Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Memories of Canada and Scotland by John Douglas Sutherland Campbell

Part 5 out of 5

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.5 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

richness the giant slopes, and swarm upwards to glacier, snow field,
and craggy peak, and where in the autumn the maples seem as though they
wished to mimic in hanging gardens the glowing tints of the lava that
must have streamed down the precipices of these old volcanoes. (Loud
cheering.) Wherever you find these beauties in greatest perfection, and
where the river torrents urge their currents most impetuously through
the Alpine gorges, there I would counsel you to set apart a region
which shall be kept as a national park. In doing so you can follow the
example of our southern friends,--an example which, I am sure Mr.
Francis will agree with me, we cannot do better than imitate, and you
would secure that they who make the round trip from New York or
Montreal shall return from San Francisco, or come thence _via_ the
Canadian Pacific Railroad. (Loud and continued applause.) I thought it
might interest you, gentlemen, this evening to hear the last news
regarding that Railway, and therefore I should like to read to you a
letter received only a day or two ago from the engineer in chief, Major
Rogers. You will see he speaks hopefully and assuringly:
"I have found the desired pass through the Selkirks, it lying about
twenty miles east of the forks of the Ille-cille-want and about two
miles north of the main east branch of the same. Its elevation above
sea level is about 4500 feet, or about 1000 feet lower than the pass
across the Rockies. The formation of the country, from the summits of
the Selkirks to the Columbia river, has been much misrepresented.
Instead of the solid mass of mountain, as reported, there are two large
valleys lying within these limits. The Beaver river, which empties into
the Columbia river about twenty miles below the Black-berry (or Howse
Pass route), rises south of the fifty-first parallel (I have not seen
its source, but have seen its valley for that distance), and the
Spellamacheen runs nearly parallel with the Beaver but in an opposite
direction, and lies between the Beaver and the Columbia. I have great
hope of being able to take with me this fall the results of a
preliminary survey of this route. It necessarily involves heavy work,
as must any short line across the mountains, a condition which will be
readily accepted in consideration of the material shortening of the

This is the last news, and I hope we shall hear of its full
corroboration before long. I beg, gentlemen, to thank you once more for
your exceeding kindness, and for all the kindness shown us since our
arrival. I have always been a firm friend of British Columbia, and I
hope before I leave the country to see still greater progress made
towards meeting your wishes.

[1] The United States Consul.

At a meeting of the National Rifle Association, held at Ottawa, 8th
March 1883, His Excellency, spoke as follows:--

I believe all who value those qualities which lead to good
rifle-shooting--steadiness and sobriety--and this means every family in
the country, the father and mother, as well as the young men belonging
to it, should give their ten cents or twenty-five cents, as they can
afford it, to swell the funds of the association. As this association
thus encourages personal, as well as a military training, it merits the
support of all classes. We know that the amount of personal training
that is required produces a love of temperance among those who attend
the meetings of the association, and we know that by the military
training given, a military sentiment is developed, which makes men at
least not averse to discipline in moderation. It has been said by my
predecessor, and I agree with the remark, that Canada is certainly the
most democratic country upon the North American continent, but we know
that although everybody may have been born equal, yet that equality
suddenly and mysteriously disappears as soon as the schoolboy goes upon
the school bench, or the rifleman goes upon the rifle ground. The
militiamen of Canada show that a democratic people do not tolerate
unearned superiority, but recognise the superiority given by training.
I cannot let this opportunity pass without saying a last word as to the
point of view from which I regard the importance of militia training in
Canada. It is more perhaps from the point of view of an Imperial
officer than from that of a man temporarily holding a Canadian civil
appointment. There is a certain amount of feeling in this country that
our whole militia force is a mere matter of fuss and feathers, of
"playing at soldiers" in fact. I think that is always a most
unfortunate feeling, because I cannot say how anxiously in the old
country those steps are watched by which Canadians perfect themselves
for purposes of self-defence. Englishmen know that in case of any
trouble arising, which I hope not to see, and do not believe we shall
see, they are bound and pledged to come to your assistance. The
question must necessarily be asked, With what army are they to operate?
with one that will be of real assistance, or with one that will have no
more cohesion than that which fell under the organised blows of the
Prussian army before Orleans? I can always point to the efforts made in
Canada before my time to have an organised system of military training.
I can point to the grants given by the Government for the encouragement
of individual and regimental proficiency in rifle shooting. I can point
also to the military schools for the militia which are being founded,
and to the steps which are to be taken that officers shall always have
some training received from those schools before they undertake the
responsibility of leading their fellow-citizens in the ranks. I can
point also to that splendid institution, the Military College at
Kingston, and I can certainly say to the old country people, that
should any misfortune arise that should compel us to operate together,
they will in time find in Canada officers who will be perfectly able
and ready to lead men, who from their physical powers and from their
military sentiments and from their hardihood are likely, under proper
training and guidance, to form some of the best troops in the world.
(Loud cheers.)

