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Manual of Gardening (Second Edition) by L. H. Bailey

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Adonis autumnalis.
Helianthus of several garden kinds (not mentioned elsewhere).
Ricinus, all varieties.
And many climbing vines.

* * * * *

_Distances for planting annuals_ (or plants treated as annuals).

Only an approximate idea can be given of the distances apart at which
annuals should be planted, for not only does the distance depend on the
fertility of the land (the stronger the soil the greater the distance),
but also on the object the person has in growing the plants, whether to
produce a solid mass effect or to secure strong specimen plants with
large individual bloom. If specimen plants are to be raised, the
distances should be liberal.

The distances here given for some of the commoner annuals may be
considered to represent average or usual spaces that single plants may
occupy under ordinary conditions in flowerbeds, although it would
probably be impossible to find any two gardeners or seedsmen who would
agree on the details. These are suggestions rather than recommendations.
It is always well to set or sow more plants than are wanted, for there
is danger of loss from cut-worms and other causes. The general tendency
is to let the plants stand too close together at maturity. In case of
doubt, place plants described in books and catalogues as very dwarf at
six inches, those as medium-sized at twelve inches, very large growers
at two feet, and thin them out if they seem to demand it as they grow.

The plants in these lists are thrown into four groups (rather than all
placed together with the numbers after them) in order to classify the
subject in the beginner's mind.

[Illustration: Fig. 246. Wild phlox (_P. maculata_), one of the parents
of the perennial garden phloxes.]

6 to 9 inches apart

Ageratum, very dwarf kinds.
Asperula setosa.
Clarkia, dwarf.
Gysophila muralis.
Larkspur, dwarf kinds.
Linum grandiflorum
Lobelia Erinus. Mignonette, dwarf kinds.
Phlox, very dwarf kinds.
Pinks, very dwarf kinds.
Silene Armeria.
Snapdragon, dwarf.
Sweet pea.

[Illustration: Fig. 247. Zinnias. Often known as "youth and old age."]

* * * * *

10 to 15 inches apart

Those marked (ft.) are examples of plants that may usually stand at
twelve inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 248. Improved perennial phlox.]

Abronia (ft.).
Adonis autumnalis.
Ageratum, tall kinds.
Aster, China, smaller kinds (ft.).
California poppy (Eschscholtzia).
Carnation, flower-garden kinds (ft.).
Celosia, small kinds.
Centaurea Cyanus.
Centauridium (ft.).
Centranthus (ft.).
Clarkia, tall (ft.).
Convolvulus tricolor (ft.).
Gaillardia, except on strong land.
Godetia (ft.).
Gypsophila elegans.
Helichrysum (ft.).
Jacobaea. {kinds.
Larkspur, tall annual
Malope. {varieties.
Marigold, intermediate
Mignonette, tall kinds.
(ice-plant) (ft.).
Nasturtium, dwarf.
Phlox Drummondii.
Poppies (6 to 18 in.,
according to variety).
Portulaca (ft.).
Salpiglossis (ft.).
Scabiosa (ft.).
Snapdragon, tall kinds.
Statice (ft.).
Stock (ft.).
Tagetes, dwarf French.
Thunbergia (ft.).
Whitlavia (ft.), {(ft.).
Zinnia, very dwarf kinds

[Illustration: Fig 249. Eschscholtzia, or California poppy. One-half

18 to 24 inches

Aster, China, the big kinds (or rows 2 ft. apart and plants 1 ft. in row).
Canterbury bell (up to 3 ft.).
Celosia, large kinds (up to 30 in.).
Chrysanthemum, annual.
Cosmos, smaller kinds.
Euphorbia marginata.
Four o'clock (up to 30 in.)
Hop, Japanese. (to 30 in.)
Kochia, or summer cypress
Marigold, tall kinds.
Nasturtium, tall, if allowed to
spread on the ground.
Nicotiana (up to 30 in.).
oenothera, tall kinds.
Salvia coccinea (_splendens
grandiflora_), about 2 ft.
Zinnia, tall kinds (up to 3 ft).

[Illustration: Fig. 250. A modern peony.]

About 3 feet or more

Cosmos, tall kinds (2 to 3 ft.).
Ricinus or castor bean.
Sunflower, tall kinds.


There is a rapidly growing appreciation of perennial herbs, not only as
flower-garden and lawn subjects, but as parts of native landscapes.
Every locality yields its wild asters, golden-rods, columbines, iris,
trilliums, lilies, anemones, pentstemons, mints, sunflowers, or other
plants; and many of these also make good subjects for the home grounds.

It is important to remember that some perennial herbs begin to fail
after one to three seasons of full bloom. It is a good plan to have new
plants coming on to take their place; or the old roots may be taken up
in the fall and divided, only the fresh and strong parts being
planted again.

Perennial herbs are propagated in various ways,--by seeds, and by
cuttings of the stems and roots, but mostly by the easy method of
division. On the raising of these plants from seeds, William Falconer
writes as follows in Dreer's "Garden Book" for 1909:--

"Hardy perennials are easily grown from seed. In many cases they are a
little slower than annuals, but with intelligent care they are
successfully raised, and from seed is an excellent way to get up a big
stock of perennials. Many sorts, if sown in spring, bloom the first year
from seeds as early as annuals; for instance: gaillardia, Iceland
poppies, Chinese larkspur, platycodon, etc. Others do not bloom until
the second year.

"The amateur may have more success and less bother growing perennials
from seed sown in the open ground than from any other way. Prepare a bed
in a nice, warm, sheltered spot in the garden, preferably not very
sunny. Let the surface of the bed be raised four or five inches above
the general level, and the soil be a mellow fine earth on the surface.
Draw shallow rows across the surface of the bed three or four inches
apart, and here sow the seeds, keeping the varieties of one kind or
nature as much together as practicable, covering the seeds thinly; press
the whole surface gently, water moderately, then dust a little fine
loose soil over all. If the weather is sunny or windy, shade with papers
or a few branches, but remove these in the evening. When the seedlings
come up, thin them out to stiffen those that are left, and when they are
two or three inches high, they are fit for transplanting into permanent
quarters. All this should be done in early spring, say March, April, or
May. Again, in July or August perennials are very easily raised out of
doors, and much in the same way as above. Or they may be sown in early
spring indoors, in the window, the hotbed, the coldframe, or the
greenhouse, preferably in boxes or pans, as for growing annuals. Some
gardeners sow seed right in the coldframe. I have tried both ways, and
find the boxes best, as the different varieties of seeds do not come up
at the same time, and you can remove them from the close frame to more
airy quarters as soon as the seed comes up, whereas, if sown in a frame,
you would have to give them all the same treatment. When the seedlings
are large enough, I transplant them into other boxes, and put them into
a shady part of the garden, but not under the shade of trees, as there
they will 'draw' too much. About the fifteenth of September plant them
in the garden where they are to bloom, or if the garden is full of
summer-flowering plants, put them in beds in the vegetable garden, to be
planted out in the early spring, and give them a light covering of straw
or manure to keep sudden changes of the weather away from them."

Hardy perennial herbs may be planted in September and October with
excellent results; also in spring. See that they are protected with
mulch in winter.

_Perennial herbs suitable for lawn and "planting" effects._

Some of the striking plants that are valuable for lawn planting in the
North, chosen chiefly on account of their size, foliage, and habit, are
mentioned in the following brief list. They may or may not be suitable
for flower-gardens. It is impossible to give to this list any degree of
completeness; but the names here printed will be suggestive of the kinds
of things that may be used. The asterisk (A) denotes native plants.

Yucca, _Yucca filamentosa._(A)

Funkia, _Funkia,_ of several species.

Peltate saxifrage, _Saxifraga peltata._(A)

Rose mallow, _Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)

Elecampane, _Inula Helenium_ (Fig. 251).

Wild sunflowers, _Helianthus_(A) of different species, especially _H.
orygalis, H. giganteus, H. grosse-serratus, H. strumosus._

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Elecampane. Naturalized in old fields and along

Compass-plants, _Silphium_(A) of several species, especially _S.
terebinthinaceum, S. laciniatum, S. perfoliatum._

Sacaline, _Polygonum Sachalinense._

Japanese knotweed, _Polygonum cuspidatum._

Bocconia, _Bocconia cordata._

Wild wormwood, _Artemisia Stelleriana_(A) and others.

Butterfly-weed, _Asclepias tuberosa._(A)

Wild asters, _Aster_(A) of many species, especially _A. Novae-Anglae_
(best), _A. laevis, A. multiflorus, A. spectabilis._

Golden-rods, _Solidago_(A) of various species, especially _S. speciosa,
S. nemoralis, S. juncea, S. gigantea._

Loose-strife, _Lythrum Salicaria._

Flags, _Iris_ of many species, some native.

Japanese wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._

Goat's beard, _Aruncus sylvester (Spiraea Aruncus_).(A)

Baptisia, _Baptisia tinctoria._(A)

Thermopsis, _Thermopsis mollis._(A)

Wild senna, _Cassia Marilandica._(A)

Wild trefoil, _Desmodium Canadense_(A) and others.

Ribbon grass, _Phalaris arundinacea_(A) var. _picta._

Zebra grass, _Eulalia_ (or _Miscanthus_) species, and varieties.

Wild panic grass, _Panicum virgatum._(A)

Bambusas (and related things) of several sorts.

Ravenna grass, _Erianthus Ravennae_.

Arundo, _Arundo Donax,_ and var. _variegata._

Reed, _Phragmites communis._(A)

This and the remaining plants of the list should be planted in the edges
of water or in bogs (the list might be greatly extended).

Wild rice, _Zizania aquatica._(A)

Cat-tail, _Typha angustifolia_(A) and _T. latifolia._(A)

Lizard's-tail, _Saururus cernuus._(A)

Peltandra, _Peltandra undulata._(A)

Orontium, _Orontium aquaticum._(A)

Native calla, _Calla palustris._(A)

_A brief seasonal flower-garden or border list of herbaceous

To facilitate making a selection of perennial herbs for bloom, the
plants in the following list are arranged according to their flowering
season, beginning with the earliest. The name of the month indicates
when they usually begin to bloom. It should be understood that the
blooming season of plants is not a fixed period, but varies more or
less with localities and seasons. These dates are applicable to most of
the middle and northern states. Natives to North America are marked with
an asterisk (A). This list is by Ernest Walker.


