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Memories of Canada and Scotland by John Douglas Sutherland Campbell

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Province of New Brunswick, he replied as follows to an address:--

and Gentlemen,--This is not the first time, as you remind me, that the
Queen's children have visited your people, and have received at their
hands the proofs of an affection for our Sovereign which animates all
Her Majesty's subjects. The Queen has now reigned for a longer period
than has been vouchsafed to most of our monarchs, over a prosperous and
united nation, whose strength has, during her life, been greatly
increased by development and consolidation of this her great Dominion.
Her Majesty possesses here the love of a people more numerous than was
the English nation when it achieved the glories which the trumpet of
fame, moved by Shakespeare's breath, made a household word among all

In Canada, I am able to receive with pride testimonials of respect,
reverence, and love for her rule, from men whose Government represents
a force, if population and material resources be taken into account,
far greater than that possessed of old by England, even in those days
which ring with the deeds of her heroes, and have been called the
"spacious times of great Elizabeth."

And while we must look upon this country as rapidly becoming one of the
moving influences of the world, we cannot forget what an advantageous
variety of position and power, within the sphere of the Dominion, is
possessed by the various Provinces. Here, in the Province of which this
city is the capital, you have the great ocean and highways so near you
that your brave and hardy maritime population can furnish your
mercantile marine with many of the best sailors in America. In the
territory, comprised within your limits, you occupy a central position
through which much of the land traffic of this part of the American
continent is likely to be conducted, and your climate gives to all who
cultivate your soil abundance of agricultural resources in corn and
pasture land.

It may not be unappropriate now, when you give us your kindly and
hospitable welcome to the capital of your Province, to ask you to
receive with our thanks the expression of our hope that the members
selected as the representatives of the Province, and who assemble here,
may be granted wisdom by the Most High to further the welfare and
promote the best interests of a true and loyal people.

During this visit to New Brunswick, he said, in reply to the Warden and
Members of the Municipality of Kings County:--

Gentlemen,--The duties connected with the high office with which I am
honoured cannot indeed be considered to impose any heavy burdens, when
their performance leads me to visit populations so kindly in their
sympathies as are those of this Province, where we meet men always glad
to testify their affection for the institutions under which they live
by their reception of the representatives of the Queen. Perhaps in no
other country in the world is it possible for the representative of any
sovereign to travel for thousands of miles, and to be everywhere
greeted with the same assurances of contentment with political
condition and affection for the throne. I thank you, especially on the
Princess's behalf, for the words you have spoken in reference to her.
She will always associate herself gladly in anything tending to the
welfare of the people of this Dominion. In so doing she will fulfil the
wish of her father the Prince Consort, whose desire it was that his
children should identify themselves with the interests of our Colonial
Empire. I hear with gladness the assurance you give of the firm and
unswerving loyalty of the people of the county of Kings, and I desire
to tender to them my sincere thanks.

The first visit to Toronto took place in 1879. A loyal and kindly
address having been read, His Excellency replied:--

Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,--I remember well that the first time I saw
Toronto was when, a good many years ago, the city was pointed out to me,
where far off, over the waters its houses were visible from a spot not
distant from Niagara. This first gave me an idea of the size and
importance of your town. Men who were then with me told me that thirty
or forty years before there would not only have been nothing visible at
that distance, but only a very small settlement when viewed much nearer.
But just as the city can be seen from afar, so is its position now so
important that you cannot think of Ontario, wide as are its limits, or
indeed of Canada itself, without seeing in the mind Toronto, the
capital of our most populous Province. Here are combined things rarely
found closely united, namely, great commercial prosperity with great
literary activity. If you are proving that you can lead the way in
commerce, it is as great a distinction that you can, by the ability of
your literary men, do much towards guiding and influencing the thoughts
of your fellow-citizens of the Dominion. I thank you for your loyal
words in our Queen's name. They express the feeling I expected to find
among you, but I must speak my grateful acknowledgments for the cordial
manner in which you have given utterance to them. Adhesion to our
Empire and love for its Sovereign I knew I should find; but the
character of this great reception, the magnificence of your
preparations to welcome the representatives of the Sovereign, form a
demonstration for which I confess I was not prepared. It has been our
fortune to be kindly received by great communities, both in the old
world and in the new; but I never returned my thanks with a more
heartfelt gratitude than I do now to you, the citizens of Toronto, for
the manner, at once so splendid and so sympathetic, in which you have
been pleased to receive us. In December last, delegates from many of
the towns of Ontario came to Ottawa to give us their greeting.
Accompanying the addresses presented to us was an offering which, while
it showed a feeling of personal regard, might well, I believe, serve as
an emblem of the patriotism of Ontario. It was a wreath of that plant
which in the old country loads the air with perfume wherever moss and
mountain are most green with moisture. Reared among morasses, it grows
only where around its roots the soil is firm; and where it springs, the
foot may safely tread and securely stand. It was therefore, in olden
days, taken as my clan's badge to signify a firm faith and steady trust,
and with this signification I looked upon the wreath of marsh myrtle
given to us on the part of so many communities in Ontario last December,
as a fit emblem and just expression of that steady, firm, and faithful
support which our Queen will ever find wherever a citizen of Ontario
lives to assert his rights and freedom in upholding the honour, the
dignity, and the power of our united Empire.

To an address in German, presented in 1879 at Berlin, Ontario, the
Governor-General answered:--

Meine Herren und Damen!--Die Prinzessin und ich finden es eine unserer
angenehmsten Pflichten, Ihnen einen Besuch hier zu machen, um uns von
der Fruchtbarkeit, welche Ihre Kolonie charakterisirt, zu uberzeugen.

Wir freuen uns um so mehr, da Ihre Zuschrift uns in der lieben
deutschen Sprache ein Willkommen sagt, und die Versicherung deutscher
Treue aus deutschem Munde kommt.

Wir wissen, das Sie als Zeichen der Gesinnung Ihrer deutschen
Bevolkerung in Kanada den Spruch, der seit Jahrhunderten dem
Sachsischen Hause angehort:--"Treu und fest," als ihr Motto nehmen

Obgleich Sie uns in so treuer Weise empfangen, und der Konigin Ihre
Ehrerbietung beweisen, bleiben Sie dennoch gute Deutsche, und sind
darauf stolz, das Sie Ihre Kinder und Kindeskinder in der kraftigen
Muttersprache erziehen konnen.

Die Liebe fur das alte, deutsche Vaterland sollte nie aussterben; es
verhindert jedoch nicht, das Sie auch die englische Sprache benutzen,
die doch so sehr mit der deutschen verwandt ist.

Die schonen Worte, die der Poet Arndt geschrieben hat, find Ihnen wohl
alle bekannt und wir konnen sie hier, wo Sie ein anderes Land zu Ihrem Land
gemacht haben, wohl gebrauchen:

"Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?
Ist's Preusenland? Ist's Schwabenland?
Ist's wo am Rhein die Rebe bluht?
Ist's wo am Belt die Move zieht?
Doch Nein! Nein! Nein!
Sein Vaterland mus groser sein!"

Kann man nicht hier diesen Worten eine weitere Deutung geben?--Konnen
Sie nicht als Mitburger und Grunder einer neuen Nation dieselbe mit
allem Edlen, was von dem alten Lande kommt, lenken und starken?

Es ist uns eine wahre Freude, von allen Seiten zu horen, wie man die
deutschen Ansiedler achtet und schatzt und sie als einen wichtigen
Zusatz zu unseren Kraften betrachtet. Ihre Wissenschaft, ihre Liebe fur
die gute Erziehung der Jugend, sowohl in hoheren Studien, als in den
Studien, durch welche die gewerblichen Fortbildungsschulen in
Deutschland sich einen so ruhmhaften Namen gemacht haben; ihre
Sparsamkeit und ihr Fleis, sind Canada viele Tausend Quadratmeilen
Landes werth.--Die hauslichen Tugenden ihrer Frauen und Tochter sind
ein schones Beispiel fur Alle.

Ich hoffe, das die Zahl deutscher Einwanderer sich mehren wird und
werde in meinen Erwartungen dadurch bestarkt, das es bei Ihnen daheim
gewis Viele giebt, die uberzeugt sind, das das Vaterland nicht
geschwacht wird, wenn deutsche Tochter jenseits des atlantischen Meeres
gute Manner finden. Es wird uns sehr angenehm sein, der deutschen
kaiserlichen Familie sagen zu konnen, wie Sie in Canada glucklich
leben, und als Manner, die dem Lande Gluck bringen, angesehen werden.

In 1880, it was resolved that an Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition,
supported by a Federal grant, should each year be held at some city of
the Dominion. The first of these central and national meetings took
place at Ottawa. It was largely attended, and opened by the
Governor-General with these remarks:--

Mr. President and Gentlemen,--I thank you for the address which you
have read to me, expressing that deep loyalty to the Queen which, not
merely from hearsay, but from observation of the sentiments which
animate the people of Canada, whether in the cities or in the country,
I know to be real and universal. The Princess joins with me in asking
you to accept our gratitude for your recognition of the interest we
feel in the great efforts at present made, in various parts of Canada,
to display to the best advantage the industrial achievements of our
artisans. Some of the handiwork of our two largest Provinces can be
seen in this building, while others are not unrepresented; and we have
evidence of the skill which graces the strength of a new brother--the
young giant of the west. [1] Everywhere proof is given that the Canadian
can hold his own in the rivalry that brings Art to bear on the great
natural products around us, and this is not surprising when we know
that he comes from the races which in Europe have been the most renowned
for the taste, the ingenuity, and the solidity of their workmanship.
Where so many regions have but recently been peopled, there is, it need
hardly be said, much to be done, and it is most satisfactory to see how
each city and town is bending itself to the task to prove that there is
no laggard in the patriotic competition. I have gladly attended several
of these shows, and it is a feature peculiar to this country that the
industrial exhibition so generally accompanies the agricultural show.
Whether this shall always be the case as in the gathering inaugurated
to-day, it will be of course for you to determine by experience of
success in your venture in thus combining them. This is, perhaps,
the first meeting to which more than a local character has been given.
It will be a matter for your consideration, and for all in Canada
interested in your endeavours, whether a novel practice be established
here in moving to each Province in succession the Central Exhibition,
without injury to the local fairs, which will, in any case, be held.
If you decide to move the agricultural show from Province to Province
in successive years, no new practice would thereby be espoused, for
such has been the custom of the national societies of England,
Scotland, and Ireland. In the old countries the spaces to be traversed
are much smaller, but the need of comparison between the various
exhibits is also much less. The local shows are held there in almost
every county, but the advantage derived from the annual moving of the
national societies has been well expressed in the words of a former
and justly beloved Viceroy of Ireland, who said that the experience
the National Society had earned for itself had, by its annual movement,
been carried through every part of the land, through each Province
in turn; and this had tended to ruse together the knowledge of the
best specialties of each, whether in tillage or in pasture, in cereals
or in green crops, or in the breeding and fattening of cattle. With
us in Canada, if a similar practice were followed, we might perhaps
add that comparison would benefit the proper employment of the best
agricultural machinery, for the manufacture of which our Canadian
artisans have won high commendation at the greatest international
contests. If you discuss these questions, I am sure you will do so,
not with the view of benefiting one city or Province only, but in
the spirit which sees in all common efforts a means of uniting
our Canadian people, and an instrument to make a national feeling
create a national prosperity. We may congratulate our countrymen that
in the live stock of all kinds shown to-day, we have a representation
of those vast resources which yield so much in excess of our own
requirements that we can relieve the wants of older lands; and how
great is the difference between the bygone traffic from the new world
to enrich Europe and what we now witness! In other days the southern
seas were covered with the towering galleons of Spain, bringing the
ingots of gold and silver, wrought in the mines of America through the
cruel labour of thousands of enslaved Indians. This was the wealth
which poured into the treasuries of a nation whose riches reared the
colossal palaces of the Escorial, and the wondrous Minster of Seville.
The creation of such prosperity meant a short-lived reign of luxury and
cruelty--the lifting up of an old country for a time--the abasement of
a new land. How different the happy and more lasting wealth with which
we are able to endow Europe from Canada, when the parent land and the
Dominion alike reap equal fruits from a bounteous harvest. Our treasure
fleets are now laden with golden grain, and flocks and herds; with
riches wrung from no servitude, but derived from the free and noble
toil of a liberty-loving, independent, and self-reliant people. It is
to the men who have cleared the tangled forests, or have tilled the
prairie lands, that we owe such great shows of agricultural wealth as
those we have lately seen, and which prove how rich and inexhaustible
are the veins of ore from which we can give enough and to spare.

