Part 2 out of 9
One for butter, holding six quarts.
One for pork, holding three quarts.
One dust pan and brush.
One scrubbing brush.
One blacking brush.
Four yellow earthen bowls, holding from six quarts down.
Four white, smooth-bottomed bowls, holding one quart each.
One bean pot.
One earthen pudding dish.
All the tin ware should be made from xx tin. It will then keep its
shape, and wear three times as long as if made of thin stuff. Scouring
with sand soon ruins tin, the coarse sand scratching it and causing it
to rust. Sapolio, a soap which comes for cleaning tins, wood-work and
paint, will be found of great value in the kitchen.
Granite ware, as now made, is perfectly safe to-use. It will not
become discolored by any kind of cooking, and is so perfectly smooth
that articles of food will not stick and bum in it as quickly as in
the porcelain-lined pans. Nearly every utensil used in the kitchen is
now made in granite ware. The mixing spoons are, however, not
desirable, as the coating of granite peels off when the spoon is bent.
Have no more heavy cast-iron articles than are really needed, for they
are not easily handled, and are, therefore, less likely to be kept as
clean, inside and out, as the lighter and smoother ware.
[Illustration: Scotch Kettle]
The Scotch Kettle is quite cheap, and will be found of great value for
every kind of frying, as it is so deep that enough fat can put into it
to immerse the article to be cooked.
[Illustration: French Frying-Pan.]
The French polished frying-pans are particularly nice, because they
can be used for any kind of frying and for cooking sauces and
omelets. The small size, No. 1, is just right for an omelet made with
[Illustration: Tin Kitchen.]
When possible, a tin kitchen should be used, as meat cooked before a bright
fire has a flavor much nicer than when baked in an oven.
[Illustration: Bird Roaster.]
The bird roaster will be found valuable.
[Illustration: Ice Cream Freezer.]
An ice cream freezer is a great luxury in a family, and will soon do
away with that unhealthy dish--pie. No matter how small the family,
nothing less than a gallon freezer should be bought, because you can
make a small quantity of the cream in this size, and when you have
friends in, there is no occasion to send to the confectioner's for
what can be prepared as well at home. With the freezer should be
purchased a mallet and canvas bag for pounding the ice fine, as much
time and ice can be saved.
[Illustration: Bain-Marie Pan.]
A bain-marie is a great convenience for keeping the various dishes hot
when serving large dinners. It is simply a large tin pan, which is
partially filled with boiling water and placed where this will keep at
a high temperature, but will not boil. The sauce-pans containing the
cooked food are placed in the water until the time for serving.
[Illustration: Carving Knife and Fork.]
The large knives for the kitchen, as well as those belonging in the
dining-room, should be kept very sharp. If used about the fire they
are soon spoiled.
[Illustration: French Cook's Knife.]
The French cook's knife is particularly good for carving, cutting
bread, etc. It. is rather expensive, but it pays to get one, if only
proper care can be taken of it. The butcher's knife should be used for
all heavy work. One should never try to break a bone with a knife.
That this is often attempted in both kitchen and dining room, the
nicked edges of the knives give proof, and show the greater hardness
of the bones.
[Illustration: Boning Knife.]
Where much boning is done a small boning knife, costing about seventy-
five cents, will be necessary; It should be used only for this
[Illustration: French Vegetable Scoop.]
The French vegetable scoop, costs about seventy-five cents, will cut
potatoes and other vegetables in balls for frying or boiling. The
largest size is the best.
[Illustration: Garnishing Knife.]
The garnishing knife flutes vegetables, adding much to their
appearance when they are used as a garnish.
[Illustration: Long French Roll Pan.]
[Illustration: Short French Roll Pan--Made of Russian Iron.]
[Illustration: Muffin Pans]
The long French roll pan, made from Russian iron, is nice for baking
long loaves or rolls where a great deal of crust is liked There are
muffin pans of tin, Russian iron and granite ware. Those of iron
should be chosen last, on account of their weight. It is a good thing
to have pans of a number of different shapes, as a variety for the eye
is a matter of importance. The muffin rings of former years have done
their duty, and should be allowed to rest, the convenient cups, which
comes in sheets, more than filling their place.
[Illustration: Frying Basket.]
The frying basket should have fine meshes, as delicate articles, like
croquettes, need more support than a coarsely-woven basket gives.
[Illustration: Meat Rack.]
Where roasting is done in the oven there must be a rack to keep the
meat from coming in contact with the water in the bottom of the pan.
[Illustration: Larding and Trussing Needles.]
One medium-sized larding needle will answer for all kinds of meat that
are to be larded.
[Illustration: Potato Slicer.]
A potato slicer will be found useful for slicing potatoes, for frying,
or cabbage, for slaw. It cuts vegetables in very thin pieces.
[Illustration: Steamer for Pot. Steamer for Tea-Kettle.]
The steamers which fit into the cast-iron pot or the tea-kettle are
quite convenient. Both kinds will not, of course, be required.
[Illustration: Quart Measure]
The quart measure for milk is the best for common measuring. Being
divided into half pints, the one vessel answers for all quantities. A
kitchen should be furnished with two measures, one for dry material
and the other for liquids.
[Illustration: Bread Grater. Whip Churn.]
In the preparation of desserts the whip churn is essential. It is a
tin cylinder, perforated on the bottom and sides, in which a dasher of
tin, also perforated, can be easily moved tip and down. When this
churn is placed in a bowl of cream and the dasher is worked, air is
forced through the cream, causing it to froth.
[Illustration: Double Boiler.]
The double boiler is invaluable in the kitchen. It is a good plan to
have two of them where a great deal of cooking is done. The lower part
of the boiler is half filled with boiling water, and the inside kettle
is placed in this. By this means food is cooked without danger of
burning, and more rapidly than if the kettle were placed directly on
the stove, exposed to the cold air, because the boiling water in the
outside kettle reaches not only the bottom, but also the sides of that
in which the food is.
[Illustration: Double Broiler, with Back.]
[Illustration: Double Broiler.]
When broiling is done before the fire it is necessary to have a back
for the double broiler, for the tin reflects the heat, and the food is
cooked much sooner.
[Illustration: Squash Strainer.]
The colander is used for draining vegetables, straining soups, etc.,
and with the squash arid gravy strainers, it is all that is required
in the way of strainers.
[Illustration: Coffee Biggin. Coffee Pot.]
Under "Drinks" will be found a description of the French coffee
[Illustration: Brown-Bread Tin.]
There should be two brown-bread tins, each holding three pints. They
answer also for steaming puddings.
[Illustration: Melon Mould. Round Pudding Mould. ]
The melon and round padding moulds are nice for frozen or steamed
The stew-pans that are porcelain-lined are better than the tin-lined,
because the tin is liable to melt when frying is done, as, for
instance, when meat and vegetables are fried for a stew. Granite ware
stew-pans are made in the same shapes as the porcelain-lined.
[Illustration: Heavy Tin Sauce-Pan.]
The tin sauce-pans are nice for sauces and gravies. The porcelain-
lined come in the same shapes. Copper is a better conductor of heat
than either tin or iron, but when it is not kept perfectly clean,
oxide of copper, which is very poisonous, collects on it, and is
dissolved by oils and fats. Then when fruit, pickles, or any food
containing an acid is allowed to cool in the vessels, verdigris is
produced; and this is a deadly poison.
[Illustration: Bread or Dish Pan. Shallow Milk Pan.]
[Illustration: Dripping Pan. Bread Pan.]
The stamped tin-ware is made from a better quality of metal than the
soldered; therefore, it comes higher, but it is in the end cheaper,
and it is always safer. Bread, milk and dish pans should be made of
stamped tin. The pans for roasting meat should be made of Russian
[Illustration: Basting Spoon. Ladle. Dredging Box.]
The spoons for basting and mixing, and also the ladle, should be
strong and well tinned.
[Illustration: Lemon Squeezer.]
The plain wooden lemon squeezer is the most easily kept clean, and is,
therefore, the best. That made of iron, with a porcelain cup, is
stronger, but it needs more care.
[Illustration: Dover Egg Beater.]
The Dover egg beater is the best in the market. It will do in five
minutes the work that in former years required half an hour. There are
three sizes. The smallest is too delicate for a large number of eggs.
The second size, selling for $1.25, is the best for family use.
[Illustration: Apple Parer.]
An apple parer saves a great deal of time and fruit, and is not very
[Illustration: Wooden Buckets.]
[Illustration: Wooden Boxes.]
[Illustration: Cake Box.]
Wooden buckets and boxes come in nests, or, they can be bought
separately. A good supply of them goes a great way toward keeping a
store-room or closet in order.
The Japanned ware is best for canisters for tea and coffee and for
spice and cake boxes. Cake boxes are made square and round. The square
boxes have shelves. The most convenient form is the upright. It is
higher-priced than the other makes.
[Illustration: Tea Caddy.]
[Illustration: Spice Box.]
The spice box is a large box filled with smaller ones for each kind of
ground spice. It is very convenient, and, besides, preserves the
strength of the contents.
[Illustration: Oblong Jelly Mould.]
[Illustration: Pointed Jelly Mould.]
[Illustration: Rice Mould.]
There are so many beautiful moulds for fancy dishes that there is no
longer any excuse for turning out jellies, blanc-mange, etc., in the
form of animals. There are two modes of making moulds. By one the tin
is pressed or stamped into shape, and by the other it is cut in pieces
and soldered together. Moulds made by the first method are quite
cheap, but not particularly handsome. Those made in the second way
come in a great variety of pretty forms, but as all are imported, they
[Illustration: Crown Moulds.]
The crown moulds are especially good for Bavarian creams, with which
is served whipped cream, heaped in the centre.
[Illustration: French Pie Mould.]
The French pie mould comes in a number of sizes, and can be opened to
remove the pie. Deep tin squash-pie plates, answer for custard, cream,
Washington and squash pies, and for corn cake.
[Illustration: Vegetable Cutter.]
Tin vegetable cutters, for cutting raw vegetables for soups, and the
cooked ones for garnishing, are nice to have, as is also a
confectioner's ornamenting tube for decorating cake, etc. Larger tubes
come for lady fingers and éclairs. Little pans also come for lady-
fingers, but they cost a great deal. The jagging iron will be found
useful for pastry and hard gingerbread.
[Illustration: Lady-Fingers Pan.]