Blue Wind-flower, _Anemone blanda._ 6 in. March-May. Sky-blue, star-like
flowers. Foliage deeply cut. For border and rockwork.

Bloodroot, _Sanguinaria Canadensis._(A) 6 in. March-April. Pure white.
Glaucous foliage. Partial shade. Border or rock-work.


Mountain Rock-cress, _Arabis albida._ 6 in. April-June. Flowers pure
white; close heads in profusion. Fragrant. For dry places and rock-work.

Purple Rock-cress, _Aubrietia deltoidea._ 6 in. April-June. Small purple
flowers in great profusion.

Daisy, _Bellis perennis,_ 4-6 in. April-July. Flowers white, pink, or
red; single or double. The double varieties are the more desirable.
Cover the plants in winter with leaves. May be raised from seed,
like pansies.

Spring Beauty, _Claytonia Virginica._(A) 6 in. April-May. Clusters of
light pink flowers. Partial shade. From six to a dozen should be
set together.

Shooting Star, _Dodecatheon Meadia._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Reddish purple
flowers, orange-yellow eye, in clusters. Cool, shady location. Plant
several in a place.

Dog's-bane, _Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._ 20 in. April-June.
Large, showy flowers; orange-yellow. Bushy plants.

Liver-leaf, _Hepatica acutiloba_(A) and _triloba._(A) 6 in. April-May.
Flowers small but numerous, varying white and pink. Partial shade.

Hardy Candytuft, _Iberis sempervirens._ 10 in. April-May. Small white
flowers in clusters; profuse. Large, spreading, evergreen tufts.

Alpine Lamp-flower, _Lychnis alpina._(A) 6 in. April-May. Flowers
star-like, in showy heads; pink. For border and rockery.

Early Forget-me-not, _Myosotis dissitiflora._ 6 in. April-June. Small
clusters of deep sky-blue flowers. Tufted habit.

[Illustration: Fig. 252. The wild Trillium grandiflorum.]

Everblooming F., _M. palustris_ var. _semperflorens._ 10 in. Light blue;
spreading habit.

Blue-bells, _Mertensia Virginica._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Flowers blue,
changing to pink; pendent; tubular; not showy, but beautiful. Rich
soil. Partial shade.

Tree Peony, _Paeonia Moutan._ (See _May,_ Paeonia.)

Moss Pink, _Phlox subulata._(A) 6 in. April-June. Numerous deep pink,
small flowers; creeping habit; evergreen. Suitable for dry places as a
covering plant.

_Trilliums._(A) Of several species; always attractive and useful in the
border (Fig. 252). They are common in rich woods and copses. Dig the
tubers in late summer and plant them directly in the border. The large
ones will bloom the following spring. The same may be said of the
erythronium, or dog's-tooth violet or adder's tongue, and of very many
other early wild flowers.


_Ajuga reptans._ 6 in. May-June. Spikes of purple flowers. Grows well in
shady places; spreading. A good cover plant.

Madwort, _Alyssum saxatile_ var. _compactum._ 1 ft. May-June. Flowers
fragrant, in clusters, clear golden-yellow. Foliage silvery.
Well-drained soil. One of the best yellow flowers.

Columbine, _Aquilegia glandulosa_ and others (Fig. 253). 1 ft. May-June.
Deep blue sepals; white petals. Aquilegias are old favorites. (See
_June._) The wild _A. Canadensis_(A) is desirable.

Lily-of-the-Valley, _Convallaria majalis._(A) 8 in. May-June. Racemes of
small white bells; fragrant. Well known. Partial shade. (See
Chap. VIII.)

Fumitory, _Corydalis nobilis._ 1 ft. May-June. Large clusters of fine
yellow flowers. Bushy, upright habit. Does well in partial shade.

Bleeding-Heart, _Dicentra spectabilis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June. Well known.
Racemes of heart-shaped, deep pink and white flowers. Will bear
partial shade.

Crested Iris, _Iris cristata._(A) 6 in. May-June. Flowers blue, fringed
with yellow. Leaves sword-shaped.

German Iris, _I. Germanica._ 12-15 in. May-June. Numerous varieties and
colors. Large flowers, 3-4 on a stem. Broad, glaucous,
sword-shaped leaves.

Peony, _Paeonia officinalis._ 2 ft. May-June. This is the well-known
herbaceous peony. There are numerous varieties and hybrids.

[Illustration: Figure 253. One of the columbines.]

Large flowers, 4-6 in. across. Crimson, white, pink, yellowish, etc.
Suitable for lawn or the border. Fig. 250.

Tree Peony, _P. Moutan._ 4ft. April-May. Numerous named varieties.
Flowers as above, excepting yellow. Branched, dense, shrubby habit.

Meadow Sage, _Salvia pratensis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June, August. Spikes of
deep blue flowers. Branching from the ground.


_Achillea Ptarmica, fl. pl._, var. "The Pearl." 1/2 ft. June-August.
Small double white flowers, in few-flowered clusters. Rich soil.

Wind-flower, _Anemone Pennsylvanica._(A) 18 in. June-September. White
flowers on long stems. Erect habit. Does well in the shade.

St. Bruno's Lily, _Paradisea Liliastrum._ 18 in. June-July. Bell-like,
white flowers in handsome spikes.

Golden-spurred Columbine, _Aquilegia chrysantha._(A) 3 ft. June-August.
Golden flowers with slender spurs; fragrant.

Rocky Mountain Columbine, _A. coerulea._(A) 1 ft. June-August. Flowers
with white petals and deep blue sepals, 2-3 in. in diameter.
(See _May._)

Woodruff, _Asperula odorata._ 6 in. June-July. Small white flowers.
Herbage fragrant when wilted. Does well in shade; spreading habit. Used
for flavoring drinks, scenting and protecting garments.

_Astilbe Japonica_ (incorrectly called Spiraea). 2 ft. June-July. Small
white flowers in a feathery inflorescence. Compact habit.

Poppy Mallow, _Callirrhoe involucrata._(A) 10 in. June-October. Large
crimson flowers, with white centers. Trailing habit. For border
and rockery.

Carpathian Harebell, _Campanula Carpatica_ (Fig. 254). 8 in.
June-September. Flowers deep blue. Tufted habit. For border or rockery.
Good for cutting.

_C. glomerata_ var. _Dahurica._ 2 ft. June-August. Deep purple flowers
in terminal clusters. Branching from the ground. Erect habit.

Canterbury Bell, _C. Medium._ An old favorite. It is biennial, but
blooms the first season if sown early.

_Corydalis lutea._ 1 ft. June-September. Flowers yellow, in terminal
clusters. Loose branching habit. Glaucous foliage.

Scotch Pink, _Dianthus plumarius._ 10 in. June-July. White and
pink-ringed flowers on slender stems. Densely tufted habit.

Fringed Pink, _D. superbus._ 18 in. July-August. Fringed flowers. Lilac

Gas Plant, _Dictamnus Fraxinella._ 3 ft. June. Flowers purple, showy,
fragrant; in long spikes. Regular habit. Var. _alba._ White.

_Gaillardia aristata._(A) 2 ft. June-October. Showy orange and maroon
flowers on long stems. Good for cutting. Hybrid gaillardias offer quite
a variety of brilliant colors.

_Heuchera sanguinea._(A) 18 in. June-September. Flowers in open
panicles, scarlet, on clustered stems from a tufted mass of
pretty foliage.

Japan Iris, _Iris laevigata (I. Kaempferi)._ 2-3 ft. June-July. Large
flowers of various colors, in variety. Green, sword-like leaves. Dense
tufted habit. Prefers a moist situation.

[Illustration: Fig. 254. Campanula Carpatica.]

Blazing Star, _Liatris spicata._(A) 2 ft. June-August. Spikes of fine,
small purple flowers. Slender foliage. Unbranched, erect stems. Will
grow in the poorest soil.

Iceland Poppy, _Papaver nudicaule._(A) 1 ft. June-October. Bright yellow
flowers. A close, dense habit. Erect, naked stems. The varieties Album,
white, and Miniatum, deep orange, are also desirable.

Oriental Poppy, _P. orientale._ 2-4 ft. June. Flowers 6-8 in. across;
deep scarlet, with a purple spot at the base of each petal. There are
other varieties of pink, orange, and crimson shades.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A) 3-4 ft. June-September. Crimson
flowers in long spikes. Branching from the base. Erect habit.

[Illustration: XII. The back yard, with heavy flower-garden planting.]

Perennial Phlox, _Phlox paniculata_(A) and hybrids with _P.
maculata._(A) 2-3 ft. June. A great variety of colors in selfs and
variegated forms. Flowers borne in large, flat panicles. (Figs.
246, 248.)

_Rudbeckia maxima_(A) 5-6 ft. August. Large flowers; cone-like center
and long, drooping, yellow petals.

Dropwort, _Ulmaria Filipendula._ 3 ft. June-July. White flowers in
compact clusters. Tufted foliage, dark green and handsomely cut. Erect
stems. (Often referred to Spiraea.)

Adam's Needle, _Yucca filamentosa._(A) 4-5 ft. June-July. Waxen white,
pendulous, liliaceous flowers in a great thyrsus. Leaves long, narrow,
dark green, with marginal filaments. For the lawn, and for massing in
large grounds.


Hollyhock, _Althaea rosea._ 5-8 ft. Summer and fall. Flowers white,
crimson, and yellow, lavender and purple. Stately plants of spire-like
habit; useful for the back of the border, or beds and groups. The newer
double varieties have flowers as fine as a camellia. The plant is nearly
biennial, but in rich, well-drained soil and with winter protection it
becomes perennial. Easily grown from seed, blooming the second year.
Seeds may be sown in August in frames and carried over winter in the
same place. The first year's bloom is usually the best.

