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Manual of Gardening (Second Edition) by L. H. Bailey

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_Canker-worms._--These caterpillars are small measuring-worms or loopers
that defoliate apple trees in May and June (Fig. 217). The female moths
are wingless, and in late fall or early spring crawl up the trunks of
the trees to lay their eggs on the branches. Spray thoroughly once or
twice, before the blossoms open, with 1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb.
arsenate of lead in 100 gal. of water. Repeat the application after the
blossoms fall. Prevent the ascent of the wingless females by means of
sticky bands or wire-screen traps.

_Case-bearers on apple._--The small caterpillars live in pistol-shaped
or cigar-shaped cases, about 1/4 in. long. They appear in spring on the
opening buds at the same time as the bud-moth and may be controlled by
the same means.

_Codlin-moth._--The codlin-moth lays the eggs that produce the pinkish
caterpillar which causes a large proportion of wormy apples and pears.
The eggs are laid by a small moth on the leaves and on the skin of the
fruit. Most of the caterpillars enter the apple at the blossom end. When
the petals fall, the calyx is open and this is the time to spray. The
calyx soon closes and keeps the poison inside ready for the young
caterpillar's first meal. After the calyx has closed, it is too late to
spray effectively. The caterpillars become full grown in July and
August, leave the fruit, crawl down on the trunk, and there most of them
spin cocoons under the loose bark. In most parts of the country there
are two broods annually. Immediately after the blossoms fall, spray with
1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb. arsenate of lead in 100 gal. of water. Repeat
the application 7 to 10 days later. Use burlap bands on trunks, killing
all caterpillars under them every ten days from July 1 to August 1, and
once later before winter.

_Cucurbit (cucumber, melon, and squash) insects._--Yellow,
black-striped beetles appear in numbers and attack the plants as soon
as they are up. Plant early squashes as a trap-crop around the field.
Protect the vines with screens (Fig. 229) until they begin to run, or
keep them covered with bordeaux mixture, thus making them distasteful to
the beetles.

Squash vines are frequently killed by a white caterpillar that burrows
in the stem near the base of the plant. Plant a few early squashes
between the rows of the late varieties as a trap-crop. As soon as the
early crop is harvested, remove and burn the vines. When the vines are
long enough, cover them at the joints with earth in order to develop
secondary root systems for the plant in case the main stem is injured.

Dark green plant-lice feed on the under sides of squash leaves, causing
them to curl and wither. Spray with kerosene emulsion diluted with 6
parts of water. It is necessary thoroughly to cover the under side of
the leaves; the sprayer, therefore, must be fitted with an upturned
nozzle. Burn the vines as soon as the crop is harvested and keep down
all weeds.

The stink-bug is very troublesome to squashes. The rusty-black adult
emerges from hibernation in spring and lays its eggs on the under side
of the leaves. The nymphs suck the sap from the leaves and stalks,
causing serious injury. Trap the adults under boards in the spring.
Examine the leaves for the smooth shining brownish eggs and destroy
them. The young nymphs may be killed with kerosene emulsion.

_Curculio._--The adult curculio of the plum and peach is a small
snout-beetle that inserts its eggs under the skin of the fruit and then
makes a characteristic crescent-shaped cut beneath it. The grub feeds
within the fruit and causes it to drop. When full grown, it enters the
ground, changes in late summer to the beetle, which finally goes into
hibernation in sheltered places. Spray plums just after blossoms fall
with arsenate of lead, 6 to 8 lb. in 100 gal. of water, and repeat the
application in about a week. After the fruit has set, jar the trees
daily over a sheet or curculio-catcher and destroy the beetles; this is
practically the only procedure for peaches, for they cannot be sprayed.

The quince curculio is somewhat larger than that infesting the plum and
differs in its life-history. The grubs leave the fruits in the fall and
enter the ground, where they hibernate and transform to adults the next
May, June, or July, depending on the season. When the adults appear, jar
them from the tree on sheets or curculio-catchers and destroy them. To
determine when they appear, jar a few trees daily, beginning the latter
part of May in New York.

_Currant-worm._--In the spring the small green, black-spotted larvae
feed on the foliage of currants and gooseberries, beginning their work
on the lower leaves. A second brood occurs in early summer. When worms
first appear, spray with 1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb. arsenate of lead in
100 gal. of water. Ordinarily the poison should be combined with
bordeaux (for leaf-spot).

_Cut-worms._--Probably the remedy for cut-worms most often practiced in
gardens, and which cannot fail to be effective when faithfully carried
out, is hand-picking with lanterns at night or digging them out from
around the base of the infested plants during the day. Bushels of
cut-worms have been gathered in this way, and with profit. When from
some cause success does not attend the use of the poisoned baits, to be
discussed next, hand-picking is the only other method yet recommended
that can be relied upon to check cut-worm depredations.

The best methods yet devised for killing cut-worms in any situation are
the poisoned baits, using Paris green or arsenate of lead for the
purpose. Poisoned bunches of clover or weeds have been thoroughly
tested, even by the wagon-load, over large areas, and nearly all have
reported them very effective; lamb's quarters (pigweed), pepper-grass,
and mullein are among the weeds especially attractive to cutworms. On
small areas the making of the baits is done by hand, but they have been
prepared on a large scale by spraying the plants in the field, cutting
them with a scythe or machine, and pitching them from wagons in small
bunches wherever desired. Distributed a few feet apart, between rows of
garden plants at nightfall, they have attracted and killed enough
cut-worms often to save a large proportion of the crop; if the bunches
can be covered with a shingle, they will keep fresher much longer. The
fresher the baits, and the more thoroughly the baiting is done, the more
cut-worms one can destroy. However, it may sometimes happen that a
sufficient quantity of such green succulent plants cannot be obtained
early enough in the season in some localities. In this case, and we are
not sure but in all cases, the poisoned bran mash can be used to the
best advantage. It is easily made and applied at any time, is not
expensive, and thus far the results show that it is a very attractive
and effective bait. A tablespoonful can be quickly dropped around the
base of each cabbage or tomato plant; small amounts may be easily
scattered along the rows of onions and turnips, or a little dropped on a
hill of corn or cucumbers.

The best time to apply these poisoned baits is two or three days before
any plants have come up or been set out in the garden. If the ground has
been properly prepared, the worms will have had but little to eat for
several days and they will thus seize the first opportunity to appease
their hunger upon the baits, and wholesale destruction will result. The
baits should always be applied at this time wherever cut-worms are
expected. But it is not too late usually to save most of a crop after
the pests have made their presence known by cutting off some of the
plants. Act promptly and use the baits freely.

For mechanical means of protecting from cut-worms, see pp. 186-7.

_Elm-leaf beetle._--Generally speaking one thorough and timely spraying
is ample to control the elm-leaf beetle (Fig. 235). Use arsenate of
lead, 1 lb. to 25 gal., and make the application to the under side of
the leaves the latter part of May or very early in June in New York.
Occasionally, when the beetle is very abundant, due in all probability
to no spraying in earlier years, it may be advisable to make a second
application, and the same may be true when conditions necessitate the
application earlier than when it will be most efficacious. This latter
condition is likely to obtain wherever a large number of trees must be
treated with inadequate outfit.

[Illustration: Fig. 235. Elm-leaf beetle, adult, somewhat enlarged
(after Howard).]

_Oyster-shell scale._--This is an elongate scale or bark-louse, 1/8 in.
in length, resembling an oyster shell in shape and often incrusting the
bark of apple twigs. It hibernates as minute white eggs under the old
scales. The eggs hatch during the latter part of May or in June, the
date depending on the season. After they hatch, the young may be seen as
tiny whitish lice crawling about on the bark. When these young appear,
spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, or
whale-oil or any good soap, 1 lb. in 4 or 5 gal. of water.

