters,
and Journals of Sir Charles J.F. Bunbury, Bart." edited by his wife
Frances Joanna Bunbury, and privately printed. (Undated.)
-Darwin's opinion of.
-views on Evolution.
-on Agassiz's statements on glaciation of Brazil.
-on plants of Madeira.
Bunsen, Copley medal awarded to.
Burbidge, F.W., on Malaxis.
Busk, G., visit to the Continent with Falconer.
-on caves of Gibraltar.
Butler, A.G., identification of butterflies.
Butler, Dr., Darwin at Shrewsbury School under.
Butterflies, attracted by colours.
-colour and sexual selection.
-description by Darwin of ticking.
Butterfly-orchis, (see also Habenaria.)
Cabbage, Darwin's work on.
-effect of salt water on.
-Pinguicula and seeds of.
-sleep-movements of cotyledons.
-waxy secretion on leaves.
Caddis-flies, F. Muller on abortion of hairs on legs of.
Caenonympha, breeding in confinement.
Caird, on Torbitt's potato experiments.
Calcutta, J. Scott's position in Botanic Garden.
Callidryas philea, and Hedychium.
Callithrix Sciureus, wrinkling of eyes during screaming.
Calluna vulgaris, in Azores.
Cambrian, piles of unconformable strata below.
Cambridge, Darwin and Henslow.
-Honorary LL.D. given to Darwin.
-Darwin's recollections of.
-Philosophical Society meeting.
-specimens of Darwin's plants in Botanical Museum.
Camel, Cuvier's statement on teeth.
-in N. America.
Cameroons, commingling of temperate and tropical plants.
-Hooker on plants of.
Campanula, fertilisation mechanism.
-C. perfoliata, note by Scott on.
Campanulaceae, crossing in.
Campbell Island, flora.
Campodea, Lord Avebury on.
Canada, Sir William Dawson's work.
Canaries, fertility of hybrids.
-wildness of hybrids.
Canary Islands, flora.
-Madeira formerly connected with.
-relation to Azores and Madeira.
-African affinity of eastern.
-Von Buch on.
-Trunks of American trees washed on shores of.
Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus De (1806-93): was the son of
Augustin Pyramus, and succeeded his father as Professor of Botany at
Geneva in 1835. He resigned his Chair in 1850, and devoted himself to
research for the rest of his life. At the time of his father's death,
in 1841, seven volumes of the "Prodromus" had appeared: Alphonse
completed the seventeenth volume in 1873. In 1855 appeared his
"Geographie botanique raisonnee," "which was the most important work of
his life," and if not a precursor, "yet one of the inevitable
foundation-stones" of modern evolutionary principles. He also wrote
"Histoire des Savants," 1873, and "Phytographie," 1880. He was lavish
of assistance to workers in Botany, and was distinguished by a dignified
and charming personality. (See Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer's obituary in
"Nature," July 20th, 1893, page 269.)
-on influence of climate.
-on extinction of plants in cultivated land.
-on introduced plants.
-on naturalised plants and variation.
-review by Asa Gray of.
-on relation of size of families to range of species.
-on social plants.
Candolle, C. de, on latent life in seeds.
Canestrini, on proportion of sexes in Bombyx.
Canna, fertilisation of.
Cape of Good Hope (see also Africa).
-Australian flora compared with that of.
-variable heaths of.
-Darwin's geological observations on metamorphism at.
-European element in flora.
-Meyer and Doege on plants of.
Cape Tres Montes, the "Beagle's" southern limit.
Caprification, F. Muller in "Kosmos" on.
Capsella bursa-pastoris, cross-fertilisation of.
Carabus, origin of.
-A. Murray on.
Carbon dioxide, percentage in atmosphere.
Carboniferous period, glacial action.
Cardamine, quasi-bulbs on leaves.
Carduelis elegans, length of beak.
Carices, of Greenland.
Carlisle, Sir A., on Megatherium.
Carlyle, Mrs., remark on Owen.
Carmichael, on Tristan d'Acunha.
Carnarvonshire, Darwin on glaciers of.
Caroline Islands, want of knowledge on flora.
Carpenter, Dr., on influence of blood in crossing.
Carrier-pigeon (see Pigeon), preference for certain colours in pairing.
Carrot, flowers of.