May the endeavour of such a society as this, assisted as it has been
chiefly by individual efforts, but countenanced by the Dominion
Government, be to extend for the general good of our country, the
experience it earns and whatever success is secured by the co-operation
of the citizens.

[1] Manitoba.

[During the delivery of the address the gates had been opened and the
people allowed to come in so as to hear His Excellency's reply, and at
its close they gave hearty cheering.]

The first Exhibition of the Royal Canadian Academy of Art took place at
Ottawa in 1880. The experiment of collecting together the work of
artists resident in the country, was a success from the commencement,
and the annual meetings since held have fully warranted the formation
of a National Society for the Promotion of Art. The Governor-General
gave the opening address as follows:--

Ladies and Gentlemen,--It is now my duty to declare this first
exhibition of the Canadian Academy to be open to what, I am sure, will
be an appreciative public. That this ceremony should take place to-day
is characteristic of the energy with which any project likely to
benefit our community is pushed in this country, for it is only ten
months ago, on the occasion of the opening of the Local Art Gallery at
Montreal, that the proposal for the institution of the Canadian Academy
of Arts was made. To-day the Academy is to be congratulated not only
upon being able to show the pictures and the works of art which you see
around you this evening, but upon the favourable reception which the
appearance of such an association has received from all classes. I have
indeed seen nothing but the kindest criticism. Although I believe some
gentlemen have been good enough to propose we should postpone the
initiation of this institution for the present, and should wait for the
short and moderate space of exactly 100 years, and look forward to its
incorporation in the year of grace 1980. It is difficult to meet such
gentle criticism, but the Academy may be allowed to suggest that
although in the words of the old saying, "art is long-lived," yet that
"life is short." Art will, no doubt, be in vigorous life in Canada a
century hence, but, on the other hand, we must remember that at that
time these gentle critics may have disappeared from the scene, and they
will themselves allow that it is for the benefit of the Academy that it
should begin its existence while still subject to their own friendly
supervision. It is impossible to agree with the remark, that we have no
material in Canada for our present purposes, when we see many excellent
works on these walls; and if some do not come up to the standard we may
set ourselves, what is this but an additional argument for the creation
of some association which shall act as an educator in these matters?
Now, gentlemen, what are the objects of your present effort? A glance
at the constitution of the Society will show your objects are declared
to be: the encouragement of industrial Art by the promotion of
excellence of design, the support of Schools of Art throughout the
country, and the formation of a National Gallery of Art at the seat of
Government. The first of these objects, the encouragement of good
design, receives an illustration in a room which I hope all present
will make it a point to visit--a room on the second floor, where many
tasteful and good designs have been exhibited in competition for prizes
generously given by several gentlemen, who recognise the good effect
such competitions are likely to have upon trade. Many of the best of
these designs have been called forth by a prize offered by a member of
the Legislature, and it is to be sincerely hoped that in future years
his example, and the example of those who have acted in a similar
manner, may be more widely and generally followed. English manufacture,
as you know, has become famous for its durability; French manufacture
for its beauty and workmanship; and here, where we have a people sprung
from both races, we should be able to combine these excellences, so
that Canadian manufacture may hold a high place in the markets of the
world. The next object of the association is to be worked out on the
same lines by the support afforded the local schools; and here I must
emphatically impress on all who care for the encouragement of Art in
Canada, that however popular the Academy exhibitions may become,
however much you are able to strengthen its hands in assisting
provincial efforts, the assistance it gives to any provincial schools
can only supplement, and can never stand in the place of, provincial
effort. It is true that the gentlemen belonging to the Academy give
half of all they possess--one half of any surplus in all their
revenues--in aid of local efforts, but it is by no means likely that
that amount will be great. As the exhibitions are to be held each year
in a different city, so that each Province may in turn be visited, it
will probably be found best that any donation which can be made shall
be given to that town in which the yearly exhibition is held. I hope,
for instance, that this year it may be possible to give a grant in aid
of a local school to be formed at Ottawa. With regard to the third
object I have mentioned, the gentlemen who have been appointed
academicians have patriotically undertaken, as a guarantee of their
interest in the welfare of Art in Canada, that it shall be a condition
of their acceptance of the office of academician that they shall give,
each of them, a picture which shall become national property, and be
placed here in an Art gallery. These works, of which you already have
several around you, will be at the disposal of one of the ministers,
who may be charged with this trust, and it will be in his option to
decide whether they shall be exhibited in other parts of the country,
or lent for purposes of Art instruction for a time to local schools. If
you are not tired of these subjects, I would ask your attention for one
moment to the organisation by which it is proposed to accomplish these
purposes. First, there are a certain number of gentlemen who, after the
model of similar institutions in other countries, where the plan has
been found to work well, have been chosen as academicians. These
comprise not only painters, but architects also, and designers,
engravers, and sculptors. There are others again, forming a wider
circle, and following the same professions, who have been chosen as
associates, from whose ranks the academicians in the future will be
annually elected. These gentlemen, the academicians, will govern the
institution. They have already been supported by very many men in the
country who follow other professions, and who will have nothing to do
with the governing of the society, but who have been requested to join
and give their aid as entertaining a love for Art, and a desire that
Art should be enabled to assist in the most practical manner the
interests of the country. It is probable that almost every gentleman of
note in Canada will be upon this roll. So much, then, for the purposes
undertaken, and the machinery by which these are to be accomplished.
One word only as to the part which, at the request of several gentlemen,
I have ventured temporarily to undertake. It seemed difficult, if not
impossible, to get the body as at present constituted elected at the
start, for scattered as the artists of the Dominion are, few knew the
capabilities of others outside of his own neighbourhood. Following, as
we will have to do here therefore, an English precedent, it was thought
best that the first list should be a nominated one. However carefully
this has been attempted, some omissions and faults have been made, and
these will be corrected, for the plan followed at the commencement will
not be pursued hereafter, but at a general meeting held during the time
of the exhibitions, elections will form part of the business of the
assembly. Although it may be for the interests of the Academy that the
Governor-General of the day should be the patron of the society, you
will find that the more self-governed it is the more healthful will be
its prospects. At the outset the position of patron may be somewhat
like the position of that useful but ugly instrument with which many of
us are perhaps but too familiar, namely, the snow-plough. At the first
formation of an artist society he may be expected to charge boldly into
mountains of cold opposition, and to get rid of any ice crusts in front
of the train, but after the winter of trial and probation, and
difficulties of beginning are over, and the summer of success has come,
his position, in regard to the artists, must be more like that of a
figurehead. I have, however, great faith in the power of artists to
make a figure-head useful as well as ornamental, although I do not know
that they have shown a proof of this to-day by making their figure-head
deliver a speech, which it is well known figure-heads never do, except
on the strictest compulsion. You may remember that in old days in
Greece, an artist named Pygmalion, carved a figure so beautiful that he
himself fell in love with his work and infused his own life into the
statue, so that it found breath and movement. I shall not expect the
Academy always to be in love with its figure-head, but I believe that
you will be able to instil into him so much of your energy and vitality,
that if the vessel gets into difficulties you may enable him to come
down from his place, and even to give her a shove astern. Let me, at
all events, express a hope, in which I believe all present will join,
that the Canadian Academy, this fair vessel that we launch to-day, may
never get into any trouble, but that from every city, and from every
Province of the Dominion, she may receive a favouring breeze whenever
and wherever she may show a canvas.

At Quebec, upon the festival of St. Jean Baptiste, on the 24th June
1880, there was a gathering of representatives of the French-Canadian
race from many cities of the United States as well as of Canada, and
the celebration in honour of their national saint was exceptionally
enthusiastic. An opportunity was thus given to the Governor-General to
show that appreciation of French Canadians which has been so constantly
exhibited by his predecessors in office. He spoke in French and said:--

Gentlemen and Friends of the French-Canadian race from abroad as well
as from our own Province,--I rise with the greatest pleasure to thank
you for the way in which you have received the toast which has been
proposed by the President in drinking the health of the Princess and
myself. The Princess has especially desired me to convey to you her
gratitude, and I regret that owing to the short duration of the stay of
Prince Leopold in this country, she has been unable to remain with me
for the imposing celebration which we have witnessed to-day. She is at
all times sorry to quit Quebec--a place she loves as much for the moral
worth of its people as for the grandeur of its scenery. As for myself,
gentlemen, I have obeyed a pleasant call in being amongst you to-day to
testify my respect for our French-Canadian fellow-citizens, and my
appreciation of the value of the element furnished by its noble and
gallant race in influencing for good our young and growing Canadian
nationality. I am here to show how much I prize the loyalty evinced by
you on all occasions towards Her Majesty the Queen, whose
representative I am. At the same time I do not wonder at the devotion
shown to so august an embodiment of the principle of Constitutional
Rule. The Queen sets the example of a Sovereign, who has at all times
given constant proof, that with us the acts of power are the
expressions of the will of the people. It is this that gives to her the
highest rank amongst rulers in the eyes of the nations who acknowledge
her sceptre. It is among you especially that all men will expect that
this should be recognised. It was the Normans, who in France watched
and guarded the cradle of that liberty at present enjoyed in England--
it was the men of Normandy and Brittany who at a later age laid the
foundations of the liberty-loving community of Canada. The very usages
in the Parliament of Britain survive from the days when they were
planted there by our Norman ancestors. I do not know that it has been
observed before in Canada, but it has often occurred to me, that in the
British Parliament we still use the old words, used by your fathers for
the sanction of the Sovereign given to bills, of "la reine le veut," or
"la reine remercie ses bons sujets, accepte leur benevolence et ainsi
le veut,"--forms which I should like to see used at Ottawa as marking
our common origin, instead of the practice which is followed, of
translating into modern French and English. In celebrating this fete,
all can join in pride in the element predominant amongst us to-day, as
it is to your race we owe the liberties of Runnymede and the practices
that mark the free discussions of our Parliament. I rejoice to see so
many met together, and that we have representatives of our allies the
French, as well as of those who have made a home--let us hope a
temporary one only--among our friends in the United States. I rejoice
to see these members of the race repatriated, if only for a time, and
may assure them that our old and our new lands of the West are wide and
fertile enough to justify us in detaining them here and in annexing any
number who may be willing to be so treated. As they well know, they
will always have with us the most perfect guarantees of liberty, the
fullest rights of franchise, while they will not suffer so much as now
from frequent waves of moral heat incurred by all who have to take part
in constant electioneering; nor will they, on the other hand, have to
endure the winter and moral cold which may be experienced by all who
have to undergo the effects of a Gubernatorial or Presidential veto.
Our visitors will see with us to-day the signs of a happy, a loyal, and
contented people; they will see us sharing in that revival of trade
which I am happy to say is marking the commencement of another decade;
they will see us holding in highest esteem those traditions which
associate us with the past; they will see you in the fullest enjoyment
of your laws, your language, and your institutions; they will see,
above all, that you use the strength you thus inherit from your
ancestors for no selfish purposes, but as imparting vigour and unison
with the powers of other races to our great confederation, and in
cementing a patriotism which is willing to bear the burdens as it
shares the glory of a great country, the greatest member of the
mightiest Empire ever known among mankind.

The following was delivered at the opening of Provincial Fair.