_Pear insects._--The psylla is one of the most serious insects
affecting the pear tree. It is a minute, yellowish, flat-bodied, sucking
insect often found in the axils of the leaves and fruit early in the
season. They develop into minute cicada-like jumping-lice. The young
psyllas secrete a large quantity of honey-dew in which a peculiar black
fungus grows, giving the bark a characteristic sooty appearance. There
may be four broods annually and the trees are often seriously injured.
After the blossoms fall, spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6
parts of water, or whale-oil soap, 1 lb. in 4 or 5 gal. of water. Repeat
the application at intervals of 3 to 7 days until the insects are
under control.

The pear slug is a small, slimy, dark green larva which skeletonizes the
leaves in June, and a second brood appears in August. Spray thoroughly
with 1 lb. Paris green, or 4 lb. arsenate of lead, in 100 gal. of water.

_Potato insects._--The Colorado potato beetle, or potato-bug, emerges
from hibernation in the spring and lays masses of orange eggs on the
under side of the leaves. The larvae are known as "slugs" and
"soft-shells" and cause most of the injury to the vines. Spray with
Paris green, 2 lb. in 100 gal. of water, or arsenite of soda combined
with bordeaux mixture. It may sometimes be necessary to use a greater
strength of the poison, particularly on the older "slugs."

The small black flea-beetles riddle the leaves with holes and cause the
foliage to die. Bordeaux mixture as applied for potato blight protects
the plants by making them repellent to the beetles.

_Raspberry, blackberry, and dewberry insects._--The greenish, spiny
larvae of the saw-fly feed on the tender leaves in spring. Spray with
Paris green or arsenate of lead, or apply hellebore.

The cane-borer is a grub that burrows down through the canes, causing
them to die. In laying her eggs, the adult beetle girdles the tip of the
cane with a ring of punctures, causing it to wither and droop. In
midsummer, cut off and destroy the drooping tips.

_Red spider._--Minute reddish mites on the under sides of leaves in
greenhouses and sometimes out of doors in dry weather. Syringe off the
plants with clear water two or three times a week, taking care not to
drench the beds.

_Rose insects._--The green plant-lice usually work on the buds, and the
yellow leaf-hoppers feed on the leaves. Spray, whenever necessary, with
kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, or whale-oil or any
good soap, 1 lb. in 5 or 6 gal. of water.

The rose-chafer is often a most pernicious pest on roses, grapes, and
other plants. The ungainly, long-legged, grayish beetles occur in sandy
regions and often swarm into vineyards and destroy the blossoms and
foliage. Spray thoroughly with arsenate of lead, 10 lb. in 100 gal. of
water. Repeat the application if necessary. (See under Rose in
Chap. VIII.)

_San Jose scale._--This pernicious scale is nearly circular in outline
and about the size of a small pin head, with a raised center. When
abundant, it forms a crust on the branches and causes small red spots on
the fruit. It multiplies with marvelous rapidity, there being three or
four broods annually in New York, and each mother scale may give birth
to several hundred young. The young are born alive, and breeding
continues until late autumn when all stages are killed by the cold
weather except the tiny half-grown black scales, many of which hibernate
safely. Spray thoroughly in the fall after the leaves drop, or early in
the spring before growth begins, with lime-sulfur wash, or miscible oil
1 gal. in 10 gal. of water. When badly infested, make two applications,
one in the fall and another in the spring. In case of large old trees,
25 per cent crude oil emulsion should be applied just as the buds
are swelling.

In nurseries, after the trees are dug, fumigate with hydrocyanic acid
gas, using 1 oz. of potassium cyanide for every 100 cu. ft. of space.
Continue the fumigation from one-half to three-quarters of an hour. Do
not fumigate the trees when they are wet, since the presence of moisture
renders them liable to injury.

_Tent-caterpillar._--The insect hibernates in the egg stage. The eggs
are glued in ring-like brownish masses around the smaller twigs, where
they may be easily found and destroyed. The caterpillars appear in early
spring, devour the tender leaves, and build unsightly nests on the
smaller branches. This pest is usually controlled by the treatment
recommended for the codlin-moth. Destroy the nests by burning or by
wiping out when small. Often a bad pest on apple trees.

_Violet gall-fly._--Violets grown under glass are often greatly injured
by a very small maggot, which causes the edges of the leaves to curl,
turn yellowish, and die. The adult is a very minute fly resembling a
mosquito. Pick off and destroy infested leaves as soon as discovered.
Fumigation is not advised for this insect or for red-spider.

_White-fly._--The minute white-flies are common on greenhouse plants and
often in summer on plants about gardens near greenhouses. The nymphs are
small greenish, scale-like insects found on the under side of the
leaves; the adults are minute, white, mealy-winged flies. Spray with
kerosene emulsion or whale-oil soap; or if infesting cucumbers or
tomatoes, fumigate over night with hydrocyanic acid gas, using 1 oz. of
potassium cyanide to each 1000 cu. ft. of space. (See page 188.)

_White grubs._--The large curved white grubs that are so troublesome in
lawns and strawberry fields are the larvae of the common June beetles.
They live in the ground, feeding on the roots of grasses and weeds. Dig
out grubs from beneath infested plants. Thorough early fall cultivation
of land intended for strawberries will destroy many of the pupae. In
lawns, remove the sod, destroy the grubs, and make new sward, when the
infestation is bad.

_Treatment for some of the common plant diseases._

The following advice (mostly adapted from Whetzel and Stewart) covers
the most frequent types of fungous disease appearing to the home
gardener. Many other kinds, however, will almost certainly attract his
attention the first season if he looks closely. The standard remedy is
bordeaux mixture; but because this material discolors the foliage the
carbonate of copper is sometimes used instead. The treatments here
recommended are for New York; but it should not be difficult to apply
the dates elsewhere. The gardener must supplement all advice of this
character with his own judgment and experience, and take his own risks.

_Apple scab._--Usually most evident on the fruit, forming blotches and
scabs. Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50 or 3-3-50; first, just before the
blossoms open; second, just as the blossoms fall; third, 10 to 14 days
after the blossoms fall. The second spraying seems to be the most
important. Always apply _before_ rains, not _after._

_Asparagus rust._--The most common and destructive disease of asparagus,
producing reddish or black pustules on the stems and branches. Late in
the fall, burn all affected plants. Fertilize liberally and cultivate
thoroughly. During the cutting season, permit no plants to mature and
cut all wild asparagus plants in vicinity once a week. Rust may be
partially controlled by spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50, containing a
sticker of resin-sal-soda soap, but it is a difficult and expensive
operation and probably not profitable except on large acreage. Begin
spraying after cutting as soon as new shoots are 8 to 10 in. high and
repeat once or twice a week until about September 15. Dusting with
sulfur has proved effective in California.

_Cabbage and cauliflower diseases._--Black-rot is a bacterial disease;
the plants drop their leaves and fail to head. Practice crop rotation;
soak seed 15 min. in a solution made by dissolving one corrosive
sublimate tablet in a pint of water. Tablets may be bought at
drug stores.

Club-root or club-foot is a well-known disease. The parasite lives in
the soil. Practice crop rotation. Set only healthy plants. Do not use
manure containing cabbage refuse. If necessary to use infested land,
apply good stone lime, 2 to 5 tons per acre. Apply at least as early as
the autumn before planting; two to four years is better. Lime the
seed-bed in same way.

_Carnation rust._--This disease may be recognized by the brown, powdery
pustules on the stem and leaves. Plant only the varieties least affected
by it. Take cuttings only from healthy plants. Spray (in the field, once
a week; in the greenhouse, once in two weeks) with copper sulfate, 1 lb.
to 20 gal. of water. Keep the greenhouse air as dry and cool as is
compatible with good growth. Keep the foliage free from moisture. Train
the plants so as to secure a free circulation of air among them.

_Chestnut._--The bark disease of chestnut has become very serious in
southeastern New York, causing the bark to sink and die and killing the
tree. Cutting out the diseased places and treating aseptically may be
useful in light cases, but badly infected trees are incurable, in the
present state of our knowledge. Inspection of nursery stock and burning
of affected trees is the only procedure now to be recommended. The
disease is reported in New England and western New York.