At the Second Meeting of the Royal Society, at Ottawa, May 1883, the
Governor-General said:--

Mr. President, Mr. Vice-President, and Members of the Royal Society of
Canada,--When we met last year, and formally inaugurated a society for
the encouragement of literature and science in Canada, an experiment
was tried. As with all experiments, its possible success was questioned
by some who feared that the elements necessary for such an organisation
were lacking. Our meeting of this year assumes a character which an
inaugural assembly could not possess. The position we took in asserting
that the time had come for the institution of such a union of the
scientific and literary men of this country has been established as
good, not only by the honourable name accorded to us by Her Majesty, a
designation never lightly granted, but also by that without which we
could not stand, namely, the public favour extended to our efforts.
Parliament has recognised the earnest purpose and happy co-operation
with which you have met and worked in unison, knowing that the talents
exhibited are not those of gold and silver only, and has stamped with
its approbation your designs by voting a sum of money, which in part
will defray the expense of printing your transactions. And here, in
speaking of this as a business meeting, I would venture to remind you,
and all friends of this society throughout the country, that the $5000
annually voted by the House of Commons will go but a very short way in
preparing a publication which shall fully represent Canada to the
foreign scientific bodies of the world. We have only to look to the
Federal and State Legislatures of America to see what vast sums are
annually expended in the States for scientific research. We see there
also how the proceeds of noble endowments are annually utilised for the
free dissemination of knowledge. It is, therefore, not to be supposed
that the comparatively small parallel assistance provided by any
Government can absolve wealthy individuals from the patriotic duty of
bequeathing or of giving to such a national society the funds, without
which it cannot usefully exist. You will forgive me, as one who may be
supposed to have a certain amount of the traditional economical
prudence of his countrymen, for mentioning one other matter on which,
at all events, in the meantime, a saving can be effected. While it is
necessary to have accurate and finely executed engravings of beautiful
drawings for the illustration of scientific papers, it is necessary
that the printing of the transactions should occasion as little cost as
possible; and I believe you will find it advisable for the present that
each paper shall be printed only in that language in which its author
has communicated it to the society. Your position is rather a peculiar
one, for although you work for the benefit of the public, it is not to
be expected that the public can understand all you say when your speech
is of science in consultation with each other. The public will
therefore, I trust, be in the position of those who are willing to pay
their physicians when they meet in consultation, without insisting that
every word the doctors say to each other shall be repeated in the
hearing of all men. When funds increase, it seems to me that the
economy it will probably now be necessary to exercise in regard to this
may be discarded.

In the sections dealing with literature it is proposed to establish a
reading committee, whose duty it shall be to report on the publications
of the year, that our thanks may be given to the authors who advance
the cause of literature among us. To assist in that most necessary
enterprise, the formation of a national museum, circulars have been
addressed by the society to men likely to have opportunities for the
collection of objects of interest, and the Hudson Bay Company's
officers have been foremost in promoting our wishes. The Government is
now prepared to house all objects sent to the secretary of the Royal
Society at Ottawa, and contributions for collections of archives, of
antiquities, of zoology, and of all things of interest are requested. I
rejoice, gentlemen, that I have been able to be with you now; that a
year has elapsed since our incorporation, as this period allows us in
some measure to judge of our future prospects. These are most
encouraging, and the only possible difficulty that I can see ahead of
you is this: that men may be apt to take exception to your membership
because it is not geographically representative. I would earnestly
counsel you to hold to your course in this matter. A scientific and
literary society must remain one representing individual eminence, and
that individual eminence must be recognised if, as it may happen
accidentally, personal distinction in authorship may at any particular
moment be the happy possession of only one part of the country. A
complete work, and one recognised for its merit, should remain the
essential qualification for election to the literary sections, and the
same test should be applied as far as possible to the scientific
branches. If men be elected simply because they came from such and such
a college, or if they be elected simply because they came from the east,
from the west, from the north, or from the south, you will get a
heterogeneous body together quite unworthy to be compared with the
foreign societies on whose intellectual level Canada, as represented by
her scientific men and authors, must in the future endeavour to stand.
One word more on the kindly recognition already given to you. In
America, in France, and in Britain, the birth of the new institution
has been hailed with joy, and our distinguished president is at this
moment also a nominated delegate of Britain. An illness we deplore has
alone prevented the presence of an illustrious member of the Academy of
France, and the French Government, with an enlightened generosity which
does it honour, had expressed its wish to defray the expenses of the
most welcome of ambassadors. We have the satisfaction of cordially
greeting an eminent representative of the United States, and I express
the desire which is shared by all in this hall, that our meeting may
never want the presence of delegates of the great people who are dear
as they are near to us.

It is, gentlemen, greatly owing to your organisation that the British
Association for the advancement of science will next year meet at
Montreal, following in this a precedent happily established by the
visit last year of the American Association. These meetings at Montreal
are not without their significance. They show that it is not only among
statesmen and politicians abroad that Canada is valued and respected;
but that throughout all classes, and wherever intellect, culture, and
scientific attainment are revered, her position is acknowledged, and
her aspiration to take her place among the nations is seen and welcomed.

I am sure that your British brethren have chosen wisely in selecting
Montreal, for I know the hearty greeting which awaits them from its
hospitable citizens. The facilities placed at the disposal of our
British guests will enable them to visit a large portion of our immense
territory, where in every part new and interesting matters will arrest
their attention, and give delight to men who, in many cases, have but
lately realised our resources. Their words, biassed by no interests
other than the desire for knowledge, and founded on personal
observation, will find no contradiction when they assert that in the
lifetime of the babes now born, the vast fertile regions of Canada will
be the home of a people more numerous than that which at the present
time inhabits the United Kingdom.

I must not now further occupy your time, but would once more ask you to
accept my heartfelt thanks for the determination shown by all to make
the Royal Society a worthy embodiment of the literary activity and the
scientific labour of our widely-scattered countrymen throughout this
great land.