[Illustration: Confectioner's Tube. Jagging Iron.]
The little tin, granite ware and silver-plated escaloped shells are
pretty and convenient for serving escaloped oysters, lobster, etc. The
price for the tin style is two dollars per dozen, for the granite
ware, four dollars, and for the silver-plated, from thirty to forty
[Illustration: Escaloped Shell.]
Remarks on Soup Stock.
There is a number of methods of making soup stocks, and no two will
give exactly the same results. One of the simplest and most
satisfactory is that of clear stock or bouillon. By this the best
flavor of the meat is obtained, for none passes off in steam, as when
the meat is boiled rapidly. The second mode is in boiling the stock a
great deal, to reduce it. This gives a very rich soup, with a marked
difference in the flavor from that made with clear meat kept in water
at the boiling point. The third way leaves a mixed stock, which will
not be clear unless whites of eggs are used. In following the first
methods we buy clear beef specially for the stock, and know from the
beginning just how much stock there will be when the work is
completed. By the second method we are not sure, because more or less
than we estimate may boil away. The third stock, being made from bones
and pieces of meat left from roasts, and from the trimmings of raw
meats, will always be changeable in color, quantity and quality. This
is, however, a very important stock, and it should always be kept on
hand. No household, even where only a moderate amount of meat is used,
should be without a stock-pot. It can be kept on the back of the range
or stove while cooking is going on. Two or three times a week it
should be put on with the trimmings and bones left from cooked and
uncooked meats. This practice will give a supply of stock at all
times, which will be of the greatest value in making sauces, side
dishes and soups. Meat if only slightly tainted will spoil a stock;
therefore great care must be taken that every particle is perfectly
Vegetables make a stock sour very quickly, so if you wish to keep a
stock do not use them. Many rules advise putting vegetables into the
stock-pot with the meat and water and cooking from the very beginning.
When this is done they absorb the fine flavor of the meat and give the
soup a rank taste. They should cook not more than an hour--the last
hour--in the stock. A white stock is made with veal or poultry. The
water in which a leg of mutton or fowl have been boiled makes a good
stock for light soups and gravies. A soup stock must be cooled quickly
or it will not keep well. In winter any kind of stock ought to keep
good a week. That boiled down to a jelly will last the longest. In the
warm months three days will be the average time stock will keep.
Stock for Clear Soups.
Five pounds of clear beef, cut from the lower part of the round; five
quarts of cold water. Let come to a boil, slowly; skim carefully, and
set where it will keep just at the boiling point for eight or ten
hours. Strain, and set away to cool. In the morning skim off all the
fat and turn the soup into the kettle, being careful not to let the
sediment pass in. Into the soup put an onion, one stalk of celery, two
leaves of sage, two sprigs of parsley, two of thyme, two of summer
savory, two bay leaves, twelve pepper-corns and six whole cloves. Boil
gently from ten to twenty minutes; salt and pepper to taste. Strain
through an old napkin. This is now ready for serving as a simple clear
soup or for the foundation of all kinds of clear soups.
Put the trimmings of your fresh meats and the bones and tough pieces
left from roasts or broils into the soup pot with one quart of water
to every two pounds of meat and bones. When it comes to a boil, skim
and set back where it will simmer six hours; then add a bouquet of
sweet herbs, one onion, six cloves and twelve pepper-corns to each
gallon of stock. Cook two hours longer; strain and set in a cool
place. In the morning skim off the fat. Keep in a very cool place.
This can be used for common soups, sauces, and where stock is used in
made dishes. It should always be kept on hand, as it really costs
nothing but the labor (which is very little), and enters so often into
the preparation of simple, yet toothsome, dishes.
Eight pounds of a shin of veal, eight pounds of the lower part of the
round of beef, half a cupful of butter, twelve quarts of cold water,
half a small carrot, two large onions, half a head of celery, thirty
pepper-corns, six whole cloves, a small piece each of mace and
cinnamon, four sprigs each of parsley, sweet marjoram, summer savory
and thyme, four leaves of sage, four bay leaves, about one ounce of
ham. Put half of the butter in the soup pot and then put in the meat,
which has been cut into very small pieces. Stir over a hot fire until
the meat begins to brown; then add one quart of the water, and cook
until there is a thick glaze on the bottom of the kettle (this will be
about an hour). Add the remainder of the water and let it come to a
boil. Skim carefully, and set back where it will simmer for six hours.
Fry the vegetables, which have been cut very small, in the remaining
butter for half an hour, being careful not to burn them. When done,
turn into the soup pot, and at the same time add the herbs and spice.
Cook one hour longer; salt to taste and strain. Set in a very cold
place until morning, when skim off all the fat. Turn the soup into the
pot, being careful not to turn in the sediment, and set on the fire.
Beat the whites and shells of two eggs with one cup of cold water.
Stir into the soup, and when it comes to a boil, set back where it
will simmer for twenty minutes. Strain through a napkin, and if not
ready to use, put away in a cold place. This will keep a week in
winter, but not more than three days in summer. It is a particularly
nicely-flavored soup, and is the foundation for any clear soup, the
soup taking the name of the solid used with it, as _Consommé au
Ris_, Consommé with Macaroni, etc.
Bouillon, for Germans and other parties, is made the same as the clear
stock, using a pint of water to the pound of meat, and seasoning with
salt and pepper and with the spice, herbs and vegetables or not, as
you please. It should be remembered that the amount of seasoning in
the recipe referred to is for one gallon of stock.
Six pounds of a shin of veal, one fowl, three table-spoonfuls of
butter, four stalks of celery, two onions, one blade of mace, one
stick of cinnamon, eight quarts of cold water, salt, pepper. Wash and
cut the veal and fowl into small pieces. Put the butter in the bottom
of the soup pot and then put in the meat. Cover, and cook gently
(stirring often) half an hour, then add the water. Let it come to a
boil, then skim and set back where it will boil gently for six hours.
Add the vegetables and spice and boil one hour longer. Strain and cool
quickly. In the morning take off all the fat. Then turn the jelly
gently into a deep dish, and with a knife scrape off the sediment
which is on the bottom. Put the jelly into a stone pot and set in a
cold place. This will keep a week in cold weather and three days in
Consommé à la Royale.
Two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, one-fourth of a tea-spoonful of
salt. Beat eggs with a spoon, and add milk and salt Turn into a
buttered cup, and place in a pan of warm water. Cook in a slow oven
until firm in the centre. Set away to cool. Cut into small and
prettily-shaped pieces; put into the tureen, and pour one quart of
boiling consomme or clear stock on it.
One and a half cupfuls of flour, one pint of rich cream, four table-
spoonfuls of butter, four of grated Parmesan cheese, a speck of
cayenne, two eggs, three quarts of clear soup stock. Mix flour, cream,
butter, cheese and pepper together. Place the basin in another of hot
water and stir until the mixture becomes a smooth, firm paste. Break
into it the two eggs, and mix quickly and thoroughly. Cook two minutes
longer, and set away to cool. When cold, roll into little balls about
the size of an American walnut When the balls are all formed drop them
into boiling water and cook gently five minutes; then put them in the
soup tureen and pour the boiling stock on them. Pass a plate of finely
grated Parmesan cheese with the soup.
Thick Vegetable Soup.
One quart of the sediment which is left from the clear stock, one
quart of water, one-fourth of a cupful of pearl barley, one good-sized
white turnip, one carrot, half a head of celery, two onions, about two
pounds of cabbage, three potatoes, salt and pepper. Wash the barley
and put it on in the quart of water, and simmer gently for two hours.
Then add all the vegetables (except the potatoes), cut very fine, and
the quart of stock. Boil gently for one hour and a half, then add the
potatoes and the salt and pepper. Cook thirty minutes longer. When
there is no stock, take two pounds of beef and two quarts of water.
Cook beef, barley and water two hours, and add the vegetables as
before. The meat can be served with the soup or as a separate dish.
One chicken or fowl weighing three pounds, three pounds of veal, two
large onions, two large slices of carrot, four stalks of celery, three
large table-spoonfuls of butter, one table-spoonful of curry powder,
four of flour, salt, pepper, five quarts of water. Take two table-
spoonfuls of the fat from the opening in the chicken and put in the
soup pot As soon as melted, put in the vegetables, which have been cut
very fine. Let all cook together for twenty minutes, stirring
frequently, that it may not burn; then add the veal, cut into small
pieces. Cook fifteen minutes longer; then add the whole chicken and
the water. Cover, and let it come to a boil. Skim, and set back where
it will simmer for four hours (in the mean time taking out the chicken
when it is tender). Now put the butter into a small frying-pan, and
when hot, add the dry flour. Stir until a rich brown; then take from
the fire and add the curry powder. Stir this mixture into the soup,
and let it cook half an hour longer; then strain through a sieve,
rinse out the soup pot and return the strained soup to it. Add salt
and pepper and the chicken (which has been freed from the bones and
skin and cut into small pieces); simmer very gently thirty minutes.
Skim off any fat that may rise to the top, and serve. This soup is
served with plain boiled rice in a separate dish or with small squares
of fried or toasted bread. The rice can be served in the soup if you
Mulligatawny Soup, No. 2.
Chicken or turkey left from a former dinner, bones and scraps from
roast veal, lamb or mutton, four quarts of water, four stalks of
celery, four table-spoonfuls of butter, four of flour, one of curry,
two onions, two slices of carrot, salt, pepper, half a small cupful of
barley. Put on the bones of the poultry and meat with the water. Have
the vegetables cut very fine, and cook gently twenty minutes in the
butter; then skim them into the soup pot, being careful to press out
all the butter. Into the butter remaining in the pan put the flour,
and when that is brown, add the curry powder, and stir all into the
soup. Cook gently four hours; then season with salt and pepper, and
strain. Return to the pot and add bits of chicken or turkey, as the
case may be, and the barley, which has been simmering two hours and a
half in clear water to cover. Simmer half an hour and serve.
Green Turtle Soup.