_Chrysanthemum leaf-spot._--Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50, every ten days
or often enough to protect new foliage. Ammoniacal copper carbonate may
be used, but it is not so effective.

_Cucumber diseases._--"Wilt" is a disease caused by bacteria that are
distributed chiefly by striped cucumber beetles. Destroy the beetles or
drive them away by thorough spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Gather and
destroy all wilted leaves and plants. The most that can be expected is
that the loss may be slightly reduced.

Downy mildew is a serious fungous disease of the cucumber known among
growers as "the blight." The leaves become mottled with yellow, show
dead spots, and then dry up. Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Begin spraying
when the plants begin to run, and repeat every 10 to 14 days throughout
the season.

_Currant diseases._--Leaf-spots and anthracnose are caused by two or
three different fungi. The leaves become spotted, turn yellow, and fall
prematurely. They may be controlled by three to five sprayings with
bordeaux, 5-5-50, but it is doubtful whether the diseases are
sufficiently destructive on the average to warrant so much expense.

_Gooseberry powdery mildew._--The fruit and leaves are covered with a
dirty white growth of fungus. In setting a new plantation, choose a site
where the land is well underdrained and where there is a good
circulation of air. Cut away drooping branches. Keep the ground
underneath free from weeds. Spray with potassium sulfide, 1 oz. to 2
gal.; begin when the buds are breaking and repeat every 7 to 10 days
until the fruit is gathered. Powdery mildew is very destructive to the
European varieties.

_Grape black-rot._--Remove all "mummies" that cling to the arms at
trimming time. Plow early, turning under all old mummies and diseased
leaves. Rake all refuse under the vine into the last furrow and cover
with the grape hoe. This cannot be too thoroughly done. The disease is
favored by wet weather and weeds or grass in the vineyard. Use surface
cultivation and keep down all weeds and grass. Keep the vines well
sprouted; if necessary sprout twice. Spray with bordeaux mixture,
5-5-50, until the middle of July, after that with ammoniacal copper
carbonate. The number of sprayings will vary with the season. Make the
first application when the third leaf shows. Infections take place with
each rain, and occur throughout the growing season. The foliage should
be protected by a coating of the spray before every rain. The new growth
especially should be well sprayed.

_Hollyhock rust._--Fig. 212. Eradicate the wild mallow _(Malva
rotundifolia)._ Remove all hollyhock leaves as soon as they show signs
of rust. Spray several times with bordeaux mixture, taking care to cover
both sides of leaves.

_Lettuce drop or rot._--This is a fungous disease often destructive in
greenhouses, discovered by the sudden wilting of the plants. It is
completely controlled by steam sterilization of the soil to the depth of
two inches or more. If it is not feasible to sterilize the soil, use
fresh soil for every crop of lettuce.

_Muskmelon diseases._--"Blight'" is a very troublesome disease. The
leaves show angular dead-brown spots, then dry up and die; the fruit
often fails to ripen and lacks flavor. It is caused by the same fungus
as is the downy mildew of cucumbers. While bordeaux has proved effective
in controlling the downy mildew on cucumbers, it seems to be of little
value in lessening the same disease on melons.

"Wilt" is the same as the wilt of cucumbers; same treatment is given.

_Peach diseases._--Brown-rot is difficult to control. Plant resistant
varieties. Prune the trees so as to let in sunlight and air. Thin the
fruit well. As often as possible pick and destroy all rotten fruits. In
the fall destroy all remaining fruits. Spray with bordeaux mixture
before the buds break, or self-boiled lime-sulfur.

Leaf-curl is a disease in which the leaves become swollen and distorted
in spring and drop during June and July (Fig. 213). Elberta is an
especially susceptible variety. Easily and completely controlled by
spraying the trees once, before the buds swell, with bordeaux, 5-5-50,
or with the lime-sulfur mixtures used for San Jose scale.

Black-spot or scab often proves troublesome in wet seasons and
particularly in damp or sheltered situations. While this disease attacks
the twigs and leaves, it is most conspicuous and injurious on the fruit,
where it appears as dark spots or blotches. In severe attacks the fruit
cracks. In the treatment of this disease it is of prime importance _to
secure a free circulation of air_ about the fruit. Accomplish this by
avoiding low sites, by pruning, and by removal of windbreaks. Spray as
for leaf-curl and follow with two applications of potassium sulfide, 1
oz. to 3 gal., the first being made soon after the fruit is set and the
second when the fruit is half grown.

Yellows is a so-called "physiological disease." Cause unknown.
Contagious, and serious in some localities. Known by the premature
ripening of the fruit, by red streaks and spots in the flesh, and by the
peculiar clusters of sickly, yellowish shoots that appear on the limbs
here and there (Fig. 215). Dig out and burn diseased trees as soon as

_Pear diseases._--Fire-blight kills the twigs and branches, on which the
leaves suddenly blacken and die but do not fall. It also produces
cankers on the trunk and large limbs. Prune out blighted branches as
soon as discovered, cutting 6 to 8 in. below the lowest evidences of the
disease. Clean out limb and body cankers. Disinfect all large wounds
with corrosive sublimate solution, 1 to 1000, and cover with coat of
paint. Avoid forcing a rapid, succulent growth. Plant the varieties
least affected.

Pear scab is very similar to apple scab. It is very destructive to some
varieties, as, for example, Flemish Beauty and Seckel. Spray three times
with bordeaux, as for apple scab.

_Plum and cherry diseases._--Black-knot is a fungus, the spores of which
are carried from tree to tree by the wind and thus spread the infection.
Cut out and burn all knots as soon as discovered. See that the knots are
removed from all plum and cherry trees in the neighborhood.

Leaf-spot is a disease in which the leaves become covered with reddish
or brown spots and fall prematurely (Fig. 211); badly affected trees
winterkill. Often, the dead spots drop out, leaving clear-cut holes.
Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. For cherries, make four applications:
first, just before blossoms open; second, when fruit is free from calyx;
third, two weeks later; fourth, two weeks after third. In plums it may
be controlled by two or three applications of bordeaux, 5-5-50. Make the
first one about ten days after the blossoms fall and the others at
intervals of about three weeks. This applies to European varieties.
Japan plums should not be sprayed with bordeaux.

_Potato diseases._--There are different kinds of potato blight and rot.
The most important are early blight and late blight--both fungous
diseases. Early blight affects only the foliage. Late blight kills the
foliage and often rots the tubers. Two serious troubles often mistaken
for blight are: (1) Tip burn, the browning of the tips and margins of
the leaves due to dry weather; and (2) flea-beetle injury, in which the
leaves show numerous small holes and then dry up. The loss from blight
and flea-beetles is enormous--often, one-fourth to one-half the crop.
For blight-rot and flea-beetles spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Begin when
the plants are 6 to 8 in. high and repeat every 10 to 14 days during the
season, making 5 to 7 applications in all. Use 40 to 100 gal. per acre
at each application. Under conditions exceptionally favorable to blight
it will pay to spray as often as once a week.

Scab is caused by a fungus that attacks the surface of the tubers. It is
carried over on diseased tubers and in the soil. In general, when land
becomes badly infested with scab, it is best to plant it with other
crops for several years. (See page 190.)

_Raspberry diseases._--Anthracnose is very destructive to black
raspberries, but not often injurious to the red varieties. It is
detected by the circular or elliptical gray scab-like spots on the
canes. Avoid taking young plants from diseased plantations. Remove all
old canes and badly diseased new ones as soon as the fruit is gathered.
Although spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50, will control the malady, the
treatment may not be profitable. If spraying seems advisable, make the
first application when the new canes are 6 to 8 in. high and follow with
two more at intervals of 10 to 14 days.

Cane-blight or wilt is a destructive disease affecting both red and
black varieties. Fruiting canes suddenly wilt and die. It is caused by a
fungus which attacks the cane at some point and kills the bark and wood,
thereby causing the parts above to die. No successful treatment is
known. In making new settings, use only plants from healthy plantations.
Remove the fruiting canes as soon as the fruit is gathered.

Red-rust is often serious on black varieties, but does not affect red
ones. It is the same as red rust of blackberry. Dig up and destroy
affected plants.