The Governor-General's reply to addresses from the Royal Academy and
the Ontario Society of Artists, Toronto, June 1883:--

Mr. O'Brien, Mr. Allan, and Ladies and Gentlemen,--I beg to thank you
most cordially for the most kind and courteous addresses which you have
been so good as to present to us. We shall keep them as mementos of the
part we have been able to take in promoting Art in the Dominion. That
part has necessarily been a very small one. I have been able to do very
little more than make suggestions, and those suggestions have been
patriotically and energetically acted upon by the gentlemen who have
taken in hand the interests of Art. But what we have done we have done
with our whole hearts. The Princess has taken the deepest interest from
its inception in the project of establishing a Royal Academy. When,
owing to the unfortunate accident at Ottawa, she was unable to visit
the first exhibition of the Academy held in that city, I remember she
insisted that I should bring up to her room nearly every one of the
pictures exhibited, in order that she might judge of the position of
Canadian Art at that time. (Applause.) It is very fitting that your
first meeting in Toronto should be held in a building devoted to
education, such as this Normal School. I have not yet had the pleasure
of seeing the Exhibition, but I am given to understand that it is an
excellent one, and shows marked progress. That the Exhibition should be
held in this building shows the appreciation of your efforts on the
part of the Government of Ontario. It symbolises the wish of your
association to promote education by extending Art-training, and
training in design. It is therefore most fitting that the Normal School
in Toronto, the great centre from which come the masters of education
for Ontario, should be chosen as the place in which to hold this
Exhibition. Perhaps when the Exhibition is next held in this city, you
will be privileged to meet in a Hall belonging to the local Art
Society--a gallery of paintings. A proper gallery is yet wanting. I
have seen a good many such in other places, notably in Boston, New York,
and Montreal. I am accustomed to think that Toronto is quite in the
front rank, if not ahead of any other city upon this continent. It
should not be behindhand in this respect. I know, at all events, one
eminent Toronto man who lives not far from here, whose features and
form are as well known as those of the Colossus were to the inhabitants
of Rhodes in ancient days, who is not satisfied with himself, nor is
the world quite satisfied, unless he is at least twenty lengths ahead
of everybody else. [1] The position he has earned for himself is
such that the Provincial Government and the Dominion Government,
with my full consent, are prepared to spend $117,000 this year in
securing his habitation, so that it shall not be swept away by the
waves of Lake Ontario. (Applause and laughter.) I am sure--though
I speak in the presence of much better authority--that if the
association here shows itself as much ahead of the world as the
gentleman to whom I have referred, the Provincial and Dominion Government
will, in the same manner, back up your position by money grants
if necessary. (Renewed laughter.) It has been a great satisfaction
to me that when the Royal Academy was founded, I had the great
assistance and support of the gentleman who was then President of
your local association, Mr. O'Brien. As this may be the last time I
shall have an opportunity to speak on Art matters in Canada, I should
like to acknowledge the debt of gratitude which all those who had to do
with founding the Academy owe to him. With untiring zeal, good temper,
and tact, he worked in a manner which deserves, I think, the highest
recognition. As a result of the labour bestowed upon the project, we
see here to-night the Academy and the old Society in one unbroken line.
With regard to the work done by the Academy, you are aware we have held
three or four annual meetings, and marked progress has been seen. The
patriotic determination not only to hold meetings in towns where good
commercial results could be obtained, but in others, is shown by the
holding of a meeting in Halifax and other towns where it was not
expected that a very large number of pictures could at once be sold.
The good results of this course are shown by the fact that as a result
of the meeting in Halifax, a local Art society is to be established
there. A local association has been started at Ottawa, and is making
good progress. In Montreal a great impetus has been given to the local
society, and throughout the Dominion the cause of Art has been promoted
by a central body bearing a high standard and encouraging contributions
from all parts of the country. We have also to pride ourselves upon the
enterprise of our artists in seeking instruction abroad. Several names
might be mentioned of those who have gone and have diligently studied
at Paris and elsewhere. At the Paris Salon this year, two of our lady
members, Miss Jones and Miss Richards, have been very successful in
having every picture they sent admitted to the Exhibition. (Applause.)
A subscription was made in Montreal, some years ago, for an excellent
statue which was erected at Chambly, the subject being Colonel de
Salaberry, and the artist, Mr. Hebert of Montreal, one of your members.
I am happy to say that Mr. Hebert was successful in the face of strong
competition from Italy, France, England, and America, in carrying off
the prize for the best model for a statue to be erected in honour of
Sir George Cartier by the Dominion Government Another of our members,
Mr. Harris, has received a commission from the Federal Government to
paint a picture commemorative of the Confederation of the Canadian
Dominion. These are marked proofs that the position attained by our
academicians is now recognised; and it shows also, if I may be allowed
to say so, the influence a society like this may virtuously exercise
upon the Government and the treasury. (Laughter and applause.) There is
only one other subject I would like to mention, though it has no direct
connection with Art. But it is one mooted by Lord Dufferin, I think, in
this very place, at all events in Toronto, some years ago. He asked me
when I came not to lose sight of it, but to push it upon all possible
occasions. I allude to the formation of a national park at Niagara. I
believe I am correct in saying that on the American side the suggestion
originated with a mutual friend of Lord Dufferin's and mine, Mr.
Bierstadt. Lord Dufferin took the most energetic steps in promoting the
project. He wrote to the gentleman who was then governor of New York.
Some difficulties arose at the time, still steps were taken by which
the project might have been successfully carried out before now.
However, a change came, and a less sympathetic _regime_ followed
that of the governor with whom Lord Dufferin had communicated. I
believe that now our neighbours are perfectly ready, and have nearly,
if not quite, carried a measure for the scheme so far as it affects
them. Their part of the work is of course a much more serious
undertaking than ours. I request the influence of the Canadian Academy,
and of the Society of Artists, in asking both the Dominion and
Provincial Governments to take measures to meet the Americans in this
movement, if they have made or are about to make it. We should secure
the land necessary to make this park, so that the vexatious little
exactions made of visitors may cease. I am sure it will be an immense
boon to the public at large, as well as to the inhabitants of this
Province and of the State of New York, if this scheme, so well
initiated, shall ultimately prove successful.