Carruthers, W., on potato experiments.
Carter, H.J., on reproduction of lower animals and foreshadowing of
Carus, Professor Victor: translated several of Mr. Darwin's books into
German (see "Life and Letters, III., page 48).
Casarea, a snake peculiar to Round Island.
Case, G., Darwin at school of.
Cassia, Darwin's experiments on.
-sleep-movements of leaves.
-two kinds of stamens.
-Todd on flowers of.
Cassini, observations on pollen.
-on ovaries of Compositae.
Castes, Galton on.
Catasetum, fertilisation of.
-Huxley's scepticism as to mechanism of.
-morphology of flower.
-sexual forms of.
-C. saccatum, flower of.
-C. tridentatum, three sexual forms.
Caterpillars, colour and protection.
-experiments by Weir.
Cats, Belgian society to encourage homing of.
Cattell, on crossing sweet peas.
Cattleya, Darwin suggests experiments on.
Caucasus, wingless insects of.
Cauquenes, baths of.
Cave-fish, reference in the "Origin" to blind.
Caves, animals in Australian.
Cavia, specimens collected by Darwin.
Ceara Mountains, L. Agassiz on glaciers of.
Cebus, expression when astonished.
Cecidomyia, ancestor of.
Cedars, Hooker on.
Celebes, geographical distribution in.
Celosia, experiment on.
Celts, Bree on.
Centipedes, luminosity of.
Centradenia, two sets of stamens in.
-position of pistil.
-C. grandiflora, fertilisation mechanism.
Cephalopods, Hyatt on embryology of.
-Hyatt on fossil.
Cervus campestris, of La Plata.
Cetacea, Lyell on.
Ceylon, Malayan types in.
-former connection with Africa.
-dimorphic plants of.
Chaffinch, courtship of.
Chalazal fertilisation, Miss Benson on.
-foreshadowed by Darwin.
Chalk, occurrence of Angiosperms in.
-as oceanic deposit.
"Challenger" (H.M.S.), reports reviewed by Huxley.
-account of sedimentation in.
Chambers, Robert (1802-71): began as a bookseller in Edinburgh in 1816, and
from very modest beginnings he gradually increased his business till it
became the flourishing publishing firm of W. & R. Chambers. After writing
several books on biographical, historical and other subjects, Chambers
published anonymously the "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" in
1844; in 1848 his work on "Ancient Sea Margins" appeared; and this was
followed by the "Book of Days" and other volumes. ("Dict. Nat. Biog."
1887; see also Darwin's "Life and Letters," I., pages 355, 356, 362, 363.)
-announced as author of "Vestiges of Creation."
-on derivation of marine from land and fresh-water organisms.
-on Glen Roy.
-on land-glaciation of Scotland.
-letter to Milne-Home from.
-on scepticism of scientific men.
Chance, use of term.
Chandler, S.E. (see Farmer, J.B.)
Changed conditions, Schmankewitsch's experiments on effect of.
Charles Island, Darwin's plants from.
Charlock, germination of old seeds.
Chatham Island, Darwin's collection of plants from.
Checks, use of artificial.
Chemotaxis, foreshadowed by Carter.
Childhood, Charles Darwin's.
Children, Darwin on.
-experiment on emotions of.
-coloured compared with white.
-comparison between those of educated and uneducated parents.
-development of mind.
-intelligence of monkeys and.
Chili, elevation of coast.
-plants common to New Zealand and.
-Darwin on earthquakes and terraces in.
Chillingham cattle, Darwin and Hindmarsh on.
Chiloe, description of.
-plants on mountains.
China, expedition to.
Chinese, explanation of affinities with Mexicans.
"Chips from a German Workshop," Max Muller's.
Chloeon dimidiatum, Lord Avebury on.
Chlorite, segregation of.
Chlorophyll, Darwin's work on action of carbonate of ammonia on.
Chonos Islands, Darwin's collections of plants from.
-Darwin's account of.
Christy, Miller, on oxlip.
Chthamalus, in the chalk.
Cicada, experiments on eggs.
-Muller on rivalry of.
-C. septendecim, Sharp's account of.
Cinchona, Hooker on different rates of growth in seedlings.
Circumnutation, F. Muller's observations on.
Cirripedes, see Barnacles.
Cistus, hybridism of.