Gentlemen of the Agricultural and Arts Association of Ontario,--Believe
me that any service which I can render to your invaluable association
will always be at your command, and you may be sure that it is the
desire of the Princess always to join me in such endeavours. It must at
the same time be remembered that ladies have not that iron constitution
which it is necessary that an official should possess, and it is not
always possible for them to be present as well in the body as in the
spirit. I congratulate you on the great progress visible in the
manufactures exhibited, and on having the Provincial Show held this
year at Hamilton. In Ontario, where the science of agriculture is
beginning to be so thoroughly understood, I fear I can say but little
that may be of use to you, but I cannot too pointedly praise that most
prudent of all speculations, which has made several of the gentlemen
who lead the way in such matters purchase some of the best of British
cattle. To be content with raising inferior stock is as unfortunate in
economy as is an illiberal and unscientific treatment of the land.
Great as are the advantages possessed, in this country by the new soil,
which has comparatively recently been broken up, yet the effects of
unscientific farming are necessarily to be seen in many places, and it
is quite as much an object of our agricultural exhibitions to point out
defects of this nature, as it is to display the triumphs of those who,
pursuing agriculture upon a wiser plan, can year after year show the
superiority of a scientific and liberal culture of the land. I have no
doubt that much good will result in the advice given in the report
which will be issued of the Agricultural Commission now sitting in this
Province. There is much upon which you may be congratulated. The great
increase in the numbers of horses raised here is meeting the demand for
them--the growth of the cheese manufacture under the factory system--
the increased attention given to root growing in connection with cattle
feeding--the care bestowed on more general under-draining--the
development of fruit and vine culture, and the excellence and cheapness
of your agricultural implements, are all features upon which we may
dwell with the utmost satisfaction. Your pasture lands are so wide, and
the facilities afforded by the country for the raising of stock are so
great, that it will be your own fault if you allow any others, be they
breeders in the old country or the United States, to take the wind too
much out of your sails. It is to be desired that provision be made
against bad usage of the meat sent to England, for sufficient care is
not taken of it at present after debarkation, and it appears to
disadvantage in consequence in the markets. It must be remembered that
at the present moment you have advantages with regard to the protection
afforded you in the permission given to land your cattle alive in the
old country, when it is denied to the States, which cannot be expected
to last. It is impossible to urge too strongly the necessity of
preparation against a time when American cattle will be again admitted
alive into England. Unless you get the very best stock, and produce
high graded beasts, you cannot hold your own. The necessary expense
attending the purchase of high-bred cattle will now pay you, and if
with their produce you can maintain your place in the European markets,
you may be assured that the money so spent could never have been spent
to better purpose. I am informed that lately at Toronto--and I hope we
may see the same feature here in two days--Galloways, Polled Angus, as
well as good Shorthorns, were to be seen in the yards. In sheep also,
some of the gentlemen who with so much foresight lead the way amongst
our agricultural communities, have made purchases this year of
Shropshire and other high-class animals. I trust that each year may see
a marked improvement with respect to following such leaders, and I have
the utmost confidence that with the spirit of enterprise which has made
British North America proportionately equal to any area on this
continent in population, and in all the arts which can lead to that
population's prosperity and happiness, Canada will not be found to be
one whit behindhand.

To an address presented at the opening of the Quebec Provincial Fair,
held at Montreal, His Excellency, the Governor-General, replied, both
in French and English, as follows:--

Gentlemen,--It is a happy augury for our country that the expressions
of loyalty to the throne, and confidence in the institutions under
which we live, should be emphasised by you, who represent the different
races of which our nationality is composed, when we meet to-day under
roofs which shelter the products of the industrial and agricultural
industry of a wide territory, now enjoying marked and unusual
prosperity. It is not only a personal sentiment of reverence toward the
august occupant of the throne, the faithful interpreter of our
constitutional law, but it is to the perfected fabric of the experience
of many centuries,--to the freest form of government on earth, that you
declare your devotion. The love for such institutions can therefore be
no passing phase dependent upon any single life; but is a love that
lives with the life of the nation by whose decrees those institutions
exist and abide.

It is my happy duty to represent among you to-day the countenance given
yearly by the Federal Government to one of those great provincial fairs,
by which our people in each section of the country show the high value
they place upon the comparison and competition to be obtained by such
exhibitions. Each year Industrial Art is thus aided, and a stimulus is
given to the excellency of workmanship, which can alone content a
people with its manufactures, and provide for their acceptance abroad.
Each year at such re-unions the prospects of fresh enterprise in
agriculture are discussed. For instance, we look forward with
confidence to the new organisations for the cultivation of the
beet-root, to be undertaken under favourable auspices, experiments having
already proved that the beet-root grown here possesses a far larger
percentage of sugar than can be shown by that of either France or
Germany. Again, in the exportation of phosphates, which have proved
themselves so excellent as fertilisers that they have arrested the
attention of the Agricultural Chambers of Europe, fresh combinations
will ensure a large supply from the Valley of the Ottawa. Lastly, the
encouragement of the improvement in the breed of cattle, and the
solution of the problem how best to export them with profit, engage
your minds. It is almost certain that although in some parts of our
country the cattle must be fed during winter for a longer period than
in others, yet with good management and proper co-operation, wherever
good crops can be produced, the winter will form no obstacle to the
profitable sale of cattle in the European markets. By contributing last
year at Ottawa, and this year at Montreal, to a Provincial exhibition,
the government of our Union designates its desire in the interest of
the whole country to supplement each year, at a different place, those
provincial resources which are so wisely lavished on many branches of
education. The grant given on the part of the Union by which this
meeting is constituted a Dominion Exhibition, is the contribution made
for a special branch of instruction. As by our constitution, education
is a provincial matter, such Federal grants, if made, must be given
where more than the interests of one Province only are concerned. The
object to be attained is to help forward those who, owing to a less
favouring fortune, are behindhand, by enabling them to see the results
attained by their neighbours. The question must not only be, "Will such
an Exhibition pay its expenses?" It must be asked, "Will such an
Exhibition spread useful knowledge over wider districts which require

Let me, in concluding these remarks in answer to your address, express
on the part of the Princess the gratitude she will feel at your mention
of her name; and I shall now fulfil the duty, for the performance of
which I have been invited here, in declaring this Exhibition open to
the public.

At the laying of the foundation-stone of a new Museum at M'Gill
University, Montreal, in 1880, His Excellency spoke as follows:--

Mr. Chancellor, Members of Convocation, Ladies and Gentlemen,--Now that
my part in the physical exercises, which I cannot say I have graced,
but have accomplished, is over, I have been asked to take also a part
in the intellectual exercises of this day by saying a few words to you.
When I first came to Canada, and afterwards at the time when
Confederation was coming into being, the first political lesson that I
learnt with regard to this country was that the Federal Government
would have nothing whatever to do with education. The earliest lesson
that I learnt, on arriving in Canada fourteen years afterwards, was
that the head of the Federal Government was frequently expected to
attend on such occasions as that on which we are assembled to-day,
which has certainly a great deal to do with education. Perhaps, however,
I may flatter myself by supposing that my presence here to-day has been
desired more in the capacity of a friend than as an official--(applause)
--and I hope that this may be the footing on which you will always
allow me to meet you and see what you are doing. I can assure you I
will never betray any of your secrets to my Ministers, except under the
advice of my honourable friend on my right (the Lieutenant-Governor
Robitaille), who is the natural protector and guardian of this
University, and of education in this Province. (Laughter.) I share most
heartily with you in the joy you must experience at the prospect of
possessing so fine a hall for the accommodation of the treasures which
are rapidly accumulating in your hands. That the necessity for a large
building should have been so promptly met by the sympathetic support
and far-seeing generosity of Mr. Redpath, proves that the race of
benefactors, illustrated by the names of Molson and M'Gill, has not
died out amongst us. (Loud applause.) The removal of the geological
collections belonging to the nation from Montreal to Ottawa, which has
been determined upon as bringing more immediately under the eye of the
Legislature and the knowledge of the Government the labours and results
attained by our men of science, necessarily deprives the residents of
Montreal, who are students, of the facilities hitherto afforded by the
presence in this city of those collections. It is satisfactory to know
that this loss will be palliated by such noble gifts as those which
have furnished you with other collections, which are now to find at
last a proper place for their display. (Applause.) You who have in your
Chancellor and members of Convocation such eminent and worthy
representatives of judicial attainment, of classical learning, of
medical and surgical knowledge, and of scientific research, will well
know how to give full value to the last of these subjects, namely, to
the culture of the natural sciences. (Applause.) Besides the direct
utility of a knowledge of zoology, botany, geology, and chemistry, and
of the kindred branches grouped under the designation of natural
science, the pleasure to be derived from them is not amongst the least
of the advantages of their study. (Hear, hear.) However forbidding the
country in which he is placed, however uninteresting the other
surroundings of a man's life may be, he need never miss the delights of
an engrossing occupation, if the very earth on which he treads, each
leaf and insect, and all the phenomena of nature around him, cause him
to follow out new lines of study, and give his thought a wider range.
This is enough to make a man feel as though in the enjoyment of a
never-dying vitality, and I doubt if any one amongst you feels younger
than your honoured Principal, although his studies have led him in
fancy over every region, and must make him feel as if a perpetual youth
had caused him to live through all geological time. (Laughter and
applause.) To parallel a saying, spoken of another eminent man, he
certainly has learnt all that rocks can teach, except to be hard-hearted.
(Renewed laughter.) It seems to me peculiarly appropriate that
he who first established the certainty of the "Dawn of Life" amongst
the Laurentian rocks of Canada, should here, through his untiring zeal,
officiate in launching into the dawn of public recognition the young
manhood of his country. (Applause.) It is your great good fortune that
in your Principal you have a leader who is an admirable guide, not
alone in the fairy realms of science, but also through those sterner,
and, to some, less attractive regions which own the harsher rule of the
exigencies of the daily life around us. (Hear, hear.) He has traced in
the rocks the writing of the Creator, and with the magic light, only to
be borne by him who has earned the power through toil of reason and of
induction, he has been able to see in the spirit and describe the
processes of creation. His knowledge has pierced the dark ages, when
through countless aeons the earth was being prepared for man; he has
shown how forests--vast as those we see to-day, but with vanished forms
of vegetation and of life, grew, decayed, and were preserved in altered
condition to give us in these days of colder skies the fuel we need. He
has been for his beloved Acadia the historian of the cycles when God
formed her under the primal waters, fashioned her in the marshes
teeming in His fervent heat, caused His fire to fuse the metal in her
rocks, and His ice to scourge the coasts, thereafter to be subjected to
yet more stupendous changes, and raised and made fit for the last and
highest of His works. (Loud applause.) But Dr. Dawson's great knowledge
and wide learning have not led him, as they might lead many, to live
apart in fastidious study and in selfish absorption, forgetful of the
claims and contemptuous of the merits of others. (Hear, hear.) His
wisdom in these difficult studies has not separated him from us; it has
only been a fresh cause for us to hail that public spirit which makes
him give all he has, whether of strength, of time, or of knowledge, for
the benefit of his fellow-citizens. (Applause.) Just as it was not for
Acadia alone, but in the interests of science, that his first labour
was undertaken; so now it is not for any especial locality, but for the
good of the whole of our country, that he is head of this place of
learning, whence depart so many to take their lot in the civil life of
Canada. Even in his presence it is right that this should be said of
him, here on this spot, where you are to raise a new temple of the
practical sciences, and now that he, with you, has become the recipient
of this gift, which is a tribute from one who has earned success in the
hard battle of life, offered to men who, with so much devotion, are
training other lives to win their way by knowledge through the
difficulties that may lie before them. (Loud applause.)

A fine statue of Colonel de Salaberry, by Mr. Hubert of Montreal, was,
in 1880, unveiled at Chambly. A large concourse of people, and
representative men from all parts of the Province of Quebec, were
present, and after eloquent speeches from Colonel Harwood and other
gentlemen, His Excellency said:--

Accept my thanks for your address, which records your patriotic desire
to honour in a befitting manner the memory of a patriot. I rejoice to
be able to take part with you in this commemoration of a gallant
soldier. We are here to unveil a monument dedicated to a man who
worthily represented the loyal spirit of his age. That spirit exists to
the full to-day. Should need arise, there are many among the Canadian
nation who would emulate his example and endeavour to rival his
achievements. This statue records a character typical of our countrymen.
Content with little for himself, content only with greatness for his
country--such was the character of De Salaberry; such is the character
of the Canadian to-day. At Chambly, in the Province where he had the
good fortune to have the occasion to manifest that valour which was the
proud tradition of his race, we place his statue. It is raised in no
spirit of idle boasting, but with a hope that the virtues shown of old
may, unforgotten, light and guide future generations. These virtues
were conspicuous in this distinguished man, whose military talents
enabled him to perform his duty with signal advantage to our arms. In
rearing this monument to him, let us not forget to pay a passing
tribute to his brothers. They, with him, in the hour of danger, took to
the profession of arms, we may almost say as a part of their nature.
Three of them perished in upholding the honour of that flag which is
to-day our symbol of unity and freedom. In this fair region, which was
his home, a contrast between our times and those in which he lived
comes forcibly before us. Where are now the wide tracts of fertile
fields and a country traversed by railways or to be reached by the
steamers on our rivers, De Salaberry and his voltigeurs, when they made
their gallant defence, saw only scattered clearings among great forests.
These, too, often concealed contending armies. While we cherish the
recollection of gallant deeds performed, where English and
French-speaking Canadians equally distinguished themselves, it is not
necessary to dwell on the bitter associations of those times. We are at
peace, and live in what we hope will be an abiding friendship and
alliance with the great and generous people of the south. They then
endeavoured to conquer us, but were in the end only enabled to
entertain for the Canadians that respect which is the only true and
lasting foundation of friend ship. We must be thankful and rejoice that
our rivalries with them are now only in the fruitful fields of commerce.
Our resources in these peaceful paths are daily supplying the sinews of
strength and the power to us in resources and population which would
make any war undertaken against Canada a war that would be a long and a
difficult one. They do not desire to invade us. We trust that such a
desire will never again arise, for nations do not now so often as of
old interfere with their neighbours when no faction invites
interference. If in 1812 Canada was dear for her own sake to Canadians,
how much more is she so now? Then possessed only of a small population,
enjoying liberty under the aegis of a narrow constitution, now we see
in her a great and growing people, self-governed at home, proud of the
freest form of constitution, and able to use in association with her
own representative the diplomatic strength of a great empire for the
making of her commercial compacts with other nations. With us there is
no party which would invite incursions or change of government. No man
has a chance of success in Canadian public life, no one is countenanced
by our people, who is not a lover of free institutions. In inviting
here the Governor-General you have an officer present, who as the head
of the Federal government is nothing but the first and abiding
representative of the people. It is, however, not only as an official
that I rejoice with you to-day. Personal feelings make it a joyful hour
for me when I can visit the cradle of so much worth and valour,
surrounded as I am by the members of the family of Monsieur de
Salaberry. The Princess and I can never forget the intimate friendship
which existed between Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Colonel de
Salaberry--a friendship between families which, I may be allowed to
hope, will not be confined to the grandfathers. The Princess asked me
to express the deep interest she takes in this celebration. She wishes
me to convey to you her sorrow that she is not here to-day with us. She
yet hopes to be able to see this monument, where for the first time
Canadian art has so honourably recorded in sculpture Canadian loyalty,
bravery, and genius.