[1] Mr Hanlan, Champion Sculler of the World.

Ottawa, May 1883.--Address to His Excellency.--Mr. Speaker announced
the receipt of an informal intimation from the Senate that they were
awaiting the arrival of the Commons to present the farewell address to
His Excellency the Governor-General, in view of his early departure
from the country.

On the arrival of Mr. Speaker and the members of the Commons in the
Senate Chamber, the following address was read to His Excellency and H.
R. H. the Princess Louise by Sir John Macdonald.

To His Excellency the Governor-General of Canada, etc, etc.,--May it
please your Excellency, We, Her Majesty's dutiful subjects, the Senate
and House of Commons of Canada in Parliament assembled, desire on
behalf of those we represent, as well as on our own, to give expression
to the general feeling of regret with which the country has learned
that your Excellency's official connection with Canada is soon about to
cease. We are happy, however, to believe that in the councils of the
Empire in the future, and whenever opportunity enables you to render
Her Majesty service, Canada will ever find in your Excellency a
steadfast friend, with knowledge of her wants and aspirations, and an
earnest desire to forward her interests.

Your Excellency's zealous endeavours to inform yourself by personal
observation of the character, capabilities, and requirements of every
section of the Dominion have been highly appreciated by its people, and
we feel that the country is under deep obligations to you for your
untiring efforts to make its resources widely and favourably known.

The warm personal interest which your Excellency has taken in
everything calculated to stimulate and encourage intellectual energy
amongst us, and to advance science and art, will long be gratefully
remembered The success of your Excellency's efforts has fortified us in
the belief that a full development of our national life is perfectly
consistent with the closest and most loyal connection with the Empire.

The presence of your illustrious consort in Canada seems to have drawn
us closer to our beloved Sovereign, and in saying farewell to your
Excellency and to her Royal Highness, whose kindly and gracious
sympathies, manifested upon so many occasions, have endeared her to all
hearts, we humbly beg that you will personally convey to Her Majesty
the declaration of our loyal attachment, and of our determination to
maintain firm and abiding our connection with the great Empire over
which she rules.

His Excellency the Governor-General made the following reply:--

Honourable Gentlemen,--No higher personal honour can be received by a
public man than that which, by this address, you have been pleased to
accord to me. In asking you to accept my gratitude, I thank you also
for your words regarding the Princess, whose affection for Canada fully
equals mine. It will be my pride and duty to aid you in the future to
the utmost of my power. Now that the pre-arranged term of our residence
among you draws to its end, and the happiest five years I have ever
known are nearly spent, it is my fortune to look back on a time during
which all domestic discord has been avoided, our friendship with the
great neighbouring Republic has been sustained, and an uninterrupted
prosperity has marked the advance of the Dominion. In no other land
have the last seventeen years, the space of time which has elapsed
since your Federation, witnessed such progress. Other countries have
seen their territories enlarged and their destinies determined by
trouble and war, but no blood has stained the bonds which have knit
together your free and order-loving populations, and yet in this period,
so brief in the life of a nation, you have attained to a union whose
characteristics from sea to sea are the same. A judicature above
suspicion, self-governing communities entrusting to a strong central
Government all national interests, the toleration of all faiths with
favour to none, a franchise recognising the rights of labour by the
exclusion only of the idler, the maintenance of a Government not
privileged to exist for any fixed term, but ever susceptible to the
change of public opinion and ever open, through a responsible Ministry,
to the scrutiny of the people--these are the features of your rising
power. Finally, you present the spectacle of a nation already
possessing the means to make its position respected by its resources in
men available at sea or on land. May these never be required except to
gather the harvests the bounty of God has so lavishly bestowed upon you.
The spirit, however, which made your fathers resist encroachment on
your soil and liberties is with you now, and it is as certain to-day,
as it was formerly, that you are ready to take on yourselves the
necessary burden to ensure the permanence of your laws and institutions.
You have the power to make treaties on your own responsibility with
foreign nations, and your high commissioner is associated, for purposes
of negotiation, with the Foreign Office. You are not the subjects but
the free allies of the great country which gave you birth, and is ready
with all its energy to be the champion of your interests. Standing side
by side, Canada and Great Britain work together for the commercial
advancement of each other. It is the recognition of this which makes
such an occasion as the present significant. Personal ties, however
dear to individuals, are of no public moment. These may be happy or
unhappy accidents, but the satisfaction experienced from the conditions
of the connection now subsisting between the old and the new lands can
be affected by no personal accident. I therefore rejoice that again it
has been your determination to show that Canada remains as firmly
rooted as ever in love to that free union which ensures to you and to
Great Britain equal advantage. Without it your institutions and
national autonomy would not be allowed to endure for twelve months,
while the loss of the alliance of the communities which were once the
dependencies of England would be a heavy blow to her commerce and
renown. I thank you once more for your words, which shall be dear
treasures to me for ever, and may the end of the term of each public
servant who fills with you the office which constitutes him at once
your chief magistrate and the representative of a united empire, be a
day for pronouncing in favour of a free national Government defended by
such Imperial alliance.