Citrus, unequal cotyledons.
Civilisation, effect on savages.
Claparede, convert to Darwin's views.
-and Mdlle. Royer.
Clapperton's "Scientific Meliorism," letter of Gaskell in.
Clark, on classification of sponges.
Clark, Sir James (1788-1870): was for some years a medical officer in
the Navy; he afterwards practised in Rome till he moved to London in
1826. On the accession of Queen Victoria he was made Physician in
Ordinary and received a baronetcy; he was elected into the Royal Society
in 1832. ("Dict. Nat. Biog." 1857; article by Dr. Norman Moore.)
-on Glen Roy.
Clarke, W.B., "Wreck of the 'Favourite.'"
Clarkia, two kinds of stamens.
Classification, Bentham on.
-Dana on mammalian.
-Darwin and Huxley on.
-value of reproductive organs in.
Clay-slate, metamorphism of.
Cleavage and foliation.
-Darwin on his work on.
-history of work on.
-parallelism of foliation and.
-relation to stratification.
-relation to rock-curves.
-uniformity of foliation and.
-result of chemical action.
-lines of incipient tearing form planes of.
-Tyndall on Sorby's observations.
Cleistogamic flowers, fertilisation.
-of Oxalis and Viola.
-comparison with Termites.
Clematis, Darwin's error in work on.
-Darwin's experiments on.
Clematis glandulosa, identified at Down by power of feeling.
Cleodora, specific differences in.
Clethra, absence in Azores.
-remnant of Tertiary Flora.
Clift, William (1775-1849): Conservator of the Museum of the Royal College
-on fossil bones from Australia.
-Owen assistant to.
Climate, changes in.
-effect on species.
-effect on species of birds.
-migration of organisms and change in.
-relation to distribution and structure of plants.
-extinct mammals as evidence of change in.
-and sexual differentiation.
-Lyell on former.
Climbing Plants, Darwin's work on.
-F. Muller's work on.
Clivia, Scott's work on.
Clodd's memoir of Bates.
Close species, absence of intermediate forms between.
-Asa Gray on.
-in warm temperate lands of N. and S. hemispheres.
-relation to flora of N. America.
Clover, relation between bees and.
Club, dinner at Linnean.
Coal, Darwin on origin of.
-Lesquereux on the flora of.
-marine marshes and plants of.
Coal period, higher percentage of CO2 during.
Coast-lines, parallelism with lines of volcanoes.
Cobbe, Miss, article in "Theological Review" on "Descent of Man."
Cockburn Island, boulders from.
Cochin hen, experiments on.
Coelogyne, fertilisation mechanism.
Coffea arabica, seeds with two embryos.
Cohn, F., notice in "Cornhill" of his botanical work.
Colenso, on Maori races of New Zealand.
Coleoptera, apterous form of Madeira.
-colonisation of ants' nests by.
Colias edusa, wings of.
Collecting, Darwin's early taste for.
Collier, Hon. John: Royal Academician, son-in-law to Professor Huxley.
-Art primer by.
-portrait of Darwin by.
Collingwood, Dr., on mimetic forms.
Colonisation, conditions of.
Coloration, Walsh on unity of.
Colour, butterflies attracted by.
-mimicry in butterflies by means of.
-of dioecious flowers.
-and fertilisation of flowers.
-in grouse, and Natural Selection.
-in male birds, not simply due to Natural Selection.
-Darwin's work on.
-Darwin differs from Wallace in views on.
-experiments on birds.
-Hackel on lower animals and.
-relation to sex.
-in seeds and fruits.
-and Sexual Selection.
-sense of, in children.
Columba aenas, habits of.
-C. livia, descent of pigeons from.
Combs, bees', (see also Bees).
Comparative anatomy, Huxley's book on.
Compensation, belief of botanists in.
Compiler, Darwin's opinion of a.
Compositae, Harvey on.
-Masters' reference to.
-Darwin on crossing.
-Hildebrand on dispersal of seeds.
-viscid threads of seeds.
Comte, Huxley on.
Concepcion Island, geology of.
-Darwin's account of earthquake.
Conchoderma, in reference to nomenclature.
Concretions, origin of.
Conditions of life, effect on animals and plants.
-effect on elephants.
-effect on reproductive system.