One can of green turtle, such as is put up by the "Merriam Packing
Co." Separate the green fat from the other contents of the can, cut
into dice and set aside. Put one quart of water with the remainder of
the turtle; add twelve pepper-corns, six whole cloves, two small
sprigs each of parsley, summer savory, sweet marjoram and thyme, two
bay leaves, two leaves of sage. Have the herbs tied together. Put one
large onion, one slice of carrot, one of turnip, and a stalk of
celery, cut fine, into a pan, with two large table-spoonfuls of
butter. Fry fifteen minutes, being careful not to burn. Skim carefully
from the butter and put into the soup. Now, into the butter in which
the vegetables were fried, put two table-spoonfuls of dry flour, and
cook until brown. Stir into the soup; season with salt and pepper and
let simmer very gently one hour. Strain, skim off all the fat and
serve with thin slices of lemon, egg or force-meat balls, and the
green fat. The lemon should have a very thin rind; should be put into
the tureen and the soup poured over it Cooking the lemon in this or
any other soup often gives it a bitter taste. If the soup is wished
quite thick, add a table-spoonful of butter to that in which the
vegetables were cooked, and use three table-spoonfuls of flour instead
of two. Many people use wine in this soup, but it is delicious
without. In case you do use wine there should not be more than four
table-spoonfuls to this quantity. If you desire the soup extremely
rich, use a quart of rich soup stock. The green turtles are so very
large that it is only in great establishments that they are available,
and for this reason a rule for preparing the live turtle is not given.
Few housekeepers would ever see one. The cans contain not what is
commonly called turtle soup, but the meat of the turtle, boiled, and
the proper proportions of lean meat, yellow and green fat put
together. They cost fifty cents each, and a single can will make soup
enough for six persons.
Black Bean Soup.
A pint of black beans, soaked over night in three quarts of water. In
the morning pour off this water, and add three quarts of fresh. Boil
gently six hours. When done, there should be one quart. Add a quart of
stock, six whole cloves, six whole allspice, a small piece of mace, a
small piece of cinnamon, stalk of celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs,
also one good-sized onion and one small slice each of turnip and
carrot, all cut fine and fried in three table-spoonfuls of butter.
Into the butter remaining in the pan put a spoonful of flour, and cook
until brown. Add to soup, and simmer all together one hour. Season
with salt and pepper, and rub through a fine sieve. Serve with slices
of lemon and egg balls, the lemon to be put in the tureen with the
Two pounds of the scraggy part of a neck of mutton. Cut the meat from
the bones, and cut off all the fat. Then cut meat into small pieces
and put into soup pot with one large slice of turnip, two of carrot,
one onion and a stalk of celery, all cut fine, half a cup of barley
and three pints of cold water. Simmer gently two hours. On to the
bones put one pint of water; simmer two hours, and strain upon the
soup. Cook a table-spoonful of flour and one of butter together until
perfectly smooth; stir into soup, and add a teaspoonful of chopped
parsley. Season with salt and pepper.
Meg Merrilies' Soup.
One hare, one grouse, four onions, one small carrot, four slices of
turnip, a bouquet of sweet herbs, three table-spoonfuls of rice flour,
four table-spoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of stale bread, half a
cupful of milk, one egg, six quarts of water. Wash the grouse and hare
and put to boil in the six quarts of cold water. When this comes to a
boil, skim, and set back where it will simmer for one hour. Then take
out the hare and grouse and cut all the meat from the bones. Return
the bones to the soup and simmer two hours longer. Cut the meat into
handsome pieces, roll in flour, and fry in the butter till a rich
brown. Set aside for the present. Slice the onions, and fry in the
butter in which the meat was fried; when brown, add to the soup. Make
force-meat balls of the livers of the hare and grouse (which have been
boiled one hour in the stock), the egg, bread and milk. Boil the bread
and milk together until a smooth paste. Mash the livers with a strong
spoon, then add bread and milk and the egg, unbeaten. Season well with
pepper and salt and, if you like, with a little lemon juice. Shape
into small balls and fry in either chicken fat or butter. Put these
into the soup twenty minutes before dishing. Have the turnip and
carrot cut into small pieces and cooked one hour in clear water. When
the bones and the onions have simmered two hours, strain and return to
the soup pot. Add the fried meat and vegetables. Mix the rice flour
with a cupful of cold water; add to the soup, season with salt and
pepper, simmer ten minutes. Add force-meat balls and simmer twenty
One cold roast chicken, two quarts of stock (any kind), one of water,
quarter of a pound of salt pork, one quart of green okra, an onion,
salt, pepper, three table-spoonfuls of flour. Cut the okra pods into
small pieces. Slice the pork and onion. Fry the pork, and then add the
onion and okra. Cover closely, and fry half an hour. Cut all the meat
from the chicken. Put the bones on with the water. Add the okra and
onion, first being careful to press out all the pork fat possible.
Into the fat remaining put the flour, and stir until it becomes a rich
brown; add this to the other ingredients. Cover the pot, and simmer
three hours; then rub through a sieve, and add the stock, salt and
pepper and the meat of the chicken, cut into small pieces. Simmer
gently twenty minutes. Serve with a dish of boiled rice.
Okra Soup, No. 2.
One pint of green okra, one of green peas, one of green com, cut from
the cob, half a pint of shell beans, two onions, four stalks of
celery, two ripe tomatoes, one slice of carrot, one of turnip, two
pounds of veal, quarter of a pound of fat ham or bacon, two table-
spoonfuls of flour, four quarts of water, salt, pepper. Fry the ham or
bacon, being careful not to bum. Cut the veal into dice; roll these in
the flour and fry brown in the ham fat; then put them in the soup pot.
Fry the onion, carrot and turnip in the remaining fat. Add these to
the veal, and then add the okra, cut into small pieces, the shell
beans, celery and water. Simmer two hours, and then add the tomatoes,
corn, peas and salt and pepper. Simmer half an hour longer and serve
without straining. If dried okra be used for either soup, half the
quantity given in the recipes is sufficient Okra is often called
gumbo. The same kind of a soup is meant under both names.
The bones of two roasted grouse and the breast of one, a quart of any
kind of stock, or pieces and bones of cold roasts; three quarts of
cold water, two slices of turnip, two of carrot, two large onions, two
cloves, two stalks of celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs, three table-
spoonfuls of butter, three of flour. Cook the grouse bones in three
quarts of water four hours. The last hour add the vegetables and the
cloves; then strain, and return to the lire with the quart of stock.
Cook the butter and the flour together until a rich brown, and then
turn into the stock. Cut the breast of the grouse into very small
pieces and add to the soup. Season with salt and pepper and simmer
gently half an hour. If there is any fat on the soup, skim it off.
Serve with fried bread. When bones and meat are used instead of the
stock, use one more quart of water, and cook them with the grouse
Half a pint of green peas, half a pint of cauliflower, one pint of
turnip, carrot, celery and string beans (all the four vegetables being
included in the pint), half a cupful of tomato, half a pint of
asparagus heads, two quarts of soup stock--any kind will do; three
table-spoonfuls of butter, three table-spoonfuls of flour, and salt
and pepper. Cook all the vegetables, except the peas and tomato, in
water to cover one hour. Cook butter and dry flour together until
smooth, but not brown; stir into the stock, which has been heated to
the boiling point. Now add the tomato and simmer gently fifteen
minutes; then strain. Add the peas and cooked vegetables to the
strained soup, and simmer again for thirty minutes. Serve small slices
of toasted bread in a separate dish.
Spring and Summer Soup Without Stock.
Quarter of a pound of salt pork, or three large table-spoonfuls of
butter; three large young onions, half a small head of cabbage, three
potatoes, half a small carrot, half a small white turnip, three table-
spoonfuls of flour, two quarts of water, six large slices of toasted
bread, salt, pepper, one small parsnip. Cut the pork into thin slices;
place these in the soup pot and let them fry out slowly. Have the
vegetables (except the potatoes), cut quite fine, and when the pork is
cooked, put the vegetables into the pot with it. Cover tightly, and
let cook very gently, on the back of the stove, one hour. Stir
frequently to prevent burning. Add the water, which should be boiling.
Let simmer gently for one hour, and then add the potatoes, cut into
slices, and the flour, which has been mixed with a little cold water.
Season with salt and pepper, and simmer gently an hour longer. Have
the toasted bread in the tureen. Turn the soup on it and serve. A pint
of green peas, cooked in the soup the last half, is a great addition.
When the butter is used, let it melt in the soup pot before adding the
The giblets from two or three fowl or chickens, any kind of stock, or
if there are remains of the roast chickens, use these; one large
onion, two slices of carrot, one of turnip, two stalks of celery, two
quarts of water, one of stock, two large table-spoonfuls of butter,
two of flour, salt, pepper. Put the giblets on to boil in the two
quarts of water, and boil gently until reduced to one quart (it will
take about two hours); then take out the giblets. Cut all the hard,
tough parts from the gizzards, and put hearts, livers and gizzards
together and chop rather coarse. Return them to the liquor in which
they were boiled, and add the quart of stock. Have the vegetables cut
fine, and fry them in the butter until they are very tender (about
fifteen minutes), but be careful they do not burn; then add the dry
flour to them and stir until the flour browns. Turn this mixture into
the soup, and season with pepper and salt. Cook gently half an hour
and serve with toasted bread. If the chicken bones are used, put them
on to boil in three quarts of water, and boil the giblets with them.
When you take out the giblets, strain the stock through a sieve and
return to the pot; then proceed as before.
Potage à la Reine,
Boil a large fowl in three quarts of water until tender (the water
should never more than bubble). Skim off the fat, and add a teacupful
of rice, and, also, a slice of carrot, one of turnip, a small piece of
celery and an onion, which have been cooked slowly for fifteen minutes
in two large table-spoonfuls of butter. Skim this butter carefully
from the vegetables, and into the pan in which it is, stir a table-
spoonful of flour. Cook until smooth, but not brown. Add this, as well
as a small piece of cinnamon and of mace, and four whole cloves. Cook
all together slowly for two hours. Chop and pound the breast of the
fowl very fine. Rub the soup through a fine sieve; add the pounded
breast and again rub the whole through the sieve. Put back on the fire
and add one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt, a fourth of a
teaspoonful of pepper and a pint of cream, which has come just to a
boil. Boil up once and serve. This is a delicious soup.
One quart can of tomato, two heaping table-spoonfuls of flour, one of
butter, one teaspoonful of salt, one of sugar, a pint of hot water.
Let tomato and water come to a boil Rub flour, butter and a table-
spoonful of tomato together. Stir into boiling mixture, add seasoning,
boil all together fifteen minutes, rub through a sieve, and serve with
toasted bread. This bread should first be cut in thin slices; should
be buttered, cut into little squares, placed in a pan, buttered side
up, and browned in a quick oven.