At the conclusion of His Excellency's reply, Mr. Speaker returned to
the Commons Chamber, followed by the members. The last paragraph of the
speech from the Throne was as follows:--

Honourable Gentlemen of the Senate: Gentlemen of the House of Commons,--I
desire to thank you for the great honour conferred on me by the
presentation of a joint address. The Princess and I have both been
profoundly touched by your words, and the message of which you make us
the bearers, comes, as we personally know, from a people determined to
maintain the Empire. The severance of my official connection with
Canada does not loosen the tie of affection which will ever make me
desire to serve this country. I pray that the prosperity I have seen
you enjoy may continue, and that the blessing of God may at all times
be yours, to strengthen you in unity and peace.


The Annual Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures of the Province of
Ontario for 1883 was held at Toronto. The formal opening was on Sept.
15th, and His Excellency, who was invited to open it, and who was
received with the greatest enthusiasm, spoke as follows.

Ladies and Gentlemen,--I only wish my voice were strong enough to carry
to each of you the thanks we owe to every citizen of Toronto, for
nowhere have we received more kindness, and nowhere have we had
occasion to feel greater gratitude for receptions accorded us, than in
your city. These farewells I feel to be very sad occasions. I know that
if the matter had rested with the Princess she would have wished to
postpone them for another year--(cheers)--for we have spent many happy
days in Canada, and would have wished to prolong them. That, however,
could not be. The time for departing, I am sorry to say, has very
nearly come. For my part, I feel as if the sands of the last days of
happiness had nearly run out. (Cheers.) I beg to thank you, sir, for
the reference which you have made in your address to the visit of
Prince George of Wales. (Loud cheers.) It is now nearly twenty-four
years, I think, since his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales (loud
cheers) came here, he being at that time, nearly of the age which
Prince George has now attained. I have often heard from him of the
kindness and loyalty with which he was greeted in Canada. (Cheers.) I
know it has been a matter of regret to him that he has been unable in
recent years to repeat his visit. I know how he watches with the
greatest interest and sympathy the progress of this country, and how he
hopes at some future day he may possibly revisit it. (Loud cheers.) In
the address you desire me to convey to Her Majesty the assurance of
your loyalty--an assurance which we shall deliver, not that any such
assurance is needed--(Cheers)--the reverence and loyalty with which Her
Majesty is regarded is well known to me, but we will faithfully carry
out your commission. It is a message of devotion to the Throne and
Empire coming from a great community. (Loud cheers.) I do not know
anything more remarkable in the recent history of this great continent
than the story of this populous and extensive Province, whose shores
are washed by the beautiful waters of Erie, Huron, and Ontario. Within
the lifetime of a man, indeed only sixty years ago, nothing but an
untouched growth of wood was visible throughout this wide region, where
there are now myriads of happy homesteads--(cheers,) and, while this
remarkable result has been accomplished in so short a time, we see no
diminution in the progress and prosperity of the Province. During the
last few years Ontario may be said to have become a Mother Country, for
she has sent out colonies to the West by tens of thousands, and yet,
owing to the rapid and natural increase of her people, and to the
manner in which the void occasioned by the departure of these has been
filled up from across the seas, we still see the population constantly
increasing--(cheers)--and I believe the next census will show as great
an increase as the last, and that, I believe was 18 per cent. (Loud
cheers.) I was very much struck some time ago by the manner in which
some men, comfortably situated here, wished, nevertheless, to see the
West. I had occasion to ask for the services of two men for a friend of
mine who had taken a farm in Manitoba. One was got immediately, and an
Ontario gentleman, to whom I applied, came to me and said: "You will be
surprised to hear who the second man is whom I have obtained for your
friend; he is a man having a large farm and a very comfortable
homestead, and, while he does not wish to leave the Province
permanently, he desires to go to the North-West to see the country, and
has volunteered to go as a hired man for a year to Manitoba." He left
for that year his wife and child at home. I hope by this time he has
been able to rejoin them. I do not think the desire prevailing amongst
you in Ontario to go westward need cause the men of Ontario one
moment's anxiety. Your ranks will be quickly refilled. Numbers are now
coming in from the Old Country--and I beg to congratulate the
Government of Ontario on the successful way in which they have put
forward the attractions, I may say the great attractions, of this
Province as compared with those of the West, with the view of arresting
some of those who were on their passage farther west. (Cheers.) I had a
conversation only yesterday with a gentleman who is at the head of the
Agricultural Science Department of South Kensington, in London; and to
show you there is a wide field open for the surplus population of a
class you wish to attract, I would like to quote that gentleman's words.
He is a great authority, a Government official, and I am sure his name
is known to many of you--Professor Tanner. (Cheers.) He told me that
over 7,000 men are studying agriculture in Great Britain at the present
time; that over 6,000 had passed last year the examination provided by
Government; that of those 6,000 there certainly would not be an
opportunity in Great Britain for the employment of more than one-tenth;
that is to say that nine-tenths will assuredly, if they wish to follow
out the course which their studies would indicate as the career they
seek to pursue, have to find a place outside the limits of the old
country. I would certainly recommend them to come here. (Cheers.) I
have made such recommendations often at home. Sometimes I have been
told that I incur a great responsibility for doing so. (Cheers.) I
shall be very glad to assume the responsibility for the rest of my days.
(Renewed cheering.) I shall only ask of Ontario societies when they
invite women to come here, to back me in advising the old country
people not to send too many instructresses of youth--(hear, hear)--for
wherever I have made a speech in England advising women to emigrate, I
have always received about 500 letters on the succeeding day from
people who said they were perfectly confident that there was an opening
for a good governess in Canada. (Laughter and cheers.) I wish to
emphasize the fact that there is hardly any opening, for we grow our
own stock in that respect--(Loud cheers),--and I believe in the
Exhibition of which we shall soon be making an examination strangers
will see that among the objects placed in the most honourable position
is the school desk, the school bench, and the school book. (Renewed
cheers.) They will find these exhibited along with the best products of
the factory, the forest, the field and the mine. I say, I shall
continue to recommend this Province, for you have inspired me with
additional confidence--(Cheers)--perhaps because the community have
confidence in themselves. (Renewed cheers.) I will say nothing more,
for I feel I might expatiate at too great a length upon your prospects.
(Continued cheers.) I beg now formally to declare the Toronto
Exhibition of 1883 to be open to the public. (Loud and continued