Yellow Chamomile, _Anthemis tinctoria._ 12-38 in. July-November. Flowers
bright yellow, 1-2 in. in diameter. Useful for cutting. Dense,
bushy habit.

_Delphinium Chinense._ 3 ft. July-September. Variable colors; from deep
blue to lavender and white. Fine for the border.

_D. formosum._ 4 ft. July-September. Fine spikes of rich blue flowers.
One of the finest blue flowers cultivated.

_Funkia lancifolia._ (See under _August._)

_Helianthus multiflorus_(A) var. _fl. pl._ 4 ft. July-September. Large
double flowers, of a fine golden color. Erect habit. An
excellent flower.

_Lychnis Viscaria_ var. _flore pleno._ 12-15 in. July-August. Double,
deep rose-red flowers in spikes. For groups and masses.

_Monarda didyma._(A) 2 ft. July-October. Showy scarlet flowers in
terminal heads.

_Pentstemon grandiflorus.(A) 2_ ft. July-August. Leafy spikes of showy
purple flowers.

_P. loevigalus_ var. _Digitalis._(A) 3 ft. July-August. Pure white
flowers in spikes, with purple throats.

_Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanula grandiflora)_. 3 ft. July-September.
Deep blue, bell-shaped flowers. Dense, fine, erect habit.

_P. Mariesi._ 1 ft. July-September. Flowers larger; deep violet-blue.
Heavier foliage.


Day Lily, _Funkia subcordata._ 18 in. August-October. Trumpet,
lily-like, pure-white flowers in clusters, borne upon a stalk from the
midst of a group of heart-shaped green leaves.

_F. lancifolia_ var. _albo-marginata._ July-August. Lavender flowers.
Lance-like leaves margined with white.

Flame Flower, _Kniphofia aloides (Tritoma Uvaria_). 3 ft.
August-September. Bright orange-scarlet flowers, in close, dense spikes,
at the summit of several scape-like stems. Leaves slender, forming a
large tuft. For lawn and borders. Hardy only when covered with litter or
straw in winter.

Cardinal Flower, _Lobelia cardinalis._(A) 2-1/4-4 ft. August-September.
Flowers intense cardinal-red, of unrivaled brilliancy. Tall spikes.
Stems clustered; erect.

Giant Daisy, _Chrysanthemum_ (or _Pyrethrum) uliginosum._ 3-5 ft.
July-October. Flowers white, with golden centers. About 2 in. across. A
stout, upright, bushy plant. Useful for cutting.

Golden Glow, _Rudbeckia laciniata._(A) 6-7 ft. August-September. Large
double golden-yellow flowers in great profusion. Bushy habit. Cut off
when done flowering. Leaves appear at the base and a new crop of
flowers, on stems about 1 ft. high, appear in October.

Goldenrod, _Solidago rigida._(A) 3-5 ft. August-October. Flowers large
for this genus, in close, short racemes in a corymbose-paniculate
cluster. Fine, deep yellow. Erect habit. One of the best of the


Japanese Wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._ 2 ft. August-October. Flowers
large, bright red. One of the best autumn flowers.

_A. Japonica_ var. _alba._ Flowers pure white, with yellow centers. Fine
for cutting.


_Hardy Chrysanthemums._ The Chinese and Japanese Chrysanthemums, so well
known, are hardy in light, well-drained soils, if well protected with
litter or leaves during the winter, and in such situations will stand
without protection south of Indianapolis. Chrysanthemums are gross
feeders, and should have a rich soil.

But there is a race of hardier or border chrysanthemums that is again
coming into favor, and it is sure to give much satisfaction to those who
desire flowers in latest fall. These chrysanthemums are much like the
"artemisias" of our mother's gardens, although improved in size, form,
and in range of color.

_One hundred extra-hardy perennial herbs._

The following list of 100 "best hardy perennials" is adapted from a
report of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario. These plants
are chosen from over 1000 species and varieties that have been on trial
at that place. Those considered to be the best twenty-five for Canada
are marked by a dagger (D); and those native to North America by an
asterisk (A).

_Achillea Ptarmica flore pleno._--Height, 1 foot; in bloom fourth week
of June; flowers, small, pure white, double, and borne in clusters;
blooming freely throughout the summer. (D)

_Aconitum autumnale._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; September; flowers, bluish
purple, borne in loose panicles.

_Aconitum Napellus._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; July; flowers, deep blue,
borne on a large terminal spike; desirable for the rear of the border.

_Adonis vernalis._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of May; flowers,
large, lemon-yellow, borne singly from the ends of the stems.

_Agrostemma (Lychnis) Coronaria_ var. _atropurpurea._--Height, 1 to 2
feet; fourth week of June; flowers, medium size, bright crimson, borne
singly from the sides and ends of the stems; a very showy plant with
silvery foliage, and continues to bloom throughout the summer.

_Anemone patens._(A)--Height 6 to 9 inches; fourth week of April;
flowers, large, and deep purple.

_Anthemis tinctoria_ var. _Kelwayi._--Height, 1 to 2 feet; fourth week
of June; flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems; it
continues to bloom profusely throughout the summer; is very showy and
valuable for cutting. (D)

_Aquilegia Canadensis._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; third week of May;
flowers, medium size, red and yellow.

_Aquilegia chrysantha._(A)--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, large, bright lemon-yellow, with long slender spurs; much later
than other columbines. (D)

_Aquilegia coerulea._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; fourth week of May;
flowers, large, deep blue with white center and long spurs. (D)

_Aquilegia glandulosa._--Height, 1 foot; third week of May; flowers,
large, deep blue with white center and short spurs.

_Aquilegia oxysepala._--Height, 1 foot; second week in May; flowers,
large, deep purplish blue with blue and yellow centers; a very desirable
early species.

_Aquilegia Stuarti._--Height 9 to 12 inches; third week of May; flowers,
large, deep blue with white center; one of the best.

_Arabis alpina._--Height, 6 inches; first week in May; flowers, small,
pure white, in clusters.

_Arnebia echioides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers,
yellow, borne in clusters with petals spotted with purple. One of the
most charming of early flowering plants.

_Asclepias tuberosa._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; third week of July.
Flowers, bright orange, borne in clusters. Very showy.

_Aster alpinus._(A)--Height, 9 inches; first week of June; flowers,
large, bright purple, borne on long stems from the base of the plant;
the earliest flowering of all the asters.

_Aster Amellus_ var. _Bessarabicus._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; July to
September; flowers, large, deep purple, singly on long stems; very
fine. (D)

_Aster Novae-Anglae_ var. _roseus._(A)--Height, 5 to 7 feet; fourth
week of August; flowers, bright pink, borne profusely in large terminal
clusters; very showy.

_Boltonia asteroides_(A)--Height, 4 to 5 feet; September; flowers,
smaller than the next, pale pink, borne very profusely in large
panicles; much later than the next species.

_Boltonia latisquama_(A)--Height, 4 feet; first week of August; flowers,
large, white, somewhat resembling asters, and borne very profusely in
large panicles.

_Campanula Carpatica._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of July;
flowers, medium size, deep blue, borne profusely in loose panicles;
continues in bloom throughout the summer. A white variety of this is
also good.

_Campanula Grossekii._--Height, 3 feet; first week of July; flowers,
large, deep blue, borne on a long spike.

_Campanula persicifolia._--Height, 3 feet; flowers, large, blue, borne
in a raceme with long flower stems. There are also white and double
varieties which are good.

_Clematis recta._--Height, 4 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, small,
pure white, borne profusely in dense clusters. This is a very compact
bushy species and desirable for the rear of the border. _Clematis
Jackmani_ with large deep purple flowers and _Clematis Vitalba_ with
small white flowers, are excellent climbing sorts.

_Convallaria majalis_(A) (Lily-of-the-valley).--Height, 6 to 9 inches;
latter part of May.

_Coreopsis delphiniflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July;
flowers, large, yellow, with dark centers and borne singly with
long stems.

_Coreopsis grandiflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems, blooming
profusely throughout the summer.

_Coreopsis lanceolata._(A)--Height, 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers
large though slightly smaller than the last, and borne on long stems,
blooming throughout the season.(D)

_Delphinium Cashmerianum._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July;
flowers, pale to bright blue, in large open heads.(D)

_Dianthus plumarius flore pleno._--Height, 9 inches; second week of
June; flowers, large, white or pink, very sweet scented; and two or
three borne on a stem. A variety called Mrs. Simkins is especially
desirable, being very double, white and deliciously perfumed, almost
equaling a carnation. It blooms the fourth week of June.

_Dicentra spectabilis_ (Bleeding Heart).--Height, 3 feet; second week of
May; flowers, heart-shaped, red and white in pendulous racemes.

_Dictamnus albus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, white with an aromatic fragrance, and borne in large terminal
racemes. A well-known variety has purple flowers with darker markings.

_Doronicum Caucasicum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers,
large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._--Height, 2 feet; third week of
May; flowers, large and deep yellow.(D)

_Epimedium rubrum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers, small,
bright crimson and white, borne in a loose panicle. A very dainty and
beautiful little plant.

_Erigeron speciosus._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of July;
flowers, large, violet-blue, with yellow centers, and borne in large
clusters on long stems.

_Funkia subcordata (grandiflora)._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; August; flowers,
large and white, borne in racemes. The best funkia grown at Ottawa; both
leaves and flowers are handsome.

_Gaillardia aristata_ var. _grandiflora._(A)--Height, 1 1/2 feet; third
week of June; flowers, large, yellow, with deep orange centers, and
borne singly on long stems. The named varieties, Superba and Perfection,
are more highly colored and are of great merit. These all continue
blooming profusely until late in the autumn.(D)

_Gypsophila paniculata_ (Infant's breath).--Height, 2 feet; second week
of July; flowers, small, white, borne profusely in large open panicles.

_Helenium autumnale_(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of July;
flowers, large, deep yellow, borne in large heads; very ornamental in
late summer.

_Helianthus doronicoides._(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of
August; flowers, large, bright yellow, and borne singly; continues
blooming for several weeks.