Mock Bisque Soup.
A quart can of tomato, three pints of milk, a large table-spoonful of
flour, butter the size of an egg, pepper and salt to taste, a scant
teaspoonful of soda. Put the tomato on to stew, and the milk in a
double kettle to boil, reserving however, half a cupful to mix with
flour. Mix the flour smoothly with this cold milk, stir into the
boiling milk, and cook ten minutes. To the tomato add the soda; stir
well, and rub through a strainer that is fine enough to keep back the
seeds. Add butter, salt and pepper to the milk, and then the tomato.
Serve immediately. If half the rule is made, stir the tomato well in
the can before dividing, as the liquid portion is the more acid.
One quart of milk, six large onions, yolks of four eggs, three table-
spoonfuls of butter, a large one of flour, one cupful of cream, salt,
pepper. Put the butter in a frying-pan. Cut the onions into thin
slices and drop in the butter. Stir until they begin to cook; then
cover tight and set back where they will simmer, but not burn, for
half an hour. Now put the milk on to boil, and then add the dry flour
to the onions, and stir constantly for three minutes over the fire.
Then turn the mixture into the milk and cook fifteen minutes. Rub the
soup through a strainer, return to the fire, season with salt and
pepper. Beat the yokes of the eggs well; add the cream to them and
stir into the soup. Cook three minutes, stirring constantly. If you
have no cream, use milk, in which case add a table-spoonful of butter
at the same time.
A quart of milk, six large potatoes, one stalk of celery, an onion and
a table-spoonful of butter. Put milk to boil with onion and celery.
Pare potatoes and boil thirty minutes. Turn off the water, and mash
fine and light. Add boiling milk and the butter, and pepper and salt
to taste. Rub through a strainer and serve immediately. A cupful of
whipped cream, added when in the tureen, is a great improvement. This
soup must not be allowed to stand, not even if kept hot. Served as
soon as ready, it is excellent.
Two bundles of asparagus, one quart of white stock or water, one pint
of milk, and one of cream, if stock is used, but if water, use all
cream; three table-spoonfuls of butter, three of flour, one onion,
salt and pepper. Cut the tops from one bunch of the asparagus and cook
them twenty minutes in salted water to cover. The remainder of the
asparagus cook twenty minutes in the quart of stock or water. Cut the
onion into thin slices and fry in the butter ten minutes, being
careful not to burn; then add the asparagus that has been boiled in
the stock. Cook five minutes, stirring constantly; then add flour, and
cook five minutes longer. Turn this mixture into the boiling stock and
boil gently twenty minutes. Rub through a sieve, add the milk and
cream, which has just come to a boil, and also the asparagus heads.
Season with salt and pepper, and serve. Dropped eggs can be served
with it if you choose, but they are rattier heavy for such a delicate
Green Pea Soup.
Cover a quart of green peas with hot water, and boil, with an onion,
until they will mash easily. (The time will depend on the age of the
peas, but will be from twenty to thirty minutes.) Mash, and add a pint
of stock or water. Cook together two table-spoonfuls of butter and one
of flour until smooth, but not brown. Add to the peas, and then add a
cupful of cream and one of milk. Season with salt and pepper, and let
boil up once. Strain and serve. A cupful of whipped cream added the
last moment is an improvement.
Two pounds of pumpkin. Take out seeds and pare off the rind. Cut into
small pieces, and put into a stew-pan with half a pint of water.
Simmer slowly an hour and a half, then rub through a sieve and put
back on the fire with one and a half pints of boiling milk, butter the
size of an egg, one tea-spoonful of sugar, salt and pepper to taste,
and three slices of stale bread, cut into small squares. Stir
occasionally; and when it boils, serve.
Cream of Celery Soup.
A pint of milk, a table-spoonful of flour, one of butter, a head of
celery, a large slice of onion and small piece of mace. Boil celery in
a pint of water from thirty to forty-five minutes; boil mace, onion
and milk together. Mix flour with two table-spoonfuls of cold milk,
and add to boiling milk. Cook ten minutes. Mash celery in the water in
which it has been cooked, and stir into boiling milk. Add butter, and
season with salt and pepper to taste. Strain and serve immediately.
The flavor is improved by adding a cupful of whipped cream when the
soup is in the tureen.
Tapioca Cream Soup.
One quart of white stock, one pint of cream or milk, one onion, two
stalks of celery, one-third of a cupful of tapioca, two cupfuls of
cold water, one table-spoonful of butter, a small piece of mace, salt,
pepper. Wash the tapioca, and soak over night in cold water. Cook it
and the stock together, very gently, for one hour. Cut the onion and
celery into small pieces, and put on to cook for twenty minutes with
the milk and mace. Strain on the tapioca and stock. Season with salt
and pepper, add butter, and serve.
Cream of Rice Soup.
Two quarts of chicken stock (the water in which fowl have been boiled
will answer), one tea-cupful of rice, a quart of cream or milk, a
small onion, a stalk of celery and salt and pepper to taste. Wash rice
carefully, and add to chicken stock, onion and celery. Cook slowly two
hours (it should hardly bubble). Put through a sieve; add seasoning
and the milk or cream, which has been allowed to come just to a boil.
If milk, use also a table-spoonful of butter.
Cream of Barley Soup.
A tea-cupful of barley, well washed; three pints of chicken stock, an
onion and a small piece each of mace and cinnamon. Cook slowly
together five hours; then rub through a sieve, and add one and a half
pints of boiling cream or milk. If milk, add also two table-spoonfuls
of butter. Salt and pepper to taste. The yolks of four eggs, beaten
with four table-spoonfuls of milk, and cooked a minute in the boiling
milk or cream, makes the soup very much richer.
One quart of milk, two large onions, three eggs, two table-spoonfuls
of butter, two of flour, salt, pepper, two table-spoonfuls of grated
cheese. Put milk on to boil. Fry the butter and onions together for
eight minutes; then add dry flour, and cook two minutes longer, being
careful not to burn. Stir into the milk, and cook ten minutes. Rub
through a strainer, and return to the fire. Now add the cheese. Beat
the eggs, with a speck of pepper and half a teaspoonful of salt.
Season the soup with salt and pepper. Hold the colander over the soup
and pour the eggs through, upon the butter, and set back for three
minutes where it will not boll. Then serve. The cheese may be omitted
if it is not liked.
Yacht Oyster Soup.
A quart of milk, one of oysters, a head of celery, a small onion, half
a cupful of butter, half a cupful of powdered cracker, one teaspoonful
of Worcestershire sauce, a speck of cayenne and salt and pepper to
taste. Chop onion and celery fine. Put on to boil with milk for twenty
minutes. Then strain, and add the butter, cracker, oyster liquor,
(which has been boiled and skimmed), and finally the seasoning and
oysters. Cook three minutes longer, and serve.
Lobster Soup with Milk.
Meat of a small lobster, chopped fine; three crackers, rolled fine,
butter--size of an egg, salt and pepper to taste and a speck of
cayenne. Mix all in the same pan, and add, gradually, a pint of
boiling milk, stirring all the while. Boil up once, and serve.
Lobster Soup with Stock.
One small lobster, three pints of water or stock, three large table-
spoonfuls of butter and three of flour, a speck of cayenne, white
pepper and salt to taste. Break up the body of the lobster, and cut
off the scraggy parts of the meat. Pour over these and the body the
water or stock. If there is "coral" in the lobster, pound it and use
also. Boil twenty minutes. Cook the butter and flour until smooth, but
not brown. Stir into the cooking mixture and add the seasoning. Boil
two minutes, and strain into a saucepan. Have the remainder of the
lobster meat--that found in the tail and claws--cut up very fine, and
add it to the soup. Boil up once, and serve.
Philadelphia Clam Soup.
Twenty-five small clams, one quart of milk, half a cupful of butter,
one table-spoonful of chopped parsley, three potatoes, two large
table-spoonfuls of flour, salt, pepper. The clams should be chopped
fine end put into a colander to drain. Pare the potatoes, and chop
rather fine. Put them on to boil with the milk, in a double kettle.
Rub the butter and flour together until perfectly creamy, and when the
milk and potatoes have been boiling fifteen minutes, stir this in, and
cook eight minutes more. Add the parsley, pepper and salt, and cook
three minutes longer. Now add the clams. Cook one minute longer, and
serve. This gives a very delicate soup, as the liquor from the clams
is not used.
Five pounds of any kind of fish, (the light salt-water fish is the
best), half a pound of pork, two large onions, one quart of sliced
potatoes, one quart of water, one pint of milk, two table-spoonfuls of
flour, six crackers, salt, pepper. Skin the fish, and cut all the
flesh from the bones. Put the bones onto cook in the quart of water,
and simmer gently ten minutes. Fry the pork; then add the onions, cut
into slices. Cover, and cook five minutes; then add the flour, and
cook eight minutes longer, stirring often. Strain on this the water in
which the fish bones were cooked and boil gently for five minutes;
then strain all on the potatoes and fish. Season with salt and pepper,
and simmer fifteen minutes. Add the milk and the crackers, which were
first soaked for three minutes, in the milk. Let it boil up once, and
serve. The milk maybe omitted, and a pint of tomatoes used, if you
Cut enough green corn from the cob to make a quart; pare and slice one
quart of potatoes; pare and slice two onions. Cut half a pound of pork
in slices, and fry until brown then take up, and fry the onions in the
fat. Put the potatoes and corn into the kettle in layers, sprinkling
each layer with salt, pepper and flour. Use half a teaspoonful of
pepper, one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt and three of flour.
Place the gravy strainer on the vegetables, and turn the onions and
pork fat into it, and with a spoon press the juice through; then
slowly pour one and one-fourth quarts of boiling water through the
strainer, rubbing as much onion through as possible. Take out the
strainer, cover the kettle, and boil gently for twenty minutes. Mix
three table-spoonfuls of flour with a little milk, and when perfectly
smooth, add a pint and a half of rich milk. Stir this into the boiling
chowder. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and if it is not, add more
pepper and salt. Then add six crackers, split, and dipped for a minute
in cold water. Put on the cover, boil up once, and serve.