The following is the Governor-General's reply to an address presented
in the Queen's Park, Toronto. Several thousand persons had assembled
although the rain had descended in torrents for some hours.

Mr. Mayor and citizens of the city of Toronto,--Ladies and Gentlemen of
this great Province of Ontario,--I have again to thank you for a loyal
and affectionate address, conveying your reverence and love to the
Queen. Already several of the Queen's children have visited Canada. On
this occasion you have been welcoming, kindly and cordially, a grandson
of her Majesty. (Cheers.) On all occasions on which members of the
Queen's family have visited this country they have met with a welcome
which evinces your determination to sustain the Empire in which Canada
occupies so large a place. I thank you, sir, for what you have stated
with regard to my term of office. You have had the good fortune to
enjoy five years of prosperity and progress. I would, if you will allow
me, take the words you have addressed to me as not in any sense
conveying a personal compliment, but as expressing your appreciation of
the value of the office which I have had the honour to hold for five
years, and your wish to maintain its dignity. I confess that I am not
so desirous of any personal popularity, but I am jealous for the
position of the Governor-General. I need not tell you, who know it
already, the value of the constitutional rules under which its
functions are exercised. They who disparage the office by telling you
that it is one of no influence would be the first to cry out against
its powers, and they would be right to do so, should those powers be
used in excess of constitutional privilege. It is sufficient that the
ministers, both of the last Government and the present, regard the
office as valuable, and desire its continuance. There is, however, one
point in connection with it which I should wish to impress upon you. In
some quarters, although not, I am satisfied, by the people at large,
the presence of a Governor-General is held to imply something called
"etiquette"--(Laughter),--and implies also the establishment of a
"court." I wish to say from my experience in Canada I am sure that this
is by no means the case. Etiquette may perhaps be defined as some rule
of social conduct. I have found that no such rule is necessary in
Canada, for the self-respect of the people guarantees good manners.
(Cheers.) We have had no etiquette and no court. Our only etiquette has
been the prohibition of any single word spoken by strangers at the
Government House in disparagement of Canada. (Cheers.) Our only court
has been the courting of her fair name and fame. (Cheers.) Now, ladies
and gentlemen, you ask me why it is I am so enthusiastic a Canadian. I
believe I am perhaps even more of a Canadian than some of the Canadians
themselves. I ascribe it to the very simple cause that I have seen
perhaps more of your country than have very many amongst you. I know
what your great possessions are, and to what a magnificent heritage you
have fallen heirs. I know that wide forest world out of which the older
Provinces have been carved. I know that great central region of
glorious prairie-land from which shall be carved out future Provinces
as splendid or yet more splendid than those of which we now proudly
boast. I know also that vast country beyond the Rocky Mountains, that
wondrous region sometimes clothed in gloomy forest, sometimes smiling
beneath the sun in pastoral beauty of valley and upland, or sometimes
shadowed by Alpine gorges and mighty mountain peaks--the territory of
British Columbia. And in each and all of these three immense sections
of your great country I know that you have possessions which must make
you in time one of the foremost among the nations, not only of this
continent, but of the world. (Cheers.) It is because I have seen so
much of you and of your territories that I am enthusiastic in your
behalf, and that the wish of my life shall be the desire to further
your interests; and I pray the God who has granted to you this great
country that he may in his own good time make you a great people. (Loud

On leaving Ottawa, an address was presented by the Corporation of the
city. The Governor-General replied as follows:--

Mr. Mayor, members of the Corporation, and citizens of Ottawa--We both
thank you most cordially for your words, which are so full of kindness.

It is indeed a sorrowful thought to us that the present must be our
last meeting for all time, as far as any official connection between us
is concerned; but we shall hope that it will not be the last occasion
on which we shall again be brought together, for it would be indeed a
melancholy prospect to us were we not able to look forward to some
future day on which we might revisit the scenes which have been so much
endeared to us, and witness the continuance of that progress which has
been so marked in the Dominion during the last five years.

You kindly wish us God-speed, and hope that our future career may be
happy; but we can never again have a happier or more fortunate time
than that spent amongst you; indeed, whenever, in the future, life's
path is darker, we can take comfort and refreshment from the
recollection of the bright days passed under the beautiful clear
sunshine of the Canadian seasons.

If in any way we have been able to please you in the personal
intercourse which it has been our happiness to have experienced on
civic occasions, and in social meetings at Government House, we shall
certainly leave with the feeling that there is no community more easy
to please. The interest and affection we have for you will always
endure, and I hope that when any of you visit the Old Country (should I
happen to be there) you will let me again see you.