_Helianthus multiflorus._(A)--Height, 4 feet; flowers, large, double,
bright yellow, and borne singly; a very striking late-flowering

_Heuchera sanguinea_(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; first week of June;
flowers, small, bright, scarlet, borne in open panicles; continues
blooming throughout the summer.

_Hemerocallis Dumortierii._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, large, orange-yellow, with a brownish tinge on the outside, and
three or four on a stem.(D)

_Hemerocallis flava._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of June;
flowers, bright orange-yellow and fragrant.(D)

_Hemerocallis minor._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; second week of July;
flowers, medium size and yellow; blooms later than the two preceding
species and has a smaller flower and narrower foliage.

_Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)--Height, 5 feet; third week of August;
flowers, very large, varying in color from white to deep pink. A variety
called "Crimson Eye" is very good. This plant makes a fine show in
late summer.

_Hypericum Ascyron_ (or _pyramidatum_).(A)--Height, 3 feet; fourth week
of July; flowers, large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Iberis sempervirens._--Height, 6 to 12 inches; third week of May;
flowers, pure white, fragrant, and borne in dense flat clusters.(D)

_Iris Chamoeiris._--Height, 6 inches; fourth week of May; flowers,
bright yellow with brown markings.

_Iris flavescens._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of June;
flowers, lemon-yellow with brown markings.

_Iris Florentina._--Height, 2 feet; first week of June; flowers, very
large, pale blue or lavender, sweet scented.(D)

_Iris Germanica._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers,
very large, of elegant form; color, deep lilac and bright purple, sweet
scented. There is a large number of choice varieties of this iris.(D)

_Iris loevigata (Koempferi)._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of
July; flowers, purple and modified colors, very large and distinct in
color and shape.(D)

_Iris pumila._--Height, 4 to 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, deep
purple. There are several varieties.

_Iris Sibirica._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of May; flowers,
deep blue, borne on long stems in clusters of two or three. This species
has many varieties.

_Iris variegata._--Height, 1 to 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers,
yellow and brown, veined with various shades of brown.

_Lilium auratum._--Height, 3 to 5 feet; July; flowers, very large,
white, with a yellow central band on each petal, and thickly spotted
with purple and red. The most showy of all lilies and a splendid flower.
This has proved hardy at the Central Experimental Farm, although it has
been reported tender in some localities.(D)

_Lilium Canadense._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of May;
flowers, yellow to pale red with reddish spots, pendulous.

_Lilium elegans._--Height, 6 inches; first week of July; flowers, pale
red; several varieties are better than the type.

_Lilium speciosum._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; July; flowers, large, white,
tinged and spotted with deep pink and red. Hardier than _Lilium_
_auratum_ and almost as fine. There are several fine varieties.(D)

_Lilium superbum._(A)--Height, 4 to 6 feet; first week of July; flowers,
very numerous, orange red, thickly spotted with dark brown. An admirable
lily for the rear of the border. (D)

_Lilium tenuifolium._--Height, 1 1/2 to 2 feet; third week of June;
flowers, pendulous and bright scarlet. One of the most graceful of
all lilies.

_Lilium tigrinum._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; flowers, large, deep orange,
spotted thickly with purplish black.

_Linum perenne._--Height, 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers, large
deep blue, borne in loose panicles, continuing throughout the summer.

_Lobelia cardinalis._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; August; flowers, bright
scarlet, borne in terminal racemes; very showy.

_Lychnis Chalcedonica flore pleno._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of
July; flowers, bright crimson, double, and borne in terminal racemes.

_Lysimachia clethroides._--Height, 3 feet; fourth week of July; flowers,
white, borne in long spikes. A very striking late-flowering perennial.

_Myosotis alpestris._--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers,
small, bright blue with a yellowish eye. A very profuse bloomer.

_OEnothera Missouriensis._(A)--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of June;
flowers, very large, rich yellow, and borne singly, throughout
the summer.

_Poeonia officinalis._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; early part of July. The
double-flowered varieties are the best, and can be obtained in several
colors and shades, (D)

_Papaver nudicaule_(A)--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers,
medium size, orange, white, or yellow, almost continuously until late
autumn. (D)

_Papaver orientale._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers,
very large, scarlet, and variously marked, according to variety, there
being many forms.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first
week of July; flowers, deep red, borne in long spikes, very ornamental.

_Phlox amoena._(A)--Height, 6 inches; second week of May; flowers,
medium size, bright pink, in compact clusters.

_Phlox decussata_(A) (the garden perennial hybrids).--Height, 1 to 3
feet; third week of July; flowers, of many beautiful shades and colors,
are found in the large number of named varieties of this phlox, which
continues to bloom until late in the autumn. (D)

_Phlox reptans._(A)--Height, 4 inches; fourth week of May; flowers,
medium size, purple, and borne in small clusters.

_Phlox subulata_(A) _(setacea)_.--Height, 6 inches; third week of May;
flowers, medium size, deep pink, and borne in small clusters.

_Platycodon grandiflorum._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of
July; flowers, very large, deep blue, borne singly or in twos.(D)

_Platycodon grandiflorum_ var. _album._--A white-flowered variety of the
above and makes a fine contrast to it when they are grown together. It
blooms a few days earlier than the species.

_Platycodon Mariesii._--Height, 1 foot; second week of July; flowers,
large and deep blue.

_Polemonium coeruleum._(A)--Height, 2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, deep blue, borne in terminal spikes.

_Polemonium reptans._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers,
medium in size, blue, and borne profusely in loose clusters.

_Polemonium Richardsoni._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May;
flowers, medium in size, blue, borne profusely in pendulous panicles.

_Potentilla hybrida_ var. _versicolor._--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of
June; flowers, large, deep orange and yellow, semi-double.

_Primula cortusoides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers,
small, deep rose, in compact heads.

_Pyrethrum_ (or _Chrysanthemum_) _uliginosum._--Height, 4 feet;
September; flowers, large, white with yellow centers, and borne singly
on long stems.

_Rudbeckia laciniata_(A) (Golden Glow).--Height, 5 to 6 feet; August;
flowers, large, lemon-yellow, double, and borne on long stems. One of
the best of lately introduced perennials. (D)

_Rudbeckia maxima._(A)--Height, 5 to 6 feet; July and August; flowers,
large, with a long cone-shaped center and bright yellow rays, and borne
singly. The whole plant is very striking.

_Scabiosa Caucascia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers,
large, light blue, and borne singly on long stems, very freely
throughout remainder of the summer.

_Solidago Canadensis_(A) (Golden-rod).--Height, 3 to 5 feet; first week
of August; flowers, small, golden yellow, and borne in dense panicles.

_Spiraea_ (properly _Aruncus_)_ astilboides._--Height, 2 feet; fourth
week of June; flowers, small, white, very numerous, and borne in many
branched panicles. Both foliage and flowers are ornamental.

_Spiraea_ (or _Ulmaria_) _Filipendula._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; third week
of June; flowers, pure white, borne profusely in loose panicles. The
foliage of this species is also very good. There is a double flowered
variety which is very effective. (D)

_Spiraea (Ulmaria) purpurea_ var. _elegans._--Height, 2 to 3 feet;
first week of July; flowers, whitish with crimson anthers, borne very
profusely in panicles.

_Spiraea Ulmaria (Ulmaria pentapetala_).--Height, 3 to 4 feet; second
week of July; flowers, very numerous, dull white, borne in large
compound heads, having a soft, feathery appearance.

_Spiraea venusta (Ulmaria rubra_ var. _venusta_).--Height, 4 feet; second
week of July; flowers, small, bright pink, borne profusely in large
panicles. (D)

_Statice latifolia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers,
small, blue, borne very profusely in loose panicles. Very effective in
the border.

_Thalictrum aquilegifolium._--Height, 4 to 5 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, small, white to purplish, very numerous and borne in
large panicles.

_Trollius Europoeus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; fourth week of May;
flowers, large, bright yellow, continuing a long time.


_(See the particular culture of the different kinds in Chapter VIII; and
instructions for forcing on p. 345.)_

It is customary to write of bulbs and tubers together, because the tops
and flowers of all the bulbous and tuberous plants spring from large
reservoirs of stored food, giving rise to similar methods of culture and
of storage.

Structurally, the bulb is very different from the tuber, however. A bulb
is practically a large dormant bud, the scales representing the leaves,
and the embryo stem lying in the center. Bulbs are condensed plants in
storage. The tuber, on the other hand, is a solid body, with buds
arising from it. Some tubers represent thickened stems, as the Irish
potato, and some thickened roots, as probably the sweet-potato, and some
both stem and root, as the turnip, parsnip, and beet. Some tubers are
very bulb-like in appearance, as the corms of crocus and gladiolus.

Using the word "bulb" in the gardener's sense to include all these
plants as a cultural group, we may throw them into two classes: the
hardy kinds, to be planted in fall; and the tender kinds, to be planted
in spring.

_Fall-planted bulbs._

The fall-planted bulbs are of two groups: the "Holland bulbs" or early
spring bloomers, as crocus, tulip (Fig. 255), hyacinth (Fig. 262),
narcissus (Fig. 260), squill (Fig. 256), snowdrop; the summer bloomers,
as lilies (Figs. 258, 259). The treatments of the two groups are so
similar that they may be discussed together.

[Illustration Fig: 255. Tulips, the warmest of spring flowers.]

All these bulbs may be planted as soon as they are mature; but in
practice they are kept till late September or October before they are
put into the ground, as nothing is gained by earlier planting, and,
moreover, the ground is usually not ready to receive them until some
other crop is removed.

[Illustration: Fig 256. One of the squills.--_Scilla bifolia._]

These bulbs are planted in the fall (1) because they keep better in the
ground than when stored; (2) because they will take root in fall and
winter and be ready for the first warmth of spring; (3) and because it
is usually impossible to get on the ground early enough in spring to
plant them with much hope of success for that season.

The bulbs lie dormant until spring, so far as outward appearances go;
they are mulched to insure that they will not start in warm weather of
fall or winter, and to protect the ground from heaving.