_Rose diseases._--Black leaf-spot is one of the commonest diseases of
the rose. It causes the leaves to fall prematurely. Spray with bordeaux,
5-5-50, beginning as soon as the first spots appear on the leaves. Two
or three applications at intervals of ten days will very largely control
the disease. Ammoniacal copper carbonate may be used on roses grown
under glass. Apply once a week until disease is under control.

For mildew on greenhouse roses, keep the steam pipes painted with a
paste made of equal parts lime and sulfur mixed up with water. The
mildew is a surface-feeding fungus and is killed by the fumes of the
sulfur. Outdoor roses that become infested with the mildew may be dusted
with sulfur, or sprayed with a solution of potassium sulfide, 1 oz. to 3
gal. water. Spray or dust with the sulfur two or three times at
intervals of a week or ten days.

_Strawberry leaf-spot._--The most common and serious fungous disease of
the strawberry; also called rust and leaf-blight. The leaves show spots
which at first are of a deep purple color, but later enlarge and the
center becomes gray or nearly white. The fungus passes the winter in the
old diseased leaves that fall to the ground. In setting new plantations,
remove all diseased leaves from the plants before they are taken to the
field. Soon after growth begins, spray the newly set plants with
bordeaux, 5-5-50. Make three or four additional sprayings during the
season. The following spring, spray just before blossoming and again 10
to 14 days later. If the bed is to be fruited a second time, mow the
plants and burn over the beds as soon as the fruit is gathered. Plant
resistant varieties.

_Tomato leaf-spot._--The distinguishing character of this disease is
that it begins on the lower leaves and works towards the top, killing
the foliage as it goes. It is controlled with difficulty because it is
carried over winter in the diseased leaves and tops that fall to the
ground. When setting out plants, pinch off all the lower leaves that
touch the ground; also any leaves that show suspicious-looking
dead-spots. The trouble often starts in the seed-bed. Spray plants very
thoroughly with bordeaux, 5-5-50, beginning as soon as the plants are
set out. Stake and tie up for greater convenience in spraying. Spray
under side of the leaves. Spray every week or ten days.



In choosing the kinds of plants for the main grounds the gardener should
carefully distinguish two categories,--those plants to compose the
structural masses and design of the place, and those that are to be used
for mere ornament. The chief merits to be sought in the former are good
foliage, pleasing form and habit, shades of green, and color of winter
twigs. The merits of the latter lie chiefly in flowers or
colored foliage.

Each of these categories should be again divided. Of plants for the main
design, there might be discussion of trees for a windbreak, of trees for
shade; of shrubs for screens or heavy plantings, for the lighter side
plantings, and for incidental masses about the buildings or on the lawn;
and perhaps also of vines for porches and arbors, of evergreens, of
hedges, and of the heavier herbaceous masses.

Plants used for mere embellishment or ornamentation may be ranged again
into categories for permanent herbaceous borders, for display beds,
ribbon edgings, annuals for temporary effects, foliage beds, plants for
adding color and emphasis to the shrubbery masses, plants desired to be
grown as single specimens or as curiosities, and plants for porch-boxes
and window-gardens.

Having now briefly suggested the uses of the plants, we shall proceed to
discuss them in reference to the making of home grounds. This chapter
contains a brief consideration of:

_Planting for immediate effect,

The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs,

Windbreaks and screens,

The making of hedges,

The borders,

The flower-beds,

Aquatic and bog plants,

Rockeries and alpine plants;_

and then it runs into nine sub-chapters, as follows:--

1. Plants for carpet-beds, p. 234;

2. The annual plants, p. 241;

3. Hardy herbaceous perennials, p. 260;

4. Bulbs and tubers, p. 281;

5. The shrubbery, p. 290;

6. Climbing plants, p. 307;

7. Trees for lawns and streets, p. 319;

8. Coniferous evergreen trees and shrubs, p. 331;

9. Window-gardens, p. 336.

And then, in Chapter VIII, the particular cultures of plants needing
special care are briefly discussed.

_Planting for immediate effect._

It is always legitimate, and, in fact, desirable, to plant for immediate
effect. One may plant very thickly of rapid-growing trees and shrubs for
this purpose. It is a fact, however, that very rapid-growing trees
usually lack strong or artistic character. Other and better trees should
be planted with them and the featureless kinds be gradually removed.
(Page 41.)

The effect of a new place may be greatly heightened by a dexterous use
of annuals and other herbaceous stuff in the shrub plantations. Until
the shrubbery covers the ground, temporary plants may be grown among
them. Subtropical beds may give a very desirable temporary finish to
places that are pretentious enough to make them seem in keeping.

Very rough, hard, sterile, and stony banks may sometimes be covered with
coltsfoot (_Tussilago Farfara_), sacaline, _Rubus cratoegifotius,_
comfrey, and various wild growths that persist in similar places in the

However much the planter may plan for immediate effects, the beauty of
trees and shrubs comes with maturity and age, and this beauty is often
delayed, or even obliterated, by shearing and excessive heading-back. At
first, bushes are stiff and erect, but when they attain their full
character, they usually droop or roll over to meet the sward. Some
bushes make mounds of green much sooner than others that may even be
closely related. Thus the common yellow-bell (_Forsythia virdissima_)
remains stiff and hard for some years, whereas _F. suspensa_ makes a
rolling heap of green in two or three years. Quick informal effects can
also be secured by the use of Hall's Japanese honeysuckle (_Lonicera
Halliana_ of nurserymen), an evergreen in the South, and holding its
leaves until midwinter or later in the North. It may be used for
covering a rock, a pile of rubbish, a stump (Fig. 236), to fill a corner
against a foundation, or it may be trained on a porch or arbor. There is
a form with yellow-veined leaves. _Rosa Wichuraiana_ and some of the
dewberries are useful for covering rough places.

Many vines that are commonly used for porches and arbors may be employed
also for the borders of shrub-plantations and for covering rough banks
and rocks, quickly giving a finish to the cruder parts of the place.
Such vines, among others, are various kinds of clematis, Virginia
creeper, actinidia, akebia, trumpet creeper, periploca, bitter-sweet
(_Solanum Dulcamara_), wax-work (_Celastrus scandens_).

Of course, very good immediate effects may be secured by very close
planting (page 222), but the homesteader must not neglect to thin out
these plantations when the time comes.

[Illustration: Fig 236. Stump covered with Japanese honeysuckle.]

_The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs._

There is always a temptation to use too freely of the trees and shrubs
that are characterized by abnormal or striking foliage. The subject is
discussed in its artistic bearings on pages 40 and 41.

As a rule, the yellow-leaved, spotted-leaved, variegated, and other
abnormal "foliage" plants are less hardy and less reliable than the
green-leaved or "natural" forms. They usually require more care, if they
are kept in vigorous and seemly condition. Some marked exceptions to
this are noted in the lists of trees and shrubs.

There are some plants of striking foliage, however, that are perfectly
reliable, but they are usually not of the "horticultural variety" class,
their characteristics being normal to the species. Some of the silver or
white-leaved poplars, for example, produce the most striking contrasts
of foliage, particularly if set near darker trees, and for this reason
they are much desired by many planters. Bolle's poplar (_Populus
Bolleana_ of the nurseries) is one of the best of these trees. Its habit
is something like that of the Lombardy. The upper surface of the deeply
lobed leaves is dark dull green, while the under surface is almost snowy
white. Such emphatic trees as this should generally be partially
obscured by planting them amongst other trees, so that they appear to
mix with the other foliage; or else they should be seen at some
distance. Other varieties of the common white poplar or abele are
occasionally useful, although most of them sprout badly and may become a
nuisance. But the planting of these immodest trees is so likely to be
overdone that one scarcely dare recommend them, although, when
skillfully used, they may be made to produce most excellent effects. If
any reader has a particular fondness for trees of this class (or any
others with woolly-white foliage) and if he has only an ordinary city
lot or farm-yard to ornament, let him reduce his desires to a single
tree, and then if that tree is planted in the interior of a group of
other trees, no harm can result.