-importance in maintaining number of species.
-species and changes in.
-variability depends more on nature of organisms than on.
Confervae and sexuality.
Coniferae, abundant in humid temperate regions.
Conscience, Morley on Darwin's treatment of.
Conspectus crustaceorum, Dana's.
Constancy, in abnormally developed organs.
Contemporaneity, Darwin on.
Continental elevation, volcanic eruptions and.
Continental extension, Darwin on.
-evidence in favour of.
-and means of distribution.
-New Zealand and.
Continental forms, versus insular.
Continents, inhabitants of islands and.
-Wallace on sinking imaginary.
Controversy, Darwin's hatred and avoidance of.
Convallaria majalis, in Virginia.
Convolvulus, supposed dimorphism of.
Cooling of crust, disagreement among physicists as to rate.
Cope, Edward Drinker (1840-97): was for a short time Professor at Haverford
College; he was a member of certain United States Geological Survey
expeditions, and at the time of his death he held a Professorship in the
University of Pennsylvania. He wrote several important memoirs on
"Vertebrate Paleontology," and in 1887 published "The Origin of the
-and Hyatt, theories of.
Copley medal, Darwin and the.
-Falconer, and Darwin's.
-Lindley considered for the.
-awarded to Lyell.
-awarded to Bunsen.
-Darwin describes letter from Hooker as a.
Coquimbo, Darwin visits.
Coral islands, and subsidence.
Coral reefs, Darwin's work on.
-Bonney's edition of Darwin's book on.
-A. Agassiz on.
-conditions of life of polyps.
-solution by CO2 of.
Coral tree, (see Erythrina).
Corallines, nature of.
Cordiaceae, dimorphism in.
Cordilleras, glaciers of.
-high-road for plants.
-comparison between Glen Roy and terraces of.
-Darwin on earth-movements of.
-volcanic activity and elevation.
Coronilla, Lord Farrer on.
Coryanthes, "beats everything in orchids."
Corydalis, Hildebrand shows falsity of idea of self-fertilisation of.
-C. cava, Hildebrand on self-sterility of.
-C. claviculata, tendrils of.
-C. tuberosa, possible case of reversion in floral structure.
"Cottage Gardener," Darwin offers reward for Hyacinth grafts.
Cotyledons, Darwin's experiments on.
Counterbalance, Watson on divergent variation and.
Cowslips, Primroses and.
-Darwin's experiments on artificial fertilisation.
-loss of dimorphism.
Craig Dhu, shelves of.
Craters, in Galapagos Island.
-of denudation, Lyell on.
Crawford, John (1783-1868): Orientalist, Ethnologist, etc. Mr. Crawford
wrote a review on the "Origin," which, though hostile, was free from
bigotry (see "Life and Letters," II., page 237).)
Creation, acts of.
-of species as eggs.
-Romanes on individual.
Creation-by-variation, doctrine of.
"Creed of Science," Graham's.
Cresy, E., letters to.
Cretaceous flora, Heer on Arctic.
Crick, W.D., letter to.
Crinum, crossing experiments on.
-C. passiflora, fertility of.
Crocker, W., work on hollyhocks.
Croll, James (1821-90): was born at Little Whitefield, in Perthshire.
After a short time passed in the village school, he was apprenticed as a
wheelwright, but lack of strength compelled him to seek less arduous
employment, and he became agent to an insurance company. In 1859 he was
appointed keeper in the Andersonian University and Museum, Glasgow. His
first contribution to science was published in the "Philosophical Magazine"
for 1861, and this was followed in 1864 by the essay "On the Physical Cause
of the Change of Climate during the Glacial Period." From 1867 to 1881 he
held an appointment in the department of the Geological Survey in
Edinburgh. In 1876 Croll was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. His
last work, "The Philosophical Basis of Evolution," was published in the
year of his death. ("Nature," Volume XLIII., page 180, 1891.)
-Darwin on his theory.
-on icebergs as grinding agents.
-Lyell on his theory.
-on sub-aerial denudation.
Crookes, Sir W., on spiritualism.
"Cross and Self-fertilisation," Darwin's book on.
Cross-fertilisation, Darwin's experiments on self- and.
-check to endless variability.
-Darwin states that as a rule flowers described as adapted to self-
fertilisation are really adapted to.
-of inconspicuous flowers.
-all plants require occasional.
-small advantages when confined to same plant.
Crosses, fertility and sterility of.
Crossing, agreement between Darwin's and breeders' views.
-Darwin's views on.
-in animals and plants.
-influence of blood in.
-intermediate character of results.
-Natural Selection and disinclination towards.
-of primroses and cowslips.
-Westphalian pig and English boar.
-botanists' work on.
-pains taken by Nature to ensure.
-in individuals of same species.
-F. Muller compliments Darwin on his chapter on.
-and separate sexes in trees.
Cruciferae, action of fungus on roots.
Cruciferous flower, morphology.
Cruger, Dr., on cleistogamic fertilisation of Epidendrum.
-on fertilisation of figs.
-on pollinia of Acropera.
-on fertilisation of orchids.
Crustacea, comparison of classification of mammals and.
-F. Muller on.
Crying, action of children in.
-wrinkling of eyes in.
Crystal Palace, Darwin's visit to.
Crystals, separation in lava-magmas.
Cucurbita, seeds and seedlings of.
Cucurbitaceae, Dr. Wight on.
Cultivated plants, Darwin's work on.
Cultivation and self-sterility.
Cuming, on Galapagos Islands.
Cupuliferae, A. de Candolle on.
Curculionidae, Schoenherr's catalogue.
Currents, as means of dispersal.
Cuvier, on camels' teeth.
Cybele, H.C. Watson's.
Cycadaceae, supposed power to withstand excess of CO2.
Cyclops (H.M.S.) dredging by.
Cynips, dimorphism in.
Cypripedium, fertilisation mechanism.
Cyrena, range and variability.
Cytisus Adami, Darwin on.
-C. laburnum, graft-hybrids between C. purpureus and.
-J.J. Weir on.
Cyttarogenesis, suggested substitute for pangenesis.
Dallas, W.S., translator of F. Muller's "Fur Darwin."
Dampiera, Hamilton on fertilisation mechanism.
Dana, James Dwight (1813-95): published numerous works on Geology,
Mineralogy, and Zoology. He was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal
Society in 1877, and elected a foreign member in 1884.
-Darwin's opinion of.
-on classification of mammalia.
-Darwin's criticism of.
-Lyell on his claims for Royal Society foreign list.
-volume on geology in Wilkes' Reports.
Dareste, C., letter to.
Darwin, Annie: Charles Darwin's daughter.
Darwin, Bernard: Charles Darwin's grandson, observations on, as a child.
Darwin, Caroline (1800-99): Charles Darwin's sister.
-Charles Darwin's early recollections of.
Darwin, Catherine (1810-66): Charles Darwin's sister.
Darwin, Charles, boyhood.
-went to Mr. Case's school.
-went to Shrewsbury School.
-abused as an atheist.
-Collier's picture of.
-complains of little time for reading.
-contribution to Henslow's biography.
-Copley medal awarded to.
-engagement to Miss Emma Wedgwood.
-Falconer's list of scientific labours of.
-first meeting with Hooker.
-friendship with Huxley.
-on Gray's work on distribution.
-growth of his evolutionary views.
-honorary degree at Cambridge.
-intimacy with Hooker.
-Judd's recollections of.
-letters to "Nature."
-friendship with F. Muller.
-prefatory note to Meldola's translation of Weismann.
-recollections of Cambridge.
-relation between J. Scott and.
-review on Bates.
-attends meeting of Royal Society.
-slowness in giving up old beliefs.
-tendency to restrict interest to Natural History.
-and the "Vestiges."
-book on S. American Geology.
-pleasure in angling.
-on making blunders.
-slight knowledge of Botany.
-love of children.
-on cleavage and foliation.
-on origin of coal.
-his theory of Coral reefs supported by Funafuti boring.
-on danger of trusting in science to principle of exclusion.
-death of his child from scarlet fever.
-on difficulty of writing good English.
-feels need of stimulus in work.
-subscribes to Dr. Ferrier's defence.
-on flaws in his reasoning.
-follows golden rule of putting adverse facts in strongest light.
-geological work on Lochaber.
-visit to Glen Roy.
-idleness a misery.
-on immortality and death.
-letter to "Scotsman" on Glen Roy.
-indebtedness to Lyell.
-on Lyell as a geologist.
-on Lyell's "Second Visit to the U.S.A."
-work on Man and Sexual Selection.
-offer of help to F. Muller.
-never afraid of his facts.
-an honorary member of the Physiological Society.
-pleasure in discussing Geology with Lyell.
-reads paper before Linnean Society.
-A. Rich leaves his fortune to.
-on satisfaction of aiding fellow-workers in Science.
-reminiscences of school-days.
-sits to an artist.
-style in writing.
-gives testimonial in support of Hooker's candidature for Botanical
Chair in Edinburgh.
-theological abuse in the "Three Barriers."
-visits to Abinger.
-visit to Patterdale.
-on vitality of seeds.
-on volcanic phenomena.
-on Welsh glaciers.
-work on action of carbonate of ammonia on plants.
Darwin, Mrs. Charles, impressions of Down.
-passage from Darwin's autobiography on.
Darwin, Emma, see Mrs. Charles Darwin.
Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804-81): elder brother of Charles Darwin.
Darwin, Dr. Erasmus: Charles Darwin's grandfather.
-Charles Darwin's preliminary notice to Krause's memoir of.
-Charles Darwin and evolutionary views of.
Darwin, Francis: Charles Darwin's son.
-on bloom and stomata.
-on Huxley's speech at Cambridge.
-on the Knight-Darwin law.
-on lobing of leaves.
-experiments on nutrition.
-experiments on plant-movements.
-lecture at Glasgow (British Association, 1901) on perceptions of
-suggestion for Romanes' experiments on intelligence.
-on Vochting's work.
-on Wiesner's work.
Darwin, George: Charles Darwin's son.
-success at Cambridge.
-criticism of Wallace.
-elected Plumian Professor at Cambridge.
-suggested experiments with magnetic needles and insects.
-on Galton's work on heredity.
-article in "Contemporary Review" on origin of language.
Darwin, Henrietta (Mrs. Litchfield): Charles Darwin's daughter.
-criticism of Huxley.
Darwin, Horace: Charles Darwin's son.
-remark as a boy on Natural Selection.
Darwin, Leonard: Charles Darwin's son.
Darwin, Robert W.: Charles Darwin's father.
Darwin, Susan: Charles Darwin's sister.
-alluded to in early recollections of Charles Darwin.
-sends Wedgwood ware to Hooker.
Darwin, William Erasmus: Charles Darwin's eldest son.
-on fertilisation of Epipactis palustris.
"Darwin and after Darwin," Romanes'.
"Darwiniana," Asa Gray's.
-extract from Huxley's.
"Darwinsche Theorie," Wagner's book.
Darwinismus, at the British Association meeting at Norwich (1868).
Daubeny, Prof. Charles Giles Bridle, F.R.S. (1795-1867): Fellow of
Magdalen College, Oxford; elected Professor of Chemistry in the
University 1822; in 1834 he became Professor of Botany, and in 1840
Professor of Rural Economy.
-invites Darwin to attend British Association at Oxford.
David, Prof. Edgeworth, and the Funafuti boring.
Dawn of life, oldest fossils do not mark the.
Dawson, Sir J. William, C.M.G., F.R.S. (1820-99), was born at Pictou,
Nova Scotia, and studied at Edinburgh University in 1841-42. He was
appointed Principal of the McGill University, Montreal, in 1855,--a post
which he held thirty-eight years. See "Fifty Years of Work in Canada,
Scientific and Educational," by Sir William Dawson, 1901.
-antagonism to Darwinism.
-criticism of "Origin" by.
-criticism of Hooker's arctic paper.
Dayman, Captain, on soundings.
De la Beche, Sir Henry Thomas (1796-1855): was appointed Director of the
Ordnance Geological Survey in 1832; his private undertaking to make a
geological survey of the mining districts of Devon and Cornwall led the
Government to found the National Survey. He was also instrumental in
forming the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street.
Death, Darwin on immortality and.
Decapods, Zoea stage of.
Dedication of Hackel's "Generelle Morphologie" to Darwin.
Dedoublement, theory of.
Deep-sea soundings, Huxley's work on.
Degeneration, in ammonites.
-of culinary plants.
Deification of Natural Selection.
Deinosaurus, and free-will.
Delboeuf's "La Psychologie," etc.