[Illustration: Fig. 257. A purple-flowered Amaryllis.--_Lycoris
squamigera,_ but known as _Amaryllis Hallii._]

To secure good bulbs and of the desired varieties, the order should be
placed in spring or early summer. For flower-garden effects, the large
and mature bulbs should be secured; for colonizing in shrubbery or on
the lawn, the smaller sizes may be sufficient. Insist that your bulbs
shall be first class, for there is wide difference in the quality; even
with the best of treatment, good results cannot be secured from
poor bulbs.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. The Japanese gold-banded lily.--_Lilium

It is not generally known that there are autumn-flowering bulbs. Several
species of crocus bloom in the fall, _C. sativus_ (the saffron crocus)
and _C. speciosus_ being the ones generally recommended. The colchicums
are excellent autumn-blooming bulbs and should be more generally
planted. _C. autumnale,_ rosy purple, is the usual species. These
autumn-blooming bulbs are planted in August or early September and
treated in general the same as other similar bulbs. The colchicums
usually remain in the ground several years in good condition.

All kinds of bulbs are partial to a deep, rich, water-free soil. This is
no small part of their successful culture. The spot should be well
drained, either naturally or artificially. In flattish and rather moist
lands the beds may be made above the surface, some 18 inches high, and
bordered with grass. A layer of rough stones a foot deep is sometimes
used in the bottom of ordinary beds for drainage, and with good results,
when other methods are not convenient, and when there is fear that the
bed may become too wet. If the place is likely to be rather wet, place a
large handful of sand where the bulb is to go and set the bulb on it.
This will keep the water from standing around the bulb. Very good
results may be had in heavy soil by this method.

[Illustration: Fig. 259. One of the common wild lilies.--_Lilium

The soil for bulbs should be well enriched with old manure. Fresh manure
should never be allowed close about the bulb. The addition of leafmold
and a little sand also improves the texture of heavy soils. For lilies
the leafmold may be omitted. Let the spading be at least a foot deep.
Eighteen inches will be none too deep for lilies. To make a bulb bed,
throw out the top earth to the depth of 6 inches. Put into the bottom
of the bed about 2 inches of well-rotted manure and spade it into the
soil. Throw back half of the top soil, level it off nicely, set the
bulbs firmly on this bed, and then cover them with the remainder of the
earth; in this way one will have the bulbs from 3 to 4 inches below the
surface, and they will all be of uniform depth and will give uniform
results if the bulbs themselves are well graded. The "design" bed may be
worked out easily in this way, for all the bulbs are fully exposed after
they are placed, and they are all covered at once.

Of course, it is not necessary that the home gardener go to the trouble
of removing the earth and replacing it if he merely wants good blooms;
but if he wants a good bed as a whole, or a mass effect, he should take
this pains. In the shrubberies and on the lawn he may "stick them in"
here and there, seeing that the top of the bulb is 3 to 6 inches beneath
the surface, the depth depending on the size of the bulb (the bigger and
stronger the bulb, the deeper it may go) and on the nature of the soil
(they may go deeper in sand than in hard clay).

[Illustration: Fig. 260. Common species of narcissus.--_a a. Narcissus
Pseudo-Narcissus_ or daffodil; _b._ Jonquil; _c. N. Poeticus._]

As the time of severe winter freezing approaches, the bed should receive
a mulch of leaves, manure or litter, to the depth of 4 inches or more,
according to the latitude and the kind of material. If leaves are used,
3 inches will be enough, because the leaves lie close together and may
smother out the frost that is in the ground and let the bulbs start. It
will be well to let the mulch extend 1 foot or more beyond the margins
of the bed. When cold weather is past, half of the mulch should be
removed. The remainder may be left on till there is no longer danger of
frost. On removing the last of the mulch, lightly work over the surface
among the bulbs with a thrust-hoe.

If the weather happens to be very bright during the blooming season, the
duration of the flowers may be prolonged by light shading--as with
muslin, or slats placed above the beds. If planted where they have
partial shade from surrounding trees or shrubbery, the beds will not
need attention of this kind.

Lilies may remain undisturbed for years. Crocuses and tulips may stand
two years, but hyacinths should be taken up each year and replanted;
tulips also will be better for the same treatment. Narcissus may remain
for some years, or until they show signs of running out.

[Illustration: Fig. 261. The Belladonna lily.--_Amaryllis Belladonna._]

Bulbs that are to be taken up should be left in the ground till the
foliage turns yellow, or dies down naturally. This gives the bulbs a
chance to ripen. Cutting off the foliage and digging too early is a not
uncommon and serious mistake. Bulbs that have been planted in places
that are wanted for summer bedding plants may be dug with the foliage on
and heeled-in under a tree, or along a fence, to stand till ripened.
The plant should be injured as little as possible, as the foliage of
this year makes the flowers of the next. When the foliage has turned
yellow or died down, the bulbs--after cleaning, and curing them for a
few hours in the sun--may be stored in the cellar or other cool, dry
place, to await fall planting. Bulbs that are lifted prematurely in this
way should be planted permanently in the borders, for they will not make
good flower-garden subjects the following year. In fact, it is usually
best to buy fresh, strong bulbs each year of tulips, hyacinths, and
crocuses if the best results are desired, using the old bulbs for
shrubberies and mixed borders.

Crocuses and squills are often planted in the lawn. It is not to be
expected that they will last more than two to three years, however, even
if care is taken not to cut the tops closely when the lawn is cut. The
narcissus (including daffodils and jonquils) will remain in good
condition for years in grassy parts of the place, if the tops are
allowed to mature.

[Illustration: Fig. 262. The common Dutch hyacinth.]

_List of outdoor fall-planted bulbs for the North._

Narcissus (including daffodil and jonquil).
Scilla, or squill.
Snowdrop _(Galanthus)._
Snowflake _(Leucoium)._
Hardy alliums.
Winter aconite (_Eranthis hycmalis_).
Dog-tooth violets (_Erythronium_).
Crown imperial (_Fritillaria Imperialis_).
Fritillary (_Fritillaria Mekagris_).

Peonies, tuberous anemones, tuberous buttercups, iris, bleeding heart,
and the like, may be planted in autumn and are often classed with
fall-planted bulbs.

_Winter bulbs_ (p. 345).

Some of these bulbs may be made to bloom in the greenhouse,
window-garden, or living room in winter. Hyacinths are particularly
useful for this purpose, because the bloom is less affected by cloudy
weather than that of tulips and crocuses. Some kinds of narcissus also
"force" well, particularly the daffodil; and the Paper-white and
"Chinese sacred lily" are practically the only common bulbs from which
the home gardener may expect good bloom before Christmas. The method of
handling bulbs for winter bloom is described under Window-gardening
(on p. 345).

_Summer bulbs._

There is nothing special to be said of the culture of the so-called
summer-blooming and spring-planted bulbs, as a class. They are tender,
and are therefore planted after cold weather is past. For early bloom,
they may be started indoors. Of course, any list of spring-planted bulbs
is relative to the climate, for what may be planted in spring in New
York perhaps may be planted in the fall in Georgia.

The common "summer bulbs" are:--



(Exclusive of coniferous evergreens and climbing plants.)

The common hardy shrubs or bushes may be planted in fall or spring. In
the northernmost parts of the country and in Canada spring planting is
usually safer, although on well-drained ground and when thoroughly
mulched the plants may even there do well if planted as soon as the
leaves drop in fall. If the shrubs are purchased in spring, they are
likely to have come from "cellared stock"; that is, the nurserymen dig
much of their stock in fall and store it in cellars built for the
purpose. While stock that is properly cellared is perfectly reliable,
that which has been allowed to get too dry or which has been otherwise
improperly handled comes on very slowly in the spring, makes a poor
growth the first year, and much of it may die.

In the planting of any kind of trees or shrubs, it is well to remember
that nursery-grown specimens generally transplant more readily and
thrive better than trees taken from the wild; and this is particularly
true if the stock was transplanted in the nursery. Trees that transplant
with difficulty, as the papaw or asimina, and some nut trees, may be
prepared for removal by cutting some of their roots--and especially the
tap-root, if they have such--a year or two in advance.

[Illustration XIII. The pageant of summer. Gardens of C. W. Dowdeswell,
England, from a painting by Miss Parsons. For permission to reproduce
the above picture we are indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Sutton &
Sons, Seed Merchants, Reading, England, the owners of the copyright, who
published it in their Amateur's Guide in Horticulture for 1909.]

It is ordinarily best to plow or spade the entire area in which the
shrubs are to be set. For a year or two the ground should be tilled
between the shrubs, either by horse tools or by hoes and rakes. If the
place looks bare, seeds of quick-growing flowers may be scattered about
the edges of the mass, or herbaceous perennials may be used.

The larger shrubs, as lilacs and syringas, may be set about 4 feet
apart; but the smaller ones should be set about 2 feet apart if it is
desired to secure an immediate effect. If after a few years the mass
becomes too crowded, some of the specimens may be removed (p. 76).

Throw the shrubs into an irregular plantation, not in rows, and make the
inner edge of the mass more or less undulating and broken.

It is a good practice to mulch the plantation each fall with light
manure, leaf mold, or other material. Even though the shrubs are
perfectly hardy, this mulch greatly improves the land and promotes
growth. After the shrub borders have become two or three years old, the
drifting leaves of fall will be caught therein and will be held as a
mulch (p. 82).

When the shrubs are first planted, they are headed back one half or more
(Fig. 45); but after they are established they are not to be sheared,
but allowed to take their own way, and after a few years the outermost
ones will droop and meet the green-sward (pp. 25, 26).

Many rapid-growing trees may be utilized as shrubs by cutting them off
near the ground every year, or every other year, and allowing young
shoots to grow. Basswood, black ash, some of the maples, tulip tree,
mulberry, ailanthus, paulownia, magnolias, _Acer campestre,_ and others
may be treated in this way (Fig. 50).

Nearly all shrubs bloom in spring or early summer. If kinds blooming
late in summer or in fall are desired, they maybe looked for in
baccharis, caryopteris, cephalanthus, clethra, hamamelis, hibiscus,
hydrangea, hypericum, lespedeza, rhus _(R. Cotinus), Sambucus
Canadensis_ in midsummer, tamarisk.