But, gentlemen, however pleasant may have been the friendships begun
during the last few years, or the official relations at my office, it
is important that we should not over-value individual likings. So long
as the Governor-General follows the example set by our beloved monarch
as a constitutional sovereign, so long should the favour he finds with
the people endure, and any personal popularity is a thing of no account.
You have been pleased to endorse afresh the system under which we live
and which you think infinitely preferable to that which obtains among
our neighbours to the south of us. But my constitutional governorship
is nearly over, and now that I am practically out of harness, I mean to
assume autocratic airs, and confess to you that I have sometimes wished
for the benefit and adornment of your city to become its dictator with
plenary power of raising federal and local taxes for any object which
may have seemed best to my despotic will. But I have faith in popular
rule, and believe that when I next visit Ottawa I shall see the city
not only embellished by the completion of some of the good buildings
which are now rising, or about to be erected, within its limits, but
that I shall see every street, and especially those which are widest,
planted with flourishing shade trees. I shall probably see a new
Government House, from whose windows the beautiful extent of your river
shall be visible, as well as the noble outlines of your Parliament
Buildings. Leading from this to the city I shall mark how the long,
fine avenue planted in 1884, an avenue which will stretch all the way
along Sussex street past New Edinburgh to Government House, has sent
forth beautiful branches of the foliage of the maple, which perhaps at
intervals may mingle with a group or two of dark fir-trees. I am sure I
shall see any boulders now lying by the wayside broken up to form the
metal for excellent roads, and of course no vestiges of that burnt
wooden house at the corner of Pooley's Bridge will remain. Indeed, I
shall see few tenements which are not of brick or stone both in Ottawa
and Hull, and last, but not least, I am sure we shall find the Ministry
and Supreme Court properly housed in official residences such as are
provided for those functionaries by most of the civilized nations of
the world.

But do not think that I say anything of this prophetic vision in any
spirit of detraction of what we possess here at present. I know well
that without Federal help, such as is given at Washington, and with the
limited area from which assessments can be drawn, it must take time to
build up an ideal city, and I have always found the Ottawa of to-day a
very pleasant place as a residence. You have a society of singular
interest and variety, because so many men of ability are brought
together at the seat of government, and I believe that a gayer and
brighter season than the Ottawa winter is hardly to be met with. By the
increase of good accommodation afforded by the hotels, an improvement,
which has been most notable within the last few years, has been
effected for the comfort of visitors, and its results are apparent in
the great number of strangers who throng your city during the time of
the sitting of Parliament. Ottawa should become during these months
more and more the social centre for the Dominion, and in contributing
towards this, and in working for this end, you will not only be
benefitting yourselves, but aiding in strengthening the national spirit
and the unity of sentiment between the provinces which may be greatly
fostered in convening together, not only the leading men of the
Dominion, but those ladies belonging to other centres of social life in
Canada, without whose patriotic feeling it would be vain even for the
ablest statesman to do much towards national unity and purpose.

For our part we shall always look back upon many of the months spent in
this city as being among the brightest and pleasantest, and in bidding
you farewell we wish to express a hope that it may only be farewell for
the present.

Let me now thank you once more, and may all good remain with you and

Government House, Ottawa, 9th October, 1883.

At Montreal, on his departure, the St. Jean Baptiste Society and the
Caledonian Society presented addresses. Lord Lorne thanked them for the
personal good wishes expressed, but referring to the presentation to
the Governor-General of addresses from societies representing some race
or old national sentiment among Canadians, he said that he would
suggest that, for the future, Canadians should approach the Head of the
Government only as Canadians, the Mayor or Warden representing all.
Although among themselves they might and would always cherish
recollections of the nationality from which they sprang, a
Governor-General must recognize them only as that which they now are,
namely, component parts of the Canadian people.

His Excellency then replied as follows to the address presented by the
Mayor on behalf of the city:--

_To the Mayor and Corporation of the City of Montreal._

Gentlemen,--Your kind words remind us rather of what we would have
wished to have done than of any accomplishment of those desires. It is
but little that an individual placed at the head of your Government as
its impartial chief magistrate can or may do, and it is perhaps as well
that this is so, for it would be a matter of regret, and one to be
deplored, if the esteem in which that high office is held should depend
on any individual's capacity for capturing popular sympathy. The
position is one capable of much good in moderating counsel, and even in
the suggestion of methods of procedure in government; but any action
the head of the state may take must be unknown, except at rare
intervals, to the public, and must always be of such a nature that no
party may claim him as their especial friend. As a sign of the union of
your country with the rest of the Empire, he has other functions more
important than that of making Canada well known abroad, which it may be
in his power greatly to use for your benefit. Steam communication has
made the advent of emigrants easy, and the emigrant is a better
advertiser for you than any official can be. In short, so far as the
public activity of a Governor-General is concerned, he should rely
rather on the approbation of posterity than on any personal recognition,
taking care only that his name be associated with constitutional rule,
and his impartial recognition of whatever Ministry the country, through
the House of Commons, elects for his advice. It is a source of much
satisfaction to me to know that my successor is certain to follow in
this respect the example of the Queen, whose representative he is.

It would be impertinence in me to speak of his private character, for
they who desire to know of this have only to go and hear what is said
by his loving tenantry and friends on his estates in County Kerry,
Ireland, where an emphatic tribute to his personal worth has been
lately paid him at Dereen. In a few days he will land upon your shores,
and I am certain he will receive that warm welcome which a generous and
loyal people are ever ready to accord to the temporary representative
of constitutional government.

You have alluded, sir, to that happy day in November, five years ago,
when Montreal gave us so splendid a welcome. I remember when the horses
became unmanageable it was the good will of the citizens to honour us
by detaching them, and by drawing the carriage for a long distance
until we reached the great Windsor Hotel. I told them at the time that
I considered it an omen of how a Governor might always trust to them
for support. That impression was strengthened during my stay in Canada,
together with this other, namely, that if anything goes wrong, it is
easy for the people to take matters into their own hands, and to change
the programme, substituting another where order and active purpose may
be clearly discerned.