_Windbreaks and screens._

A shelter-belt for the home grounds is often placed at the extreme edge
of the home yard, toward the heaviest or prevailing wind. It may be a
dense plantation of evergreens. If so, the Norway spruce is one of the
best for general purposes in the northeastern states. For a lower belt
the arbor vitae is excellent. Some of the pines, as the Scotch or
Austrian, and the native white pine, are also to be advised,
particularly if the belt is at some distance from the residence. As a
rule, the coarser the tree the farther it should be placed from
the house.

The common deciduous trees of the region (as elm, maple, box-elder) may
be planted in a row or rows for windbreaks. Good temporary shelter belts
are secured by poplars and large willows. On the prairies and far north
the laurel willow _(Salix laurifolia_ of the trade) is excellent. Where
snow blows very badly, two lines of breaks may be planted three to six
rods apart, so that the inclosed lane may catch the drift; this method
is employed in prairie regions.

Persons may desire to use the break as a screen to hide undesirable
objects. If these objects are of a permanent character, as a barn or an
unkempt property, evergreen trees should be used. For temporary screens,
any of the very large-growing herbaceous plants may be employed. Very
excellent subjects are sunflowers, the large-growing nicotianas, castor
beans, large varieties of Indian corn, and plants of like growth.
Excellent screens are sometimes made with vines on a trellis.

Very efficient summer screens may be made with ailanthus, paulownia,
basswood, sumac, and other plants that tend to throw up very vigorous
shoots from the base. After these plants have been set a year or two,
they are cut back nearly to the ground in winter or spring, and strong
shoots are thrown up with great luxuriance during the summer, giving a
dense screen and presenting a semi-tropical effect. For such purposes,
the roots should be planted only two or three feet apart. If, after a
time, the roots become so crowded that the shoots are weak, some of the
plants may be removed. Top-dressing the area every fall with manure will
tend to make the ground rich enough to afford a very heavy summer
growth. (See Fig. 50.)

_The making of hedges._

Hedges are much less used in this country than in Europe, and for
several reasons. Our climate is dry, and most hedges do not thrive so
well here as there; labor is high-priced, and the trimming is therefore
likely to be neglected; our farms are so large that much fencing is
required; timber and wire are cheaper than live hedges.

However, hedges are used with good effect about the home grounds. In
order to secure a good ornamental hedge, it is necessary to have a
thoroughly well-prepared deep soil, to set the plants close, and to
shear them at least twice every year. For evergreen hedges the most
serviceable plant in general is the arbor vitae. The plants may be set
at distances of 1 to 2-1/2 feet apart. For coarser hedges, the Norway
spruce is used; and for still coarser ones, the Scotch and Austrian
pines. In California the staple conifer hedge is made of Monterey
cypress. For choice evergreen hedges about the grounds, particularly
outside the northern states, some of the retinosporas are very useful.
One of the most satisfactory of all coniferous plants for hedges is the
common hemlock, which stands shearing well and makes a very soft and
pleasing mass. The plants may be set from 2 to 4 feet apart.

Other plants that hold their leaves and are good for hedges are the
common box and the privets. Box hedges are the best for very low borders
about walks and flower-beds. The dwarf variety can be kept down to a
height of 6 inches to a foot for any number of years. The
larger-growing varieties make excellent hedges 3, 4, and 5 feet high.
The ordinary privet or prim holds its leaves well into winter in the
North. The so-called Californian privet holds its leaves rather longer
and stands better along the seashore. The mahonia makes a low, loose
hedge or edging in locations where it will thrive. Pyracantha is also to
be recommended where hardy. In the southern states, nothing is better
than _Citrus trifoliata._ This is hardy even farther north than
Washington in very favored localities. In the South, _Prunus
Caroliniana_ is also used for hedges. Saltbush hedges are frequent in

For hedges of deciduous plants, the most common species are the
buckthorn, Japan quince, the European hawthorn and other thorns,
tamarix, osage orange, honey locust, and various kinds of roses. Osage
orange has been the most used for farm hedges. For home grounds,
_Berberis Thunbergii_ makes an excellent free hedge; also _Spiraea
Thunbergii_ and other spireas. The common _Rosa rugosa_ makes an
attractive free hedge.

Hedges should be trimmed the year after they are set, although they
should not be sheared very closely until they reach the desired or
permanent height. Thereafter they should be cut into the desired form in
spring or fall, or both. If the plants are allowed to grow for a year or
two without trimming, they lose their lower leaves and become open and
straggly. Osage orange and some other plants are plashed; that is, the
plants are set at an angle rather than perpendicularly, and they are
wired together obliquely in such a way that they make an impenetrable
barrier just above the surface of the ground.

For closely clipped or sheared hedges, the best plants are arbor vitae,
retinospora, hemlock, Norway spruce, privet, buckthorn, box, osage
orange, pyracantha, _Citrus trifoliata._ The pyracantha _(Pyracantha
coccinea_) is an evergreen shrub allied to crataegus, of which it is
sometimes considered to be a species. It is also sometimes referred to
cotoneaster. Although hardy in protected places in the North, it is
essentially a bush of the middle and southern latitudes, and of
California. It has persistent foliage and red berries. Var. _Lalandi_
has orange-red berries.

_The borders._

The word "border" is used to designate the heavy or continuous planting
about the boundaries of a place, or along the walks and drives, or
against the buildings, in distinction from planting on the lawn or in
the interior spaces. A border receives different designations, depending
on the kinds of plants that are grown therein: it may be a shrub-border,
a flower-border, a hardy border for native and other plants, a
vine-border, and the like.

There are three rules for the choosing of plants for a hardy border:
choose (1) those that you like best, (2) those that are adapted to the
climate and soil, (3) those that are in place or in keeping with that
part of the grounds.

The earth for the border should be fertile. The whole ground should be
plowed or spaded and the plants set irregularly in the space; or the
back row may be set in a line. If the border is composed of shrubs, and
is large, a horse cultivator may be run in and out between the plants
for the first two or three years, since the shrubs will be set 2 to 4
feet apart. Ordinarily, however, the tilling is done with hand tools.
After the plants are once established and the border is filled, it is
best to dig up as little as possible, for the digging disturbs the roots
and breaks the crowns. It is usually best to pull out the weeds and give
the border a top-dressing each fall of well-rotted manure. If the ground
is not very rich, an application of ashes or some commercial fertilizer
may be given from time to time.

The border should be planted so thick as to allow the plants to run
together, thereby giving one continuous effect. Most shrubs should be
set 3 feet apart. Things as large as lilacs may go 4 feet and sometimes
even more. Common herbaceous perennials, as bleeding heart, delphiniums,
hollyhocks, and the like, should go from 12 to 18 inches. On the front
edge of the border is a very excellent place for annual and tender
flowering plants. Here, for example, one may make a fringe of asters,
geraniums, coleus, or anything else he may choose. (Chap. II.)

Into the heavy borders about the boundaries of the place the autumn
leaves will drift and afford an excellent mulch. If these borders are
planted with shrubs, the leaves may be left there to decay, and not be
raked off in the spring.

The general outline of the border facing the lawn should be more or less
wavy or irregular, particularly if it is on the boundary of the place.
Alongside a walk or drive the margins may follow the general directions
of the walk or drive.

In making borders of perennial flowers the most satisfactory results are
secured if a large clump of each kind or variety is grown. The
herbaceous border is one of the most flexible parts of grounds, since it
has no regular or formal design. Allow ample space for each perennial
root,--often as much as three or four square feet,--and then if the
space is not filled the first year or two, scatter over the area seeds
of poppies, sweet peas, asters, gilias, alyssum, or other annuals.
Figures 237-239, from Long ("Popular Gardening," i., 17, 18), suggest
methods of making such borders. They are on a scale of ten feet to the
inch. The entire surface is tilled, and the irregular diagrams designate
the sizes of the clumps. The diagrams containing no names are to be
filled with bulbs, annuals, and tender plants, if desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Suggestions for a border of spring flowers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 238. A border of summer-flowering herbs.]