One pint of grated green com, one quart of milk, one pint of hot
water, one heaping table-spoonful of flour, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, one slice of onion, salt and pepper to taste. Cook the corn in
the water thirty minutes. Let the milk and onion come to a boil. Have
the flour and butter mixed together, and add a few table-spoonfuls of
the boiling milk. When perfectly smooth stir into the milk; and cook
eight minutes. Take out the onion and add the corn. Season to taste,
Boil four quarts of consommé rapidly until reduced to one quart. Turn
into small jars, and cool quickly. This will keep for a month in a
cool, dry place. It is used for soups and sauces and for glazing
French Paste for Soups.
A preparation for flavoring and coloring soups and sauces comes in
small tin boxes. In each box there are twelve little squares, which
look very much like chocolate caramels. One of these will give two
quarts of soup the most delicious flavor and a rich color. The paste
should not be cooked with the soup, but put into the tureen, and the
soup poured over it; and as the soup is served, stir with the ladle.
If you let it boil with the clear soup the flavor will not be as fine
and the soup not as clear. It may be used with any dark or clear soup,
even when already seasoned. It is for sale in Boston by S.S. Pierce
and McDewell & Adams; New York: Park, Tilford & Co., retail, E.C.
Hayward & Co., 192-4 Chamber street, wholesale; Philadelphia: Githens
& Rexsame's; Chicago: Rockwood Bros., 102 North Clark street; St.
Louis: David Nicholson. The paste costs only twenty-five cents per
Boil four eggs ten minutes. Drop into cold water, and when cool remove
the yolks. Pound these in a mortar until reduced to a paste, and then
beat them with a teaspoonful of salt, a speck of pepper and the white
of one raw egg. Form in balls about the size of a walnut. Roll in
flour, and fry brown in butter or chicken fat, being careful not to
Fried Bread for Soups.
Cut stale bread into dice, and fry in boiling fat until brown. It will
take about half a minute. The fat must be smoking in the centre when
the bread is put into it.
A General Chapter on Fish.
It may seem as if a small number of recipes has been given, but the
aim has been to present under the heads of Baking, Boiling, Broiling,
Frying and Stewing such general directions that one cannot be at a
loss as to how to prepare any kind of fish. Once having mastered the
five primary methods, and learned also how to make sauces, the variety
of dishes within the cook's power is great All that is required is
confidence in the rules, which are perfectly reliable, and will always
bring about a satisfactory result if followed carefully. Fish, to be
eatable, should be perfectly fresh. Nothing else in the line of food
deteriorates so rapidly, especially the white fish-those that are
nearly free of oil, like cod, cusk, etc. Most of the oil in this class
centres in the liver. Salmon, mackerel, etc., have it distributed
throughout the body, which gives a higher and richer flavor, and at
the same time tends to preserve the fish. People who do not live near
the seashore do not get that delicious flavor which fish just caught
have. If the fish is kept on ice until used, it will retain much of
its freshness; let it once get heated and nothing will bring back the
delicate flavor. Fresh fish will be firm, and the skin and scales
bright. When fish looks dim and limp, do not buy it. Fish should be
washed quickly in only one _(cold)_ water, and should not be
allowed to stand in it. If it is cut up before cooking, wash while
whole, else much of the flavor will be lost. For frying, the fat
should be deep enough to cover the article, and yet have it float from
the bottom. Unless one cooks great quantities of fish in this way it
is not necessary to have a separate pot of fat for this kind of
frying. The same pot, with proper care, will answer for chops,
cutlets, muffins, potatoes, croquettes, etc. All the cold fish left
from any mode of cooking can be utilized in making delicious salads,
croquettes, and escallops.
A general role for boiling fish, which will hold good for all kinds,
and thus save a great deal of time and space, is this: Any fresh fish
weighing between four and six pounds should be first washed in cold
water and then put into boiling water enough to cover it, and
containing one table-spoonful of salt. Simmer gently thirty minutes;
then take up. A fish kettle is a great convenience, and it can be used
also for boiling hams. When you do not have a fish kettle, keep a
piece of strong white cotton cloth in which pin the fish before
putting into the boiling water. This will hold it in shape. Hard
boiling will break the fish, and, of course, there will be great
waste, besides the dish's not looking so handsome and appetizing.
There should be a gentle bubbling of the water, and nothing more, all
the time the fish is in it, A fish weighing more than six pounds
should cook five minutes longer for every additional _two_
pounds. Boiled fish can be served with a great variety of sauces.
After you have learned to make them (which is a simple matter), if you
cannot get a variety of fish you will not miss it particularly, the
sauce and mode of serving doing much to change the whole character of
the dish. Many people put a table-spoonful of vinegar in the water in
which the fish is boiled. The fish flakes a little more readily for
it. Small fish, like trout, require from four to eight minutes to
cook. They are, however, much better baked, broiled or fried.
This preparation gives boiled fish a better flavor than cooking in
clear water does. Many cooks use wine in it, but there is no necessity
for it. Four quarts of water, one onion, one slice of carrot, two
cloves, two table-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, one
table-spoonful of vinegar, the juice of half a lemon and a bouquet of
sweet herbs are used. Tie the onion, carrot, cloves and herbs in a
piece of muslin, and put in the water with the other ingredients.
Cover, and boil slowly for one hour. Then put in the fish and cook as
directed for plain boiling.
Boiled Cod with Lobster Sauce.
Boil the fish, as directed [see boiled fish], and, when done,
carefully remove the skin from one side; then turn the fish over on to
the dish on which it is to be served, skin side up. Remove the skin
from this side. Wipe the dish with a damp cloth. Pour a few spoonfuls
of the sauce over the fish, and the remainder around it; garnish with
parsley, and serve. This is a handsome dish.
Boiled Haddock with Lobster Sauce.
The same as cod. In fact, all kinds of fish can be served in the same
manner; but the lighter are the better, as the sauce is so rich that
it is not really the thing for salmon and blue fish. Many of the best
cooks and caterers, however, use the lobster sauce with salmon, but
salmon has too rich and delicate a flavor to be mixed with the
Cold Boiled Fish, a la Vinaigrette.
If the fish is whole, take off the head and skin, and then place it in
the centre of a dish. Have two cold hard-boiled eggs, and cut fine
with a silver knife or spoon, (steel turns the egg black). Sprinkle
the fish with this, and garnish either with small lettuce leaves,
water-cresses, or cold boiled potatoes and beets, cut in slices. Place
tastefully around the dish, with here and there a sprig of parsley.
Serve the vinaigrette sauce in a separate dish. Help to the garnish
when the fish is served, and pour a spoonful of the sauce over the
fish as you serve it. This makes a nice dish for tea in summer, and
takes the place of a salad, as it is, in fact, a kind of salad.
If the fish is left from the dinner, and is broken, pick free from
skin and bones, heap it lightly in the centre of the dish, sprinkle
the sauce over it, and set away in a cool place until tea time. Then
add the garnish, and serve as before. Many people prefer the latter
method, as the fish is seasoned better and more easily served. The
cold fish remaining from a bake or broil can be served in the same
manner. This same dish can be served with a sauce piquante or Tartare
sauce, for a change.
As for the boiled fish, a general rule, that will cover all kinds of
baked fish, is herewith given: A fish weighing about five pounds;
three large, or five small, crackers, quarter of a pound of salt pork,
two table-spoonfuls of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, half
a table-spoonful of chopped parsley, two table-spoonfuls of flour.
If the fish has not already been scraped free of scales, scrape, and
wash clean; then rub into it one table-spoonful of the salt. Roll the
crackers very fine, and add to them the parsley, one table-spoonful of
chopped pork, half the pepper, half a table-spoonful of salt, and cold
water to moisten well. Put this into the body of the fish, and fasten
together with a skewer. Butter a tin sheet and put it into a baking
pan. Cut gashes across the fish, about half an inch deep and two
inches long. Cut the remainder of the pork into strips, and put these
into the gashes. Now put the fish into the baking pan, and dredge well
with salt, pepper and flour. Cover the bottom of the pan with hot
water, and put into a rather hot oven. Bake one hour, basting often
with the gravy in the pan, and dredging each time with salt, pepper
and flour. The water in the pan must often be renewed, as the bottom
is simply to be covered with it each time. The fish should be basted
every fifteen minutes. When it is cooked, lift from the pan on to the
tin sheet, and slide it carefully into the centre of the dish on which
it is to be served. Pour around it Hollandaise sauce, tomato sauce, or
any kind you like. Garnish with parsley.
Bluefish, young cod, mackerel, salmon, large trout, and all other
fish, when they weigh between half a pound and four pounds, are nice
for broiling. When smaller or larger they are not so good. Always use
a double broiler, which, before putting the fish into it, rub with
either butter or a piece of salt pork. This prevents sticking. The
thickness of the fish will have to be the guide in broiling. A
bluefish weighing four pounds will take from twenty minutes to half an
hour to cook. Many cooks brown the fish handsomely over the coals and
then put it into the oven to finish broiling. Where the fish is very
thick, this is a good plan. If the fish is taken from the broiler to
be put into the oven, it should be slipped on to a tin sheet, that it
may slide easily into the platter at serving time; for nothing so mars
a dish of fish as to have it come to the table broken. In broiling,
the inside should be exposed to the fire first, and then the skin.
Great care must be taken that the skin does not burn. Mackerel will
broil in from twelve to twenty minutes, young cod (also called scrod)
in from twenty to thirty minutes, bluefish in from twenty to thirty
minutes, salmon, in from twelve to twenty minutes, and whitefish,
bass, mullet, etc., in about eighteen minutes. All kinds of broiled
fish can be served with a seasoning of salt, pepper and butter, or
with any of the following sauces: _bearer noir, maître d' hôtel_,
Tartare, sharp, tomato and curry. Always, when possible, garnish with
parsley or something else green.
Season the slices with salt and pepper, and lay them in melted butter
for half an hour, having them well covered on both sides. Roll in
flour, and broil for twelve minutes over a clear fire. Serve on a hot
dish, garnishing with parsley and slices of lemon. The slices of
halibut should be about an inch thick, and for every pound there
should be three table-spoonfuls of butter.
Broiled Halibut, with Maître d' Hôtel Butter.
Butter both sides of the broiler. Season the slices of halibut with
salt and pepper, place them in the broiler and cook over clear coals
for twelve minutes, turning frequently. Place on a hot dish, and
spread on them the sauce, using one spoonful to each pound. Garnish
Six pounds of any kind of fish, large or small; three large pints of
water, quarter of a pound of pork, or, half a cupful of butter; two
large onions, three table-spoonfuls of flour, salt and pepper to
taste. Cut the heads from the fish, and cut out all the bones. Put the
heads and bones on to boil in the three pints of water. Cook gently
half an hour. In the meanwhile cut the pork in slices, and fry brown.