Delpino, F., on Asclepiadeae and Apocyneae.
-on fertilisation mechanism.
-praises Axell's book.
Demosthenes, quoted by Darwin.
Denudation, Dana on.
-Darwin on marine.
-comparison of subaerial and marine.
-Ramsay and Jukes overestimate subaerial.
Deodar, Hooker on the.
Deposition and denudation as measure of time.
Derby, Lady, letter to.
Descent, Falconer on intermediate forms.
-from single pair.
-Owen's belief in doctrine of.
-resemblance due to.
Descent of Man.
"Descent of Man," reference in, to effect of climate on species.
-reviewed by John Morley.
-transmission of characters dealt with in.
-Darwin's work on.
-Sir W. Turner supplies facts for.
Descent with modification, Wallace on.
Desert animals, and protective colouring.
Design, Darwin on.
-Lord Kelvin on.
Deslongchamps, L., on fertilisation of closed flowers.
Desmodium gyrans, Darwin's experiments on.
Development, acceleration and retardation in.
-importance of, in classification.
-sudden changes during.
Devonshire Commission, report on physiological investigation at Kew.
Devonshire, flora of.
Dewar, Prof., and Sir Wm. Thiselton-Dyer, on vitality of seeds in liquid
Diaheliotropism, F. Muller's observations.
Dialogue, title of paper by Asa Gray.
Diatomaceae, beauty of.
Dicentra thalictriformis, morphology of tendrils.
Dichaea, fertilisation mechanism.
Dichogamy, Delpino on.
-ignorance of botanists of, prior to publication of "Fertilisation of
Dick, Sir T. Lauder, Survey of Glen Roy by.
Dickens, quotation from.
Dicotyledons, Heer on oldest known.
Digestion, beneficial effect on plants.
Dillwyn, paper in "Gardeners' Chronicle."
Diluvium, tails of.
Dimorphism, in Cynips.
-difficult to explain.
-in parasitic plants.
-Weismann on Sexual.
-Darwin knows no case in very irregular flowers.
-in eight Natural Orders.
-apparent cases due to mere variability.
Dioeciousness, origin of.
Dionoea, experiments on.
response to stimuli.
Curtis' observations on.
Dipsacus, F. Darwin on.
Dipterocarpus, survival during glacial period.
Direct action, arguments against.
-Darwin led to believe more in.
-Darwin's desire not to underestimate.
Direction, sense of, in animals.
Disease, Dobell on "Germs and Vestiges" of.
Dispersal, (see also Distribution), of seeds.
Distribution, Forbes on.
-Hooker on Arctic plants.
-of land and sea in former times.
-Thiselton-Dyer on plant-.
-Blytt's work on.
Disuse, Darwin on.
Divergence, Hooker on.
Diversification, Darwin's doctrine of the good of.
Dobell, H., letter to.
Dogs, descent of.
-experiment in painting.
-rudimentary tail inherited in certain sheep-.
Dohrn, Dr., visits Darwin.
-serves in Franco-Prussian war.
-extract from letter to.
"Dolomit Riffe," Darwin on Mojsisovics'.
Domestic animals, crossing in.
-Darwin's work on.
-treatment in "Variation of Animals and Plants."
Domestication, effects of.
-and loss of sterility.
Domeyko, on Chili.
Don, D., on variation.
Donders, F.C., on action of eyelids.
Dorkings, power of flight.
Down, description of house and country.
-Darwin's satisfaction with his house.
-instances of vitality of seeds recorded from.
-method of determining plants at.
-Darwin on geology of.
-observations on regular lines of flight of bees at.
Down (lanugo), on human body.
Drosera, F. Darwin's experiments.
-"a disguised animal."
-Darwin's observations on.
-Darwin's pleasure on proving digestion in.
-effect of inorganic substance on.
-experiments on absorption of poison.
-J. Scott's paper on.
-response to stimuli.
-D. filiformis, experiments on.
-D. rotundifolia, experiments on.
Drosophyllum, vernation of.
-Darwin's work on.
-Drosophyllum lusitanicum, sent by Tait to Darwin.
-used in Portugal to hang up as fly-paper.
Druidical mounds, seeds from.
Drummond, J., on fertilisation in Leschenaultia formosa.
Duchesne, on atavism.