It must not be supposed, however, that one cannot have a border unless
he has wide marginal spaces about his grounds. It is surprising how many
things one can grow in an old fence. Perennials that grow in fence-rows
in fields ought also to grow in similar boundaries on the home
grounds. Some of garden annuals will thrive alongside a fence,
particularly if the fence does not shut off too much light; and many
vines (both perennial and annual) will cover it effectively. Among
annuals, the large-seeded, quick-germinating, rapid-growing kinds will
do best. Sunflower, sweet pea, morning glory, Japanese hop, zinnia,
marigold, amaranths, four o'clock, are some of the kinds that will hold
their own. If the effort is made to grow plants in such places, it is
important to give them all the advantage possible early in the season,
so that they will get well ahead of the grass and weeds. Spade up the
ground all you can. Add a little quick-acting fertilizer. It is best to
start the plants in pots or small boxes, so that they will be in advance
of the weeds when they are set out.

[Illustration: Fig. 239. An autumn-flowering border.]

_The flower-beds._

We must remember to distinguish two uses of flowers,--their part in a
landscape design or picture, and their part in a bed or separate garden
for bloom. We now consider the flower-bed proper; and we include in the
flower-bed such "foliage" plants as coleus, celosia, croton, and canna,
although the main object of the flower-bed is to produce an abundance
of flowers.

In making a flower-bed, see that the ground is well drained; that the
subsoil is deep; that the land is in a mellow and friable condition, and
that it is fertile. Each fall it may have a mulch of rotted manure or of
leafmold, which may be spaded under deeply in the spring; or the land
may be spaded and left rough in the fall, which is a good practice when
the soil has much clay. Make the flower-beds as broad as possible, so
that the roots of the grass running in from either side will not meet
beneath the flowers and rob the beds of food and moisture. It is well to
add a little commercial fertilizer each fall or spring.

Although it is well to emphasize making the ground fertile, it must be
remembered (as indicated at the close of Chap. IV) that it can easily be
made too rich for such plants as we desire to keep within certain
stature and for those from which we wish an abundance of bloom in a
short season. In over-rich ground, nasturtiums and some other plants not
only "run to vine," but the bloom lacks brilliancy. When it is the leaf
and vegetation that is wanted, there is little danger of making the
ground too rich, although it is possible to make the plant so succulent
and sappy that it becomes sprawly or breaks down; and other plants may
be crippled and crowded out.

There are various styles of flower-planting. The mixed border, planted
with various hardy plants, and extending along either side of the
garden-walk, was popular years ago; and, with modifications in position,
form, and extent, has been a popular attachment to home grounds during
the past few years. To produce the best effects the plants should be set
close enough to cover the ground; and the selection should be such as to
afford a continuity of bloom.

The mixed flower-bed may contain only tender summer-blooming plants, in
which case the bed, made up mostly of annuals, does not purport to
express the entire season.

In distinction from the mixed or non-homogeneous flowerbed are the
various forms of "bedding," in which plants are massed for the purpose
of making a connected and homogeneous bold display of form or color. The
bedding may be for the purpose of producing a strong effect of white, of
blue, or of red; or of ribbon-like lines and edgings; or of luxurious
and tropical expression; or to display boldly the features of a
particular plant, as the tulip, the hyacinth, the chrysanthemum.

In ribbon-bedding, flowering or foliage plants are arranged in
ribbon-like lines of harmoniously contrasting colors, commonly
accompanying walks or drives, but also suitable for marking limits, or
for the side borders. In such beds, as well as the others, the tallest
plants will be placed at the back, if the bed is to be seen from one
side only, and the lowest at the front. If it is to be seen from both
sides, then the tallest will stand in the center.

A modification of the ribbon-line, bringing the contrasting colors
together into masses forming circles or other patterns, is known as
"massing," or "massing in color," and sometimes is spoken of as

Carpet-bedding, however, belongs more properly to a style of bedding in
which plants of dense, low, spreading habit--chiefly foliage plants,
with leaves of different forms and colors--are planted in patterns not
unlike carpets or rugs. It is often necessary to keep the plants sheared
into limits. Carpet-bedding is such a specialized form of plant-growing
that we shall treat of it separately.

Beds containing the large foliage plants, for producing tropical
effects, are composed, in the main, of subjects that are allowed to
develop naturally. In the lower and more orderly massing, the plants are
arranged not only in circles and patterns according to habit and height,
but the selection is such that some or all may be kept within proper
limits by pinching or trimming. Circles or masses composed of flowering
plants usually cannot be cut back at the top, so that the habit of the
plants must be known before planting; and the plants must be placed in
parts of the bed where trimming will not be necessary. They may be
clipped at the sides, however, in case the branches or leaves of one
mass or line in the pattern grow beyond their proper bounds.

The numbers of good annuals and perennials that may be used in
flower-beds are now very large, and one may have a wide choice. Various
lists from which one may choose are given at the end of this chapter;
but special comment may be made on those most suitable for bedding, and
in its modification in ribbon-work and sub-tropical massing.

Bedding effects.

Bedding is ordinarily a temporary species of planting; that is, the bed
is filled anew each year. However, the term may be used to designate a
permanent plantation in which the plants are heavily massed so as to
give one continuous or emphatic display of form or color. Some of the
best permanent bedding masses are made of the various hardy ornamental
grasses, as eulalias, arundo, and the like. The color effects in bedding
may be secured with flowers or with foliage.

Summer bedding is often made by perennial plants that are carried over
from the preceding year, or better, that are propagated for that
particular purpose in February and March. Such plants as geranium,
coleus, alyssum, scarlet salvia, ageratum, and heliotrope may be used
for these beds. It is a common practice to use geranium plants which are
in bloom during the winter for bedding out during the summer, but such
plants are tall and ungainly in form and have expended the greater part
of their energies. It is better to propagate new plants by taking
cuttings or slips late in the winter and setting out young fresh
vigorous subjects. (Page 30.)

Some bedding is very temporary in its effect. Especially is this true
of spring bedding, in which the subjects are tulips, hyacinths,
crocuses, or other early-flowering bulbous plants. In this case, the
ground is usually occupied later in the season by other plants. These
later plants are commonly annuals, the seeds of which are sown amongst
the bulbs as soon as the season is far enough advanced; or the annuals
may be started in boxes and the plants transplanted amongst the bulbs as
soon as the weather is fit.

Many of the low-growing and compact continuous-flowering annuals are
excellent for summer bedding effects. There is a list of some useful
material for this purpose on page 249.

Plants for subtropical effects (Plates IV and V).

The number of plants suitable to produce a semitropical mass or for the
center or back of a group, which may be readily grown from seed, is
limited. Some of the best kinds, are included below.

It will often be worth while to supplement these with others, to be had
at the florists, such as caladiums, screw pines, _Ficus elastica,_
araucarias, _Musa Ensete,_ palms, dracenas, crotons, and others. Dahlias
and tuberous begonias are also useful. About a pond the papyrus and
lotus may be used.

Practically all the plants used for this style of gardening are liable
to injury from winds, and therefore the beds should be placed in a
protected situation. The palms and some other greenhouse stuff do better
if partially shaded.

In the use of such plants, there are opportunities for the exercise of
the nicest taste. A gross feeder, as the ricinus, in the midst of a bed
of delicate annuals, is quite out of place; and a stately, royal-looking
plant among humbler kinds often makes the latter look common, when if
headed with a chief of their own rank all would appear to the best

Some of the plants much used for subtropical bedding, and often started
for that purpose in a greenhouse or coldframe, are:--



Aralia Sieboldii (properly Fatsia Japonica).


Caladium and colocasia.


Coxcomb, particularly the new "foliage" kinds.

Grasses, as eulalias, pampas-grass, pennisetums.


Maize, the striped form.

Ricinus or castor bean.

Scarlet sage.


_Aquatic and bog plants._

Some of the most interesting and ornamental of all plants grow in water
and in wet places. It is possible to make an aquatic flower-garden, and
also to use water and bog plants as a part of the landscape work.