Cut the onions in slices, and fry in the pork fat. Stir the dry flour
into the onion and fat, and cook three minutes, stirring all the time.
Now pour over this the water in which the bones have been cooking, and
simmer ten minutes. Have the fish cut in pieces about three inches
square. Season well with salt and pepper, and place in the stew-pan.
Season the sauce with salt and pepper, and strain on the fish. Cover
tight, and simmer twenty minutes. A bouquet of sweet herbs, simmered
with the bones, is an improvement. Taste to see if the sauce is
seasoned enough, and dish on a large platter. Garnish with potato
balls and parsley. The potato balls are cut from the raw potatoes with
a vegetable scoop, and boiled ten minutes in salted water. Put them in
little heaps around the dish.
All small fish, like brook trout, smelts, perch, etc., are best fried.
They are often called pan-fish for this reason. They should be
cleaned, washed and drained, then well salted, and rolled in flour and
Indian meal (half of each), which has been thoroughly mixed and
salted. For every four pounds of fish have half a pound of salt pork,
cut in thin slices, and fried a crisp brown. Take the pork from the
pan and put the fish in, having only enough to cover the bottom. Fry
brown on one side; turn, and fry the other side. Serve on a hot dish,
with the salt pork as a garnish. Great care must be taken that the
pork or fat does not burn, and yet to have it hot enough to brown
quickly. Cod, haddock, cusk and halibut are all cut in handsome slices
and fried in this manner; or, the slices can be well seasoned with
salt and pepper, dipped in beaten egg, rolled in bread or cracker
crumbs and fried in boiling fat enough to cover. This method gives the
handsomer dish, but the first the more savory. Where Indian meal is
not liked, all flour can be used. Serve very hot Any kind of fried
fish can be served with _beurre noir_, but this is particularly
nice for that which is fried without pork. When the cooked fish is
placed in the dish, pour the butter over it, garnish with parsley, and
To Cook Salt Codfish.
The fish should be thoroughly washed, and soaked in cold water over
night. In the morning change the water, and put on to cook. As soon as
the water comes to the boiling point set back where it will keep
_hot_, but will _not boil_. From four to six hours will cook
a very dry, hard fish, and there are kinds which will cook in half an
hour. The boneless codfish, put up at the Isles of Shoals, by Brown &
Seavey, will cook in from half an hour to an hour. Where a family uses
only a small quantity of salt fish at a time, this is a convenient and
economical way to buy it, as there is no waste with bone or skin. It
comes in five pound boxes, and costs sixty cents.
Dropped Fish Balls.
One pint bowlful of raw fish, two heaping bowlfuls of pared potatoes,
(let the potatoes be under medium size), two eggs, butter, the size of
an egg, and a little pepper. Pick the fish very fine, and measure it
lightly in the bowl. Put the potatoes into the boiler, and the fish on
top of them; then cover with boiling water, and boil half an hour.
Drain off all the water, and mash fish and potatoes together until
fine and light. Then add the butter and pepper, and the egg, well
beaten. Have a deep kettle of _boiling_ fat. Dip a table-spoon in
it, and then take up a spoonful of the mixture, having care to get it
into as good shape as possible. Drop into the boiling fat, and cook
until brown, which should be in two minutes. Be careful not to crowd
the balls, and, also, that the fat is hot enough. The spoon should be
dipped in the fat every time you take a spoonful of the mixture. These
balls are delicious.
Common Fish Balls.
One pint of finely-chopped cooked salt fish, six medium-sized
potatoes, one egg, one heaping table-spoonful of butter, pepper, two
table-spoonfuls of cream, or four of milk. Pare the potatoes, and put
on in _boiling_ water. Boil half an hour. Drain off all the
water, turn the potatoes into the tray with the fish, and mash light
and fine with a vegetable masher. Add the butter, pepper, milk and
eggs, and mix all very thoroughly. Taste to see if salt enough. Shape
into smooth balls, the size of an egg, and fry brown in boiling fat
enough to float them. They will cook in three minutes. If the potatoes
are very mealy it will take more milk or cream to moisten them, about
two spoonfuls more. If the fat is smoking in the centre, and the balls
are made _very_ smooth, they will not soak fat; but if the fat is
not hot enough, they certainly will. Putting too many balls into the
fat at one time cools it. Put in say four or five. Let the fat regain
its first temperature, then add more.
Salt Fish with Dropped Eggs.
One pint of cooked salt fish, one pint of milk or cream, two table-
spoonfuls of flour, one of butter, six eggs, pepper. Put milk on to
boil, keeping half a cupful of it to mix the flour. When it boils,
stir in the flour, which has been mixed smooth with the milk; then add
the fish, which has been flaked. Season, and cook ten minutes. Have
six slices of toasted bread on a platter. Drop six eggs into boiling
water, being careful to keep the shape. Turn the fish and cream on to
the toast. Lift the eggs carefully from the water, as soon as the
whites are set, and place very gently on the fish. Garnish the dish
with points of toast and parsley.
Salt Codfish, in Purée of Potatoes.
Six large potatoes, one pint and one cupful of milk, two table-
spoonfuls of butter, a small slice of onion (about the size of a
silver quarter), one pint of cooked salt codfish, salt, pepper, one
large table-spoonful of flour. Pare the potatoes and boil half an
hour; then drain off the water, and mash them light and fine. Add the
salt, pepper, one table-spoonful of butter, and the cupful of milk,
which has been allowed to come to a boil. Beat very thoroughly, and
spread a thin layer of the potatoes on the centre of a hot platter.
Heap the remainder around the edge, making a wall to keep in the cream
and fish, which should then be poured in. Garnish the border with
parsley, and serve.
To prepare the fish: Put the pint of milk on to boil with the onion.
Mix flour and butter together, and when well mixed, add two table-
spoonfuls of the hot milk. Stir all into the boiling milk, skim out
the onion, add the fish, and cook ten minutes. Season with pepper, and
if not salty enough, with salt. This is a nice dish for breakfast,
lunch or dinner.
Salt Fish Soufflé.
One pint of finely-chopped cooked salt fish, eight good-sized
potatoes, three-fourths of a cupful of milk or cream, four eggs, salt,
pepper, two generous table-spoonfuls of butter. Pare the potatoes and
boil thirty minutes. Drain the water from them, and mash very fine;
then mix thoroughly with the fish. Add butter, seasoning and the hot
milk. Have two of the eggs well beaten, which stir into the mixture,
and heap this in the dish in which it is to be served. Place in the
oven for ten minutes. Beat the whites of the two remaining eggs to a
stiff froth, and add a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt; then add
yolks. Spread this over the dish of fish; return to the oven to brown,
Cusk, à la Crème.
A cusk, cod or haddock, weighing five or six pounds; one quart of
milk, two table-spoonfuls of flour, one of butter, one small slice of
onion, two sprigs of parsley, salt, pepper. Put the fish on in boiling
water enough to cover, and which contains one table-spoonful of salt.
Cook gently twenty minutes; then lift out of the water, but let it
remain on the tray. Now carefully remove all the skin and the head;
then turn the fish over into the dish in which it is to be served (it
should be stone china), and scrape off the skin from the other side.
Pick out all the small bones. You will find them the whole length of
the back, and a few in the lower part of the fish, near the tail. They
are in rows like pins in a paper, and if you start all right it will
take but a few minutes to remove them. Then take out the back-bone,
starting at the head and working gently down toward the tail. Great
care must be taken, that the fish may keep its shape. Cover with the
cream, and bake about ten minutes, just to brown it a little. Garnish
with parsley or little puff-paste cakes; or, you can cover it with the
whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and then slightly
To prepare the cream: Put the milk, parsley and onion on to boil,
reserving half a cupful of milk to mix with the flour. When it boils,
stir in the flour, which has been mixed smoothly with the cold milk.
Cook eight minutes. Season highly with salt and pepper, add the
butter, strain on the fish, and proceed as directed.
One pint of milk, one pint of cream, four table-spoonfuls of flour,
one cupful of bread crumbs and between four and five pounds of any
kind of white fish--cusk, cod, haddock, etc., boiled twenty minutes in
water to cover and two table-spoonfuls of salt. Put fish on to boil,
then the cream and milk. Mix the flour with half a cupful of cold
milk, and stir into boiling cream and milk. Cook eight minutes and
season highly with salt and pepper. Remove skin and bones from fish,
and break it into flakes. Put a layer of sauce in a deep escalop dish,
and then a layer of fish, which dredge well with salt (a table-
spoonful) and pepper; then another layer of sauce, again fish, and
then sauce. Cover with the bread crumbs, and bake half an hour. This
quantity requires a dish holding a little over two quarts, or, two
smaller dishes will answer. If for the only solid dish for dinner,
this will answer for six persons; but if it is in a course for a
dinner party, it will serve twelve. Cold boiled fish can be used when
you have it. Great care must be taken to remove every bone when fish
is prepared with a sauce, (as when it is served _à la crème_,
escaloped, &c.), because one cannot look for bones then as when the
sauce is served separately.
Turbot à la Crème.
Boil five or six pounds of haddock. Take out all bones, and shred the
fish very fine. Let a quart of milk, a quarter of an onion and a piece
of parsley come to a boil; then stir in a scant cupful of flour, which
has been mixed with a cupful of cold milk, and the yolks of two eggs.
Season with half a teaspoonful of white pepper, the same quantity of
thyme, half a cupful of butter, and well with salt. Butter a pan, and
put in first a layer of sauce, then one of fish. Finish with sauce,
and over it sprinkle cracker crumbs and a light grating of cheese.
Bake for an hour in a moderate oven.
Matelote of Codfish.
Cut off the head of a codfish weighing five pounds. Remove bones from
the fish, and fill it with a dressing made of half a pint of oysters,
a scant pint of bread crumbs, a fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper, two
teaspoonfuls of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter, half an onion, an
egg and half a table-spoonful of chopped parsley. Place five slices of
pork both under and over the fish. Boil the bones in a pint of water,
and pour this around the fish. Bake an hour, and baste often with
gravy and butter. Have a bouquet in the corner of the baking pan. Make
a gravy, and pour around the fish. Then garnish with fried smelts.