In 1880, at St Thomas in Ontario, over 6000 men of Highland descent
were present at a meeting attended by the Governor-General, who spoke
as follows in reply to an address delivered in Gaelic and English:--

Highlanders and Friends from the Land of the Gael,--You do not know how
much pleasure you give me in coming forward, and in such a touching and
eloquent address as that to which I have just listened, giving me the
assurance of the unchangeable loyalty which animates your hearts, and
of the pride with which you look back upon the country of your
forefathers. (Applause.) It is not often that a man gets so many kindly
words addressed to him from so great a meeting of his countrymen.
Although it is for Canada as a whole that I work in this country, and
for her whole population of whatever race that my heart, as well as my
duty, urges me to strive, yet it is a peculiar delight that such
endeavours should be illustrated by meeting with those who are
descended from men at whose side, in the dark ages of trial and of
difficulty, my fathers fought and died. We have many ancient memories
in common. You tell me that these are rehearsed among you. I know that
among your cousins at home the tales of the deeds of the heroes of the
Feinn of Ireland and of Scotland, and the achievements of the great men
who have lived since their day, in successive centuries, are constantly
repeated. I would give nothing for a man who could place little value
upon the lives and times of his ancestors, not only because without
them he himself would have no existence--(laughter)--but because in
tracing the history of their lives, and in remembering the difficulties
they encountered, he will be spurred to emulate, in as far as in him
lies, the triumphs that have caused them to be remembered. (Cheers.) I
would give nothing for a French-Canadian who could not look back with
pride on the glorious discoveries and contests of the early pioneers of
Canada. I would give nothing for a German who in Ontario could forget
that he came from the race who under Hermann hurled back the tide of
Roman invasion; nor for an Englishman who forgets the splendid virtues
which have made the English character comparable to the native oak.
(Applause.) Such reminiscences and such incentives to display in the
present day the virtues of our ancestors can have none but a good
result. Here our different races have, through God's providence, become
the inheritors of a new country, where the blood of all is mingling,
and where a nation is arising which we firmly believe will show through
future centuries the nerve, the energy, and intellectual powers which
characterised the people of northern Europe. (Hear, hear.) And let our
pride in this country with reference to its sons not be so much seen in
pride of the original stock, as in the feeling of joy which should
arise when we can say, "Such an orator, such a soldier, such a poet, or
such a statesman is a Canadian." (Cheers.) Keep up a knowledge of your
ancient language; for the exercise given to a man's mind in the power
given by the ability to express his thoughts in two languages is no
mean advantage. I would gladly have given much of the time devoted in
boyhood to acquiring Greek to the acquisition of Gaelic. My friends,
let me now tell you how happy it makes me to see that the valour, the
skill, and the bravery which used to make you chief among your
neighbours in the strife of swords, is here shown in the mastery of the
difficulties of nature. Your lives are here cast in pleasant places.
The aspect of the fertility of your lands, of the success of their
cultivation, and of your prosperity in their enjoyment, is producing so
powerful an effect upon your brethren at home, that we have some
difficulty in persuading the most enterprising amongst them to remain
in the old country. (Laughter.) You know that economic causes have
forced much of the increasing population of Scotland to seek the towns,
and the change in the proprietorship of lands has united in a few
unfortunate instances with the love for hunting in tempting men, in
more modern times, to care more for their preserves of animals than for
the preserves they could point to as being filled with men. My family
has always loved, not for policy, but on account of their fellow-citizens,
to place in the balance, against the temptation for gain among the
people, the love of home; and have thus had many men on their
lands. In a small country, of poor climate as compared with Canada,
this must of course be regulated by the resources of the land. But I
visit always with a peculiar pleasure those districts at home where a
large population has been able to find a competent livelihood. One
island known to many of you, namely, Tiree, has upon a surface of
twelve miles long by about two in width over three thousand souls. At
the present day I find that some of those who have visited Ontario, or
who know from their friends what this land is like, now come to us and
say, "We are tempted to go to Canada, for each of our friends there has
for himself a farm as big as the whole island of Tiree." (Laughter.)
This is only an instance of how much the western Highlander has thriven
in these new and more spacious homes. (Cheers.) Some amongst you are of
my name. I find that the Campbells get on as well as anybody else in
this country. Lately a gentleman managed to praise himself, his wife,
and me by making the following speech. He said, "I am glad to see you
here as Governor-General. I always find that the Campbells in this
country manage to get most excellent places." He then pointed to his
wife, and proved his argument by the announcement, "My wife there is a
Campbell." (Renewed laughter.) That you, your children, and children's
children, may continue to prosper is the wish of my heart, and the
desire of all in the Mother Country, who see that here you are one of
the powers that constitute, in the new world, a community devoted to
the great traditions, to the might and enduring grandeur of our united
empire. (Loud cheers.) Had it not been so you would not have come to
meet me here to-day. Some time ago I visited Killin, in Perthshire, a
most interesting place. It is a rocky island covered with heather,
grass, and pine trees, placed in the centre of the foaming waters of
the river Dochart, which streams from Benmore. It was the ancient
burial place of the gallant race of Macnab, a clan which with its chief
came over to Canada and was illustrious in the history of this country.
Its chief, Sir Allan, became, not by virtue of descent, but by ability
and integrity, a leader in the public life of Canada. His son came to
Killin to see this last resting-place of his fathers, and was there
seen by a poet, who in some beautiful verses says:--

"Would a son of the chieftain have dared to invade
The isle where the heroes repose;"

Were it not, that as--

"A pilgrim he came to that place of the dead,
For he knew that the tenant of each narrow bed,
Would hail him as worthy of them."

He then asks how he and they had shown their metal, and in vindication
of their fidelity to their ancient fame, he imagines that the very wind
that waved the fir branches over the old tombs carries in rustling
whisper, or in strong breath of storm, among the boughs:--

"A voice as it flies,
From the far distant forest that fringes the deeps
Of the rushing St. Lawrence, replies:--
That, however to Albyn their name
Has become like a tale of past years that is told;
On the shores of Lake Erie that race is the same,
And as true to the land of its birth and its fame,
As their gallant forefathers of old."

May this be ever so with you, and may God prosper and bless you in all
your undertakings. (Prolonged cheers.)

On his return to Winnipeg, after his tour through the North-Western
Territories in 1881, His Excellency spoke as follows:--

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,--I beg to thank you most cordially for the
pleasant reception you have given to me on my return to Winnipeg, and
for the words in which you proposed my health and have expressed a hope
for the complete recovery of the Princess from the effects of that most
unfortunate accident which took place at Ottawa. I know that the
Canadian people will always remember that it was in sharing the duties
incurred in their service that the Princess received injuries which
have, only temporarily, I trust, so much impaired her health.
(Applause.) Two years hence the journey I have undertaken will be an
easy one for all to accomplish throughout its length, while at present
the facilities of railway and steam accommodation only suffice for half
of it. For a Canadian, personal knowledge of the North-West is
indispensable. To be ignorant of the North-West is to be ignorant of
the greater portion of our country. (Applause.) Hitherto I have
observed that those who have seen it justly look down upon those who
have not, with a kind of pitying contempt which you may sometimes have
observed that they who have got up earlier in the morning than others
and seen some beautiful sunrise, assume towards the friends who have
slept until the sun is high in the heavens. (Laughter.) Our track,
though it led us far, only enabled us to see a very small portion of
your heritage now being made accessible. Had time permitted we should
have explored the immense country which lies along the whole course of
the wonderful Saskatchewan, which, with its two gigantic branches,
opens to steam navigation settlements of rapidly growing importance. As
it was, we but touched the waters of the north and south branches, and
striking southwestwards availed ourselves of the American railway lines
in Montana for our return. It was most interesting to compare the
southern mountains and prairies with our own, and not even the terrible
events which have recently cast so deep a gloom upon our neighbours, as
well as ourselves, could prevent our kinsmen from showing that
hospitality and courtesy which makes a visit to their country so great
a pleasure. (Loud applause.) I am the more glad to bear witness to this
courtesy in the presence of the distinguished consul of the United
States, who is your guest this evening, and who, in this city, so
honourably represents his country--(applause)--in nothing more than in
this, that he has never misrepresented our own. (Loud applause.) Like
almost all his compatriots who occupy by the suffrage of their people
official positions, he has recognised that fact, which is happily
acknowledged by all of standing amongst ourselves, that the interests
of the British Empire and of the United States may be advanced side by
side without jealousy or friction, and that the good of the one is
interwoven with the welfare of the other. (Cheers.) Canada has recently
shown that sympathy with her neighbour's grief which becomes her, and
which has been so marked throughout all portions of our Empire. She has
sorrowed with the sorrow of the great commonwealth, whose chief has
been struck down, in the fulness of his strength, in the height of his
usefulness, in the day of universal recognition of his noble character,
by the dastard hand of the assassin. We have felt in this as though we
ourselves had suffered, for General Garfield's position and personal
worth made his own and his fellow citizens' misfortune a catastrophe
for all English-speaking races. The bulletins telling of his calm and
courageous struggle against cruel and unmerited affliction, have been
read and discussed by us with as strong an admiration for the man, and
with as tender a sentiment for the anxiety and misery of his family, as
they have been awaited and perused in the south. It is fitting and good
that this should be. We have with the Americans, not only a common
descent, but a similar position on this continent, and a like probable
destiny. The community of feeling reaches beyond the fellowship arising
from the personal interest attaching to the dignity of a high office
sustained with honour, and to the reverence for the tender ties of
hearth and home, sacred though these be, for Canadians and Americans
have each a common aim and a common ideal. Though belonging to very
different political schools, and preferring to advance by very
different paths, we both desire to live only in a land of perfect
liberty. (Loud cheers.) When the order which ensures freedom is
desecrated by the cowardly rancour of the murderer, or by the tyranny
of faction, the blow touches more than one life, and strikes over a
wider circle than that where its nearer and immediate consequences are
apparent. The people of the United States have been directed into one
political organisation, and we are cherishing and developing another;
but they will find no men with whom a closer and more living sympathy
with their triumphs or with their trouble abides, than their Canadian
cousins in the Dominion. (Cheers.) Let this be so in the days of unborn
generations, and may we never have again to express our horror at such
a deed of infamy as that which has lately called forth, in so striking
a manner, the proofs of international respect and affection. (Hear,
hear.) To pass to other themes awaking no unhappy recollections, you
will expect me to mention a few of the impressions made upon us by what
we have seen during the last few weeks. Beautiful as are the numberless
lakes and illimitable forests of Keewatin--the land of the north wind,
to the east of you--yet it was pleasant to "get behind the north
wind"--(laughter)--and to reach your open plains. The contrast is great
between the utterly silent and shadowy solitudes of the pine and fir
forests, and the sunlit and breezy ocean of meadowland, voiceful with
the music of birds, which stretches onward from the neighbourhood of
your city. In Keewatin the lumber industry and mining enterprises can
alone be looked for, but here it is impossible to imagine any kind of
work which shall not produce results equal to those attained in any of
the great cities of the world. (Great cheering.) Unknown a few years
ago except for some differences which had arisen amongst its people, we
see Winnipeg now with a population unanimously joined in happy concord,
and rapidly lifting it to the front rank amongst the commercial centres
of the continent. We may look in vain elsewhere for a situation so
favourable and so commanding--many as are the fair regions of which we
can boast. (Loud cheers.) There may be some among you before whose eyes
the whole wonderful panorama of our Provinces has passed--the
ocean-garden island of Prince Edward; the magnificent valleys of the St.
John and Sussex; the marvellous country, the home of "Evangeline," where
Blomidon looks down on the tides of Fundy, and over tracts of red soil
richer than the weald of Kent. You may have seen the fortified Paradise
of Quebec; and Montreal, whose prosperity and beauty is worthy of her
great St. Lawrence, and you may have admired the well-wrought and
splendid Province of Ontario, and rejoiced at the growth of her capital,
Toronto, and yet nowhere will you find a situation whose natural
advantages promise so great a future as that which seems ensured to
Manitoba and to Winnipeg, the Heart city of our Dominion. (Tremendous
cheering.) The measureless meadows which commence here stretch without
interruption of their good soil westward to your boundary. The Province
is a green sea over which the summer winds pass in waves of rich
grasses and flowers, and on this vast extent it is only as yet here and
there that a yellow patch shows some gigantic wheat field. (Loud
cheering.) Like a great net cast over the whole are the bands and
clumps of poplar wood which are everywhere to be met with, and which,
no doubt, when the prairie fires are more carefully guarded against,
will, wherever they are wanted, still further adorn the landscape.
(Cheers.) The meshes of this wood-netting are never further than twenty
or thirty miles apart Little hay swamps and sparkling lakelets, teeming
with wild fowl, are always close at hand, and if the surface water in
some of these has alkali, excellent water can always be had in others,
and by the simple process of digging for it a short distance beneath
the sod with a spade, the soil being so devoid of stones that it is not
even necessary to use a pick. No wonder that under these circumstances
we hear no croaking. Croakers are very rare animals throughout Canada.
It was remarked with surprise, by an Englishman accustomed to British
grumbling, that even the frogs sing instead of croaking in Canada--
(great cheering)--and the few letters that have appeared speaking of
disappointment will be amongst the rarest autographs which the next
generation will cherish in their museums. But with even the best troops
of the best army in the world you will find a few malingerers--a few
skulkers. However well an action has been fought, you will hear
officers who have been engaged say that there were some men whose idea
seemed to be that it was easier to conduct themselves as became them at
the rear, rather than in the front. (Laughter and applause.) So there
have been a few lonely and lazy voices raised in the stranger press
dwelling upon your difficulties and ignoring your triumphs. These have
appeared from the pens of men who have failed in their own countries
and have failed here, who are born failures, and will fail, till life
fails them. (Laughter and applause.) They are like the soldiers who run
away from the best armies seeking to spread discomfiture, which exists
only in those things they call their minds--(laughter)--and who
returning to the cities say their comrades are defeated, or if they are
not beaten, they should in their opinion be so. We have found, as we
expected, that their tales are not worthy the credence even of the
timid. (Applause.) There was not one person who had manfully faced the
first difficulties--always far less than those to be encountered in
the older Provinces--but said that he was getting on well and he was
glad he had come, and he generally added that he believed his bit of
the country must be the best, and that he only wished his friends could
have the same good fortune, for his expectations were more than
realised. (Cheers and laughter.) It is well to remember that the men
who will succeed here, as in every young community, are usually the
able-bodied, and that their entry on their new field of labour should
be when the year is young. Men advanced in life and coming from the old
country will find their comfort best consulted by the ready provided
accommodation to be obtained by the purchase of a farm in the old
Provinces. All that the settler in Manitoba would seem to require is,
that he should look out for a locality where there is either good
natural drainage, and ninety-nine hundredths of the country has this,
and that he should be able readily to procure in Winnipeg, or elsewhere,
some light pumps like those used in Abyssinia for the easy supply of
water from a depth of a few feet below the surface. Alkali in the water
will never hurt his cattle, and dykes of turf and the planting of trees
would everywhere insure him and them the shelter that may be required.
Five hundred dollars should be his own to spend on his arrival, if he
wishes to farm. If he comes as an artisan he may, like the happy masons
now to be found in Winnipeg, get the wages of a British Army Colonel,
[1] by putting up houses as fast as brick, wood, and mortar can be
got together. Favourable testimony as to the climate was everywhere
given. The heavy night dews throughout the North-West keep the country
green when everything is burned to the south, and the steady winter
cold, although it sounds formidable when registered by the thermometer,
is universally said to be far less trying than the cold to be
encountered at the old English Puritan city of Boston, in Massachussets.
It is the moisture in the atmosphere which makes cold tell, and the
Englishman who, with the thermometer at zero, would, in his moist
atmosphere, be shivering, would here find one flannel shirt sufficient
clothing while working. I never like to make comparisons, and am always
unwillingly driven to do so, although it seems to be the natural
vice of the well-travelled Englishman. Over and over again in Canada
have I been asked if such and such a bay was not wonderfully like
the Bay of Naples, for the inhabitants had often been told so. I
always professed to be unable to see the resemblance, of course entirely
out of deference to the susceptibilities of the Italian nation. So
one of our party, a Scotsman, whenever in the Rocky Mountains he
saw some grand pyramid or gigantic rock, ten or eleven thousand feet
in height, would exclaim that the one was the very image of Arthur's
Seat and the other of Edinburgh Castle. With the fear of Ontario
before my eyes I would therefore never venture to compare a
winter here to those of our greatest Province, but I am bound to
mention that when a friend of mine put the question to a party of
sixteen Ontario men who had settled in the western portion of Manitoba,
as to the comparative merits of the cold season in the two Provinces--
fourteen of them voted for the Manitoba climate, and only two elderly
men said that they preferred that of Toronto. You will therefore see
how that which is sometimes called a very unequal criterion of right
and justice, a large majority, determines this question. Now although
we are at present in Manitoba, and Manitoba interests may dominate our
thoughts, yet you may not object to listen for a few moments to our
experience of the country which lies further to the west. To the
present company the assertion may be a bold one, but they will be
sufficiently tolerant to allow me to make it, if it goes no further,
and I therefore say that we may seek for the main chance elsewhere than
in Main street. The future fortunes of this country beyond this
Province bear directly upon its prosperity. Although you may not be
able to dig for four feet through the same character of black loam that
you have here when you get to the country beyond Fort Ellice, yet in
its main features it is the same right up to the forks of the
Saskatchewan. I deeply regret that I was not able to visit Edmonton,
which bids fair to rival any place in the North-West. Settlement is
rapidly increasing there, and I met at Battleford one man who alone had
commissions from ten Ontario farmers to buy for them at that place.
Nothing can exceed the fertility and excellence of the land along
almost the whole course of that great river, and to the north of it in
the wide strip belting its banks and extending up to the Peace River,
there will be room for a great population whose opportunities for
profitable cultivation of the soil will be most enviable. The netting
of wood of which I have spoken as covering all the prairie between
Winnipeg and Battleford, is beyond that point drawn up upon the shores
of the prairie sea, and lies in masses of fine forest in the gigantic
half circle formed by the Saskatchewan and the Rockies. It is only in
secluded valleys, on the banks of large lakes, and in river bottoms,
that much wood is found in the Far West, probably owing to the
prevalence of fires. These are easily preventible, and there is no
reason why plantations should not flourish there in good situations as
well as elsewhere. Before I leave the Saskatchewan, let me advert to
the ease with which the steam navigation of that river can be vastly
improved. At present there is only one boat at all worthy of the name
of a river steamer upon it, and this steamer lies up during the night.
A new company is, I am informed, now being organised, and there is no
reason why, if the new vessels are properly equipped and furnished with
electric lights, which may now be cheaply provided, they should not
keep up a night and day service, so that the settlers at Prince Albert,
Edmonton, and elsewhere, may not have, during another season, to suffer
great privations incident to the wants of transportation which has
loaded the banks of Grand Rapids during the present year with freight,
awaiting steam transport The great cretaceous coal seams at the
headwaters of the rivers which rise in the Rocky Mountains or in their
neighbourhood and flow towards your doors, should not be forgotten.
Although you have some coal in districts nearer to you, we should
remember that on the headwaters of these streams there is plenty of the
most excellent kind which can be floated down to you before you have a
complete railway system. Want of time as well as a wish to see the less
vaunted parts of the country took me southwestward from Battleford,
over land which in many of the maps is variously marked as consisting
of arid plains or as a continuation of the "American Desert." The newer
maps, especially those containing the explorations of Professor Macoun,
have corrected this wholly erroneous idea. For two days' march--that is
to say, for about 60 or 70 miles south of Battleford--we passed over
land whose excellence could not be surpassed for agricultural purposes.
Thence to the neighbourhood of the Red Deer Valley the soil is lighter,
but still in my opinion in most places good for grain--in any case most
admirable for summer pasturage,--and it will certainly be good also for
stock in winter as soon as it shall pay to have some hay stored in the
valleys. The whole of it has been the favourite feeding ground of the
buffalo. Their tracks from watering place to watering place, never too
far apart from each other, were everywhere to be seen, while in very
many tracks their dung lay so thickly that the appearance of the ground
was only comparable to that of an English farmyard. Let us hope that
the _entre-acte_ will not be long before the disappearance of the
buffalo on these scenes is followed by the appearance of domestic herds.
The Red Deer Valley is especially remarkable as traversing a country
where, according to the testimony of Indian chiefs travelling with us,
snow never lies for more than three months, and the heavy growth of
poplar in the bottoms, the quantity of the "bull" or high cranberry
bushes, and the rich branches that hung from the choke-cherries showed
us that we had come into that part of the Dominion which among the
plainsmen is designated as "God's country." From this, onward to the
Bow River and thence to the frontier line, the trail led through what
will be one of the most valued of our Provinces, subject to those warm
winds called the "chinooks." The settler will hardly ever use anything
but wheeled vehicles during winter, and throughout a great portion of
the land early sowing--or fall sowing-will be all that will be
necessary to ensure him against early frosts. At Calgarry--a place
interesting at the present time as likely to be upon that Pacific
Railway line [2] which will connect you with the Pacific, and
give you access to "that vast shore beyond the furthest sea," the shore
of Asia--a good many small herds of cattle have been introduced within
the last few years. During this year a magnificent herd of between six
and seven thousand has been brought in, and the men who attended them
and who came from Montana, Oregon and Texas, all averred that their
opinion of their new ranche was higher than that of any with which they
had been acquainted in the south. Excellent crops have been raised by
men who had sown not only in the river bottoms, but also upon the
so-called "bench" lands or plateaux above. This testimony was also given
by others on the way to Fort Macleod and beyond it, thus closing most
satisfactorily the song of praise we had heard from practical men
throughout our whole journey of 1200 miles. Let me advert for one
moment to some of the causes which have enabled settlers to enjoy in
such peace the fruits of their industry. Chief amongst these must be
reckoned the policy of kindness and justice which was inaugurated by
the Hudson's Bay Company in their treatment of the Indians. Theirs is
one of the cases in which a trader's association has upheld the maxim
that "honesty is the best policy," even when you are dealing with
savages. The wisdom and righteousness of their dealing on enlightened
principles, which are fully followed out by their servants to-day, gave
the cue to the Canadian Government. The Dominion through her Indian
officers and her mounted constabulary is showing herself the
inheritress of these traditions. She has been fortunate in organising
the Mounted Police Force, a corps of whose services it would be
impossible to speak too highly. A mere handful in that vast wilderness,
they have at all times shown themselves ready to go anywhere and do
anything. They have often had to act on occasions demanding the
combined individual pluck and prudence rarely to be found amongst any
soldiery, and there has not been a single occasion on which any member
of the force has lost his temper under trying circumstances, or has not
fulfilled his mission as a guardian of the peace. Severe journeys in
winter and difficult arrests have had to be effected in the centre of
savage tribes, and not once has the moral prestige which was in reality
their only weapon, been found insufficient to cope with difficulties
which, in America, have often baffled the efforts of whole columns of
armed men. I am glad of this opportunity to name these men as well
worthy of Canada's regard-as sons who have well maintained her name and
fame. And now that you have had the patience to listen to me, and we
have crossed the continent together, let me advise you as soon as
possible to get up a branch Club-house, situated amongst our Rocky
Mountains, where, during summer, your members may form themselves into
an Alpine club and thoroughly enjoy the beautiful peaks and passes of
our Alps. In the railway you will have a beautiful approach to the
Pacific, The line, after traversing for days the plains, will come upon
the rivers whose sheltering valleys have all much the same character.
The river-beds are like great moats in a modern fortress-you do not see
them till close upon them. As in the glacis and rampart of a fortress,
the shot can search across the smoothed surfaces above the ditch, so
any winds that may arise may sweep across the twin levels above the
river fosses. The streams run coursing along the sunken levels in these
vast ditches, which are sometimes miles in width. Sheltered by the
undulating banks, knolls, or cliffs, which form the margin of their
excavated bounds, are woods, generally of poplar, except in the
northern and western fir fringe. On approaching the mountains their
snow caps look like huge tents encamped along the rolling prairie. Up
to this great camp, of which a length of 200 miles is sometimes visible,
the rivers wind in trenches, looking like the covered ways by which
siege works zig-zag up to a besieged city. On a nearer view the camp
line changes to ruined marble palaces, and through their tremendous
walls and giant woods you will soon be dashing on the train for a
winter basking on the warm Pacific coast. You have a country whose
value it would be insanity to question, and which, to judge from the
emigration taking place from the older Provinces, will be indissolubly
linked with them. It must support a vast population. If we may
calculate from the progress we have already made in comparison with our
neighbours, we shall have no reason to fear comparison with them on the
new areas now open to us. We have now four million four hundred
thousand people, and these, with the exception of the comparatively
small numbers as yet in this Province, are restricted to the old area.
Yet for the last ten years our increase has been over 18 per cent,
whereas during the same period all the New England States taken
together have shown an increase only of 15 per cent. In the last thirty
years in Ohio the increase has been 61 per cent.--Ontario has seen
during that space of time 101 per cent of increase, while Quebec has
increased 52 per cent. Manitoba in ten years has increased 289 per cent,
a greater rate than any hitherto attained, and to judge from this
year's experience is likely to increase to an even more wonderful
degree during the following decade. Statistics are at all times
wearisome, but are not these full of hope? Are they not facts giving
just ground for that pride in our progress which is conspicuous among
our people, and ample reason for our belief that the future may be
allowed to take care of itself. They who pour out prophecies of change,
prescribing medicines for a sound body, are wasting their gifts and
their time. It is among strangers that we hear such theories propounded
by destiny men. With you the word "annexation" has in the last years
only been heard in connection with the annexation of more territory to
Manitoba. I must apologise to a Canadian audience for mentioning the
word at all in any other connection. In America the annexation of this
country is disavowed by all responsible leaders. As it was well
expressed to me lately, the best men in the States desire only to annex
the friendship and good will of Canada. (Loud cheers.) To be sure it
may be otherwise with the camp followers; they often talk as if the
swallowing and digestion of Canada by them were only a question of time,
and of rising reason amongst us. How far the power of the camp
followers extends it is not for us to determine. They have, however,
shown that they are powerful enough to capture a few English writers,
our modern minor prophets who, in little magazine articles, are fond of
teaching the nations how to behave, whose words preach the superiority
of other countries to their own, and the proximate dismemberment of
that British Empire which has the honour to acknowledge them as
citizens. They have with our American friends of whom I speak at all
events one virtue in common, they are great speculators. In the case of
our southern friends this is not a matter to be deplored by us, for
American speculation has been of direct material benefit to Canada, and
we must regret that our American citizens are not coming over to us so
fast as are the Scotch, the Irish, the Germans, and the Scandinavians.
Morally, also, it is not to be deplored that such speculations are made,
for they show that it is thought that Canadians would form a useful
though an unimportant wing for one of the great parties; and, moreover,
such prophecies clothe with amusement "the dry bones" of discussion.
But it is best always to take men as we find them, and not to believe
that they will be different even if a kindly feeling, first for
ourselves and afterwards for them, should make us desire to change them.
Let us rather judge from the past and from the present than take
flights, unguided by experience, into the imaginary regions of the
future. What do we find has been, and is, the tendency of the peoples
of this continent? Does not history show, and do not modern and
existing tendencies declare, that the lines of cleavage among them lie
along the lines of latitude? Men spread from east to west, and from
east to west the political lines, which mean the lines of diversity,
extend. The central spaces are, and will be yet more, the great centres
of population. Can it be imagined that the vast central hives of men
will allow the eastern or western seaboard people to come between them
with separate empire, and shut them out in any degree from full and
free intercourse with the markets of the world beyond them? Along the
lines of longitude no such tendencies of division exist. The markets of
the North Pole are not as yet productive, and with South America
commerce is comparatively small. The safest conclusion, if conclusions
are to be drawn at all, is that what has hitherto been, will, in the
nature of things, continue,--that whatever separations exist will be
marked by zones of latitude. For other evidence we must search in vain.
Our county councils, the municipal corporations, the local provincial
chambers, the central Dominion Parliament, and last not least, a
perfectly unfettered press, are all free channels for the expression of
the feelings of our citizens. Why is it that in each and all of these
reflectors of the thoughts of men, we see nothing but determination to
keep and develop the precious heritage we have in our own constitution,
so capable of any development which the people may desire. (Cheers.)
Let us hear Canadians if we wish to speak for them. These public bodies
and the public press are the mouthpieces of the people's mind. Let us
not say for them what they never say for themselves. It is no
intentional misrepresentation, I believe, which has produced these
curious examples of the fact that individual prepossessions may distort
public proof. It reminds me of an interpretation once said to have been
given by a bad interpreter of a speech delivered by a savage warrior,
who, in a very dignified and extremely lengthy discourse, expressed the
contentment of his tribe with the order and with the good which had
been introduced amongst them by the law of the white man. His speech
was long enough fully to impress with its meaning and its truth all who
took pains to listen to him, and who could understand his language, but
the interpreter had unfortunately different ideas of his own, and was
displeased with his own individual treatment. When at last he was asked
what the chief and his council had said in their eloquent orations, he
turned round and only exclaimed,--"He dam displeased!" (Great laughter.)
And what did his councillors say? "They dam displeased!" (Roars of
laughter.) No, gentlemen, let each man in public or literary life in
both nations do all that in him lies to cement their friendship, so
essential for their mutual welfare. But this cannot be cemented by the
publication of vain vaticinations. This great part of our great Empire
has a natural and warm feeling for our republican brethren, whose
fathers parted from us a century ago in anger and bloodshed. May this
natural affection never die. It is like the love which is borne by a
younger brother to an elder, so long as the big brother behaves
handsomely and kindly. I may possibly know something of the nature of
such affection, for as the eldest of a round dozen, I have had
experience of the fraternal relation as exhibited by an unusual number
of younger brothers. Never have I known that fraternal tie to fail, but
even its strength has its natural limit, so Canada's affection may be
measured. None of my younger brothers, however fond of me, would
voluntarily ask that his prospects should be altogether overshadowed
and swallowed up by mine. So Canada, if I may express her feelings in
words which our neighbours understand, wishes to be their friend, but
does not desire to become their food. She rejoices in the big brother's
strength and status, but is not anxious to nourish it by offering up
her own body in order that it may afford him, when over-hungry, that
happy festival he is in the habit of calling a "square meal." (Loud
laughter.) I must ask you now once more to allow me, gentlemen, to
express my acknowledgments to you for this entertainment. It affords
another indication of the feelings with which the citizens of Winnipeg
regard any person who has the honour, as the head of the Canadian
Government, to represent the Queen--(cheers)--you recognise in the
Governor-General the sign and symbol of the union which binds together
in one the free and kindred peoples whom God has set over famous isles
and over fertile spaces of mighty continents. I have touched, in
speaking to you, on certain vaticinations and certain advice given by
a few good strangers to Canadians on the subject of the future of
Canada. Gentlemen, I believe that Canadians are well able to take care
themselves of their future, and the outside world had better listen to
them instead of promulgating weak and wild theories of its own. (Loud
applause.) But however uncertain, and I may add, foolish may be such
forecasts, of one thing we may be sure, which is this, that the country
you call Canada, and which your sons and your children's children will
be proud to know by that name, is a land which will be a land of power
among the nations. (Cheers.) Mistress of a zone of territory favourable
for the maintenance of a numerous and homogeneous white population,
Canada must, to judge from the increase in her strength during the past,
and from the many and vast opportunities for the growth of that
strength on her new Provinces in the future, be great and worthy her
position on the earth. Affording the best and safest highway between
Asia and Europe, she will see traffic from both directed to her coasts.
With a hand upon either ocean she will gather from each for the benefit
of her hardy millions a large share of the commerce of the world. To
the east and to the west she will pour forth of her abundance, her
treasures of food and the riches of her mines and of her forests,
demanded of her by the less fortunate of mankind. I esteem those men
favoured indeed, who, in however slight a degree, have had the honour,
or may be yet called upon to take part in the councils of the statesmen
who, in this early era of her history, are moulding this nation's laws
in the forms approved by its representatives. For me, I feel that I can
be ambitious of no higher title than to be known as one who
administered its Government in thorough sympathy with the hopes and
aspirations of its first founders, and in perfect consonance with the
will of its free parliament. (Cheers.) I ask for no better lot than to
be remembered by its people as rejoicing in the gladness born of their
independence and of their loyalty. I desire no other reputation than
that which may belong to him who sees his own dearest wishes in process
of fulfilment, in their certain progress, in their undisturbed peace,
and in their ripening grandeur. (Cheers.)

[1] Masons wages had risen to an extraordinary height in the Autumn
of 1881. Excellent pay can now be obtained by bricklayers, carpenters,
and blacksmiths.

[2] The Canadian Pacific Railway has now been completed to a valley
in the Rocky Mountains beyond Calgarry, through which place it passes.

A Monsieur le President et Messieurs les Membres de l'Association de
St. Jean Baptiste de Manitoba.

Messieurs,--J'ai l'honneur de vous remercier au nom de sa majeste des
sentiments de loyaute que vous venez d'exprimer.

C'est pour moi un plaisir d'entendre exprimer des sentiments de
devouement au trone, de quelque race qu'ils proviennent, soit de la
bouche de Canadiens-frangais, d'Anglais, d'Ecossais, de
Canadiens-irlandais ou de Canadiens d'origine quelconque.

Les gloires de chaque race aujourd'hui representee au Manitoba se
confondent dans la gloire commune de la nation Canadienne. Que chacune
d'elles conserve precieusement ses associations historiques! Elles sont
en effet autant de motifs d'encouragement a travailler a augmenter la
force et la valeur de la nation entiere, une et indivisible. A l'avenir,
votre rivalite ne consistera que dans la sainte rivalite de votre
devouement a Dieu et au grand pays qu'il vous a octroye dans notre
puissance du Canada.

C'est a un Canadien-francais que revient la gloire d'avoir le premier
explore notre pays. Qu'il revienne aux descendants de cette race de
cimenter leur union avec nos diverses races, et de leur donner ainsi de
la force. Un Canadien-francais me disait tout dernierement a Quebec:
"Ma famille a souvent verse de son sang en combattant les Anglais." Je
lui repondis: "Oui, monsieur, et ma propre famille en a verse encore
bien plus en les combattant, car nous les avons combattus pendant plus
de trois siecles." L'histoire de vos ancetres est aussi glorieuse que
celle de l'Ecosse ou de l'Angleterre.

L'accueil que vous me faites comme chef du gouvernement federal et
comme representant sa majeste la reine, me convainc que le jour de la
St. Jean Baptiste est celebre par vous comme le sont les fetes de St.
Georges, St. Andre et St. Patrice. Ce sera une fete qui celebrera en
meme temps les traditions de la race, de la foi, et l'inconquerable
resolution d'affermir notre population dans une fraternite chretienne
et une nationalite animee de sentiments chretiens.

In reply to the Archbishop of St. Boniface, Winnipeg.

Monseigneur et Messieurs,--J'ai l'honneur d'accuser reception de votre
gracieuse adresse, renouvelant l'expression de vos sentiments de
loyaute envers la couronne, et de vous assurer que j'en apprecie la
sincerite du fond de mon coeur.

Son eloquence exprime, en termes qui prennent leur source dans le coeur,
le devoir qui a ete enseigne et pratique parmi vous, par des
predicateurs eloquents et des missionnaires heroiques.

Vos paroles remarquables seront transmises a la reine. Tout recemment
encore, sa majeste me faisait part du plaisir qu'elle avait ressenti,
en prenant connaissance des paroles prononcees par des hommes
distingues de la province de Quebec, lors de l'erection du monument a
la memoire du Colonel de Salaberry.

Ce monument, digne de l'art canadien, a ete erige en l'honneur d'un des
enfants les plus illustres du Canada. Doue d'une force physique qui
aurait fait envi aux preux Paladins de Roncevaux, le Colonel de
Salaberry mit toute son energie et sa force au service de son pays, et
contribua a repousser l'ennemi qui menacait l'integrite de l'Empire
Britannique en attaquant le Canada.

Permettez-moi de vous remercier aussi de tout mon coeur de ce que vous
avez dit a l'egard de la Princesse, qui espere etre de retour au Canada
a la fin d'octobre. J'aurais voulu qu'elle eut pu prendre part a la
reception qui m'est faite a St. Boniface. Non seulement cette reception
me cause une vive satisfaction, mais elle m'inspire le plus grand

St. Boniface est le berceau de ce Canada plus grand que l'ancien. Sous
les auspices de l'Eglise, les Canadiens-francais sont venus ici et ont
fonde une communaute heureuse et prospere. Leurs compatriotes des
provinces de l'est peuvent etre certains que, sous les memes auspices,
leurs enfants trouveront ici les memes bienfaits de l'education qui les
guidera dans la vie.

De nombreux Canadiens quittent la province de Quebec pour se diriger
vers le sud; ils abandonnent la vie saine des champs, et le bonheur de
vivre avec leurs compatriotes pour la vie malsaine des manufactures sur
la terre etrangere. Un certain nombre d'entre eux songent a rentrer au
pays apres des annees d'absence, mais il leur serait incomparablement
plus avantageux, a tous, de se diriger, de suite, vers les plaines du
Nord-Ouest Canadien, ou la fertilite du sol leur assurerait un avenir

J'ai rencontre sur la ligne du chemin de fer, pres du Portage du Rat,
plusieurs de vos compatriotes qui sont occupes a l'achevement de cette
grande et importante oeuvre nationale. Tous m'ont donne a entendre
qu'ils avaient ecrit a leurs amis, pour leur conseiller de venir
s'etablir a Manitoba. Ils ajoutaient que, quant a eux-memes, leur
unique but etait de se procurer des terrains dans cette nouvelle et
fertile province.

Je remercie votre grandeur et vous messieurs du clerge de St. Boniface,
de l'accueil si bienveillant que vous me faites; je me compte,
volontiers, au premier rang de ceux qui se plaisent a reconnaitre le
prix du precieux element fourni a notre population par la race Gauloise.

An address having been presented by the Board of Management of the
Manitoba College, the following was His Excellency's reply:

Gentlemen,--Let me thank you for your welcome. The wise experiment made
in your confederation of colleges has been watched by all who take an
interest in education. It has made Manitoba as famous among men of
thought as its wheat and other produce have rendered it well known
among men interested in agriculture.

Your example will probably be followed in the older Provinces, for
where universities are not generally supported by the various
denominations, and these separate themselves too definitely, it is
difficult to secure that large number of students, which it is
necessary to have, if a university is to attract the best men.

It was at a College in Ontario such as this that I first saw in
practice that wise toleration and determination to unite for the common
good which has guided you. I saw there the clergy of all denominations
uniting in prayer, at a ceremony such as the present, celebrating the
erection of new buildings for a college, free to all, but under
Presbyterian direction. The same enlightened feeling has prevailed in
the west, where, having a free course, you have instituted a university
to which all colleges are affiliated.

Where States are ancient and the habits of men settled deep in old
grooves, the efforts made by an individual and the movement of thought,
may have but little apparent effect. Hearts may be broken over
seemingly useless work, for the ways of the people are formed and
custom precludes change. Here in a new land, with a people spreading
everywhere over the country whose value has only so lately been
realised, you enjoy the more fortunate lot of being able to trace for
the communities the outlines of their future life. It is this which
makes these first steps of such incalculable importance. Each touch you
give will give shape and form and make a lasting impression, and your
hands labour at no hard and inductile mass. It is a real satisfaction
to me that I am able to be present at a meeting which marks a fresh
advance in the status of a college organised in connection with the
University of Manitoba, and I thank you for the invitation you have
given me.

Not even the constant exhibition of huge roots, tall heads of wheat,
and gigantic potatoes and monster onions at the fairs in the eastern
Provinces can do more to make Manitoba a temptation to settlers, than
the proof you afford that their children shall be thoroughly educated
by men belonging to the churches of which they are members, and in
sympathy with their desires and hopes.

Where civil government is so perfect, where religious instruction and
toleration are so well taught, and where education is prized even above
the wonderful material prosperity guaranteed by the rich plains around
you, men may be certain that they can choose no fairer land for
themselves and for their children.

Before leaving Fort Shaw, Montana, September 1881, the members of the
Mounted Police, who had accompanied the party for seven weeks, were
paraded under command of Major Crozier, at His Excellency's request,
who in bidding them farewell said:--

Officers, non commissioned officers and men,--Our long march is over,
and truly sorry we feel that it is so. I am glad that its last scene is
to take place in this American fort where we have been so courteously
and hospitably received. That good fellowship which exists between
soldiers is always to the fullest extent shown between you and our kind
friends. This perfect understanding is to be expected, for both our
Empires, unlike some others, send out to their distant frontier posts
not their worst, but some of their very best men. I have asked for this
parade this morning to take leave of you, and to express my entire
satisfaction at the manner in which your duties have been performed.
You have been subject to some searching criticism, for on my staff are
officers who have served in the cavalry, artillery, and infantry. Their
unanimous verdict is to the effect that they have never seen work
better, more willingly, or more smartly done while under circumstances
of some difficulty caused by bad weather or otherwise. Your appearance
on parade was always as clean and bright and, soldier-like as possible.
Your force is often spoken of in Canada as one of which Canada is
justly proud. It is well that this pride is so fully justified, for
your duties are most important and varied. You must always act as
guardians of the peace. There may be occasions also in which you may
have to act as soldiers, and sometimes in dealing with our Indian
fellow-subjects you may have to show the mingled prudence, kindness,
and firmness which constitute a diplomat. You have, with a force at
present only 250 [1] strong, to keep order in a country whose fertile,
wheat-growing area is reckoned about 250 million of acres. The perfect
confidence in the maintenance of the authority of the law prevailing
over these vast territories, a confidence most necessary with the
settlement now proceeding, show how thoroughly you have done your
work. It will be with the greatest pleasure that I shall convey to
the Prime Minister my appreciation of your services, and the
satisfaction we have all had in having you with us as our escort and
companions throughout the journey.

[1] The number of the North West Mounted Police was raised in 1882
to 500 men.

A Society was founded by Lord Lorne, in 1882, for the encouragement of
Science and Literature. Divided into sections, it was designed to
furnish to Canada what the French Academy and the British Association
give to Great Britain. At its first meeting, which took place in the
Senate Chamber, he opened the proceedings with these remarks:--
Gentlemen,--These few words I do not address to you, presuming to call
myself one of your brotherhood, either in science or literature, but I
speak to you as one whose accidental official position may enable him
to serve you, persuaded as I am that the furtherance of your interests
is for the benefit and honour of Canada. Let me briefly state the
object aimed at In the institution of this society. Whether it be
possible that our hopes be fulfilled according to our expectation the
near future will show. But from the success which has attended similar
associations in other lands possessed of less spirit, energy, and
opportunity than our own, there is no reason to augur ill of the
attempt to have here a body of men whose achievements may entitle them
to recognise and encourage the appearance of merit in literature, and
to lead in science and the useful application of its discoveries. It is
proposed, then, that this society shall consist of a certain number of
members who have made their mark by their writings, whether these be of
imagination or the study of nature. In one division our fellow-countrymen,
descended from the stock of old France, will discuss with that
grace of diction and appreciation of talent, which is so conspicuous
amongst them, all that may affect their literature and the maintenance
of the purity of that grand language from which the English
is largely derived. They well know how to pay compliments to rising
authors, and how with tact and courtesy to crown the aspirants to the
honours they will bestow. Among Englishmen of letters the grant of such
formal marks of recognition by their brethren has not as yet become
popular or usual, and it may be that it never will become a custom. On
the other hand, it surely will be a pleasure to a young author, if,
after a perusal of his thoughts, they who are his co-workers and
successful precursors in the wide domain of poetry, fiction, or of
history, should see fit to award him an expression of thanks for his
contribution to the intellectual delight or to the knowledge of his
time. They only, whose labours have met with the best reward--the
praise of their contemporaries--can take the initiative in such a
welcome to younger men, and whatever number may hereafter be elected to
this society, it is to be desired that no man be upon its lists who has
not by some original and complete work justified his selection. The
meeting together of our eminent men will contribute to unite on a
common ground those best able to express the thoughts and illustrate
the history of the time. It will serve to strengthen emulation among us,
for the discussion of progress made in other lands, will breed the
desire to push the intellectual development of our own. We may hope
that this union will promote the completion of the national collections
which, already fairly representative in geology, may hereafter include
archives, paintings, and objects illustrating ethnology and all
branches of Natural History. In science we have men whose names are
widely known, and the vast field for study and exploration afforded by
this magnificent country may be expected to reward, by valuable
discoveries, the labours of the geologist and mineralogist. It would be
out of place in these few sentences to detail the lines of research
which have already engaged your attention. They will be spoken of in
the record of your proceedings. Among those, the utility of which must
be apparent to all, one may be particularly mentioned. I refer to the
meteorological observations, from which have been derived the storm
warnings which during the last few years have saved many lives. A
comparatively new science has thus been productive of results known to
all our population and especially to seamen. Here I have only touched
upon one or two subjects in the wide range of study which will occupy
the time and thoughts of one half of your membership, devoted as two of
your four sections will be to geological and biological sciences. It
will be your province to aid and encourage the workers in their
acquisition of knowledge of that nature, each of whose secrets may
become the prize of him who shall make one of her mysteries the special
subject of thought. America already bids fair to rival France and
Germany in the number of her experts. Canada may certainly have her
share in producing those men whose achievements in science have more
than equalled in fame the triumphs of statesmen. These last labour only
for one country, while the benefits of the discoveries of science are
shared by the world. But widely different as are the qualities which
develop patriotism and promote science, yet I would call to the aid of
our young association the love of country, and ask Canadians to support
and gradually to make as perfect as possible this their national
society. Imperfections there must necessarily be at first in its
constitution--omissions in membership and organisation there may be.
Such faults may hereafter be avoided. Our countrymen will recognise
that in a body of gentlemen drawn from all our provinces and
conspicuous for their ability, there will be a centre around which to
rally. They will see that the welfare and strength of growth of this
association shall be impeded by no small jealousies, no carping spirit
of detraction, but shall be nourished by a noble motive common to the
citizens of the republic of letters and to the student of the free
world of Nature, namely: the desire to prove that their land is not
insensible to the glory which springs from numbering among its sons
those whose success becomes the heritage of mankind. I shall not now
further occupy your time, which will be more worthily used in listening
to the addresses of the presidents and of those gentlemen who for this
year have consented to take the chair at the meetings of the several

At San Francisco, in 1882, the following reply was given to the British

Gentlemen,--Our heartfelt thanks are due to you for the welcome given
to us, a welcome whose expression is embodied in this beautifully
decorated address. It echoes the loyal sentiments which remain
predominant among those, who, wherever their business may cause them to
reside, remember that they have been born under our British freedom. We
shall gladly keep our gift in recollection of a visit to one of
America's foremost cities, where the kindly feelings of our cousins
have been shown in the generous hospitality which they are ever ready
to extend to the stranger. With you whose interests are bound up with
the greatness of California, and with the gigantic trade of the United
States, we can cordially sympathise. Connected as we are for a time
with the fortunes of the sister land of Canada, we know how much the
welfare of the one country is affected by the good of the other; how
the evil that falls on one must affect the other also. Our blood makes
us brothers, and our interests make us partners. Our governments are
engaged in the same task, and from experience there is no reason to
think otherwise than that they will be allowed to work in that perfect
harmony which is essential for their peace and for the peace of the
world. They are arching the continent with two zones of civilisation;
with light, not of one colour, but equally replacing the former
darkness, and the harmony between them is as natural as is the relation
in the rainbow of the separate hues of red and azure. Your presence
here shows how our commerce is interwoven. In crossing the continent
and marvelling at the wealth and power shown by every city of this
mighty people, it is a pride to think how much of all they have is
theirs by virtue of British and Irish blood; and when here and at New
York, we reach the ports supplying this vast population, we find in the
flags borne by the shipping, proof that it is still the old country
that in the main ministers to and is benefited by the progress of her

At Victoria, in British Columbia, in 1882, at a public dinner in his
honour, the Governor-General said:--

Mr. Mayor and Council,--It is, I assure you, with more than common
feelings of gratitude that I rise to ask you to accept my
acknowledgments and thanks for this evening's entertainment. The
reception the Princess and I have met with in Victoria, and throughout
British Columbia, will long live in our memory as one of the brightest
episodes of a time which has been made delightful to us by the
heartfelt loyalty of the people of our Canadian provinces. Nowhere has
the contentment insured by British institutions been more strongly
expressed than on these beautiful shores of the Pacific. I am rejoiced
to observe signs that the days are now passed when we had to look upon
this community as one too remote and too sundered from the rest to
share to the full the rapid increase of prosperity which has been so
remarkable since the Union. Attracted at first by the capricious
temptations of the gold mines, your valleys were inundated by a large
population. It was not to be anticipated that this could last, and
although population declined with the temporary decrease of mining, it
is evident that the period of depression in this, as in every other
matter, has been passed. (Applause.) I have everywhere seen signs that
a more stable, and therefore more satisfactory, emigration has set in.
Victoria has made of late a decided start. I visited with much pleasure
many of the factories which witness to this, and I hope before I leave
to have made a still more exhaustive examination of the establishments
which are rapidly rising among you. That the wares produced by these
are appreciated beyond the limits of the city is very evident
throughout the Province, where cleanliness is insured by Victoria soap,
and comfort, or at least contentment and consolation, by Kurtz's
Victoria cigars. (Loud laughter and applause.) No words can be too
strong to express the charm of this delightful land, where a climate
softer and more constant than that of the south of England ensures at
all times of the year a full enjoyment of the wonderful loveliness of
nature around you. There is no doubt that any Canadian who visits this
island and the mainland shores and sees the happiness of the people,
the forest laden coast, the tranquil gulfs and glorious mountains, can
but congratulate himself that his country possesses scenes of such
perfect beauty. (Applause.) We who have been much touched by the warmth
of your welcome will, I am sure, sympathise with the desire which will
be felt by every travelled Canadian in the future, that every alternate
year at least the Dominion Parliament should meet at New Westminster,
Nanaimo, or in Victoria. (Laughter and applause.) Where men seem to
live with such comfort, regret will inevitably arise that you have as
yet so few to share your good fortune. Though your contribution to the
revenue is at least a million dollars, there are only twenty thousand
white men over the three hundred and fifty thousand square miles of
Province. Various causes, the most formidable of these being physical,
have hitherto contributed to this. The physical difficulties,
tremendous as they are, are being rapidly conquered There is no cause
why any of a different character should not be surmounted with an equal
success. What is wanted to effect this object is only cordial
co-operation with the central Government. (Cheers.) There was perhaps a
time when the Governor-General would not have been regarded, in his
official capacity at all events, with as much favour as I flatter
myself may now be the case. (Applause.) No wonder that the feeling is
changed, now that the circumstances are better understood, for I
challenge any one to mention any example in which a government, ruling
over a comparatively small population of four and a half millions, has
ever done as much as has the Canadian Government to insure for its
furthest Provinces the railway communication which is an essential for
the development of the resources of the land. (Cheering.) Mr. Francis
[1] will back me, I am certain, when I say that the United States, with
a population of fifteen or twenty millions, when California was first
settled in 1849, did not push the railway through to the Pacific Coast
in the vigorous manner in which the Canadian Government is now doing.
(Loud cheers.) I have full confidence that you will see that policy of
enterprise and of justice nobly carried out. Early promises, if made
too hastily, showed that if there was profound ignorance of the physical
geography of your country, there was at all events profound goodwill.
Later events have proved that in spite of all obstacles "where there
is a will there is a way." Pride in national feeling has made the country
strain every nerve to bind still further with the sentiment of
confidence the unity of the Confederation. (Applause.) Where is now the
old talk which we used to hear from a few of the faint-hearted of a
change in destiny or of annexation? (Cheers.) It does not exist. To be
sure, here I have heard some vague terror expressed, but it is a terror
which I have heard expressed among our friends on the American Pacific
Slope also, and it is to the effect that annexation must soon take place
to the Celestial Empire. (Great laughter.) Well, gentlemen, I fully
sympathise with this fear. None of us like to die before our time, but
I will suggest to you, from the healthy signs and vitality I see around
me, that your time has not yet come. Your object now is to live, and
for that purpose to get your enterprises and your railways as part of
your assets. (Applause.) The rest will follow in time, but at the
present moment we must concern ourselves with practical politics. Let
us look beyond this Island and beyond even those difficult mountains,
and see what our neighbours and friends to the south of us are about.
An army of workmen--exactly double that now employed in this Province--are
driving with a speed that seems wonderful a railway through to the coast.
In another year or two a large traffic, encouraged by the competition in
freights between it, the Central and the Southern Pacific will have been
acquired. You are, by the very nature of things, heavily handicapped
here, and a trade, as you know, once established is not easily rivalled.
Take care that you are in the market for this competition at as early a
day as possible. When you are as rich as California, and have as many
public works as Queensland, it may be time for you to reconsider your
position. There is no reason ultimately to doubt that the population
attracted to you as soon as you have a line through the mountains,
will be the population which we most desire to have--a people like
that of the old Imperial Islands, drawn from the strongest races of
northern Europe,--one that with English, American, Irish, German,
French and Scandinavian blood shall be a worthy son of the old Mother
of Nations. (Loud applause.) Only last week, in seven days, no less
than 900 people came to San Francisco by the overland route from the
East. Your case will be the same if with "a strong pull and a pull
altogether" you get your public works completed. I have spoken of
your being pretty heavily handicapped. In saying this, I refer to the
agricultural capabilities of the Province alone. Of course you have
nothing like the available land that the central Provinces possess,
yet it seems to me you have enough for all the men who are likely to
come to you for the next few years as farmers or owners of small ranches.
(Applause.) The climate of the interior for at least one hundred
miles north of the boundary line has a far shorter winter than that
of most of Alberta or Arthabaska. Losses of crops from early frosts
or of cattle from severe weather are unknown to the settlers of your
upper valleys. In these--and I wish there were more of these
valleys--all garden produce and small fruits can be cultivated with
the greatest success. For men possessing from L200 to L600 a year,
I can conceive no more attractive occupation than the care of cattle
or a cereal farm within your borders. (Loud applause.) Wherever there
is open land, the wheat crops rival the best grown elsewhere, while
there is nowhere any dearth of ample provision of fuel and lumber for
the winter. (Renewed applause.) As you get your colonisation roads
pushed and the dykes along the Fraser River built, you will have a
larger available acreage, for there are quiet straths and valleys
hidden away among the rich forests which would provide comfortable
farms. As in the north-west last year, so this year I have taken
down the evidence of settlers, and this has been wonderfully
favourable. To say the truth, I was rather hunting for grumblers, and
found only one! He was a young man of super-sensitiveness from one of
our comfortable Ontario cities, and he said he could not bear this
country. Anxious to come at the truth, and desiring to search to the
bottom of things, we pressed him as to the reason. "Did he know of any
cases of misery? Had he found starving settlers?" The reply was
re-assuring, for he said, "No; but I don't like it. Nobody in this country
walks; everybody rides!" (Laughter.) You will be happy to hear that he
is going back to Ontario. Let me now allude, in a very few words, to
those points which may be mentioned as giving you exceptional
advantages. If you are handicapped in the matter of land in comparison
with the Provinces of the Plains, you are certainly not so with regard
to climate. (Cheering.) Agreeable as I think the steady and dry cold of
an Eastern winter, yet there are very many who would undoubtedly prefer
the temperature enjoyed by those who live west of the mountains. Even
where it is coldest, spring comes in February, and the country is so
divided into districts of greater dryness or greater moisture, that a
man can always choose whether to have a rainfall small or great. I hope
I am not wearying you in dwelling on these points, for my only excuse
in making these observations is, that I have learnt that the interior
is to many on the island as much a _terra incognita_ as it was to
me. I can partly understand this after seeing the beautifully
engineered road which was constructed by Mr. Trutch, for although I am
assured it is as safe as a church--(laughter)--I can very well
understand that it is pleasanter for many of the ladies to remain in
this beautiful island than to admire the grandeur of the scenery in the
gorges. As you have adopted protection in your politics, perhaps it
would not be presumptuous in me to suggest that you should adopt
protection also in regard to your precipices--(great laughter)--and
that should the waggon road be continued in use, a few Douglas firs
might be sacrificed to make even more perfect that excellent road in
providing protection at the sides. Besides the climate, which is so
greatly in your favour, you have another great advantage in the
tractability and good conduct of the Indian population. (Applause.) I
believe I have seen the Indians of almost every tribe throughout the
Dominion, and nowhere can you find any who are so trustworthy in regard
to conduct--(hear, hear)--so willing to assist the white settlers by
their labour, so independent and anxious to learn the secret of the
white man's power. (Applause.) Where elsewhere constant demands are met
for assistance; your Indians have never asked for any, for in the
interviews given to the Chiefs their whole desire seemed to be for
schools and schoolmasters, and in reply to questions as to whether they
would assist themselves in securing such institutions, they invariably
replied that they would be glad to pay for them. (Loud applause.) It is
certainly much to be desired that some of the funds apportioned for
Indian purposes, be given to provide them fully with schools in which
Industrial Education may form an important item. (Hear, hear.) But we
must not do injustice to the wilder tribes. Their case is totally
different from that of your Indians. The buffalo was everything to the
nomad. It gave him house, fuel, clothes, and thread. The disappearance
of this animal left him starving. Here, on the contrary, the advent of
the white men has never diminished the food supply of the native. He
has game in abundance, for the deer are as numerous now as they ever
have been. He has more fish than he knows what to do with, and the
lessons in farming that you have taught him have given him a source of
food supply of which he was previously ignorant. Throughout the
interior it will probably pay well in the future to have flocks of
sheep. The demand for wool and woollen goods will always be very large
among the people now crowding in such numbers to those regions which
our official world as yet calls the North-West, but which is the
North-East and East to you. There is no reason why British Columbia
should not be for this portion of our territory what California is to the
States in the supply afforded of fruits. (Hear, hear.) The perfection
attained by small fruits is unrivalled, and it is only with the
Peninsula of Ontario that you would have to compete for the supplies of
grapes, peaches, pears, apples, cherries, plums, apricots, and currants.
Every stick in these wonderful forests which so amply and generously
clothe the Sierras from the Cascade range to the distant Rocky
mountains, will be of value as communication opens up. The great arch
of timber lands beginning on the west of Lake Manitoba, circles round
to Edmonton and comes down along the mountains so as to include the
whole of your Province. Poplar alone for many years must be the staple
wood of the lands to the south of the Saskatchewan, and your great
opportunity lies in this, that you can give the settlers of the whole
of that region as much of the finest timber in the world as they can
desire, while cordwood cargoes will compete with the coal of Alberta.
(Loud cheers.) Coming down in our survey to the coast we come upon
ground familiar to you all, and you all know how large a trade already
exists with China and Australia in wood, and how capable of almost
indefinite expansion is this commerce. Your forests are hardly tapped,
and there are plenty more logs, like one I saw cut the other day at
Burrard Inlet, of forty inches square and ninety and one hundred feet
in length, down to sticks which could be used as props for mines or as
cordwood for fuel. The business which has assumed such large
proportions along the Pacific shore of the canning of salmon, great as
it is, is as yet almost in its infancy, for there is many a river
swarming with fish from the time of the first run of salmon in spring
to the last run of other varieties in the autumn, on which many a
cannery is sure to be established. Last, but certainly not least in the
list of your resources, comes your mineral and chiefly your coal
treasure. (Applause.) The coal from the Nanaimo mines now leads the
market at San Francisco. Nowhere else in these countries is such coal
to be found, and it is now being worked with an energy which bids fair
to make Nanaimo one of the chief mining stations on the continent. It
is of incalculable importance not only to this Province of the Dominion,
but also to the interests of the Empire, that our fleets and mercantile
marine as well as the continental markets should be supplied from this
source. (Hear, hear, and cheers.) Where you have so good a list of
resources it may be almost superfluous to add another, but I would
strongly advise you to cultivate the attractions held out to the
travelling public by the magnificence of your scenery. (Cheers.) Let
this country become what Switzerland is for Europe in the matter of
good roads to places which may be famed for their beauty, and let good
and clean hotels attract the tourist to visit your grand valleys and
marvellous mountain ranges. Choose some district, and there are many
from which you can choose, where trout and salmon abound, and where
sport may be found among the deer and with the wild fowl. Select some
portion of your territory where pines and firs shroud in their greatest

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