Plants that bloom in very early spring (not mentioning such as birches,
alders, and hazels) may be found in amelanchier, cydonia, daphne, dirca,
forsythia, cercis (in tree list), benzoin, lonicera _(L.
fragrantissima_), salix (_S. discolor_ and other pussy willows),

Shrubs bearing conspicuous berries, pods, and the like, that persist in
fall or winter may be found in the genera berberis (particularly _B.
Thunbergii_), colutea, corylus, crataegus, euonymus, ilex, physocarpus,
ostrya, ptelea, pyracantha (Plate XIX) pyrus, rhodotypos, rosa (_R.
rugosa_), staphylea, symphoricarpus, viburnum, xanthoceras.

_List of shrubbery plants for the North._

The following list of shrubs (of course not complete) comprises a
selection with particular reference to southern Michigan and central New
York, where the mercury sometimes falls to fifteen degrees below zero.
Application is also made to Canada by designating species that have been
found to be hardy at Ottawa.

The list is arranged alphabetically by the names of the genera.

The asterisk (A) denotes that the plant is native to North America.

The double dagger (DD) indicates species that are recommended by the
Central Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Ontario.

It is often difficult to determine whether a group should be listed
among shrubs or trees. Sometimes the plant is not quite a tree and is
yet something more than a shrub or bush; sometimes the plant may be
distinctly a tree in its southern range and a shrub in its northern
range; sometimes the same genus or group contains both shrubs and trees.
In the following genera there are doubtful cases: aesculus, alnus,
amelanchier, betula, caragana, castanea, cornus (_C. florida_),
crataegus, elaeagnus, prunus, robinia.

Dwarf buckeye, _AEsculus parviflora (Pavia macrostachya_).(A) Attractive
in habit, foliage, and flower; produces a large foliage mass.

Alder. Several bushy species of alder are good lawn or border subjects,
particularly in wet places or along streams, as _A. viridis,(A) A.
rugosa,(A) A. incana,_(A) and others.

June-berry, _Amelanchier Canadensis_(A) and others. Flowers profusely in
spring before the leaves appear; some of them become small trees.

Azalea, _Azalea viscosa_(A) and _A. nudiflora._(A) Require partial
shade, and a woodsy soil.

Japanese azalea, _A. mollis_ (or _A. Sinensis_). Showy red and yellow or
orange flowers; hardy north.

Groundsel tree, "white myrtle," _Baccharis halimifolia._(A) Native on
the Atlantic seashore, but grows well when planted inland; valuable for
its white fluffy "bloom" (pappus) in latest fall; 4-10 ft.

Spice-bush, _Benzoin odoriferum (Lindera Benzoin_(A)). Very
early-blooming bush of wet places, the yellow, clustered, small flowers
preceding the leaves; 6--10 ft.

Barberry, _Berberis vulgaris._ Common barberry; 4-6 ft. The
purple-leaved form (var. _purpurea_(DD)) is popular.

Thunberg's barberry, _B. Thunbergii._(DD) One of the best of lawn and
border shrubs, with compact and attractive habit, deep red autumn
foliage and bright scarlet berries in profusion in fall and winter;
excellent for low hedges; 2-4 ft.

Mahonia, _Berberis Aquifolium._(A)(DD) Evergreen; needs some protection
in exposed places; 1-3 ft.

Dwarf birch, _Betula pumila._(A) Desirable for low places; 3-10 ft.

Box, _Buxus sempervirens._ An evergreen shrub, useful for hedges and
edgings in cities; several varieties, some of them very dwarf. See
page 220.

Carolina allspice, sweet-scented shrub, _Calycanthus floridus._(A) Dull
purple, very fragrant flowers; 3-8 ft.

Siberian pea-tree, _Caragana arborescens._(DD) Flowers pea-like,
yellow, in May; very hardy; 10-15 feet.

Small pea-tree, _C. pygmoea._ Very small, 1-3 ft, but sometimes grafted
on _C. arborescens._

Shrubby pea-tree, _C. frutescens._(DD) Flowers larger than those of _C.
arborescens;_ 3--10 ft.

Large-flowered pea-tree, _C. grandiflora._(DD) Larger-flowered than the
last, which it resembles; 4 ft.

Blue spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanthus._ Flowers bright blue, in late
summer and fall; 2-4 ft., but is likely to die to ground in winter.

Chinquapin or dwarf chestnut, _Castanea pumila._(A) Becomes a small
tree, but usually bushy.

Ceanothus, _Ceanothus Americanus._(A) A very small native shrub,
desirable for dry places under trees; 2-3 ft. There are many good
European garden forms of ceanothus, but not hardy in the
northern states.

Button-bush, _Cephalanthus occidentalis._(A) Blossoms in July and
August; desirable for water-courses and other low places; 4-10 ft.

Fringe tree, _Chionanthus Virginica._(A) Shrub as large as lilac, or
becoming tree-like, with fringe-like white flowers in spring.

White alder, _Clethra alnifolia._(A) A very fine, hardy shrub, producing
very fragrant flowers in July and August; should be better known;
4-10 ft.

Bladder senna, _Colutea arborescens._ Pea-like yellowish flowers in
June, and big inflated pods; 8-12 ft.

European osier, _Cornus alba_ (known also as _C. Sibirica_ and _C.
Tatarica_). Branches deep red; 4-8 ft.; the variegated form (DD) has
leaves edged white.

Bailey's osier, _Cornus Baileyi._(A) Probably the finest of the native
osiers for color of twigs and foliage; 5-8 ft.

Red-twigged osier, _Cornus stolonifera._(A) The red twigs are very
showy in winter; 5 to 8 ft.; some bushes are brighter in color
than others.

Flowering dogwood, _C. florida._(A) Very showy tree or big shrub,
desirable for borders of groups and belts. A red-flowered variety is on
the market.

Cornelian Cherry, _Cornus Mas._ Becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.;
flowers numerous in bunches, yellow, before the leaves; fruit,
cherry-like, edible, red.

Hazel or filbert, _Corylus maxima_ var. _purpurea._ A well-known
purple-leaved shrub, usually catalogued as _C. Avellana purpurea._ The
eastern American species (_C. Americana_(A) and _C. rostrata_(A)) are
also interesting.

Cotoneaster. Several species of cotoneaster are suitable for cultivation
in the middle and southern latitudes. They are allied to crataegus. Some
are evergreen. Some kinds bear handsome persistent fruits.

Wild thorns, _Cratoegus punctata,_(A) _C. coccinea,_(A)(DD) _C.
Crus-galli,_(A)(DD) and others. The native thorn apples or hawthorns, of
numerous species, are amongst our best large shrubs for planting and
should be much better known; 6-20 ft.

Japanese quince, _Cydonia_ (or _Pyrus_) _Japonica._ An old favorite
blooming in earliest spring, in advance of the leaves; not hardy at
Lansing, Mich.; 4-5 ft.

Maule's Japanese quince, _C. Maulei._(DD) Bright red; fruit handsome;
hardier than _C. Japonica;_ 1-3 ft.

Daphne, _Daphne Mezereum._ Produces rose-purple or white flowers in
abundance in earliest spring before the leaves appear. Should be planted
on the edges of groups; leaves deciduous; 1-4 ft.

Garland flower, _D. Cneorum._(DD) Pink flowers in very early spring and
again in autumn; leaves evergreen; 1-1/2 ft.

Deutzia, _Deutzia scabra_ (or _crenata_) and varieties. Standard
shrubs; the variety "Pride of Rochester," with pinkish flowers, is
perhaps the best form for the North; 4-6 ft. Of this and the next there
are forms with ornamental foliage.

Small deutzia, _D. gracilis._ Very close little bush, with pure white
flowers; 2-3 ft.

Lemoine's deutzia, _D. Lemoinei._ A hybrid, very desirable; 1-3 ft.

Weigela, _Diervilla Japonica_ and other species. Free bloomers, very
fine, in many colors, 4-6 ft.; the forms known as _Candida,(DD)
rosea,_(DD) _Sieboldii variegata,_(DD) are hardy and good.

Leatherwood, _Dirca palustris._(A) If well grown, the leatherwood makes
a very neat plant; blossoms appear before the leaves, but not showy;
4-6 ft.

Russian olive, oleaster, _Eloeagnus angustifolia._(DD) Foliage silvery
white; very hardy; becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.

Wolf-willow, _E. argentea._(A)(DD) Large and silvery leaves; suckers
badly; 8-12 ft.

Goumi, _E. longipes_ (sometimes called _E. edulis_). Attractive
spreading bush, with handsome edible cranberry-like berries; 5-6 ft.

Burning-bush, _Euonymus atropurpureus._(A) Very attractive in fruit;
8-12 ft., or even becoming tree-like.

Several other species are in cultivation, some of them evergreen. In the
North, success may be expected with _E. Europoeus_ (sometimes a small
tree), _E. alatus, E. Bungeanus, E. latifolius,_ and perhaps others.

Exochorda, _Exochorda grandiflora._ A large and very showy shrub,
producing a profusion of apple-like white flowers in early spring; 6-12
ft; allied to the spireas.

Forsythia, _Forsythia viridissima._ Blossoms yellow, appearing before
the leaves; requires protection in many places North; 6-10 ft.

Drooping forsythia, _F. suspensa._ Makes an attractive mass on a bank or
border; 6-12 ft.

Dyer's weed, _Genista tinctoria._(DD)

Yellow pea-like flowers in June; 1-3 ft.

Silver-bell tree, _Halesia tetraptera._(A)

Bell-shaped white flowers in May; 8-10 ft.

Witch hazel, _Hamamelis Virginiana._(A)

Blossoms in October and November; unique and desirable if well grown;
8-12 ft.

Althea, Rose of Sharon, _Hibiscus Syriacus_ (_Althoea frutex_).

In many forms, purple, red, and white, and perhaps the best of late
summer-blooming shrubs; 8-12 ft.

Hydrangea, _Hydrangea paniculata,_ var. _grandiflora._(DD)

One of the best and most showy small flowering shrubs; 4-10 ft.

Downy hydrangea, _H. radiata._(A)

Attractive in both foliage and flower.

Oak-leaved hydrangea, _H. quercifolia._(A)

This is especially valuable for its luxuriant foliage; even if killed to
the ground in winter, it is still worth cultivating for its
strong shoots.

The greenhouse hydrangea (_H. hortensis_ in many forms) may be used as
an outdoor subject in the South.

St. John's wort, _Hypericum Kalmianum,(A)(DD) H. prolificum,_(A) and _H.

Small undershrubs, producing bright yellow flowers in profusion in July
and August; 2-4 ft.

Winter-berry, _Ilex verticillata._(A)(DD)

Produces showy red berries, that persist through the winter; should be
massed in rather low ground; flowers imperfect; 6-8 ft.

The evergreen hollies are not suitable for cultivation in the North; but
in the warmer latitudes, the American holly (_Ilex opaca_), English
holly (_I. Aquifolium_), and Japanese holly (_I. crenata_) may be grown.
There are several native species.

Mountain laurel, _Kalmia latifolia._(A)

One of the best shrubs in cultivation, evergreen, 5-10 ft., or even
becoming a small tree south; usually profits by partial shade; thrives
in a peaty or loamy rather loose soil, and said to be averse to
limestone and clay; extensively transferred from the wild for landscape
effects in large private places; should thrive as far north as it
grows wild.

Kerria, corchorus, _Kerria Japonica._ A bramble-like shrub, producing
attractive yellow single or double flowers from July until September;
twigs very green in winter. There is a variegated-leaved form. Good for
banks and borders; 2-3 ft.

Sand myrtle, _Leiophyllum buxifolium._(A) Evergreen, more or less
procumbent; 2-3 ft.

Lespedeza, _Lespedeza bicolor._(DD) Reddish or purple small flowers in
late summer and fall; 4-8 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Sieboldii_ (_Desmodium penduliflorum_).(DD) Rose-purple
large flowers in fall; killed to the ground in winter, but it blooms the
following year; 4-5 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Japonica_ (_Desmodium Japonicum_). Flowers white, later
than those of _L. Sieboldii;_ springs up from the root.

Privet, _Ligustrum vulgare, L. ovalifolium_ (_L. Californicum_), and _L.
Amurense._(DD) Much used for low hedges and borders; 4-12 ft.; several
other species.

Tartarian honeysuckle, _Lonicera Tatarica._(DD) One of the most chaste
and comely of shrubs; 6-10 ft.; pink-flowered; several varieties.

Regel's honeysuckle, _L. spinosa_ (_L. Alberti_).(DD) Blooms a little
later than above, pink; 2-4 ft.

Fragrant honeysuckle, _L. fragrantissima._ Flowers exceedingly fragrant,
preceding leaves; 2-6 ft.; one of the earliest things to bloom in
spring. There are other upright honeysuckles, all interesting.

Mock-orange (Syringa incorrectly), _Philadelphus coronarius._(DD) In
many forms and much prized; 6-12 ft. Other species are in cultivation,
but the garden nomenclature is confused. The forms known as _P.
speciosus, P. grandiflorus,_ and var. _speciosissimus_(DD) are good;
also the species _P. pubescens,_(A) _P. Gordonianus,_(A) and _P.
microphyllus,_(A) the last being dwarf, with small white very
fragrant flowers.

Nine-bark, _Physocarpus opulifolius_ (_Spiraea opulifolia_).(A) A good
vigorous hardy bush, with clusters of interesting pods following the
flowers; the var. _aurea_ (DD) is one of the best yellow-leaved
shrubs; 6-10 ft.

Andromeda, _Pieris floribunda._(A)

A small ericaceous evergreen; should have some protection from the
winter sun; for this purpose, it may be planted on the north side of a
clump of trees; 2-6ft.

Shrubby cinquefoil, _Potentilla fruticosa._(A)(DD)

Foliage ashy; flowers yellow, in June; 2-4 ft.

Sand cherry, _Prunus pumila_(A) and _P. Besseyi._(A)

The sand cherry of sandy shores grows 5-8 ft.; the western sand cherry
(_P. Besseyi_) is more spreading and is grown for its fruit. The
European dwarf cherry (_P. fruticosa_) is 2-4 ft., with white flowers
in umbels.

Flowering almond, _Prunus Japonica._

In its double-flowered form, familiar for its early bloom; 3-5 ft; often
grafted on other stocks, which are liable to sprout and become

Hop-tree, _Ptelea trifoliata._(A)

Very interesting when bearing its roundish winged fruits; 8-10 ft., but
becoming larger and tree-like.

Buckthorn, _Rhamnus cathartica._

Much used for hedges; 8-12 ft.

Alpine buckthorn, _R. alpina._

Foliage attractive; 5-6 ft.

Rhododendron, _Rhododendron Catawbiense_(A) and garden varieties.

Hardy in well-adapted locations, 3-8 ft., and higher in its native

Great laurel, _R. maximum_(A)

A fine species for mass planting, native as far north as southern
Canada. Extensively transplanted from the wild.

White kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides._

White flowers in May and blackish fruit; 3-5 ft.

Smoke-tree (Fringe-tree erroneously), _Rhus Cotinus._

One of the best shrubs for massing; two colors are grown; the billowy
"bloom," holding late in the season, is composed of flower stems rather
than flowers; size of large lilac bushes.

Dwarf sumac, _R. copallina._(A)

Attractive in foliage, and especially conspicuous in autumn from the
brilliant red of its leaves; 3-5 ft., sometimes much taller.

Sumac, smooth and hairy, _R. glabra_(A) and _R. typhina._(A)

Useful for the borders of large groups and belts. They may be cut down
every year and allowed to sprout (as in Fig. 50). The young tops are
handsomest. _R. glabra_ is the finer species for this purpose. They
usually grow 10-15 ft. tall.

Osbeck's sumac, _R. semialata_ var. _Osbeckii._

Strong bush, 10-20 ft., with leaf-rachis strongly winged, the foliage
pinnately compound.

Flowering, or fragrant currant, _Ribes aureum._(A)(DD)

Well known and popular, for its sweet-scented yellow flowers in May; 5-8

Red-flowering currant, _R. sanguineum._(A)

Flowers red and attractive; 5-6 ft. _R. Gordonianum,_ recommendable, is
a hybrid between _R. sanguineum_ and _R. aureum._

Rose acacia, _Robinia hispida._(A)(DD)

Very showy in bloom; 8-10ft.

Roses, _Rosa,_ various species.

Hardy roses are not always desirable for the lawn. For general lawn
purposes the older sorts, single or semi-double, and which do not
require high culture, are to be preferred. It is not intended to include
here the common garden roses; see Chapter VIII for these. It is much to
be desired that the wild roses receive more attention from planters.
Attention has been too exclusively taken by the highly improved
garden roses.

[Illustration: Fig. 263. Rosa rugosa.]

Japanese rose, _Rosa rugosa._(DD)

Most excellent for lawn planting, as the foliage is thick and not
attacked by insects (Fig. 263); white and pink flowered forms; 4-6 ft.

Wild swamp rose, _R. Carolina._(A) 5-8 ft.

Wild dwarf rose, _R. humilis_(A) (_R. lucida_ of Michigan). This and
other wild dwarf roses, 3-6 ft., may be useful in landscape work.

Say's Rose, _R. acicularis_ var. _Sayi._(A) Excellent for lawns; 4-5 ft.

Red-leaved rose, _R. ferruginea (R. rubrifolia_).(DD) Excellent foliage;
flowers single, pink; 5-6 ft.

Japanese bramble, _Rubus crataegifolius._ Valuable for holding banks;
spreads rapidly; very red in winter; 3-4 ft.

Flowering raspberry, mulberry (erroneously), _R. odoratus_(A) Attractive
when well grown and divided frequently to keep it fresh; there is a
whitish form; 3-4 ft.

Japanese wineberry, _R. phaenicolasius._ Attractive foliage and red
hairy canes; fruit edible; 3-5 ft.

Kilmarnock willow, _Salix Capraea,_ var. _pendula._ A small weeping
plant grafted on a tall trunk; usually more curious than ornamental.

Rosemary willow, _S. rosmarinifolia_(DD) of nurserymen _(R. incana_
properly). 6-10 ft.

Shining willow, _S. lucida._(A) Very desirable for the edges of water;
6-12 ft.

Long-leaved willow, _S. interior._(A) Our narrowest-leaved native
willow; useful for banks; liable to spread too rapidly; 8-12ft.

Fountain willow, _S. purpurea._ Attractive foliage and appearance,
particularly if cut back now and then to secure new wood; excellent for
holding springy banks; 10-20 ft.

Pussy willow, _S. discolor_(A) Attractive when massed at some distance
from the residence; 10-15 ft.

Laurel-leaved willow, _S. pentandra (S. laurifolia_ of cultivators)(DD)
See under Trees, p. 329. Many of the native willows might well be

Elders, _Sambucus pubens_(A) and _S. Canadensis._(A) The former, the
common "red elder," is ornamental both in flower and fruit. _S.
Canadensis_ is desirable for its profusion of fragrant flowers appearing
in July; the former is 6--7 ft. high and the latter 8-10 ft.
Golden-leaved elder, _S. nigra_ var. _foliis aureis,_(DD) and also the
cut-leaved elder, are desirable forms of the European species; 5-15 ft.

Buffalo-berry, _Shepherdia argentea_(A) Silvery foliage; attractive and
edible berries; 10-15 ft., often tree-like.

Shepherdia, _S. Canadensis._(A) Spreading bush, 3--8 ft., with
attractive foliage and fruit.

Early spirea, _Spiraea arguta._(DD) One of the earliest bloomers among
the spireas; 2-4 ft.

Three-lobed spirea, bridal wreath,_S. Van Houttei._(DD) One of the most
showy early-flowering shrubs; excellent for massing; blooms a little
later than the above; 3-6 ft.