The essential consideration in the growing of aquatics is the making of
the pond. It is possible to grow water-lilies in tubs and half barrels;
but this does not provide sufficient room, and the plant-food is likely
soon to be exhausted and the plants to fail. The small quantity of water
is likely also to become foul.

The best ponds are those made by good mason work, for the water does not
become muddy by working among the plants. In cement ponds it is best to
plant the roots of water-lilies in shallow boxes of earth (1 foot deep
and 3 or 4 feet square), or to hold the earth in mason-work

[Illustration X: A shallow lawn pond, containing water-lilies,
variegated sweet flag, iris, and subtropical bedding at the rear;
fountain covered with parrot's feather _(Myriophyllum

Usually the ponds or tanks are not cement lined. In some soils a simple
excavation will hold water, but it is usually necessary to give the
tank some kind of lining. Clay is often used. The bottom and sides of
the tank are pounded firm, and then covered with 3 to 6 in. of clay,
which has been kneaded in the hands, or pounded and worked in a box.
Handfuls or shovelfuls of the material are thrown forcibly upon the
earth, the operator being careful not to walk upon the work. The clay is
smoothed by means of a spade or maul, and it is then sanded.

The water for the lily pond may be derived from a brook, spring, well,
or a city water supply. The plants will thrive in any water that is used
for domestic purposes. It is important that the water does not become
stagnant and a breeding place for mosquitoes. There should be an outlet
in the nature of a stand-pipe, that will control the depth of water. It
is not necessary that the water run through the pond or tank rapidly,
but only that a slow change take place. Sometimes the water is allowed
to enter through a fountain-vase, in which water plants (such as
parrot's feather) may be grown (Plate X).

In all ponds, a foot or 15 in. is sufficient depth of water to stand
above the crowns of the plants; and the greatest depth of water should
not be more than 3 ft. for all kinds of water-lilies. Half this depth is
often sufficient. The soil should be 1 to 2 ft. deep, and very rich. Old
cow manure may be mixed with rich loam. For the nympheas or
water-lilies, 9 to 12 in. of soil is sufficient. Most of the foreign
water-lilies are not hardy, but some of them may be grown with ease if
the pond is covered in winter.

Roots of hardy water-lilies may be planted as soon as the pond is clear
of frost, but the tender kinds (which are also to be taken up in the
fall) should not be planted till it is time to plant out geraniums. Sink
the roots into the mud so that they are just buried, and weight them
down with a stone or clod. The nelumbium, or so-called Egyptian lotus,
should not be transplanted till growth begins to show in the roots in
the spring. The roots are cleaned of decayed parts and covered with
about 3 in. of soil. A foot or so of water is sufficient for lotus
ponds. The roots of Egyptian lotus must not freeze. The roots of all
water-lily-like plants should be frequently divided and renewed.

With hardy aquatics, the water and roots are allowed to remain naturally
over winter. In very cold climates, the pond is protected by throwing
boards over it and covering with hay, straw, or evergreen boughs. It is
well to supply an additional depth of water as a further protection.

As a landscape feature, the pond should have a background, or setting,
and its edges should be relieved, at least on sides and back, by
plantings of bog plants. In permanent ponds of large size, plantings of
willows, osiers, and other shrubbery may set off the area to advantage.
Many of the wild marsh and pond plants are excellent for marginal
plantings, as sedges, cat-tail, sweet-flag (there is a striped-leaved
form), and some of the marsh grasses. Japanese iris makes an excellent
effect in such places. For summer planting in or near ponds, caladium,
umbrella-plant, and papyrus are good.

If there is a stream, "branch," or "run" through the place, it may often
be made one of the most attractive parts of the premises by colonizing
bog plants along it.

_Rockeries, and alpine plants._

A rockery is a part of the place in which plants are grown in pockets
between rocks. It is a flower-garden conception rather than a landscape
feature, and therefore should be at one side or in the rear of the
premises. Primarily, the object of using the rocks is to provide better
conditions in which certain plants may grow; sometimes the rocks are
employed to hold a springy or sloughing bank and the plants are used to
cover the rocks; now and then a person wants a rock or a pile of stones
in his yard, as another person would want a piece of statuary or a
sheared evergreen. Sometimes the rocks are natural to the place and
cannot well be removed; in this case the planning and planting should be
such as to make them part of the picture.

The real rock-garden, however, is a place in which to grow plants. The
rocks are secondary. The rocks should not appear to be placed for
display. If one is making a collection of rocks, he is pursuing geology
rather than gardening.

Yet many of the so-called rock-gardens are mere heaps of stones, placed
where it seems to be convenient to pile stones rather than where the
stones may improve conditions for the growing of plants.

The plants that will naturally grow in rock pockets are those requiring
a continuous supply of root moisture and a cool atmosphere. To place a
rockery on a sand bank in the burning sun is therefore entirely out of

Rock-garden plants are those of cool woods, of bogs, and particularly of
high mountains and alpine regions. It is generally understood that a
rock-garden is an alpine-garden, although this is not necessarily so.

In this country alpine-gardening is little known, largely because of our
hot dry summers and falls. But if one has a rather cool exposure and an
unfailing water supply, he may succeed fairly well with many of the
alpines, or at least with the semi-alpines.

Most of the alpines are low and often tufted plants, and bloom in a
spring temperature. In our long hot seasons, the alpine-garden may be
expected to be dormant during much of the summer, unless other
rock-loving plants are colonized in it. Alpine plants are of many kinds.
They are specially to be found in the genera arenaria, silene,
diapensia, primula, saxifraga, arabis, aubrietia, veronica, campanula,
gentiana. They comprise a good number of ferns and many little heaths.

A good rock-garden of any kind does not have the stones piled merely on
the surface; they are sunken well into the ground and are so placed that
there are deep chambers or channels that hold moisture and into which
roots may penetrate. The pockets are filled with good fibrous
moisture-holding earth, and often a little sphagnum or other moss is
added. It must then be arranged so that the pockets never dry out.

Rock-gardens are usually failures, because they violate these very
simple elementary principles; but even when the soil conditions and
moisture conditions are good, the habits of the rock plants must be
learned, and this requires thoughtful experience. Rock-gardens cannot be
generally recommended.


(By Ernest Walker)

The beauty of the carpet-bed lies largely in its unity, sharp contrast
and harmony of color, elegance--often simplicity--of design, nicety of
execution, and the continued distinctness of outline due to scrupulous
care. A generous allowance of green-sward on all sides contributes
greatly to the general effect,--in fact it is indispensable.

Whatever place is chosen for the bed, it should be in a sunny exposure.
This, nor any kind of bed, should not be planted near large trees, as
their greedy roots will rob the soil not only of its food, but of
moisture. The shade also will be a menace. As the plants stand so thick,
the soil should be well enriched, and spaded at least a foot deep. In
planting, a space of at least six inches must be left between the outer
row of plants and the edge of the grass. The very style of the bed
requires that lines be straight, the curves uniform, and that they be
kept so by the frequent and careful use of the shears. During dry
periods watering will be necessary. The beds, however, should not be
watered in the hot sunshine. Foliage plants are most in use, and are the
ones which will prove the most satisfactory in the hands of the
inexperienced, as they submit to severe clipping and are thus more
easily managed.

The following list will be helpful to the beginner. It embraces a
number of the plants in common use for carpet-bedding, although not all
of them. The usual heights are given in inches. This, of course, in
different soils and under different treatment is more or less a variable
quantity. The figures in parentheses suggest in inches suitable
distances for planting in the row when immediate effects are expected. A
verbena in rich soil will in time cover a circle three feet or more in
diameter; other plants mentioned spread considerably; but when used in
the carpet-bed, they must be planted close. One cannot wait for them to
grow. The aim is to cover the ground at once. Although planted thick in
the row, it will be desirable to leave more room between the rows in
case of spreading plants like the verbena. Most of them, however, need
little if any more space between the rows than is indicated by the
figures given. In the list those plants that bear free clipping are
marked with an asterisk (A):

_Lists for carpet-beds._

_The figure immediately following the name of plant indicates its
height, the figures in parentheses the distance for planting,
in inches._



_Crimson._--(A)Alternanthera amoena spectabilis, 6 (4-6).
Alternanthera paronychioides major, 5 (3-6).
Alternanthera versicolor, 5 (3-6).