My residence amongst you has led me greatly to honour your people, and
in honouring them it has been my privilege to honour also its men of
both sides of politics in the State, who have been chosen by the
constituencies to lead their political life. Almost the only pain I
have experienced during my term here has been caused by the personal
attacks which are too frequently made on both sides against party men.
Believe me, gentlemen, such personal attacks do no good in advancing
any cause, but belittle the nation in the eyes of strangers. They are
also, as a rule, as unwarrantable as they are repulsive, useless and
mischievous. I have seen a good deal of the public life and of the
politicians of many countries, and I unhesitatingly affirm that you
have in general in Canada as pure and noble-minded statesmen as may be
found anywhere the wide world over. Where in other lands you see those
who have had political power and patronage occupying palaces and
raising themselves to be amongst the richest of the people, we here see
perhaps too much of the other extreme, and men who have led parties to
battle and been the victorious leaders in honest political strife are
too often left to live in houses which an English squire would not
consider good enough for his bailiff. This leads me to speak to you of
a wish which I have often cherished, but which, to reveal a Cabinet
secret, I have never succeeded in persuading any Canadian statesman to
support by a speech in the chambers of the Legislature. They fear, I
suppose, that selfishness would be assigned as their motive. I
therefore come to you, the people, to propose it, and to ask you--the
representatives and citizens of the wealthiest community in Canada--to
take it up. It is this: that we should have at Ottawa official
residences not only for the Judges of the Supreme Court, but for the
Dominion Ministers of the day. This is, of course, a matter which would
indifferently benefit whatever party may be in power. Should you
encourage the idea through your representatives you will be only
following in the footsteps of many other peoples. Every little state in
Germany provides good residences for its Ministers. At Berlin and at
Paris the nations of France and of Germany look upon it as a matter of
course that the Ministry should possess fit residences. Why should we
not follow an example so obviously good, and, because we rightly ask
the Judges of the Supreme Court and federal Ministry to reside at the
Capital, furnish them with the means of doing so in a manner suited to
the dignity of this nation?

Forgive me for detaining you at length, but in speaking to you it is
impossible not to remember that I am addressing the wealthiest and
greatest community in the country. Montreal must always keep her
pre-eminent position on the St. Lawrence, situated as she is at the end of
the ocean waterways, which form so imperial an avenue to the artificial
navigation connecting the great lakes that lie at the limits of the
vast grain region of the prairies. But while our thoughts naturally
turn westward to the vast interior with gratitude to the Giver for so
wondrous a wealth in the new soils of the central continent, let us be
thankful also for the Providence which has enabled our thrifty and
hardy people to turn to good account the banks on both sides of the
great stream flowing from hence seawards. Let us be thankful that this
great arterial channel has tempted people not only up its own current,
but up the channels of its tributaries, and that under the guidance of
men like Labelle and others, we are gradually having the great country
to the north opened up by settlements which have spread along the
Ottawa, the River Rouge, the Lievre and the Saguenay, until the long
silent shores of Lake St. John have become the busy scenes of
agricultural life. Let us be grateful also that we have this country
garrisoned by men who are as true to the Constitution and the Throne as
they are faithful to their Church, and while we direct our own young
men and the youthful emigrant from Europe to the North and to the West,
let us take care to point out to the stranger the advantages which are
so manifest here for those who either desire a city life or who wish to
reside upon the fruitful and long cleared farms of the ancient
provinces of Old Canada.

Now, _Monsieur le Maire_, accept our thanks and our farewell, but
let me express our wish that our parting may be only for a time, and
_au revoir_.

On the 20th October the Corporation of the City of Quebec presented a
farewell address. The Governor-General in the course of his reply, made
the following remarks:--

Where the laws, the language, and the institutions of each of the
Provinces forming our great Confederation are guarded by a constitution
which sees its own strength in the happy continuance of local
privileges, what wonder is it that success and progress are everywhere
to be seen. The Englishman, Scotchman or Irishman here finds the
traditions of his country continued; the French-Canadian enjoys the
most absolute liberty and safety under the flag which secures to him in
common with all citizens of every Province a national life, the natural
and legitimate desire of the growing communities of this great country.
From East to West the spreading colonies are now able to give each
other the hand. They are beginning to find out what vast possessions
they have. They value national coherence and the maintenance of local
laws. They glory in that glorious name which you first assumed--a
Canadian. You know me well enough by this time to make it superfluous
for me to render any long _eloge_ upon your characteristics.
Although we leave you we shall always be with you in spirit, and
cherish a desire to assist you.

The words of affectionate regret come easily, and I have but little
advice to give you. If there be any, it would be that no part of the
Dominion should exclude itself from the influence of the rest. They who
know only themselves and avoid contact with others go backwards; they
who welcome new impressions and compare the ideas of other men with
their own, make progress. Open your arms to the immigrants who come,
while you endeavour to repatriate your own people; there is room enough
here for all; continue to make the country to the north of you a second
line of wealth-giving lands for the first line formed by the valley of
the St. Lawrence. Remember to direct some of your young men to the West.
I feel that you throughout Canada are on the right track. You have only
to keep it. With the motto--"Our Rights and our Union" you will, with
the blessing of God, become a people whose sons will be ever proud of
the country of their birth.

May your triumphs continue to be the triumphs of Peace, your rewards
the rewards of Industry, Loyalty, and Faith!


Book of the day: