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Memories of Canada and Scotland by John Douglas Sutherland Campbell

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Latha do Righ Arstair s a shluagh
Bhi air Tullach na'm buadh, a shealg.
Gun duine mar-ris an Righ
Ach Bhalbha, fo lion arm.


Oh, dear to old Dunolly's heart
His darling daughter seemed,
Yet when she fled, how pitiless
His bitter curse was deemed.

To death he doomed her lover true,
And swore his lowly blood
Should stain the land, whose soil would blush
At wanton womanhood.

But leaves were thick, and woods were green,
Where summer saw their love,
And none could tell Dunolly where
Was nesting his wild dove.

Two years had sped, and all unchanged
Dunolly's mood remained;
When tired with hunting, late at eve
A forest hut he gained.

A cheerful scene! for hung on trees
On either side the door
A stag and roe, and salmon there
Lay strewn the hut before.

There pausing silently he heard
Light laughter, O well known;
And, looking through the wattled wall
Stood motionless as stone.

He saw a happy woman lie
Her true man's form beside;
And laugh as on the bed they tossed
A smiling child in pride.

No word Dunolly spoke, but went,
An altered man, and said;
"Go bring them home, for rich are they,
Love shows them nobly wed."


[1] This cannon was recovered in 1740 from the wreck of a vessel of the
Spanish Armada sunk in Tobermory Bay, and is at Inveraray.

An ancient cannon, finely cast.
Of bronze, all smooth and green with age,
A by-gone actor on the stage,
Yet fit to take, as in the past
A role in war, and be the last
Dread argument of kings!

The daisies grew around, and brought
The homage of young spring to praise
This stately relic of old days,
When France with Spain for mastery fought;
And Philip over England sought
To spread the Papal wings.

Initialed with King Francis' name,
With Gallic lilies sculptured o'er,
Above the vent the metal bore
A Salamander crowned, in flame;
The massive breech could even claim
A sheath of lotos bloom.

This goodly weapon, forged where Seine
By Fontainebleau and Paris flows,
And many a painted Palace shows
These emblems of the Valois' reign,
For centuries unseen has lain
Within the sea's dark tomb.

How came it there? A Spanish keel
One of the Great Armada gay,
Was blasted in Our Lady's Bay;
One of the Fleet the floods conceal,
Though o'er the waves was wont to peal
The thunder of their pride.

But how came France's lilies there
Beneath the flag of red and gold?
And o'er the ancient gun we told
The story which the legends bear,
How in defeat it bore its share
And stemmed the Victory's tide.

We thought the winds of hollow sound
Spoke from its mouth in solemn tone,
Of great events its life had known,
That thronged, as with the nearly drowned,
To recollection, ere it found
Beneath the sea a grave.

"'In flame I live, I quench its glow;'
This motto at the foundry fire
Was given me by his desire,
The king, whose crest and lilies show
How love and valour could bestow
Their favour on the brave.

"My form was fashioned in each part
By him who wrought in gems and gold,
Whose glory, trumpet-tongued, is told
In fearful wars, in peaceful Art,
Cellini of the ardent heart,
And Benvenuto named!

"The silver-voiced and laughing crowd
Of ladies praised his fair design
And asked if on the German Rhine,
Or English coasts of fog and cloud,
Would soon be heard my challenge loud
For rights our country claimed?

"To conquer fair Milan I threw
My shot against the Swiss array
On Marignano's dreadful day:
On sledges hardy soldiers drew
My weight through snows, where eagles knew
Alone the Alpine way.

"And warring for the emperor's crown,
I saw around me fall and die
The noblest of our chivalry:
When peerless Bayard's high renown
Quenched not his blood, that streaming down
Fell on me where I lay.

"Pavia felt my iron hail,
When traitor Bourbon won the fight,
Yet glad was I no foreign knight
Alone had made our siege to fail,
When wrote our king the dismal tale,
'Save honour all is lost!'

"The impious victor hurled my fire
Against the walls of holy Rome,
But there the devil took him home!
For at the storm my artist sire,
Cellini, felled him, for the ire
Of God his path had crossed.

"To nobler masters still a slave,
I felt the fame of Doria mine;
Saw Venice o'er her channels shine;
Pursued the Moslem on the wave,
And shattered them, when victory gave
Her palm to Malta's isle.

"When Naples sent her ships to swell
The swarming armaments that bore
'Gainst England from each southern shore
In fleets whose numbers none could tell;
I saw how Drake upon us fell,
How fortune ceased to smile.

"For tempests gathered o'er our track,
The little English hornets stung,
My heavy shot against them flung
Passed o'er their barks, so swift to tack,
And every ball they gave us back
Upon our galleons told.

"Soon drifting o'er the Northern main
Grey shores unknown were quickly past;
Our consorts on the rocks were cast,
It was our fate alone to gain
The peaceful haven where Maclaine
Set fire unto our hold.

I sank: a hundred years past by,
And diving bells with searchers keen
For treasure in the wreck were seen.
They took the gold, but let me lie
To sleep another century,
Then raised and brought me here.

* * * * *

"Valois is dead, and Bourbon's Line
No longer fills my country's throne.
But death dear France shall never own!
Once more of late her joy was mine,
Once more for her my flames could shine,
My thunder echo clear.

"For when the tide of battle rolled
Against the far Crimean shore,
And France and Britain downward bore
The Russian in his chosen hold,
My last salute of victory told
For France, as oft of yore!"


We stood, as the helmeted horsemen
Formed up in the light of the sun;
We knelt, stretching bayonets towards them
As they charged, ere the battle was won.

I marked their young leader apparelled
As daintily as for parade,
A cigarette smoking, advancing
He laughed, as he pointed his blade.

He played with his yellow moustaches,
And looked on our ranks, with a scorn
Such as mantles 'gainst mist and night-vapour
On the brow of the Son of the morn.

He led a bright host where the glitter
Of armour illumined the vale;
As a flood rises slowly, so, coming,
They rode with the sun on their mail.

Thus he steadied his men, and none wavered.
As the steeds settled down to their stride,
And we heard the first rush of the squadrons,
Like the gathering roar of the tide.

Their order was perfect and splendid,
And his voice, that at first held them in,
Had rung down their ranks for the onset,
As though it were fate they should win.

I felt I half liked him as onward
The lines of his cuirassiers came,
Like breakers wind-driven from seaward,
Dark tossed in a whirlwind of flame.

I hated the shot that must enter
That steel-girt and confident breast,
And quench that brave spirit for ever,
That light on the cataract's crest

But I gave forth the word, and our volley
Rang clear o'er the thunder of feet
That rolled not to us, for Destruction
Rejoiced their proud splendour to greet.

And the leader who laughed at our columns,
At the ranks that bid gaiety die,
On his red bed of honour at even
Lay smiling his scorn at the sky.



Look not for me at eventide,
I cannot come when work is done;
I go to wander far and wide,
For 'tis not here that gold is won.
Perchance where'er I go, these hands
May find me what I need to live;
Whate'er they win, if house, or lands,
I'd yield for what they cannot give.

For who can turn away his face
From home and kin and be at rest?
What country e'er can take the place
That Ireland fills within my breast?
More kindly smile the distant skies,
They say, beyond yon angry sea;
I know not what they mean, mine eyes
Have never seen these frown on me.

To me these hills beside the wave
With every year have dearer grown;
Is it so great a thing to crave
To call my native land, mine own?
But why these useless plaints renew?
Farewell! That word, it seems a knell!
If still I'm dear, kind hearts, to you,
'Tis all I ask, Farewell, Farewell!



"They sow in tears who reap in joy,"
Was truly said of old:
We wandered far, but round us still
Stretched God Almighty's fold.

'Twas He who led us forth; our grief
Discerned His chastening hand,
And saw not, though before our eyes
Shone bright His promised land.

O bless Him for the love that made
The parting greeting sore,
But for the bold heart that He gave
We bless our God yet more!

He gave us hope, He gave us strength;
For us His prairies smile,
The new world's untouched soils for us
Spread boundless, mile on mile.

The richest heritage on earth
For us His mercy saved;
For ages Nature's harvests here
Unknown, ungathered, waved.

Ours now the grain which decks the plains,
Ours all their wondrous yield;
Our children, and our kin possess
Their own, in house and field.

What wonder then if many laugh,
And wonder joy was dumb!
To friends in older lands with less
Our happy hearts say "Come."


OSBORNE, 1882.

Here Rose and Magnolia
Our dearest enshrine,
The prayer of the south wind
Is thine and is mine,
For Child and for Mother
Here sweetly twice isled,
Brave Seamen are praying
For Mother and Child.

Where State must surround them
Beneath the Great Keep,
And green oaks of Windsor
Shade River and Steep,
For Child and Queen-Mother
The choristers aisled,
With armed men are chanting
For Mother and Child.

Away where the Heather
Blooms far o'er the Pine,
The Highlander's blessing
Is mine and is thine,
For Child and for Mother
Beloved and mild;
What heart does not bless them,
Dear Mother and Child.



Not home to land and kindred wast thou brought,
Nor laid 'mid trampled dead of battle won,--
Nor after long life filled with duty done
Was thine such death as thou thyself had'st sought!
No, sadder far, with horror overwrought
That end that gave to thee thy cruel grave
Deep in blue chasms of some glacier cave,
When Cervins perils thou, the first, had'st fought
And conquered, Douglas! for in thee uprose
In boyhood e'en a nature noble, free,--
So gently brave with courtesy, that those
Old Douglas knights, the "flowers of Chivalry,"
Had joyed to see that in our times again
A link of gold had graced their ancient chain!


JULY 1866.

Wet, cheerless was our bivouac last eve, but still we spoke
Of fighting and of winning, to-morrow, when day broke:
That day the thundering echoes of cannon in our front
Had louder grown until around had raged the battle's brunt
At last the carnage ended, and our regiment's retreat
Was marked by many wounded, who shrieked beneath our feet!
But here in closer order rides past a Lancer Troop--
They had but late been charging like falcons when they swoop.
How few there are remaining! Now the river's bank is gained;
The Trumpeter's white charger with blood on neck is stained.
His snowy flanks are heaving; he shudders on the brink,
Then, gently urged, he halts again, and stoops his head to drink.
He cannot ford the river, for lost are strength and speed:
The Trumpeter, dismounted, now swims beside his steed.
Together they have struggled; he will not let him die,
And soon he stands beside him though the balls are rushing by.
He takes him by the bridle;--would lead him to the town,--
Too late,--for life is ebbing,--the gallant steed is down!
Ah! long I saw that horseman kneel by his charger's head,
And when at last he left him, I knew the horse was dead.
How fiercely as he passes that comrade on the plain,
Remounted on the morrow, shall sound the "charge" again!


With their deep voice, monotonous and slow,
The cannon's thunders roll along the sea;
But 'tis in reverence, and to work no woe
Those sounds here reach the shore and onward flee
Past the oak woods that climb the grassy lea,
To strike thy terraces, and palace fair
With stately salutation offered thee
Who of these potent realms the crown dost wear.
So to the fabric of our future fame,
Set in the green oak of our Empire's might:
Shall history's voice, with measured praise, proclaim
Thy life-long love of justice and of right,
And the good era that thy reign hath been.
To hail thee, reverently, Victoria, Queen.


_Some of the Speeches, and a few of the answers to Addresses,
delivered during Lord Lorne's term of office in the Dominion, are
printed in the following pages._

On taking leave of his constituents in 1878, in a speech delivered at
Inveraray, Lord Lorne said:--

Judge of the wishes of our colonies, not from your own point of view
only, but from that of their interests also, and from that of the
well-being of the whole Empire, whose glory and power is at once the best
result and the surest guarantee of the freedom which is yours, and
which the colonies inherit from you. Many of you know well, because
many of your relations are settled there, the great British Colonies of
North America. The Dominion now stretches from ocean to ocean across
that vast continent, embracing lands of every nature--some valuable for
corn, some for pasture, for timber or for other treasures which will in
future centuries make the country one of the richest on the earth--for
coal and other minerals. As your former member is about to join the
number of your friends who are already there, you will allow him to say
a good word for those provinces of the Dominion, the threshold of which
civilisation has already passed, and whose fair vacant chambers tempt
the settler from the Old World to enter further and to occupy.

Some years ago, at a public meeting in Glasgow, I took the opportunity
to describe the temptations offered by the Canadian Government to men
employed in agriculture here to settle in Manitoba, and since that day,
as before it, hundreds of happy homesteads have risen, and the energies
of the Dominion have been directed towards the completion of that
railway which will make Manitoba as accessible as is Inveraray. Now,
let me again invite attention to this great Province and the vast
territories beyond. In Argyleshire we have too few men, and we want
more to settle with us, but Canada is a formidable competitor even to
this fair country; and in other places, in the towns of this land,
there are plenty of men who would do well, if they can hold the plough,
to follow the gallant example of their countrymen who have added glory
to Britain by forming another great British nation. Instead of leading
an unhealthy city life, it were well that many of our townsmen should
take to the life-giving work of a settler in the agricultural regions
of Western Canada, where they are likely to live longer and to be
happier than is the lot of the great majority of mankind.

On embarking at Liverpool in 1878 for Canada, Lord Lorne spoke as
follows in reply to an address presented by the Mayor of that city:--

We shall not forget the attention we have received, nor the great
demonstration made by the people of Liverpool, of the interest
entertained by them in the good of Canada, and of the love borne by the
whole country for her children across the Atlantic. You who dwell at
this great port, and see so many leave their native land for distant
climes, will not misunderstand me when I say that we do not lightly
leave you. The heart is often sad at leaving home when the ship is
about to start and the anchor is being weighed, however cheery the
voices of those who raise it, and hearty the farewell greetings of
friends on shore. It is, however, the duty of those who go, to look
forward and not back, and it is pleasant to think that across the water
we shall find ourselves among our own countrymen and in our own country,
among the same institutions as those we know here and under the same
flag. We shall find the same laws and the same determination to uphold
and abide by them, the same love of liberty as we have here, and the
same ability to guard it in honour and order, the same loyalty to the
Throne for the same cause, because it is the creation of freemen, the
bond of strength, and the symbol of the unity and dignity of the
British people Where in the British North American provinces we do not
find men of our own stock, we are fortunate in finding those who
descend from the noble French race--that race whose gallantry we have
for ages learnt to respect and to admire--the friendship of whose sons
to the Empire and their co-operation in the public life of Canada,
which is adorned by their presence, are justly held to be essential
Nowhere is loyalty more true and more firmly rooted than among the
French Canadians, enjoying, as all do, the freedom of equal laws and
the justice of constitutional rule. In conclusion, I will only say that
nothing has struck me more than the enthusiasm manifested towards
Canada among all classes of the community in England and Scotland
wherever I have of late had an opportunity of hearing any expression of
the public mind. Crowds at any public gathering have always given
cheers for Canada. The great gathering of to-day is a renewed symptom
of the same favourable augury, for a good augury I hold it to be, that
men in the old country are ready to call "Hurrah for Canada!" On the
other side of the ocean they are as ready to call "Hurrah for the old
country!" and these cries are no mere words of the lips, but come from
the heart of great peoples. So long as the feelings which prompt these
sayings endure--and endure, I believe they will--we may look forward
with confidence to the future, and know that those bonds of affection
which have been knit by God through the means of kinship and justice
will not be sundered by disaster or weakened by time. (Great cheering.)

In reply to an address from the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, which
was read by Mr. W. B. Forwood, President of the Chamber, the Marquis

You may well believe how highly I value the sentiments which have
prompted you to come forward today with the address to which we have
all just listened with interest, for Liverpool represents not only much
of the trade of England, but much of the commerce of the world. It is
perhaps the port more intimately connected than any in Europe with the
American continent. It is between your quays and those of New York,
that a steam service is conducted with the certainty and regularity
which tells of the ablest seamanship, and it is by your river that the
fine Canadian vessels of the Allan Line come, the magnificent
representatives of the prospering mercantile marine of the Dominion,
and proud may that country be of such a fleet. Your address shows how
highly you value the friendship of the Canadian people, in what regard
you hold their esteem, and with what interest and sympathy you watch
the progress they are making. It seems to me but a short while ago
since I last visited Canada; but in twelve years there is a great
change to be seen. Twelve years ago the British North American
provinces were only isolated colonies, bound together by no Federal
union, and lacking in the strength and deprived of the advantages of
unity. Now the decrees of the Central Parliament at Ottawa are passed
by the representatives of peoples whose mandates are obeyed through all
that broad zone of productive land which crosses the mighty continent,
and the name of our Sovereign is hailed with, the same affection as
before, but by no mere collection of colonies, for we see a great
Federal people. It is for their welfare that you, on behalf of the
merchants of Liverpool, express your just and confident hope; and the
feelings of sympathy you have shown will, I know, find a response on
the other side of the Atlantic. I consider it of the highest value that
such a true expression of the affection entertained by the great
commercial centres of England should be heard and known. The sentiments
which make the hearts of the natives of these isles beat fast with the
just pride of nationality, when they see in far distant countries the
flag of St. George, St. Andrew, and St. Patrick, is felt to the full by
your colonists, who uphold the flag as speaking to them of the great
days of old of which they, with us, are the heirs. This common loyalty
to the Queen and pride in her ensign is a sure guarantee for the
continued greatness of our country. You, gentlemen, have at heart the
interests of commerce, and, as merchants, the peace and prosperity of
the world. There is no better hope for this than in the unity between
these kingdoms and the great dependencies of the Crown. You know well
how real that unity is, and you will, I believe, join me in the
confident expectation that the eyes of men may long see, beneath our
Western sky, the bright apparition of Peace speeding the beneficent
navies of commerce as they bear to all lands the fruits gathered from
the great harvest which is earned by industry and wisdom.

On passing Londonderry the representatives of the municipality came on
board "The Sarmatian," and in reply to the "God speed" of the visitors,
the Marquis of Lorne said:--

It is most cheering to receive from you the expression of your sympathy
with our mission. We shall feel, after seeing and hearing you, that we
leave the Irish shore bearing with us a precious message of goodwill
given on the part of its people to their fellow-subjects in Canada. The
Dominion of Canada owes much to Ireland. Who does not recall with
gratitude to the country that gave him birth, the rule of the late
Governor-General of Canada, the Earl of Dufferin? Canada will never
forget him, or fail to remember that it was an Irish noble whose career
has given her so bright a page in her history. And from the
Governors-General, on through a long list of rulers whose presence was
a benefit to the Dominion, we know also that Canada is indebted to
Ireland for many a hardy agriculturist and many a clever artisan. It
would be difficult to speak of any part of our Empire which is not in a
similar case, and which does not point with pride to the services of
Irishmen, for on what field of honour has the genius of the Irish race not
contributed to our power? on what path of victory has not an Irish hand
carried forward among the foremost the banner of our union? It is under
that ensign alone, of all in the world, that an Irishman stands beneath
the cross of the Royal saint of Ireland, and each patriotic effort made
by a son of Erin adds another leaf to the wreath of renown which, for
so many centuries, has made the piety and gallantry of the race a
household word among the nations. In parting from you we shall not
forget your kind words, and our visit to the neighbourhood of your city
will always be a pleasant recollection. We thank you again, and ask you
to convey to your fellow-townsmen the expression of our regret that
circumstances have prevented us from receiving your address within
their walls.

Arriving at Montreal, the Princess and Lord Lorne attended the "St.
Andrew's Ball," and replying to Colonel Stevenson, who tendered the
welcome of the committee, Lord Lorne said:--

Colonel Stevenson and Gentlemen, the Members of the St. Andrew's
Society,--To me, I need hardly say, it is a great pleasure to find
myself to-night among so many of my countrymen who hail from Scotland,
and in saying this I am certain I shall have with me the sympathy of
all Canadians of whatever race--English, French, or Irish. For all
these nationalities wish you well. As for the English, it is impossible
for them to feel anything but good-will, for they have as a people been
so grateful for the last two centuries to Scotsmen for giving them a
king, that they have ever since been only too happy to see Scotsmen
getting their way everywhere. The French population shares in the
goodwill felt towards you, for they remember that in the old days it
was a Scotch regiment, the King's Bodyguard, which was the most popular
corps at Paris, and that the French troops who guarded Edinburgh were
there as the allies of Scotland. It is impossible for Irishmen to feel
anything but the most cordial feeling of love for you, for what is
Scotland but an Irish colony? But it is a colony of which Ireland, as a
Mother Country, may well be proud. Gentlemen, as one bearing the name
of one of the first of those old Irish colonists and civilisers of
Scotland, I feel I have a right to be proud of the position taken by
Scotsmen in Canada. We have had the good fortune since leaving England
to be constantly under the guidance or tutelage of Scotsmen. The owner
of the great line of steamships, in one of whose vessels we came here,
is a distinguished Scotsman, well known to all in this hall. I am happy
to say that the captain of our steamer was a Scotsman, the chief
engineer was a Scotsman, and, best of all, the stewardess was a
Scotswoman. Well, as soon as we landed we were met by a Scotch
Commander-in-Chief and by a Scotch Prime Minister, who had succeeded a
Prime Minister who is also a Scotsman. What wonder is it that Canada
thrives when the only change in her future is that she falls from the
hands of one Scotsman into that of another? Our countrymen are fond of
metaphysical discussion, and are apt to seek for subtle reasons for the
cause of things. Here it is unnecessary for them to do more in
inquiring the reasons of the prosperity of the country, than to look
around them and to note the number of their countrymen, and the
existence of such societies with such chiefs as the St. Andrew's
Society of Montreal But it is time to put an end to such light
discourse, and to proceed to the graver terpsichorean duties of the

At Montreal, where a most cordial and memorable welcome was given, the
following reply to the Mayor's address was made:--

Mayor and Gentlemen,--In the name of our Queen I ask you to accept our
thanks for your loyal and eloquent address. I need hardly say with what
pleasure the Princess and I have listened to the courteous expressions
with which we are now greeted--and for your most hearty and cordial
welcome. We consider ourselves fortunate that so soon after our arrival
in the Dominion, we have an opportunity of passing this great city; and
while halting for a short time within its walls, on our journey to
Ottawa, to make the acquaintance, at all events, of some among the
community which represents so large and important a centre of
population and industry. Your beautiful city sits, like a queen
enthroned, by the great river whose water glides past in homage,
bringing to her feet with the summer breezes the wealth of the world.
It is the city of this continent perhaps the best known to the dwellers
of the old country; and not only is it famous for the energy, activity,
and prosperity of its citizens, but it is here that the gigantic
undertaking of the Victoria Bridge has been successfully carried out;
and the traveller in crossing the mighty stream feels, as he is borne
high above it through the vast cavern, that such a viaduct is a worthy
approach to your great emporium of commerce. Its iron girders and
massive frame are worthy of the gigantic natural features around, and
it stands, spanning the flowing sea, as firm and as strong as the
sentiment of loyalty for her whose name it bears--a love which unites
in more enduring bonds IP than any forged with the products of the
quarry or the mine, the people of this Empire. It seems but a short
time ago since the Prince of Wales struck the last rivet in yonder
structure; and yet what wonderful strides have been made in the
progress of this country since that day! Every year strikes a new rivet,
and clenches with mighty hand that enduring work--that mighty fabric--
the prosperity of the Dominion. Long may your progress in the beautiful
arts and industries continue, and far be the day on which you may point
to any marks but those which tell of the well-earned results of
indomitable energy and determined perseverance. The people of this
country may be well assured that the Earl of Dufferin has carried home
with him ample proofs of the profound love Canada bears to the Mother
Country, and these assurances have been conveyed by him personally to
Her Majesty. We wish, in answering your address, to acknowledge the
extreme loyalty exhibited by the French-Canadian populations, as well
as the populations of the Maritime Provinces, through whose country we
have, during the last two days, travelled, and to thank them once again
as we had the opportunity this morning, for the kindness shown toward
us personally. This scene, the magnificent reception of your great city,
we shall ever remember with pride and gratitude.

On arriving at Ottawa, His Excellency spoke as follows in reply to the
greeting of the citizens of the capital of the Dominion:--

It is with the greatest satisfaction that I accept your loyal address,
and hear in it those expressions of devotion to Her Majesty the Queen,
which indicate the feelings which rise so truly in the hearts of every
man, woman, and child in Canada, and which not only prove the natural
impulses of all who enjoy the birthright of British citizens, but
demonstrate the convictions of a people who, by the knowledge they have
acquired of the political institutions of the world, cling with a
tenacity and firmness never to be shaken, to the constitution which
their fathers moulded, and under which they experience now the
blessings of freedom and the tranquillity of order, beneath the sceptre
of a Gracious Ruler, whose Throne is revered as the symbol of
constitutional authority, and whose person is honoured as the
representative of benignity and virtue. The attachment which binds the
provinces of British North America to the British flag has never been
more strikingly shown than during the past year; and we know that the
readiness displayed to share the dangers and to partake of the triumphs
of the Mother Country is no fleeting incident, but a sure sign that the
people of this Empire are determined to show that they value, as a
common heritage, the strength of union, and that the honour of the
Sovereign will be upheld with equal loyalty by her subjects in every
part of the globe. We have now traversed, in coming here, some parts of
the important Provinces of the Dominion. In all places we have
visited--and I regret it was not in our power, at this season of the
year, to visit more--we have met with the same kindness and the same
hearty cordiality. I can assure you we are deeply sensible of all that is
conveyed in such a reception; and it has been, and will be, a pleasant
duty to convey to the Sovereign a just description of the manner in
which you have received her representative and her daughter. It is with
a peculiar feeling of pride in the grandeur of this Dominion that I
accept, on the part of the Queen, the welcome given to us at Ottawa, the
capital of the greatest of the colonies of the Crown. It is here
that we shall take up our abode among you, and the cordiality of your
words makes me feel that which I have known since we landed: that it is
to no foreign country that we come, but that we have only crossed the
sea to find ourselves among our own people, and to be greeted by
friends on coming to a home. In entering the house which you have
assigned to the Governor-General, I shall personally regret the absence
of the distinguished nobleman whom I have the honour to call my friend,
and whose departure must have raised among you the sad feelings
inseparable from the parting with one whose career here was one long
triumph in the affection of the people. A thousand memories throughout
the length and breadth of the land speak of Lord Dufferin. It needs
with you no titular memorials, such as the names of streets and bridges,
to commemorate the name of him who not only adorned all he touched, but,
by his eloquence and his wisdom, proved of what incalculable advantage
to the State it was to have in the representative of the Sovereign, one
in whose nature judiciousness and impartiality, kindness, grace, and
excellence were so blended that his advice was a boon equally to be
desired by all, his approbation a prize to be coveted, and the words
that came from his silver tongue, which always charmed and never hurt,
treasures to be cherished. I am confident that the land he served so
well knew how to value his presence, and that you will always look upon
his departure with a regret proportionate to the pleasure Ottawa
experienced from his sojourn among you. I am confident that we shall
find with you a generous and kindly desire to judge well of our effort
to fulfil your expectations, and air though you speak of the recent
growth of your city, and contrast it with places which have become
famous in the world, I need not remind you that there is a special
interest and significance in casting in our lot with those whose
fortune it is not to inherit history but to make it. I accept your
expression of confidence, and promise that I shall do my best to
deserve it.

The following is a report of the speech delivered by His Excellency the
Governor-General, after distributing the prizes at the school
entertainment in the Opera House, on Friday last, December 23, 1878.
His Excellency said:--

Ladies and Gentlemen, and my young friends, the pupils of the Public
Schools,--Let me express to you the pleasure I feel in being with you
to-night, in being able to wish you all a merry Christmas and a happy
New Year, and in having an opportunity of giving to the successful
candidates for honours the prizes which they have so well won in the
competitions which have taken place. I congratulate them upon their
laurels, and I wish, after handing to them the proof of their success,
to say to them how fortunate I consider them to be, in that their lot
has been cast in a land where education is so much prized, and where,
both in the Public Schools and in the Separate Schools, it is so well
known how to give effect to the value set by all the community upon the
thorough and universal training of the youth of the country. I have
heard men who have come from England and from Scotland say, on learning
of the manner in which schools are sown broadcast in Ontario, and on
understanding the system of education adopted here, and the nature of
the tuition given, "I wish that I in my time had had only the tenth
part of the schooling which is given to the boys and girls in Canada."
Let me tell you what lately brought home to my mind, in the most
striking way, the consideration and care the Canadians bestow upon
their schools. At the great Paris Exhibition this year, where the
things in which each nation took an especial pride were paraded before
the eyes of the world, the space allotted to Canada was largely
occupied with the books, the atlases, and the furniture of all kinds
used here in the schools, while no other country seemed to have thought
of exhibiting anything of the kind. It was remarked how wise it was of
this young country to show these things, for it told the world that she
does not only invite to her fair and untilled lands the self-reliant
and honest among the crowded populations of Europe, but it told how
well the sons of the emigrant, as well as of the resident, were cared
for, and educated in the Provinces of the Dominion. I am afraid that
with many of the books shown at Paris, our young friends are much
better acquainted than many of us, their elders, can now pretend to be;
and I am sure that many of the clever young Canadians whom you see
before you, could give us, whose learning has become rusty, many a bit
of knowledge which might still stand us in good stead. The exhibition
at Paris from your schools filled up what some said was a blank, namely,
the absence of any of the fruits of your wonderful harvests, and of any
machinery from Canada. It was said, I remember, that the fruit could
not be carried, but perhaps it was owing to a wish not to wound the
susceptibilities of the Old World that none of the beautiful products
of your orchards were there, and because you did not wish that any of
your modest-looking but unapproachable _pommes grises,_ or
blushing and splendid Pippin apples, should appear in the character of
apples of discord. It may have been owing to the same wish not to
excite unduly and unnecessarily the envy of others, that no machinery
was exhibited from Canada, and that while other nations were making the
great building resound and vibrate to the whirr of wheels driven by
steam; you did not, even by so much as a picture, remind the Parisians
of your wealth in water power as well as in steam, and there was
nothing to show the citizen of London or of Paris, who supposes the
Thames or the Seine to be the greatest streams on earth, why he should
be ashamed of himself if he could but look upon the Ottawa or the St.
Lawrence. But the school display made up for any blank, and under the
shadow of the magnificent Canadian lumber trophy which adorned the
palace, reaching to the roof, and which demonstrated the wealth of your
forests, were the implements you use for the cultivation of your
greatest treasure--the ready brains and quick intelligence of your
youth. I am glad to meet some of those to-night for whom all that
preparation is made; and first, I would say to those who have not this
year been among the prize winners, that I shall hope to see some of
their names in the opposite category another year. "Better luck next
time" is a good saying, but "Never say die" is perhaps a better. Try
again, and yet again, and you will succeed. Many a man begins, and has
begun in all times of the world, at the first rung of the ladder, who
finds himself, if he will only give his own gifts their due, at the top
at the end I do not know that I need recommend to you that most
delightful book of history, "The Tales of a Grandfather," written by
Sir Walter Scott. He describes, as few can, the despair of the Scottish
king, who lay, tired to death, and pondering whether he should or
should not try again the apparently hopeless task to deliver his
country from her strong and terrible enemies; and how a spider,
spinning her web in the rafters over his head, was seen by him to fail
again and again, and yet again, until eight times she had endeavoured
to fix a thread, and eight times she had found the space too great to
span; and how he said within himself "If she try again and fail, I too
shall deem my task hopeless;" but the ninth time the attempt was made
and did not fail, and I need not pursue the story further, or tell you
how Scotsmen look back, through more than five centuries, on the
resolve then taken by Bruce with feelings of gratitude and pride which
can never fade and die. But there are other cases of men who had become
famous for their ability to do that which at first seemed impossible.
Let me mention one (to come down to our own times) because his name is
widely known and honoured as one of the greatest financiers of our day.
I allude to Mr. Gladstone, who, as you know, was the last Prime
Minister in Great Britain and was acknowledged by both parties in the
State to be one of the best Finance Ministers who ever presided over the
National Exchequer. When Mr. Gladstone was a young man, and was
about to go to the university (as several of you are about now to leave
school for college), he told his father that there was one branch of
learning in which he must not expect his son to distinguish himself,
and that was in mathematics, as he had no turn for figures. He went to
the university, and he came out as what is called a "double first,"
that is, he proved himself to have become as superior to others in
mathematics as in the classical studies, and took first honours in both.
I; need not tell you here, in this free and happy country, that it is
quite unnecessary for any one to have any artificial advantage in
getting to the head of a profession. Industry will find a way, here
perhaps more easily than in the old country, though there it is open to
all to rise to the highest places. I will only cite one other instance
of remarkable success, because it is within my knowledge. It is the
case of a man who was one of the greatest shipbuilders on the Clyde,
and who built, among many other vessels, the splendid war-ship, the
_Black Prince,_ which was lately at Halifax, under command of one
of the Queen's sons, the Duke of Edinburgh. The builder of that vessel
died lately, one of the wealthiest and most successful of Glasgow's
great shipbuilders, and had furnished more fine vessels to the
mercantile and war marine of Great Britain than perhaps any one in his
time, for he lived to a good old age. His fortune was made by his own
strong hand, good head and honest heart. His name was Robert Napier,
and I cannot wish you a better career than his, or that you should seek
your fortune with greater uprightness and courage. I heartily wish
continued success to you who have received prizes this evening. Allow
me to hint to you that you must not relax your exertions. If I may use
the metaphor, you have learned to swim, but many a stroke is necessary
before you can hope to reach your goal Determine what your goal shall
be, and strike out straight for it. You have a variety of pursuits in
this country. Determine to be of use to the land which has given you
birth. Determine to be a credit to it. Remember that you are Canadians,
and remember what this means. It means that you belong to a people who
are loyal to their Queen, whom they reverence as one of the most
perfect of women, and as their Sovereign; and who see in her the just
ruler under whose impartial sway the various races, creeds, and
nationalities of this great Empire are bound together in happiness and
unity. But to be loyal means even more than this. It means that you are
true to your duties to your fellow-countrymen, and that you will work
with and for all, for the common weal in brotherhood and tolerance. It
means, finally, that you will be true to your self-respect, that you
will do nothing unworthy of the love of your God, who made you in His
image, and set you in this fair land I believe that you will each and
all of you be loyal and true Canadians, that you will devote your
energies throughout your lives for the good of your native province,
and for the welfare of this wide Dominion, and I feel in speaking to
you that I address those whose children will assuredly be the fathers
of a mighty nation.

During a visit to Kingston in 1879, the degree of Doctor of Laws of
Queen's College was conferred upon the Governor-General, and an address
was presented by the Trustees. His Excellency, in acknowledging the
honour conferred, said:--

Mr. Chancellor, Principal Grant and Gentlemen,--Believe me I am deeply
sensible of the honour you have conferred upon me by conferring on me
the degree of Doctor of Laws at this time and in this place. I say at
this time, because it is a time in which we have been sent here to
represent her Majesty; and at this place, because here I see
represented every section, creed, and class of the great community of
Canada. I accept the honour, if you will allow me to do so, not because
I myself am worthy of it, for I feel deeply my own unworthiness, but as
a recognition of the position which has been conferred upon me by the
grace of the Sovereign. (Cheers.) I am glad that it has taken place
here, because it has just been pointed out to me we are in front of
that building in which formerly met the Parliament of Canada, and which,
good building as it is, when compared with the great and handsome
Parliament buildings now at Ottawa, gives a just impression of the
progress and advancement made in a short while in this great country.
The only personal claim I have to represent her Majesty in this country,
is that I have had some experience in that great law-making assembly in
Great Britain, her House of Commons. But here I occupy a position
unknown in the constitution of foreign countries, as a political doctor,
because whatever prescriptions I give must be such that they can hardly
be visible to or appreciated by the public. (Laughter.) They must be
written in invisible ink--(laughter)--and I can only give a
prescription at all when I meet with other physicians in consultation;
and any remedy given must be given, not by myself, although it may be
administered by any others of those whom I meet in consultation. (Great
laughter.) This is a peculiar position, and one which is totally
incomprehensible to many foreign doctors. (Loud laughter.) But I am
glad to see by your presence and by the kindness of your reception
to-day, and by the manner in which you are working out your political
destinies, that you know the value and importance of such a position.
(Applause.) I thank you for the kindliness of your reception, and I
assure Mr. Chancellor and Principal, that I shall always look back with
pride and pleasure to the day on which I received this academical
distinction at the hands of the authorities of Queen's College. (Loud

In acknowledging the address he said:--

much rejoiced at learning from you of the large number of students at
present attending the Queen's College, and hail this as a proof that
the high tone of the instruction here imparted, and the excellence of
all matters connected with the organisation and management of this seat
of learning, have challenged the attention and won the entire
confidence and approbation of the people of this part of the Province.
I don't know whether a general holiday is the best occasion on which to
enter an abode of learning. But you will agree with me that it is not
only learning which makes a man wise, but that his heart and his
affections have also something to do in the promotion of wisdom. To-day
your preparation for the future, in the matter of labour in gathering
knowledge, is laid aside in order that you may let the heart speak and
show gratitude for the blessings you now enjoy, and that your fathers
have bequeathed to you in the liberty enjoyed under our gracious Queen,
the best interpreter of the best constitution ever perfected by any
nation. (Cheers.) We thank you in her name for the welcome accorded to
us, and we identify ourselves with you in the satisfaction you must
experience in the ceremonial of to-day, for in the achievement of the
task of raising so large a sum of money, the inhabitants of Kingston
show that they wish their children to follow the loyal, prudent
footsteps of those who are proud of the name of this city, and are
resolved that the next generation shall receive their instruction from
no foreign hands, but at home. (Cheers.) Just as Kingston in former
days knew how to defend herself and keep her own, so will you on the
field of learning ensure that no ground gained by the genius, the
labour and the science of former days be lost, but that, strong in the
conquests of the past, your students may be free to undertake fresh
work, and that each man for himself may advance on new paths of
progress. (Loud cheers.)

Ladies and Gentlemen,--Now that the first stone of the new college has
been laid, let me congratulate you who have met here on this auspicious
day. My observations will not take much time, and shall be brief,
because, with the best voice I can command, I fear it is perfectly
impossible for me to make my utterances reach over so large an area and
be audible to so great an audience as that I have the honour of seeing
before me to-day. Indeed, if it were probable that some of those young
men who are here as students would, in after life, have the honour of
addressing so great a multitude of their fellow-countrymen, I should
certainly advise the authorities of the college to erect a chair for
teaching the art of elocution--(applause)--so that the volume of the
voice might be increased to reach much further than I am afraid is
possible for me to-day. But let me join with you in wishing continued
success to the Queen's College University at Kingston--(applause)--to
associate myself with you in the hope that this new building will long
stand as a monument to the generosity of the townspeople of this
generation--(applause)--and to the talent of the architect who has
designed so handsome and imposing a structure. (Cheers.) I shall not
inflict upon you many observations upon the subject of education, for I
know no ears to which such observations would sound more trite than
those of the people of Ontario, who have shown by the ample and
magnificent provision which they have made for education in this
province, how all-important they consider it is, that this growing
population, extending as it is so rapidly, and being recruited from
almost all quarters of the world, should receive a thorough and
well-grounded training, and be well instructed in all learning and
knowledge. (Applause.) I trust that this college may be a home of happy
memories to all who shall receive their education here and who will go
forth to spread its renown far and wide. (Loud cheers.) This place is
already comparatively old, and I must consider this town of Kingston,
which has already made its mark in the history of this country, as
fortunate in possessing a university--for certainly by the possession of
such an institution, one of those wants is supplied which is rather too
apt to be visible in a new and enterprising country. (Applause.) Where
many are rather apt to suppose that sufficient is done by a school
education for the practical and rougher life, which is the lot of many
here, I am sure that all present value the higher training to be alone
obtained in a university. (Applause.) It would be superfluous to dwell
upon the value of the completion and of the elaboration of education
imparted by such an institution, for large as Canada is, the world is even
larger--(applause)--and by such a higher training avenues are opened
throughout every profession in England and her great dependencies, for
there is no office in this vast Empire which is not open to Canadian
talent. (Loud applause.) It is on this ground that I believe we can
confidently appeal to the generosity of the wealthy, that generosity
which is the mainspring of every institution in a free country.
(Cheers.) It was in 1836 that it was said by those who founded the
college, that "a deep and wide foundation had been laid, a foundation
capable of extension," and I rejoice that now in the lifetime of the
generation which has succeeded to that in which those words were spoken,
there is so fair a promise of the completion of the work, and that
those aspirations will be realised. (Applause) And now let me mention
one other bond of union between the students of this college and myself,
and another cause of sympathy, for with your honoured and learned
Principal I have this bond of fellowship, that we were both friends--
and I may almost say pupils--of a great preacher and a very beloved man,
not the least of whose merits in your eyes will be that it was owing to
his persuasion that your late Principal undertook the charge of this
college. (Loud cheers.) And I believe it was also owing to his
initiative that your present Principal undertook a charge in Canada, an
action which ultimately led up to his present position where he is
honoured and revered by you all. I allude to the late Rev. Norman
Macleod. (Loud cheers.) And, gentlemen, I have one other cause for
feeling a fellowship with you, and that is, that I had the advantage
for sometime of being a student at a Scottish university, and in very
much I trace points of resemblance between the system of your
university and that which obtained at home, and especially in this that,
although founded by a Scotchman, this institution of Queen's College is
one absolutely free and open to every denomination. (Applause.) Indeed
this institution is in its features so much like the great universities
at home, the great University of Edinburgh, for example, to whose
proportions I hope you will in course of time attain, that I almost
expect to see some gentleman make a proposal which will fill the only
serious want I detect in your organisation, and that is, that there is
no provision here for a Celtic chair for the teaching of the Gaelic
language. I am sure that in this opinion all our Irish friends will
join, for what is a Highlander but an Irishman? (Laughter and applause.)
What is he but a banished Irishman?--(renewed laughter)--speaking a
language which I am sure would be pronounced by the ancient Four
Masters to be a mutilated form of the old Irish language. (Great
laughter and cheers.) And now that I have mentioned Scottish students,
I am sure you will not think that I am making any invidious comparison
when I allude to the noble example I have seen set by them in the
determination and energy with which I have known them prosecute their
studies. (Hear, hear.) I have known at St. Andrew's men go up to the
university so little able to afford the necessary money for their stay
there, that they have apprenticed themselves to resident tradesmen in
the town, and have risen at I do not know what hour of night or morning,
and have gone through the whole of the manual labour necessary for their
temporary profession--(loud applause)--and after this exhausting
labour have attended throughout the day at their classes in the
university and have managed there to take a high place with their
fellow-students. (Loud applause.) I am sure you will not think I
mention this because I imagine that anybody is not capable of the same
effort, for although wealth is much more evenly divided here than it is
in Scotland, I believe you are here animated by the same spirit.
(Cheers.) I remember mentioning the example of the Scottish students to
a famous and learned professor of Cambridge, the late Professor Whewell,
of Trinity, and he thought that an invidious comparison was intended,
for he sharply replied to me, "Well, there is nothing to prevent you
working here." (Great laughter.) This is not the way in which you will
take my little story. I am sure there is not only nothing to prevent
you working here, but that there is everything to make you do so, and I
am confident the students here will take advantage of their
opportunities, and do their best to make the name of a Canadian an
honoured designation throughout the world. (Loud and long-continued

At the Royal Military College, Kingston, the Governor-General attended
the distribution of prizes, and, at the close, his Excellency rose and
delivered the following speech:--

Gentlemen Cadets of the Royal Military College,--On the Princess's
behalf I must first express her pleasure in giving you the prizes
awarded for mental worth and also for physical exercises--(applause)--
and I cannot say how much satisfaction I have had today in seeing the
manoeuvres so well executed during the very pretty little field day you
have gone through, and in thoroughly examining into every part of this
Institution, and seeing myself the place which, I believe, will
hereafter be as famous in Canadian history as the training place of the
officers in whom Canada puts her trust as is Woolwich in England, or
the Academy at West Point, among our neighbours. (Applause.) In being
here I confess I think your lines are cast in pleasant places, and it
is well that it should be so, for to judge from my own experience when
going through a course of training at Woolwich, it may be possible that
in future years you will re-visit this scene of your early labours. It
is often the case that after some years' service, students of the
military art find that owing to the constant progress made in military
science, they have fallen a little behind, have perhaps become a little
rusty, and have to go back for a time to drill. This may be the case
here as well as in other armies, and if ever I have the pleasure in
future years again of visiting Kingston, I may find some of the young
and soldier-like body whom I have now the pleasure of addressing, again
going through "repository" work as stout captains or as weighty
majors--(laughter)--here again for a while to polish off any little rust
that may have accumulated in their minds. It is certainly a matter of
surprise to find what wonders have been accomplished by this school in
a short time, and how under the able, energetic, and genial leadership
of Col. Hewitt, and of the instructors, to whom you owe an uncommon
debt of gratitude, for their work has been very hard, and like the
British Infantry, they are excellent, but they are too few--(applause)--a
school of arms has arisen which will bear comparison with some of
the oldest of similar institutions in other countries. The good which
has been done in this school is evident to all who visit it, and this
is recognised by those who have not had that advantage, but who,
hearing of your progress, and reposing, with good reason, confidence in
the able board of officers who guide your studies, have afforded their
support to an experiment which may be already pronounced a great
success. It is not only one Province that is represented amongst you,
but the Dominion at large, and we may look forward to having many from
the gallant Province of Quebec--(applause)--whose famous military
annals will, I am confident, should necessity arise, be reproduced in
the actions of her sons. (Applause.) The life that you have led in this
place and the spirit of comradeship here engendered will be a bond of
union for our Canadian Dominion--(applause)--and many of you when you
leave this will feel for your Alma Mater that sentiment of affection
which Napoleon felt for St. Cyr. May this Kingston Military Academy be
a fruitful mother of armed science--(applause)--and a source of
confidence and pride to her country. You will go hence after your
studies are completed as men well skilled in many of those acquirements
which may be looked upon as wont to lead to success in civil life; but
above all, you will be officers to whom can be entrusted with
confidence the leadership of our Canadian Militia. (Applause.) It will
be your duty to command those who are called out for service first of
all for the defence of your own homes; but I doubt not that you will
always remember that in belonging to the Canadian Militia you belong to
an auxiliary force of the Imperial army, whose services are constantly
illustrating anew, in distant and various climes, and against every
kind of foe, the qualities of the British valour and the virtues which
have made Britain what she is. (Applause.) It may never be your fate to
have any share in war's convulsions, and you may have no opportunity of
doing what the Zulus would call, "Washing your spears." Do not on that
account think that your time has been misspent, or regret the
preparation which is the best means of preventing any disaster falling
upon your country. The training you have here received will certainly
not only pay well in giving you those habits of mind and knowledge
which will be of advantage to you whatever line in life you pursue, but
will help you to become good citizens, and will make you worthy
representatives of that home army which is so essential for the defence
of the land. It is the proud fortune of those who follow that
profession, of which it has been finely said that "it is their trade to
die," to know that by their life they not only foster those feelings of
manliness and hardihood without which life is not worth having, but
that it is also under their protecting arm that every profession
pursues its even way, and arts and commerce flourish, and wealth
increases in security. (Loud. applause.)

On the 24th May 1879, after an interesting review at Montreal of a
militia force, comprising one regiment of American Militia from New
York State, a dinner was given at the Windsor Hotel, and, in reply to
the toast of his health, the Governor-General rose and said:--

Gentlemen and Officers of the Canadian Militia,--Allow me to thank you
from the depth of my heart for the extreme kindness of your reception,
but you must allow me to ascribe that reception to my official position,
for I am fully conscious that I have been too short a time among you to
be able to do more than to claim your kindness and consideration. With
the Princess it is different, and I believe I can claim for her
personally a warmer feeling. (Tremendous applause.) I cannot tell you
enough on her behalf of her feelings as to the manner in which she has
been received by every section of the Canadian people. I am often asked
how she likes this country, and I can only reply to the numerous
inquirers by repeating what I have said to those who have asked
personally, that although she likes this country very much, she likes
the people a great deal better. (Great cheering.) I must not forget to
thank Sir Edward Selby Smyth for the extreme cordiality with which he
was so good as to propose this toast, and I can assure him that it is
not only here amongst Canadian officers, but anywhere else, I should
have been proud to hear from him the words he has used. (Cheers.) He
has, I am sure, earned the gratitude of every militia regiment in
Canada during the time that he has been here, and he speaks, I am sure,
as your representative, with the full voice of your authority. (Renewed
cheering.) He has held before your eyes a high standard, he has held
that standard up with a most efficient hand, and I believe you
thoroughly well know how valuable his services have been, and what an
advantage it is to have an officer at the head of the Canadian militia
who has had experience in active warfare. (Loud cheers.) The manner in
which the manoeuvres were performed to-day show how much value you have
attached to his teaching--what full advantage you have taken of all the
opportunities given to you. And while I am speaking on the subject of
the review, allow me to congratulate you on having in your midst to-day,
and forming so splendid a part of your spectacle, the gallant American
regiment, many of whose officers I have the pleasure of seeing in this
hall. (Great cheering.) I wish to repeat to them to-night what I had
the honour of saying to the regiment at large, that I thank them most
sincerely for having come this journey to honour our Queen's Birthday--
(tremendous applause)--and I regard their having undertaken the journey,
and having come here, as a proof of the amity of feeling and sentiment
for us which is as strong in the breasts of the American people as is
their community with us in that freedom in which we recognise our
common heritage. (Cheering.) I believe I am not wrong in saying that
they have paid us an unusual compliment in allowing their band to play
our National Anthem, while a part of their musicians were arrayed in
our national colour. Some of the band wore the Queen's! colour, and I
believe I am not misinterpreting the feelings of the officers here
present when I say, that the very many Americans, not only those of
British race, but many others, wear in one sense the Queen's colour at
their hearts--(loud cheers and applause)-not only because she is the
Queen of that old country with which so many of their most glorious
memories are for ever identified,--that old country of which they are
in their hearts as proud as I can honestly say England is of them,--but
also because the Americans are a gallant nation, and love a good woman.
(Great applause.) They have lent us a helping hand to-day, and I
believe they will always be ready to do so, should occasion arise on
which we may ask them to stand by us. (Tremendous cheering.) We have
had a very pleasant day together, which has been followed by a restful
evening and a pleasant dinner--pleasant to all, I venture to say-but
restful only to those whose fate it has not been, when the dessert has
been put upon the table, and the wine has been passed round, to be
obliged, by making speeches, to "open fire" again. (Laughter and
applause) If an army could always depend upon having such a good
commissariat as our little force has enjoyed to-day, it is my belief
that field days would be even more popular than they are--(laughter)--
and I doubt if the finances of any people, no matter how many changes
they should make in their tariff, could long stand the expense.
(Laughter.) But if nations are happier when there is no need for them
to squander wealth, and spread sorrow and disaster by the maintenance
of large forces kept on foot for purposes of offence; yet it will be
generally conceded that no nation should be content without a numerous,
an efficient, and well-organised defensive force. This Canada and the
United States fortunately possess--(applause)--and the motto which was
proposed by Lord Carlisle as that which the volunteer force of England
should take, viz., "Defence, not defiance," is one which is equally
suitable to our kindred peoples. At our review to-day we have had one
of the few occasions on which it has been possible of late to bring a
fair number of men together for united drill Good drill requires
constant attention and work, and I believe it has certainly been the
opinion of the spectators of the force to-day, that officers and men
have made the best use of the opportunities which have been given them.
(Loud cheering.) Our militia force is large in number, and we have had
during the last two years the best proof of the spirit with which it is
animated. I should be neglecting an important duty were I not to take
this opportunity of tendering the warmest thanks of Her Majesty, and of
the Imperial authorities at home, to those gallant officers of the
Canadian Militia Force who have of late so often offered themselves for
service in active warfare--(cheers)--and to assure them that although
it was not necessary to take advantage of their offers, that their
readiness to serve has been none the less valued, noted, and
appreciated, and that the patriotic spirit which binds together all
branches of our Queen's army in whatever quarter of the globe they may
stand, and from whatever race they may spring, is seen with pride and
satisfaction. (Loud applause.) And, gentlemen, although the bearers of
commissions in our militia service have not been able to show their
devotion personally to their Sovereign and country among the lofty
ranges of Afghanistan, or on the bush-covered slopes of Zululand, yet
the news of the distant contests waged in these regions has, we know,
been watched here with as close an interest, as intense and hearty a
sympathy, as in Britain itself--(applause);--and the sorrow at the
loss of such gallant officers as Northey and Weatherley--(tremendous
cheering)--has been shared with our comrades in arms in the old
country, not only because the same uniform is here worn, but also
because the honoured dead are united with our people by ties of the
closest relationship. The dividing seas have not sundered the
brotherhood which the love of a gracious Sovereign, and the passion for
freedom, make the lasting blessing of the great English communities--
(great cheering);--and just as our country shows that she can strike
from the central power whenever menaced, so will her children's States,
wherever situated, respond to any call made upon them, and prove that
England's union with the great colonies is none the less strong because
it depends on no parchment bonds or ancient legal obligations, but
derives its might from the warm attachment, the living pride in our
Empire, and the freewill offerings of her loving, her grateful, and her
gallant sons. (Long continued cheering.)

The opening of an Art Institute at Montreal in 1879 gave occasion to
the following reply to an address:--

Ladies and Gentlemen,--This is the first occasion, I believe, on which
a large company, representing much of the influence and wealth of this
great city, has met together in order formally to inaugurate the
opening of the buildings of an Art Institute. Through the kindness of
the President and Vice-President, I have already had an opportunity
to-day to inspect the works with which this city, through the munificence
of Mr. Gibb, has been endowed. I think Montreal can be honestly and
warmly congratulated, not only upon the possession of a collection
which will go far to make her Art Gallery one of the most notable of
her institutions, but on having succeeded in getting possession of
funds enough, at a time by no means propitious, to give a home to this
collection in the Gallery in which we are assembled and to have erected
a building large enough to exhibit to advantage many other pictures
besides those belonging to the bequest. It is perhaps too customary
that the speeches of one in my position should express an over-sanguine
view of the hopes and aspirations of the various communities in the
country, and I believe the utterances of a Governor-General may often
be compared to the works of the great English painter, Turner, who, at
all events in his late years, painted his pictures so that the whole of
the canvas was illuminated and lost in a haze of azure and gold, which,
if it could be called truthful to Nature, had, at all events, the
effect of hiding much of what, if looked at too closely, might have
been considered detrimental to the beauty of the scene. (Applause.) If
I were disposed to accept the criticisms of some artists, I should be
inclined to endorse the opinion I have heard expressed, that one of the
few wants of this country is a proper appreciation and countenance of
Art; but the meeting here to-day to inaugurate the reign of Art in
Montreal enables me to disprove such an assertion, and to gild over
with a golden hue more true than that of many of Turner's pictures this
supposed spot upon the beauty of our Canadian atmosphere. Certainly in
Toronto, here and elsewhere, gentlemen have already employed their
brush to good effect. We may look forward to the time when the
influence of such associations as yours may be expected to spread until
we have here, what they formerly had in Italy, such a love of Art that,
as was the case with the great painter Correggio, our Canadian artists
may be allowed to wander over the land scot free of expense, because
the hotel keepers will only be too happy to allow them to pay their
bills by the painting of some small portrait, or of some sign for "mine
host." (Laughter and applause.) Why should we not be able to point to a
Canadian school of painting, for in the appreciation of many branches
of art, and in proficiency in science, Canada may favourably compare
with any country. Only the other day Mrs. Scott-Siddons told me that
she found her Canadian audiences more enthusiastic and intelligent than
any she had met. Our Dominion may claim that the voices of her
daughters are as clear as her own serene skies; and who can deny that
in music, Nature has been most ably assisted by Art, when from one of
the noble educational establishments in the neighbourhood of this city,
Mademoiselle Albani was sent forth to charm the critical audiences of
Europe and America? Canada may hold her head high in the kindred fields
of Science; for who is it who has been making the shares of every Gas
Company in every city fall before the mere rumours of his genius but a
native Canadian, Mr. Edison, the inventor of the electric light? In
another branch of Art her science must also be conceded. In photography
it cannot be denied that our people challenge the most able competition.
(Applause.) I have heard it stated that one of the many causes of the
gross ignorance which prevails abroad with reference to our beautiful
climate, is owing to the persistence with which our photographers love
to represent chiefly our winter scenes. But this has been so much the
case, and these photographs excite so much admiration, that I hear that
in the old country the practice has been imitated, so that if there may
have been harm at first the very beauty of these productions has
prevented its continuance, because they are no longer distinctively
Canadian, and the ladies in the far more trying climates of Europe are
also represented in furs by their photographers, so that this fashion
is no longer a distinguishing characteristic of our photography; in
proof of this I may mention that in a popular song which has obtained
much vogue in London, the principal performer sings:--

"I've been photographed like this,
I've been photographed like that,
I've been photographed in falling snow,
In a long furry hat."

No doubt these winter photographs do give some of our friends in the
old country the belief that it is the normal habit of young Canadian
ladies to stand tranquilly in the deep snow, enjoying a temperature of
33 below zero--(laughter);--and it would certainly give a more correct
idea of our weather were our Canadian ladies and gentlemen to be
represented, not only in bright sunshine, but also amongst our
beautiful forest glades in summer, wearing large Panama hats, and
protected by mosquito veils; but I suppose there are obstacles in the
way, and that even photographers, like other mortals, find it difficult
properly to catch the mosquitos. (Renewed laughter.) I think we can
show we have good promise, not only of having an excellent local
exhibition, but that we may in course of time look forward to the day
when there may be a general Art Union in the country; a Royal Academy
whose exhibitions may be held each year in one of the capitals of our
several Provinces; an academy which may, like that of the old country,
be able to insist that each of its members or associates should, on
their election, paint for it a diploma picture; an academy which shaft
be strong and wealthy enough to offer, as a prize to the most
successful students of the year, money sufficient to enable them to
pass some time in those European capitals where the masterpieces of
ancient Art can be seen and studied. Even now, in the principal centres
of population, you have shown that it is perfectly possible to have a
beautiful and instructive exhibition; for besides the pictures
bequeathed to any city, it may always be attainable that an exhibition
of pictures be had on loan, and that there be shown besides the
productions in both oil and water-colour of the artists of the year. It
may be said that in a country whose population is as yet incommensurate
with its extent, people are too busy to toy with Art; but, without
alluding to the influence of Art on the mind, which has been so ably
expressed in your address, in regard to its elevating and refining
power, it would surely be a folly to ignore the value of beauty and
design in manufactures; and in other countries blessed with fewer
resources than ours, and in times which, comparatively, certainly were
barbarous, the works of artists have not only gained for them a
livelihood, but have pleased and occupied some of the busiest men of
the time, the artists finding in such men the encouragement and support
that is necessary. Long ago in Ireland the beautiful arts of
illumination and painting were carried on with such signal success that
Celtic decoration, as shown in the beautiful knotted and foliated
patterns that still grace so many of the tombstones and crosses of
Ireland and of the west of Scotland, passed into England, and, more
strangely, even into France. The great monarch, Charlemagne, was so
enchanted with the designs and miniatures of an Irish monk, that he
persuaded him to go to work at Paris, and for nearly two centuries
afterwards the brilliant pages of French Bibles, Missals, and Books of
Hours showed the influence of the culture, the talent, and the tastes
of Erin. Surely here there should be opportunity and scope enough for
the production of the works of the painter's hand. The ancient states
of Italy, her cities and communities of the Middle Ages, were those who
cherished most their native painters, and the names of many of those
who covered the glowing canvases of Italy with immortal work are known
often from the designation of some obscure township where they were
born, and where they found their first generous recognition and support
Here in this great Province, full of the institutions and churches
founded and built by the piety of past centuries, as well as by the men
now living, there should be far more encouragement than in poorer
countries of old for the decoration of our buildings, whether sacred or
educational The sacred subjects which moved the souls of the Italian,
German, Flemish, and Spanish masters are eternal, and certainly have no
lesser influence upon the minds and characters of our people. And if
legendary and sacred Art be not attempted, what a wealth of subjects is
still left you,--if you leave the realm of imagination and go to that
of the Nature which you see living and moving around you, what a choice
is still presented. The features of brave, able, and distinguished men
of your own land, of its fair women; and in the scenery of your country,
the magnificent wealth of water of its great streams; in the foaming
rush of their cascades, overhung by the mighty pines or branching
maples, and skirted with the scented cedar copses; in the fertility of
your farms, not only here, but throughout Ontario also; or in the
sterile and savage rock scenery of the Saguenay--in such subjects there
is ample material, and I doubt not that our artists will in due time
benefit this country by making her natural resources and the beauty of
her landscapes as well known as are the picturesque districts of Europe,
and that we shall have a school here worthy of our dearly loved
Dominion. It now only remains for me to declare this gallery open, and
to hope that the labours of the gentlemen who have carried out this
excellent design will be rewarded by the appreciation of a grateful

In June 1879, his first visit was paid to Quebec, and the answer to the
Mayor's greeting is given below:--

avec le plus profond sentiment de plaisir que nous nous trouvons au
milieu de la population de Quebec, et que nous entendons, des personnes
autorisees a parler de la part de cette ancienne et fameuse cite,
les mots de loyaute et l'assurance de devouement exprimes dans votre
adresse, et je vous prie de transmettre aux differentes institutions
et societes que vous representez ma reconnaissance de la cordiale et
bienveillante reception qui nous a ete offerte aujourd'hui.

La loyaute est une fleur precieuse qui ne se fane et ne se fletrit pas
facilement, s'il lui est seulement donne de croitre a l'air frais de la
liberte. Elle fleurira ici aussi longtemps que le Canada existera, et
sera cherie, comme aux anciens jours, le furent les lis-d'or, pour
lesquels tant de vos ancetres verserent si noblement leur sang.

Comme representant de la reine, permettez-moi de vous dire que sa
majeste est assuree de la loyaute et du devouement de ses sujets de la
province de Quebec, qu'ils soient issus de peres venant des Iles
Britanniques, ou que l'ancienne France les reclame comme soutenant,
dans un nouveau monde, l'honneur, le renom, la bravoure et la fidelite
au souverain et au pays, qui distinguerent leurs ancetres.

J'exprime ces sentiments dans ce beau langage qui, dans tant de pays et
durant des siecles, fut regarde comme le type de l'expression concise
et nette et le plus habile interprete de l'esprit et de la pensee

Le monde entier en l'employant, se rappelle avec vous que c'est la
langue qui, dans l'eglise, se repandit avec eloquence des levres de
Saint Bernard et de Bossuet; et qui, avec Saint Louis, Du Guesclin et
l'heroique Pucelle d'Orleans, resonna sur les champs de bataille.

Cette place sera toujours identifiee avec la race glorieuse qui
produisit ces grandes ames; et cette cite, placee comme elle l'est, sur
un des sites les plus imposants du monde, semble digne de ceux dont le
langage est parle dans tout l'ancien Canada, et qui couronnerent de
demeures civilisees le rocher eleve qui est aujourd'hui le Gibraltar de
notre puissance.

Bien des changements se sont operes depuis que la premiere flotte
europeenne jeta l'ancre sur les bords du Saint-Laurent, mais aucun
evenement ne souilla jamais les glorieuses annales de cette forteresse,
de cette place si chere a l'histoire. Car ne fut-ce pas d'ici que
jaillirent ces influences qui changerent en riches habitations de
nations puissantes, ces vastes deserts inconnus? Ne fut-ce pas de
Quebec que les paroles de foi, les imperissables richesses de la
science et de la civilisation se repandirent a travers un nouveau
continent? C'est d'ici que les grandes rivieres furent decouvertes, et
que les flots, devenant les grandes voies du commerce, furent forces de
partager le travail de l'homme.

Qu'y a-t-il d'etonnant a ce que vous cherissiez tant ces souvenirs, et
que, de l'avis et avec l'assistance de Lord Dufferin, vous ayez resolu
de faire tout ce qui est en votre pouvoir, non seulement pour conserver
ce qui rappelle au voyageur vos jours de gloire, mais encore pour
embellir le plus possible la precieuse relique qui vous a ete leguee en
votre charmante cite.

Les mesures que vous avez prises au sujet de l'embellissement de votre
ville, mises au jour tout recemment, creees par votre generosite, et
encouragees par l'esprit sympathique de votre dernier gouverneur-
general, a qui aucun effort noble et genereux ne fit appel en vain,
prouvent que vous ne permettrez jamais que l'interet et la beaute qui
attirent tant de milliers de visiteurs, chaque annee, vers votre cite
soient detruits par un utilitairianisme mal entendu; mais que vous
tiendrez a conserver en son integrite le seul grand et antique monument
de la grandeur du Canada, que ce pays possede.

En conclusion, permettez-moi de vous assurer que nous souhaitons
sincerement que vos voeux les plus ardents, quant a ce qui regarde
l'accroissement du commerce de votre port, se realisent, et que les
eaux de la grande riviere qui coule au pied de votre promontoire
puissent constament etre couvertes des vaisseaux, superbes et
solidement construits, que vos artisans peuvent produire avec tant
d'habilete et en aussi grand nombre.

Personne ne desire ce resultat plus sincerement que la princesse, que
vous avez si gracieusement acclamee et qui se joint a moi pour vous
exprimer mes sinceres remerciements; elle qui en venant ici, doit etre
regardee comme la representante personnelle de notre reine issue de
cette maison royale, qui recut comme fiancee Henriette de France, fille
du grand monarque francais, dont une des gloires de son regne fut
l'honneur qu'il rendit au voyageur illustre, l'intrepide Champlain, ce
nom a jamais identifte avec tout ce qui nous entoure.

At Laval University he said:--

Monseigneur et Messieurs,--La rivalite a laquelle vous faites allusion
dans votre eloquente et bien-veillante adresse, et qui, dites vous,
existe encore entre les sujets de sa majeste au Canada, ne devrait
jamais s'eteindre surtout quand cette emulation a pour origine le
desir d'obeir aux lois dans leur libre et juste application, et les
nobles efforts d'un chacun pour placer chaque province au premier rang
dans la representation de notre pays et faire ainsi progresser le
Canada dans la voie de l'ordre et de la prosperite.

De meme que votre magnifique edifice domine votre cite, de meme la
pensee dominante de votre universite est d'etre le phare sur lequel se
dirige le peuple dans l'esperance que cette emulation tendra a nous
diriger vers de hautes et nobles destinees.

Nous entrons avec le plus profond interet dans ces salles ou vous avez
entrepris cette tache glorieuse, et nous concourrons de tout coeur dans
les souhaits que vous venez d'exprimer, dans le voeu que nous formons
pour votre prosperite.

Nous nous sommes rejouis, en debarquant il y a deux jours, de voir que
vos autorites, avec un si grand nombre de population, manifestaient de
la maniere la plus energique et avec une noble generosite la confiance
qu'ils avaient place dans le representant de leur souveraine.

Soyez persuade que je comprends toute l'importance de cette confiance.
Ce n'est pas a moi personnellement que ces temoignages s'adressent,
mais au representant d'un gouvernement assurant une liberte a laquelle
on ne songe pas dans d'autre pays, et qui se trouve unie aux anciens
usages et a l'autorite moderee sous laquelle le peuple de notre empire
a trouve le bonheur, la puissance et l'union.

Permettez-moi de vous remercier de votre bien-veillante reception, et
de vous dire que je desire avoir ma part de l'approbation que le public
accorde a vos travaux, en continuant l'octroi des prix inaugure par
Lord Dufferin, qui savait si bien apprecier la valeur de votre
universite, et qui, en sa qualite de savant, connaissait tout le prix
de l'enseignement qu'on y donne.

Ici les eleves places sous vos soins, recoivent tous les jours une
large part des connaissances que vous avez puisees a des sources
precieuses dans diverses contrees du globe; car les voyages sont aussi
propres a instruire que les livres eux-memes, et parmi vos professeurs
il y en a qui ont parcouru beaucoup de pays et vu beaucoup de peuples
differents, et qui ont suivi en Amerique la pratique des fondateurs du
Christianisme, en apprenant les langues etrangeres, en voyant l'ancien
monde, ses habitants, tout en s'initiant a sa litterature immortelle.

Les fondateurs de cette institution ont pourvu aux moyens de faire
suivre des cours complets de medecine, qui jusqu'ici n'avaient ete
ouverts qu'a un petit nombre de personnes; car dans votre institution
la medecine s'enseigne d'apres une methode digne de la nation qui a
produit Broussais, Bichat, Corvisart et Pinel.

Les sciences naturelles sont enseignees a des hommes qui, en prenant
part au developpement et aux decouvertes des richesses naturelles de ce
vaste continent, continueront l'oeuvre de leurs ancetres, les pionniers
du Canada.

Cette partie de la puissance renferme des richesses naturelles encore
inconnues et qui n'exigent que l'esprit d'entreprise pour leur

C'est aussi un pays ou l'or, les marbres precieux et les serpentines
aideront a augmenter par leur valeur les revenus de la population qui
doit neanmoins compter principalement sur la culture du sol et qui dans
l'elevage des bestiaux augmentera sa prosperite en approvisionnant
les marches de l'Europe.

Je suis tres honore de votre reception, et mon desir le plus sincere
est que la Divine Providence permette que l'Universite Laval soit
toujours le flambeau des arts et des sciences pour la noble et
genereuse population de Quebec.

At Toronto during the same year the Governor-General had occasion to
speak as follows:--

Gentlemen,--In rising to return you my heartfelt thanks for the loyal
and cordial manner in which you have received the toast of the health
of the Queen's representative, I thank my learned and honourable friend
on my left for the manner in which he has proposed that toast, and you,
gentlemen, for the way in which you have been good enough to receive it.
I knew that in a Canadian company that toast would be received with all
honours, because I believe there is no nation in this world which has
more profound love for its Sovereign than the Canadian people. (Loud
cheers.) With reference to the Prince of Wales, to whose visit you have
made allusion, I know that he was delighted, as was also the Duke of
Connaught, with the visit they paid to Canada, and they have both
expressed a confident hope that during my term of office they may
revisit Canadian soil. (Loud cheering.) With regard to ourselves
personally, I shall accept with gratitude everything that has fallen
to-night from your eloquent lips, sir, with regard to the Princess, my
wife. (Great cheering.) But as for myself, I must demur to the
excessive kindness of some of your expressions; and although it may be
a bold opinion for a layman to lay down in the presence of so many
distinguished in the law, I believe my learned friend has almost for
the first time--and I hope for the last--in his life departed from
that attitude of strict impartiality which it is his duty, as well as
my own, to maintain. (Great laughter and cheering.) I have a theory on
the subject, of which I will let you into the secret. My honourable
friend has confided to me that it was his painful duty to make some
very severe observations from the Bench to-day. I think that it may be
possibly owing to a natural reaction of feeling, that he has found it
almost obligatory to make some observations in my favour to-night,
almost too kind (Loud laughter.) We have been delighted with the
reception we have met with in Toronto, and I must say that it has been
a matter of good fortune, in my opinion, that we have been able to
visit this great city at a time when its citizens are occupied with the
great show which is being held within a short distance of its limits,
and which is a most remarkable exhibition to have been set on foot and
carried out by any city. (Cheers.) And in a few days we shall not only
have had the pleasure of inspecting the exhibits, but of seeing some of
the live stock which is now enjoying such favour not only in Canada,
but also, luckily for Europe, over the water. That examination will
be for me one of peculiar interest. I look forward to that trade
developing a new and--as I trust it will be--a permanent source of
revenue to this country. (Cheers.) I see you have Landseer's pictures
of "Peace" and "War" upon your walls. I know of no more striking
contrast that can be seen between peace and war than at Quebec, for
instance, where under the frowning guns of that magnificent fortress
the air is daily full of the lowing of cattle and bleating of sheep,
and vast numbers are to be seen being embarked upon the large and fine
vessels of the Allan Line for transport to Europe. (Cheers.) We may
congratulate Canada not only that she has begun that trade, but that
she has done so in so energetic a fashion, that though the shippers
expected there would be but little traffic so late this year, the trade
has been carried on with increasing volume throughout the autumn, and
depend upon it, it will bring you good return, not only to the farmers
already here, but by bringing more people to Canada. These people are
the class you want, and I believe that for every few hundred cattle or
sheep you send to Liverpool, you have every prospect of getting in
exchange a stout English farmer. (Loud cheers.) Gentlemen, I hardly
expected that upon this, my first official visit, I should have had the
opportunity of expressing my gratitude to the Toronto Club for
entertaining me in so friendly a fashion at so pleasant a banquet. In
meeting you here to-night, I feel I am in the presence of a
representative assembly of those who lead the intellectual and
commercial life of this city, one of the greatest already, and at the
same time one of the most promising, not only in the Dominion but on
the American continent. Before you, then, gentlemen, I wish I could
find words warm enough to give you an idea of the manner in which we
have been touched by the efforts made in our behalf by the citizens of
Toronto. (Loud cheers.) It would not be reasonable to seek any
justification of such kind feeling, but, at all events, I can say to
you that, if a hearty and earnest interest in every phase of your
national life can be taken as any excuse for such welcome, this
justification, at all events, exists to the full. (Loud and prolonged
cheering.) In one sense, also, I am no stranger to your affairs, for I
do not feel that in studying Canada I have embarked on a sea hitherto
unknown to me. It is not only since my arrival here that I have watched
with unflagging enthusiasm the current of events which is so surely
leading this country to the full enjoyment of a great inheritance, for
long before we landed on your shores much of your history and of your
present condition was well known to me. A brief visit, paid many years
ago, could give me but little real insight into your condition, but
every man in England who has had anything to do with public life has,
since the Confederation of the British North American Provinces,
considered his political studies as wholly wanting if a pretty thorough
knowledge of your resources and position were not included in his
survey of the Empire. (Cheers.) Confederation has had this advantage,
that your destinies have been presided over by men who had weight and
authority at home, and who were able to put before the English people,
in attractive form, the resources of this country. Especially was this
the case during the six and a half years Lord Dufferin has been in this
country; for his speeches, giving in so poetical a form, and with such
mastery of diction and such a grasp of comprehension, an account of
your material and political condition, were universally read and
universally admired. (Loud cheers.) Perhaps in former days, and before
the country had become one, so much attention would not have been given
to your affairs, but since Confederation we all know in England--every
politician in England knows--that he is not to consider this country as
a small group of disconnected Colonies, but as a great and consolidated
people, growing in importance not only year by year, but hour by hour.
(Great cheering.) You now form a people for whom the Colonial Office
and Foreign Office alike are desirous to act with the utmost strength
of the Empire in forwarding your interests; and in speaking through the
Imperial Foreign Office, it is impossible that you should not remember
that it is not only the voice of two, three, or four or five millions,
as the case may be, that you speak, but the voice of a nation of over
forty millions. (Great cheering.) As I said before, I believe that in
former days perhaps the interest was not so lively, although perhaps it
would be unjust to say that too strongly, because within the last few
months, as well as in past years, we have had striking examples of how
willing Great Britain is to undertake warlike expenditure for colonies
by no means as united or as important as Canada. (Prolonged cheers.)
But the feeling with regard to Canada as a mere congeries of colonies,
and Canada as one people and Government, may perhaps be compared to the
different feelings that a mother may be supposed to have in the pride
with which she may regard a nursery full of small infants, and the far
different pride with which she looks upon the career and stature of her
grown-up and eldest son. (Laughter and cheers.) To be sure, as it is
with all sons and all mothers, little passing and temporary
misconceptions may occasionally occur, and which only show how deep in
reality is their mutual love. (Laughter.) The mother may sometimes
think it sad that her child has forgotten some little teaching learnt
on her knee, and that one or two of the son's opinions smack of foreign
notions--she may think that some of his doings tend not only to injure
her, but himself also and the world at large. (Great laughter.) Perhaps,
sometimes, he thinks on his part that it is a pity old people cannot
put themselves in the place of younger natures. (Uproarious laughter.)
But if such is the tenor of the thought which may sometimes occupy the
mother and the child, let no one dream for a moment that their
affection has become less deep, or that true loyalty of nature is less
felt. (Loud cheering.) They are one in heart and mind; they wish to
remain so, and shall remain so; and I should like to see the man who
would dare to come between them. (Tremendous cheering.) In saying this,
gentlemen, I express what may be regarded as my first impressions of
the feelings which animate you, and I believe that when I leave you, my
last impressions will be identical. (Loud cheering.) And now, gentlemen,
the topics on which a Governor-General may speak without offence are
somewhat limited--(laughter)--although he is expected to be the
advertiser-general of one of the largest countries in the world--(great
laughter and applause)--an empire so large that the study of its
proportions is, I think, much more like the study of astronomy than the
study of geography. (Laughter and applause.) It is perhaps best that he
should speak on generalities; but in making my first appearance among
you I may be expected to record other general impressions. I may
perhaps be permitted to mention a subject which is generally understood
as giving a good opening for conversation and acquaintance, and likely
to lead to no serious difference of opinion, namely, the subject of the
weather. (Roars of laughter.) I can now speak with some authority upon
that momentous topic--(laughter)--because I have now spent a winter, a
spring, a summer, and part of an autumn in Canada, and I believe that
any one who has had a similar experience with me will agree that the
seasons and climate enjoyed here are singularly pleasant and salubrious.
(Cheers.) You have, gentlemen, real seasons--there is a real winter and
a real summer. (Loud laughter.) You are not troubled with shams in that
respect--(laughter)--no shoddy manufactures of that nature are imported
over here from Europe, where winter is often like a raw summer and
summer like a wet winter. How different has been the reality of your
winter, for as an old woman once wrote home to her friends in Scotland,
"All the children here may run about in the snow without wetting their
feet" (Great laughter and cheers.) We have only to look at that column
on which a splendid bunch of peaches is hanging to see a summer trophy
which should bring many to our door; but it is only a small sample of a
vast crop of a similar nature which you have in Western Ontario, for as
I am informed by my honourable friend on my right, Mr. Mackenzie, the
peaches are often given to the pigs. (Great laughter.) The pleasant and
bracing seasons of Canada can be enjoyed in a country without its equal,
for nowhere has the settler a more varied range of choice in the
scenery, the locality, the soil which will finally determine him where
to found a home. His fortune may be compared to that of a man entering
one of those new houses where each may have his own flat--a magnificent
abode, where, if he wish not to travel, far, to be easily reached and
visited by his friends, he may remain in the rooms of the ground floor--our
spacious Maritime Provinces, where he will find himself very near
his fishmonger--(cheers and laughter)--close to the old tradesmen with
whom he has dealt in Europe, and warmed by a great kitchen
well-furnished with a store of Pictou coal. (Laughter and cheers.) If he
prefer other apartments he may ascend to those great and most
comfortable rooms, our ancient and populous Provinces of Quebec and
Ontario--the first-floor rooms of our Canadian mansion, which are so
amply provided with the old-fashioned associations which he may love;
while, if still more active, he may select accommodation in the vast
chambers of the second floor--the wonderful districts of the North-West,
which have been so bountifully furnished by beneficent Nature, that he
will require but little capital to make his abode exactly according to
his own taste. (Loud cheers.) And if he prefers another and still more
airy location--(laughter)--he may go on again and inhabit our recently
erected and lofty storey of the Rocky Mountain District, near which he
would again find an ample supply of coal, nearly as good as that which
he found "down below." (Applause.) He will be none the less fortunate
when he makes the acquaintance of the master of this modern mansion,
when he finds that everything is ruled in order and prosperity by him,
and that his name is the Canadian House of Commons. (Loud applause.)
And now, dropping all fanciful metaphors, I must speak in more serious
terms for a moment, and express my admiration for that I most able
House, the excellence of whose debates would be a credit to any
assembly. (Cheers.) During its session I have sometimes been reminded
of an exclamation of the late Baron Bunsen, the German diplomatist and
author, whose residence in London as Prussian Ambassador at the Court
of St. James's has caused him to be affectionately remembered in
England. Chevalier Bunsen, looking on at the proceedings of the House
of Commons, said that to him it was a marvel how an Englishman could
ever rest until he had sought to become a member of that Assembly,
where the Ministers of the Sovereign, and they who endeavoured to win a
share in the government of a powerful people, met face to face as
champions of different policies to discuss before the country the
principles which should guide a mighty nation. As in England, so here,
let no one turn his back on political life as too hard, as bringing too
much contention, or as occasioning too much unpleasantness. One of the
worst signs of a country's condition is, when they who have leisure, or
property, or social influence look upon public life as too dirty for
them, and hang back from the honourable rivalry, allowing other hands
to have a commanding share in government. (Hear, hear.) I am confident
that this will not be the case here, and long may it be before a
Canadian prefers his ease, if he may command it, to that noblest labour
to which he can be called by the voice of his fellow-citizens, a share
in the government of his country, in her Parliament. (Cheers.)

In striving to be a member of the Dominion Parliament, or to have a
potent voice in the election of such a one, each man, whatever may be
his circumstances, must feel that it is a high and proper ambition to
do what in him lies to direct the policy of this Royal Commonwealth,
which sees its will expressed by the Cabinet--which is but a Committee
of the Parliament elected by the people--carried out loyally and fully
by the Executive head of the Government. (Cheers.) To be sure you may
say to me, you are speaking in ignorance--the Governor-General is not
allowed to be present at the debates of Parliament. (Laughter.)
Certainly, gentlemen, I am not allowed to be present and never have
been. (Renewed laughter.) I have never even followed the example of my
eminent predecessor, who has left me such a heritage of speeches at the
Toronto Club. (Laughter and applause.) I have followed his example in
making a speech, but I have not followed his example in another case,
for I am informed that he has heard debates of the House concealed by
the friendly shadows behind the Speaker's chair. (Loud cheers and
laughter.) I have never placed myself in that position, and of course
my knowledge is entirely derived from reports--of course I do not speak
of newspaper reports. (Roars of laughter.) That is quite impossible--
(renewed laughter)--because I am fully conscious that we should not put
our trust in printers--(great laughter)--but I speak of other reports
which are more trustworthy, and for which, of course, my responsible
Ministers are responsible. (Laughter.)

I shall mention a particular rumour that has reached my ears, which is
to the scarcely credible effect that the current of discussion is often
not quite so tranquil as might be assumed by outsiders, looking only at
the harmonious outline of the buildings in which the members meet
(Great laughter.) Perhaps the reported occasional quickening of the
political current, and the hurried words to which it gives rise, occur
only because pure panegyric is distasteful, and a wholesome criticism
is on the other hand preferred.

Believing this, I shall only venture to express the opinion, that if
any spoken words fly too swiftly it is because one bad habit, and one
only, exists among the politicians of Canada. It is this--and I am sure
you will realise the melancholy significance of the fact to which I am
so reluctantly compelled to allude--it is, that Canadian politicians do
not bring their wives with them to Ottawa. (Uproarious laughter.) I
hope the recently developed doctrines of constitutional duty may still
allow a Governor-General to take the initiative in making a suggestion,
and my suggestion would be that the ladies should favour us with their
presence at Ottawa, for I am certain that an alteration in this
practice would soon put a stop to the reports to which I have drawn
your attention, which some people may think may detract from the
position of our celebrated, and alas! at Ottawa, too often celebate
politicians. (Roars of laughter.) And now, gentlemen, I have only to
thank you repeatedly and most earnestly for your welcome, and the
citizens of Toronto I would thank, through you, at large for the
extreme kindness with which they have been pleased to receive us. But I
believe, gentlemen, it is not mere kindness that is shown by such
demonstrations as those we have recently seen. If it were that only, it
would perhaps lose some of its significance. In the display made we
have seen the outpouring of the heart of a people whose loyal passion
is strong for the unity which binds a great History to a greater
Present, and which, under the temperate sceptre of our beloved Queen,
is leading Canada and Britain together in freedom to an assured and yet
more glorious Future. (Cheers.)

During a visit in 1879 to St. John, a city then suffering from the
effects of a disastrous fire, he said:--

Although there may be temporary pressure, and partial failure in trade,
not a year elapses that does not indicate progress made in the material
welfare of the country as a whole. The Dominion is steadily and surely
rising in wealth, in unity of feeling, in all that makes a nation. Our
territories are enormous, and no one need travel far in any Province,
but he will find new clearings and fresh settlements; while land in
abundance and of great excellence, as compared with much in the old
country, can be had almost for the asking.

Throughout our greater Britain, and steadily and surely upon these our
eastern coasts, the people increase from decade to decade,
notwithstanding the great attractions offered by the prairie lands of
the interior. No one can look at the district you inhabit without
feeling certain that this increase will continue. Impatient, restless,
and ignorant of his true interests would that man be, indeed, who,
under such circumstances, would not desire to tread in the steps of his
fathers, to face, with British pluck and spirit, any difficulties that
may arise; and to rejoice that his lot has been cast in that Empire
which has withstood every danger, whose might has been moulded by
centuries, and whose flag has never waved over any people whose
character has not been ennobled by the free institutions it represents.

In reply to an address of the City Corporation, he said:--

Mayor and Gentlemen,--The dignified and truthful words in which you
recall the trials through which many of your ancestors passed in this
country, now the happy home of their descendants, remind me how strong
to-day among you is the feeling of the duty of patriotism--a duty, the
fulfilment of which I rejoice to think is accompanied by no burden, but
brings with it the enjoyment of much political advantage. We have found
with pleasure that sufficient time has been at our disposal during this,
the first year after our arrival in the Dominion, when there have been
necessarily duties which have demanded attention at the capital and
journeys to be undertaken in other parts--to allow us to return to
those Maritime Provinces where we were first welcomed by a loyal people,
and to visit St. John, which must be regarded as the commercial capital
of even a wider district than is contained in New Brunswick itself.

Accept our thanks for meeting us here, on behalf of your city, and for
the genial reception tendered to us. I should indeed have considered
our first survey of our Dominion most incomplete had we been unable to
stay awhile among you.

Much we have been unable to see; many places in which we should wish to
spend some days, and where we might observe mining and other industries
successfully followed, we must hope to visit another year. In St. John
we arrive at once at one of the centres of life and activity on these
our eastern coasts. We observe with the greatest satisfaction the
evidences of the energy you bring to the aid of our common country, and
the important place you fill in promoting the welfare of our Federation.
The British people and foreign countries alike look upon the Dominion
as our Empire's eldest son, in whose life and character the nature
which has made the mother country stronger, the older it has grown, is
seen and recognised by all. You are entering on a glorious manhood,
which will, in future ages, stand forth in the beauty of strength and
pride of freedom, to be known in history as asserting a place among the
mighty of the earth.

The district is the scene of events wherein widely different actors
have played their parts, and interesting, indeed, is the development of
the story of which your harbour and town have been the theatre. Two
centuries ago the adventurer only knew this place--his company
stealing along the coast in small and battered craft, seeking a
settlement, obliged to guard against the savages of the forest, yet
full of visions of a great future for his new home, and endeavouring,
almost in vain, to interest Europe in his schemes. But the years
peopled the shores with sturdy colonists, who pushed their way,
although held down by difficulties of transport, by distance from other
settlements, by wars of race and by mutual jealousies. Now we see a
land whose natural loveliness and fertility is turned to the best
account, connected with all the life of Europe and America by countless
channels of communication, and using the arts of modern civilisation to
make the utmost of its political and geographical position.

In expressing to you our gratitude for the welcome you now give us,
accept our best wishes for your welfare, and let us utter a fervent
hope that the energy here exhibited, which no depression in trade can
master, and which even the ruin of fire has only been able, temporarily,
to affect, may receive full reward in the future prosperity of your
loyal and flourishing city.

During His Excellency's visit to Fredericton, the capital of the

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