Smelts à la Tartare.
Clean the smelts by drawing them between the finger and thumb,
beginning at the tail. This will press out the insides at the opening
at the gills. Wash them, and drain in the colander; salt well, and dip
in beaten egg and bread or cracker crumbs (one egg and one cupful of
crumbs to twelve smelts, unless these are very large). Dip first in
the egg, and then roll in the crumbs. Fry in boiling fat deep enough
to float them. They should be a handsome brown in two minutes and a
half. Take them up, and place on a sheet of brown paper for a few
moments, to drain; then place on a hot dish. Garnish with parsley and
a few slices of lemon, and serve with Tartare sauce in a separate
dish; or, they may be served without the sauce.
Smelts as a Garnish,
Smelts are often fried, as for _à la Tartare_; or, rolled in meal
or flour, and then fried, they are used to garnish other kinds of
fish. With baked fish they are arranged around the dish in any form
that the taste of the cook may dictate; but in garnishing fish, or any
other dish, the arrangement should always be simple, so as not to make
the matter of serving any harder than if the dish were not garnished.
Smelts are also seasoned well with salt and pepper, dipped in butter
and afterwards in flour, and placed in a very hot oven for eight or
ten minutes to get a handsome brown. They are then served as a garnish
or on slices of buttered toast. When smelts are used as a garnish,
serve one on each plate with the other fish. If you wish to have the
smelts in rings, for a garnish, fasten the tails in the opening at the
gills, with little wooden tooth picks; then dip them in the beaten egg
and in the crumbs, place in the frying basket and plunge into the
boiling fat. When they are cooked take out the skewers, and they will
retain their shape.
Fish au Gratin.
Any kind of light fish--that is, cod, cusk, flounder, etc. Skin the
fish by starting at the head and drawing down towards the tail; then
take out the bones. Cut the fish into pieces about three inches
square, and salt and pepper well. Butter such a dish, as you would use
for escolloped oysters. Put in one layer of fish, then moisten well
with sauce; add more fish and sauce, and finally cover with fine bread
crumbs. Bake half an hour. The dish should be rather shallow, allowing
only two layers of fish.
Sauce for _au gratin_: One pint of stock, three table-spoonfuls
of butter, two of flour, juice of half a lemon, half a tablespoonful
of chopped parsley, a slice of onion, the size of half a dollar, and
about as thick--chopped very fine, (one table-spoonful of onion juice
is better); one table-spoonful of vinegar, salt, pepper. Heat the
butter in a small frying-pan, and when hot, add the dry flour. Stir
constantly until a rich brown; then add, gradually, the cold stock,
stirring all the time. As soon as it boils, season well with salt and
pepper, and then add the other seasoning. This quantity is enough for
three pounds of fish, weighed after being skinned and boned, and will
serve six persons if it is the only solid dish for dinner, or ten if
served in a course.
Another way to serve fish _au gratin_, is to skin it, cut off the
head, and take out the back-bone; and there are then two large pieces
of fish. Season the fish, and prepare the sauce as before. Butter a
tin sheet that will fit loosely into a large baking-pan. Lay the fish
on this, and moisten well with the sauce. Cover thickly with bread
crumbs, and cook twenty-five minutes in a rather quick oven. Then slip
on a hot dish, and serve with tomato, Tartare or Hollandaise sauce
poured around the fish.
Eels à la Tartare.
Cut the eels into pieces about four inches long. Cover them with
boiling water, in which let them stand five minutes, and then drain
them. Now dip in beaten egg, which has been well salted and peppered,
then in bread or cracker crumbs. Fry in boiling fat for five minutes.
Have Tartare sauce spread in the centre of a cold dish. Place the
fried eels in a circle on this, garnish with parsley, and serve.
Cut two eels in pieces about four inches long. Put three large table-
spoonfuls of butter into the stew-pan with half a small onion. As soon
as the onion begins to turn yellow stir in two table-spoonfuls of
flour, and stir until brown. Add one pint of stock, if you have it; if
not, use water. Season well with pepper and salt; then put in the eels
and two bay leaves. Cover, and simmer gently three-quarters of an
hour. Heap the eels in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over
them and garnish with toasted bread and parsley. If you wish, add a
table-spoonful of vinegar or lemon juice to the stew.
On the Half Shell.
Not until just before serving should they be opened. Marketmen often
furnish some one to do this. Six large oysters are usually allowed
each person. Left in half the shell, they are placed on a dinner
plate, with a thin slice of lemon in the centre of the dish.
On a Block of Ice.
Having a perfectly clear and solid block of ice, weighing ten or
fifteen pounds, a cavity is to be made in the top of it in either of
two ways. The first is to carefully chip with an ice pick; the other,
to melt with heated bricks. If the latter be chosen the ice must be
put into a tub or large pan, and one of the bricks held upon the
centre of it until there is a slight depression, yet sufficient for
the brick to rest in. When the first brick is cold remove it, tip the
block on one side, to let off the water, and then use another brick.
Continue the operation till the cavity will hold as many oysters as
are to be served. These should be kept an hour previous in a cool
place; should be drained in a colander, and seasoned with salt, pepper
and vinegar. After laying two folded napkins on a large platter, to
prevent the block from slipping, cover the dish with parsley, so that
only the ice is visible. Stick a number of pinks, or of any small,
bright flowers that do not wilt rapidly, into the parsley. Pour
oysters into the space in the top of the ice, and garnish with thin
slices of lemon. This gives an elegant dish, and does away with the
unsightly shells in which raw oysters are usually served. It is not
expensive, for the common oysters do as well as those of good size.
Indeed, as many ladies dislike the large ones, here is an excellent
substitute for serving in the shell, particularly as the oysters
require no seasoning when once on the table. A quart is enough for a
party of ten; but a block of the size given will hold two quarts.
Roasted Oysters on Toast.
Eighteen large oysters, or thirty small ones, one teaspoonful of
flour, one table-spoonful of butter, salt, pepper, three slices of
toast. Have the toast buttered and on a hot dish. Put the butter in a
small sauce-pan, and when hot, add the dry flour. Stir until smooth,
but not brown; then add the cream, and let it boil up once. Put the
oysters (in their own liquor) into a hot oven, for three minutes; then
add them to the cream. Season, and pour over the toast. Garnish the
dish with thin slices of lemon, and serve very hot. It is nice for
lunch or tea.
Oysters Panned in their Own Liquor.
Eighteen large, or thirty small, oysters, one table-spoonful of
butter, one of cracker crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, one
teaspoonful of lemon juice, a speck of cayenne. Put the oysters on in
their own liquor, and when they boil up, add seasoning, butter and
crumbs. Cook one minute, and serve on toast.
Oysters Panned in the Shell.
Wash the shells and wipe dry. Place them in a pan with the round shell
down. Set in a hot oven for three minutes; then take out, and remove
the upper shell. Put two or three oysters into one of the round
shells, season with pepper and salt, add butter, the size of two peas,
and cover with cracker or bread crumbs. Return to the oven and brown.
Two dozen large, or three dozen small, oysters, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, four of fine cracker crumbs, salt, pepper. Let the oysters
drain in the colander. Then season with salt and pepper and roll in
the crumbs. Have the butter very hot in a frying-pan, and put in
enough of the oysters to cover the bottom of the pan. Fry crisp and
brown, being careful not to burn. Serve on hot, crisp toast.
Oysters Roasted in the Shell.
Wash the shells clean, and wipe dry. Place in a baking pan, and put in
a hot oven for about twenty minutes. Serve on hot dishes the moment
they are taken from the oven. Though this is not an elegant dish, many
people enjoy it, as the first and best flavor of the oysters is
retained in this manner of cooking. The oysters can, instead, be
opened into a hot dish and seasoned with butter, salt, pepper and
lemon juice. They should be served immediately.
Little Pigs in Blankets.
Season large oysters with salt and pepper. Cut fat English bacon in
very thin slices, wrap an oyster in each slice, and fasten with a
little wooden skewer (toothpicks are the best things). Heat a frying-
pan and put in the "little pigs." Cook just long enough to crisp the
bacon--about two minutes. Place on slices of toast that have been cut
into small pieces, and serve immediately. Do not remove the skewers.
This is a nice relish for lunch or tea; and, garnished with parsley,
is a pretty one. The pan must be very hot before the "pigs" are put
in, and then great care must be taken that they do not burn.
One hundred oysters (about two quarts), four large tablespoonfuls of
butter, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one table-spoonful of
flour, a speck of cayenne, salt, yolks of three eggs. Brown two table-
spoonfuls of the butter, and add to it the parsley, cayenne and salt
and the oysters, well drained. Mix together the flour and the
remainder of the butter and stir into the oysters when they begin to
curl. Then add yolks, well beaten, and take immediately from the fire.
Serve on a hot dish with a garnish of fried bread and parsley.
A pint of cream, one quart of oysters, a small piece of onion, a very
small piece of mace, a table-spoonful of flour, and salt and pepper to
taste. Let the cream, with the onion and mace, come to a boil. Mix
flour with a little cold milk or cream, and stir into the boiling
cream. Let the oysters come to a boil in their own liquor, and skim
carefully. Drain off all the liquor, and turn the oysters into the
cream. Skim out the mace and onions, and serve.
Crôustade of Oysters.
Have a loaf of bread baked in a round two-quart basin. When two or
three days old, with a sharp knife cut out the heart of the bread,
being careful not to break the crust. Break up the crumbs very fine,
and dry them slowly in an oven; then quickly fry three cupfuls of them
in two table-spoonfuls of butter. As soon as they begin to look golden
and are crisp, they are done. It takes about two minutes over a hot
fire, stirring all the time. Put one quart of cream to boil, and when
it boils, stir in three table-spoonfuls of flour, which has been mixed
with half a cupful of cold milk. Cook eight minutes. Season well with
salt and pepper. Put a layer of the sauce into the _crôustade_
then a layer of oysters, which dredge well with salt and pepper; then
another layer of sauce and one of fried crumbs. Continue this until
the _crôustade_ is nearly full, having the last layer a thick one
of crumbs. It takes three pints of oysters for this dish, and about
three teaspoonfuls of salt and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Bake
slowly half an hour. Serve with a garnish of parsley around the dish,
Two quarts of oysters, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful of cream
or milk, four teaspoonfuls of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two
quarts of stale bread crumbs, and spice, if you choose. Butter the
escalop dishes, and put in a layer of crumbs and then one of oysters.