Ducks, period of hatching.
-hybrids between fowls and.
Dufrenoy, Pierre Armand: published "Memoires pour servir a une
Description Geologique de la France," as well as numerous papers in the
"Annales des Mines, Comptes Rendus, Bulletin Soc. Geol. France," and
elsewhere on mineralogical and geological subjects.
-geological work of.
Duncan, Rev. J., encourages J. Scott's love for plants.
Dung, plants germinated from locust-.
Dutrochet, on climbing plants.
Duval-Jouve, on leaf-movement in Bryophyllum.
Dyer, see Thiselton-Dyer.
Dytiscus, as means of dispersal of bivalves.
Ears, loss of voluntary movement.
-in man and monkeys.
-Wallis's work on.
Earth, age of the.
Earth-movements, cause of.
-relation to sedimentation.
-subordinate part played by heat in.
Earthquakes, coincidence of shocks in S. America and elsewhere.
-connection with elevation.
-connection with state of weather.
Earthworms, Darwin's book on.
-geological action of.
-influence of sea-water on.
-F. Muller gives Darwin facts on.
-Typhlops and true.
Echidna, anomalous character of.
Edentata, migration into N. America.
Edinburgh, Darwin's student-days in.
-Hooker's candidature for Chair of Botany.
"Edinburgh Review," article on Lyell's "Antiquity of Man."
-reference to Huxley's Royal Institution Lectures.
Education, effect of.
-influence on children of parents'.
Edwardsia, seeds possibly floated from Chili to New Zealand.
-in Sandwich Is. and India.
Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey- (1806-81): devoted himself to the
study of fossil fishes, and published several memoirs on his collection,
which was acquired by the British Museum.
Eggs, creation of species as.
-means of dispersal of molluscan.
Ehrenberg, Ascension I. plants sent to.
-on rock-building by infusoria.
-Darwin's wish that he should examine underclays.
Eichler, A.W., on morphology of cruciferous flower.
-on course of vessels as guide to floral morphology.
-reference to his Bluthendiagramme.
Eildon Hills, need of examination of.
Elateridae, luminous thorax of.
Electric organs of fishes, the result of external conditions.
Electricity, and plant-movements.
"Elements of Geology," Wallace's review of Lyell's.
Elephants, Falconer's work on.
-rate of increase of.
-found in gravel at Down.
-manner of carrying tail.
Elephas Columbi, Falconer on.
-Owen's conduct in regard to Falconer's work on.
-E. primigenius, as index of climate.
-woolly covering of.
-E. texianus, Owen and nomenclature of.
Elevation, in Chili.
-New Zealand and.
-continental extension, subsidence and.
-connection with earthquakes.
-equable nature of movements of subsidence and.
-evidence in Scandinavia and Pampas of equable.
-large areas simultaneously affected by.
-d'Orbigny on sudden.
-Rogers on parallelism of cleavage and axes of.
-sedimentary deposits exceptionally preserved during.
Elodea canadensis, successful American immigrant.
Emberiza longicauda, long tail-feathers and Sexual Selection.
Embryology, argument for.
-succession of changes in animal-.
-Darwin's explanation of.
-Balfour's work on comparative.
Embryonic stages, obliteration of.
Endlicher's "Genera Plantarum."
Engelmann, on variability of introduced plants in N. America.
England, former union with Continent.
-men of science of Continent and.
Entada scandens, dispersal of seeds.
Entomologists, evolutionary views of.
"Entstehung und Begriff der naturhistorischen Art," Nageli's Essay.
Environment, and colour protection.
Eocene, Anoplotherium in S. America.
-co-existence with recent shells.
Eozoon, illustrating difficulty of distinguishing organic and inorganic
Ephemera dimidiatum, Lord Avebury on.
Epidendreae, closely related to Malaxeae.
Epidendrum, Cruger on fertilisation of.
Epiontology, De Candolle's term.
Epipactis, fertilisation mechanism.
-F. Muller on.
-E. palustris, fertilisation mechanism.
Epithecia, fertilisation mechanism.
Equus, Marsh's work on.
-in N. and S. America.
Erica tetralix, Darwin on.
Erigeron canadense, successful immigrant from America.
Erodium cicutarium, introduced from Spain to America.
-range in U.S.A.