Sorbus-leaved spirea, _S. sorbifolia (Sorbaria sorbifolid_).(DD)
Desirable for its late blooming,--late June and early July; 4-5 ft.

Plum-leaved spirea, _S. prunifolia._

Fortune's spirea, _S. Japonica (S. callosa_),(DD) 2 to 4 ft.

Thunberg's spirea, _S. Thunbergii._ Neat and attractive in habit; useful
for border-hedges; 3-5 ft.

St. Peter's Wreath, _S. hypericifolia;_ 4-5 ft.

Round-leaved spirea, _S. bracteata._(DD) Follows Van Houttei; 3-6 ft.

Douglas' spirea, _S. Douglasii._(A) Blossoms late,--in July; 4-8 ft.

Hard-hack, _S. tomentosa._(A) Much like the last, but less showy; 3-4

Willow-leaved spirea,_S. salicifolia._(A)(DD) Blooms late; 4-5 ft.

Bladder-nut, _Staphylea trifolia_(A) Well-known rather coarse native
shrub; 6-12 ft.

Colchican bladder-nut, _S. Colchica._ Good early flowering shrub; 6-12

[Illustration: Fig. 264. A spirea, one of he most servicable flowering

Styrax, _Styrax Japonica._ One of the most graceful of flowering shrubs,
producing fragrant flowers in early summer; 8-10 ft. or more.

Snow-berry, _Symphoricarpos racemosus._(A)(DD) Cultivated for its
snow-white berries, that hang in autumn and early winter; 3-5 ft.

Indian currant, _S. vulgaris._(DD) Foliage delicate; berries red;
valuable for shady places and against walls; 4-5 ft.

Common lilac, _Syringa vulgaris._(DD) (The name syringa is commonly
misapplied to the species of _Philadelphus._) The standard
spring-blooming shrub in the North; 8-15 ft.; many forms.

Josika lilac, _S. Josikaeca._(DD) Blooming about a week later than S.
_vulgaris;_ 8-10 ft.

Persian lilac, _S. Persica._ More spreading and open bush than _S.
vulgaris;_ 6-10 ft.

Japanese lilac, _S. Japonica._(DD) Blooms about one month later than
common lilac; 15-20 ft.

Rouen lilac, _S. Chinensis_ (or _Rothomagensis_)(DD) Blooms with the
common lilac; flowers more highly colored than those of _S.
Persica;_ 5-12 ft.

Chinese lilacs, _S. oblata_(DD) and _villosa_.(DD) The former 10-15 ft.
and blooming with common lilac; the latter 4-6 ft., and blooming few
days later.

Tamarisk, _Tamarix_ of several species, particularly (for the North) _T.
Chinensis, T. Africana_ (probably the garden forms under this name are
all _T. parviflora_), and _T. hispida (T. Kashgarica_).

All odd shrubs or small trees with very fine foliage, and minute pink
flowers in profusion.

Common snowball, _Viburnum Opulus._(A)(DD) The cultivated snowball (DD)
is a native of the Old World; but the species grows wild in this country
(known as High-bush Cranberry),(DD) and is worthy of cultivation;
6-10 ft.

Japanese snowball, _V. tomentosum_ (catalogued as _V. plicatum_). 6-10

Wayfaring tree, _V. Lantana._(DD) Fruit ornamental; 8-12 ft., or more.

Plum-leaved haw, _V. prunifolium._(A)(DD) Leaves smooth and glossy;
8-15 ft.

Sweet viburnum or sheep-berry, _Viburnum Lentago._(A) Tall coarse bush,
or becoming a small tree.

Arrow-wood, _V. dentatum._(A) Usually 5-8 ft., but becoming taller.

Dockmackie, _V. acerifolium._(A) Maple-like foliage; 4-5 ft.

Withe-rod, lilac viburnum, _V. cassinoides.(A) 2-5_ ft. Other native and
exotic viburnums are desirable.

Xanthoceras, _Xanthoceras sorbifolia._ Allied to the buckeyes; hardy in
parts of New England; 8--10ft.; handsome.

Prickly ash, _Zanthoxylum Americanum._(A)

_Shrubs for the South._

Many of the shrubs in the preceding catalogue are also well adapted to
the southeastern states. The following brief list includes some of the
most recommendable kinds for the region south of Washington, although
some of them are hardy farther North. The asterisk (A) denotes that the
plant is native to this country.

The crape myrtle _(Lagerstroemia Indica_) is to the South what the
lilac is to the North, a standard dooryard shrub; produces handsome red
(or blush or white) flowers all summer; 8-12 feet.

Reliable deciduous shrubs for the South are: althea, _Hibiscus
Syriacus,_ in many forms; _Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis; Azalea
calendulacea,(A) mollis,_ and the Ghent azalea _(A. Pontica)_; blue
spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanihus;_ European forms of ceanothus; French
mulberry, _Callicarpa Americana_(A); calycanthus(A); flowering willow,
_Chilopsis linearis_(A); fringe, _Chionanthus Vir ginica_(A); white
alder, _Clethra alnifolia_(A); corchorus, _Kerria Japonica;_ deutzias,
of several kinds; goumi, _Eloeagnus longipes;_ pearl bush, _Exochorda
grandiflora;_ Japan quince, _Cydonia Japonica;_ golden-bell, _Forsythia
viridissima;_ broom, _Spartium junceum;_ hydrangeas, including _H.
Otaksa,_ grown under cover in the North; _Jasminum nudiflorum;_ bush
honey suckles; mock orange, _Philadelphus coronarius_ and
_grandiflorus_(A); pomegranate; white kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides;_
smoke tree, _Rhus Cotinus;_ rose locust, _Robinia hispida_(A); spireas
of several kinds; _Stuartia pentagyna_(A); snowberry, _Symphoricarpos
racemosus_(A); lilacs of many kinds; viburnums of several species,
including the European and Japanese snowballs; weigelas of the various
kinds; chaste-tree, _Vitex Agnus-Castus;_ Thunberg's barberry; red
pepper, _Capsicum frutescens; Plumbago Capensis;_ poinsettia.

A large number of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs thrive in the South,
such as: fetter bush, _Andromeda floribunda_(A); some of the palms, as
palmettoes(A) and chamaerops; cycas and zamia(A) far South; _Abelia
grandiflora;_ strawberry tree, _Arbutus Unedo;_ ardisias and aucubas,
both grown under glass in the North; azaleas and rhododendrons (not only
_R. Catawbiense_(A) but _R. maximum(A) R, Ponticum,_ and the garden
forms); _Kalmia latifolia(A); Berberis Japonica_ and mahonia(A); box;
_Cleyera Japonica;_ cotoneasters and pyracantha; eleagnus of the types
grown under glass in the North; gardenias; euonymus(A); hollies(A);
anise-tree, _Illicium anisatum;_ cherry laurels, _Prunus_ or
_Laurocerasus_ of several species; mock orange (of the South), _Prunus
Caroliniana_(A) useful for hedges; true laurel or bay-tree, _Laurus
nobilis;_ privets of several species; _Citrus trifoliata,_ specially
desirable for hedges; oleanders; magnolias(A); myrtle, _Myrtus communis;
Osmanthus (Olea) fragrans,_ a greenhouse shrub North; _Osmanthus
Aquifolium_(A); butcher's broom, _Ruscus aculeatus;_ phillyreas(A);
_Pittosporum Tobira;_ shrubby yuccas(A); _Viburnum Tinus_ and others;
and the camellia in many forms.

[Illustration XIV: Virginia creeper screen, on an old fence, with
wall-flowers and hollyhocks in front.]


Vines do not differ particularly in their culture from other herbs and
shrubs, except as they require that supports be provided; and, as they
overtop other plants, they demand little room on the ground, and they
may therefore be grown in narrow or unused spaces along fences
and walls.

In respect to the modes of climbing, vines may be thrown into three
groups,--those that twine about the support; those that climb by means
of special organs, as tendrils, roots, leaf stalks; those that neither
twine nor have special organs but that scramble over the support, as the
climbing roses and the brambles. One must recognize the mode of climbing
before undertaking the cultivation of any vine.

Vines may also be grouped into annuals, both tender (as morning-glory)
and hardy (as sweet pea); biennials, as adlumia, which are treated
practically as annuals, being sown each year for bloom the next year;
herbaceous perennials, the tops dying each fall down to a persisting
root, as cinnamon vine and madeira vine; woody perennials (shrubs), the
tops remaining alive, as Virginia creeper, grape, and wistaria.

There is scarcely a garden in which climbing plants may not be used to
advantage. Sometimes it may be to conceal obtrusive objects, again to
relieve the monotony of rigid lines. They may also be used to run over
the ground and to conceal its nakedness where other plants could not
succeed. The shrubby kinds are often useful about the borders of clumps
of trees and shrubbery, to slope the foliage down to the grass, and to
soften or erase lines in the landscape.

In the South and in California, great use is made of vines, not only on
fences but on houses and arbors. In warm countries, vines give character
to bungalows, pergolas, and other individual forms of architecture.

If it is desired that the vines climb high, the soil should be fertile;
but high climbing in annual plants (as in sweet peas) may be at the
expense of bloom.

The use of vines for screens and pillar decorations has increased in
recent years until now they may be seen in nearly all grounds. The
tendency has been towards using the hardy vines, of which the
ampelopsis, or Virginia creeper, is one of the most common. This is a
very rapid grower, and lends itself to training more readily than many
others. The Japan ampelopsis (_A. tricuspidata_ or _Veitchii_) is a good
clinging vine, growing very rapidly when once established, and
brilliantly colored after the first fall frosts. It clings closer than
the other, but is not so hardy. Either of these may be grown from
cuttings or division of the plants.

Two recommendable woody twiners of recent distribution are the actinidia
and the akebia, both from Japan. They are perfectly hardy, and are rapid
growers. The former has large thick glossy leaves, not affected by
insects or disease, growing thickly along the stem and branches, making
a perfect thatch. It blooms in June. The flowers, which are white with a
purple center, are borne in clusters, followed by round or longish
edible fruits. The akebia has very neat-cut foliage, quaint purple
flowers, and often bears ornamental fruit.

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