Dredge with the salt and pepper, and put small pieces of butter here
and there in the dish. Now have another layer of oysters, seasoning as
before; then add the milk, and, finally, a thick layer of crumbs,
which dot with butter. Bake twenty minutes in a rather quick oven. The
crumbs must be light and flakey. The quantity given above is enough to
fill two dishes.
Escaloped Oysters, No. 2.
Put a layer of rolled crackers in an oval dish, and then a layer of
oysters, and lay on small pieces of butter. Dredge with salt and
pepper, and moisten well with milk (or equal parts of milk and water).
Add another layer of cracker and of oysters, and butter, dredge and
moisten as before. Continue these alternate layers until the dish is
nearly full; then cover with a thin layer of cracker and pieces of
butter. If the dish be a large one, holding about two quarts, it will
require an hour and a half or two hours to bake.
Oysters Served in Escalop Shells.
The shells may be tin, granite-ware, or silver-plated, or, the natural
oyster or scollop shells. The ingredients are: one quart of oysters,
half a pint of cream or milk, one pint of bread crumbs, one table-
spoonful of butter, if cream is used, or three, if milk; salt and
pepper, a grating of nutmeg and two table-spoonfuls of flour. Drain
all the liquor from the oysters into a stew-pan. Let it come to a
boil, and skim; then add the cream or milk, with which the flour
should first be mixed. Let this boil two minutes, and add the butter,
salt, pepper and nutmeg, and then the oysters. Take from the fire
immediately. Taste to see if seasoned enough. Have the shells
buttered, and sprinkled lightly with crumbs. Nearly fill them with the
prepared oysters; then cover thickly with crumbs. Put the shells in a
baking-pan, and bake fifteen minutes. Serve very hot, on a large
platter, which garnish with parsley. The quantity given above will
fill twelve common-sized shells.
One quart of oysters, one pint of cream, one small slice of onion,
half a cupful of milk, whites of four eggs, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, salt, pepper, two table-spoonfuls of flour, one cupful of
fine, dry bread crumbs, six potatoes. Pare and boil the potatoes. Mash
fine and light, and add the milk, salt, pepper, one spoonful of
butter, and then the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Have
a two-quart charlotte russe mould well buttered, and sprinkle the
bottom and sides with the bread crumbs (there must be butter enough to
hold the crumbs). Line the mould with the potato, and let stand for a
few minutes. Put the cream and onion on to boil. Mix the flour with a
little cold milk or cream--about one-fourth of a cupful--and stir into
the boiling cream. Season well with salt and pepper, and cook eight
minutes. Let the oysters come to a boil in their own liquor. Skim
them, and drain of all the juice. Take the piece of onion from the
sauce, and add the oysters. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and turn
gently into the mould. Cover with the remainder of the potato, being
careful not to put on too much at once, as in that case the sauce
would be forced to the top. When covered, bake half an hour in a hot
oven. Take from the oven ten minutes before dishing time, and let it
stand on the table. Place a large platter over the mould and turn both
dish and mould at the same time. Remove the mould very gently. Garnish
the dish with parsley, and serve. A word of caution: Every part of the
mould must have a thick coating of the mashed potato, and when the
covering of potato is put on no opening must be left for sauce to
To Pickle Oysters
Two hundred large oysters, half a pint of vinegar, half a pint of
white wine, four spoonfuls of salt, six spoonfuls of whole black
pepper and a little mace. Strain the liquor, and add the above-named
ingredients. Let boil up once, and pour, while boiling hot, over the
oysters. After these have stood ten minutes pour off the liquor,
which, as well as the oysters, should then be allowed to get cold. Put
into a jar and cover tight. The oysters will keep some time.
Lobster, to be eatable, should be perfectly fresh. One of the tests of
freshness is to draw back the tail, for if it springs into position
again, it is safe to think the fish good. The time of boiling varies
with the size of the lobster and in different localities. In Boston,
Rockport and other places on the Massachusetts coast the time is
fifteen or twenty minutes for large lobsters and ten for small. The
usual way is to plunge them into boiling water enough to cover, and to
continue boiling them until they are done. Some people advocate
putting the lobsters into cold water, and letting this come to a boil
gradually. They claim that the lobsters do not suffer so much. This
may be so, but it seems as if death must instantly follow the plunge
into boiling water. Cooking a lobster too long makes it tough and dry.
When, on opening a lobster, you find the meat clinging to the shell,
and very much shrunken, you may be sure the time of boiling was too
long. There are very few modes of cooking lobster in which it should
be more than thoroughly heated, as much cooking toughens it and
destroys the fine, delicate flavor of the meat.
To open a lobster.
Separate the tail from the body, and shake out the tom-ally, and,
also, the "coral," if there is any, upon a plate. Then by drawing the
body from the shell with the thumb, and pressing the part near the
head against the shell with the first and second finger, you will free
it from the stomach or "lady." Now split the lobster through the
centre and, with a fork, pick the meat from the joints. Cut the under
side of the tail shell open and take out the meat without breaking. On
the upper part of that end of this meat which joined the body is a
small piece of flesh, which should be lifted; and a strip of meat
attached to it should be turned back to the extreme end of the tail.
This will uncover a little vein, running the entire length, which must
be removed. Sometimes this vein is dark, and sometimes as light as the
meat itself. It and the stomach are the only parts not eatable. The
piece that covered the vein should be turned again into place. Hold
the claws on edge on a thick board, and strike hard with a hammer
until the shell cracks. Draw apart, and take out the meat. If you have
the claws lying flat on the board when you strike, you not only break
the shell, but mash the meat, and thus spoil a fine dish. Remember
that the stomach of the lobster is found near the head, and is a
small, hard sack containing poisonous matter; and that the intestinal
vein is found in the tail. These should always be carefully removed.
When lobster is opened in the manner explained it may be arranged
handsomely on a dish, and each person can season it at the table to
Lobster Broiled in the Shell.
Divide the tail into two parts, cutting lengthwise. Break the large
claws in two parts, and free the body from the small claws and
stomach. Replace the body in the shell. Put the meat from the claws in
half of the shells it came from, and put the other half of the shells
where they will get hot. Put the lobster into the double broiler, and
cook, with the meat side exposed to the fire, for eight minutes; then
turn, and cook ten minutes longer. Place on a hot dish, and season
slightly with salt and cayenne, and then well with _maître d'
hôtel_ butter. Cover the claws with the hot shells. Garnish the
dish with parsley, and serve.
Split the meat of the tail and claws, and season well with salt and
pepper. Cover with soft butter and dredge with flour. Place in the
broiler, and cook over a bright fire until a delicate brown. Arrange
on a hot dish, pour Bechamel sauce around, and serve.
Split the meat of the tail and claws, and season well with salt and
pepper. Dip in beaten egg and then in bread crumbs, which let dry on
the meat; and then repeat the operation. Place in a frying-basket, and
plunge into boiling fat. Cook till a golden brown--about two minutes.
Serve with Tartare sauce.
The meat of a two and a half pound lobster, cut into dice; two table-
spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one pint of stock or water, a speck
of cayenne, salt and pepper to taste. Let the butter get hot, and add
the dry flour. Stir until perfectly smooth, when add the water,
gradually, stirring all the while. Season to taste. Add the lobster;
heat thoroughly, and serve.
Curry of Lobster.
The meat of a lobster weighing between two and three pounds, one very
small onion, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, a scant
one of curry powder, a speck of cayenne, salt, a scant pint of water
or stock. Let the butter get hot; and then add the onion, cut fine,
and fry brown. When the onion is cooked add the flour and curry
powder, and stir all together for two minutes. Add stock; cook two
minutes, and strain. Add the meat of lobster, cut into dice, and
simmer five minutes. Serve with a border of boiled rice around the
Devilled Lobster in the Shell.
Two lobsters, each weighing about two and a half pounds; one pint of
cream, two table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one of mustard, a
speck of cayenne, salt, pepper, a scant pint of bread crumbs. Open the
lobster and, with a sharp knife, cut the meat rather fine. Be careful,
in opening, not to break the body or tail shells. Wash these shells
and wipe dry; join them in the form of a boat, that they may hold the
prepared meat. Put the cream on to boil. Mix the butter, flour,
mustard and pepper together, and add three spoonfuls of the boiling
cream. Stir all into the remaining cream, and cook two minutes. Add
the lobster, salt and pepper, and boil one minute. Fill the shells
with the mixture, and place in a pan, with something to keep them in
position (a few small stones answer very well). Cover with the bread
crumbs, and brown for twenty minutes in a hot oven. Serve on a long,
narrow dish; the body in the centre, the tails at either end. Garnish
with parsley. If for a large company, it would be best to have a broad
dish, and have four lobsters, instead of two. This is a very handsome
dish, and is really not hard to cook. There is always a little more of
the prepared lobster than will go into the shells without crowding,
and this is nice warmed and served on slices of crisp toast.
Prepare the lobster as for devilling, omitting, however, the mustard.
Turn into a buttered escollop dish, and cover thickly with crumbs.
Brown in a hot oven, and serve.
White stock may be used instead of the cream. Many people who cannot
eat lobster when prepared with cream or milk, find it palatable when
prepared with stock or water.
A lobster weighing between two and a half and three pounds, three
table-spoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of stock or cream, one
heaping table-spoonful of flour, a speck of cayenne, salt, two eggs,
about a pint of bread crumbs, twelve sprigs of parsley. Cut the meat
of the lobster into fine dice, and season with salt and pepper. Put
the butter on to heat. Add the flour, and when smooth, add the stock
and one well-beaten egg. Season. Boil up once, add the lobster, and
take from the fire immediately. Now add a table-spoonful of lemon
juice. Butter a platter, and pour the mixture upon it, to the
thickness of about an inch. Make perfectly smooth with a knife, and
set away to cool. When cool, cut into chops, to resemble cutlets. Dip
in beaten egg and then in bread crumbs, being sure to have every part
covered. Place in the frying-basket and plunge into boiling fat. Cook
till a rich brown. It will take about two minutes. Drain for a moment
in the basket; then arrange on a hot dish, and put part of a small
claw in each one, to represent the bone in a cutlet. Put the parsley