_Yellow._--Alternanthera aurea nana, 6 (4-6).

_Gray, or whitish._--Echeveria secunda, glauca, 1-1/2 (3-4).
Echeveria metallica, 9 (6-8).
Cineraria maritima, 15 (9-12).
Sempervivum Californicum, 1-1/2 (3-4).
Thymus argenteus, 6 (4-6).

_Bronze brown._--Oxalis tropaeoloides, 3 (3-4).

(white and green).--Geranium Mme. Salleroi, 6 (6-8).
(A)Sweet alyssum, variegated, 6 (6-9).


_Scarlet._--Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).
Cuphea platycentra, Cigar Plant, 6 (4-6).

_White._--Sweet alyssum, Little Gem, 4 (4-6).
Sweet alyssum, common, 6 (6-8).
Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

_Blue._--Lobelia, Crystal Palace, 6 (4-6).
Ageratum, Dwarf Blue, 6 (6-8).



_Crimson._--(A)Coleus Verschaffeltii, 24 (9-12).
(A)Achyranthes Lindeni, 18 (8-12).
(A)Achyranthes Gilsoni, 12 (8-12).
(A)Achyranthes Verschaffeltii, 12 (8-12).
(A)Acalypha tricolor, 12-18 (12).

_Yellow._--(A)Coleus, Golden Bedder, 24 (9-12).
(A)Achyranthes, aurea reticulata, 12 (8-12).
Golden feverfew (Pyrethrum parthenifolium
aureum), (6-8).
Bronze geranium, 12 (9).

_Silvery white._--Dusty miller (Centaurea gymnocarpa), 12 (8-12).
(A)Santolina Chamaecyparissus incana, 6-12 (6-8).
Geranium, Mountain of Snow, 12 (6-9).

(white and green).--(A)Stevia serrata var., 12-18 (8-12).
Phalaris arundinaeca var., (grass), 24 (4-8).
Cyperus alternifolius var., 24-30 (8-12).

_Bronze._--(A)Acalypha marginata, 24 (12).


_Scarlet._--Salvia splendens, 36 (12-18).
Geraniums, 24 (12).
Cuphea tricolor (C. Llavae), 18 (8-12).
Dwarf nasturtium (Tropaeolum), 12-18 (12-18).
Begonia, Vernon, 12 (6-8).
Verbenas, 12 (6-12).
Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

_White._--Salvia splendens, White-flowered, 36 (12-18).
Geraniums, 18-24 (12).
Lantana, Innocence, 18-24 (8-12).
Lantana, Queen Victoria, 24 (8-12).
Verbena, Snow Queen, 12 (6-12).
Ageratum, White, 9 (6-9).
Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

_Pink._--Petunia, Countess of Ellesmere, 18 (8-12).
Lantana, 24 (8-12).
Verbena, Beauty of Oxford, 6 (8-12).
Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

_Yellow._--Dwarf nasturtium, 12 (12-18).
Anthemis coronaria fl. pl., 12 (6-8).

_Blue._--Ageratum Mexicanum, 12 (6-8).
Verbenas, 6 (6-12).
Heliotrope, Queen of Violets, 18 (12-18).

In Fig. 240 are shown a few designs suitable for carpet-beds. They are
intended merely to be suggestive, not to be copied precisely. The simple
forms and component parts of the more elaborate beds may be arranged
into other designs. Likewise the arrangement of plants, which will be
mentioned as suitable for making a given pattern, is only one of many
possible combinations. The idea is merely to bring out the design
distinctly. To accomplish this it is only necessary to use plants of
contrasting color or growth. To illustrate how varied are the
arrangements that may be used, and how easily different effects are
produced with a single design, several different combinations of color
for the bed No. 1 will be mentioned:

[Illustration: Fig. 240. Designs for carpet-beds.]

No. 1.--Arrangement A: Outside, Alternanthera amoena spectabilis;
inside, Stevia serrata variegata. B: lobelia, Crystal Palace; Mme.
Salleroi geranium. C: lobelia, Crystal Palace; scarlet dwarf phlox. D:
sweet alyssum; petunia, Countess of Ellesmere. E: coleus, Golden Bedder;
Coleus Verschaffeltii. F: Achyranthes Lindeni; yellow dwarf nasturtium.

No. 2.--Outside, red alternanthera; middle, dusty miller; center, pink

No. 3.--Outside, Alternanthera aurea nana; middle, Alternanthera
amoena spectabilis; center, Anthemis coronaria.

No. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 may each be filled with a single color, or given a
border of suitable plants if the planter so chooses.

No. 9.--Ground, Alternanthera aurea nana; center, Acalypha tricolor;
black dots, scarlet geranium.

No. 10.--Ground of Centaurea gymnocarpa; circle, Achyranthes Lindeni;
cross, Golden coleus.

No. 11.--Border, Oxalis tropaeoloides; center, blue heliotrope, blue
ageratum, or Acalypha marginata; cross about the center, Thymus
argenteus, or centaurea; scallop outside the cross, blue lobelia;
corners, inside border, santolina.

Designs 13 and 14 are, in character, somewhat in the style of a
parterre; but instead of the intervening spaces in the bed being
ordinary walks they are of grass. Such beds are of a useful type,
because they may be made large and yet be executed with a comparatively
small number of plants. They are especially suitable for the center of
an open plot of lawn with definite formal boundaries on all sides, such
as walks or drives. Whether they are to be composed of tall-growing or
of low-growing plants will depend upon the distance they are to be from
the observer. For a moderate-sized plot the following plants might
be used:--

No. 13.--Border, red alternanthera; second row, dwarf orange or yellow
nasturtium; third row, Achyranthes Gilsoni, or Acalypha tricolor;
central square, scarlet geraniums, with a border of Centaurea
gymnocarpa; intervening spaces, grass. Instead of the square of
geraniums, a vase might be substituted, or a clump of Salvia splendens.

No. 14.--Composite beds like this and the former are always suggestive.
They contain various features which may readily be recombined into other
patterns. Sometimes it may be convenient to use only portions of the
design. The reader should feel that no arrangement is arbitrary, but
merely a suggestion that he may use with the utmost freedom, only
keeping harmony in view. For No. 14, the following may be an acceptable
planting arrangement: Border, Mme. Salleroi geranium; small dots, dwarf
scarlet tropeolum; diamonds, blue lobelia; crescents, Stevia serrata
variegata; inner border, crimson achyranthes or coleus; loops,
Centaurea gymnocarpa; wedge-shaped portions, scarlet geranium.

No. 15.--Suitable for a corner. Border, red alternanthera; second row,
Alternanthera aurea nana; third row, red alternanthera; center,
Echeveria Californica.

[Illustration: Fig. 241. Carpet-bed for a bay or recession in the border

No. 16--Border, crimson alternanthera (another border of yellow
alternanthera might be placed inside of this); ground, Echeveria secunda
glauca; inner border, Oxalis tropaeoloides; center, Alternanthera aurea
nana. Or, inner border, Echeveria Californica; center, crimson

[Illustration: Fig. 242. Another circular carpet-bed.]

No. 17.--Another bed intended to fill an angle. Its curved side will
also fit it for use with a circular design. Border, dwarf blue
ageratum; circle, blue lobelia; ground (3 parts), crimson alternanthera.

Other carpet or mosaic beds (after Long), with the plants indicated, are
shown in Figs. 241, 242.


The annual flowers of the seedsmen are those that give their best bloom
in the very year in which the seeds are sown. True annuals are those
plants that complete their entire life-cycle in one season. Some of the
so-called annual flowers will continue to bloom the second and third
years, but the bloom is so poor and sparse after the first season that
it does not pay to keep them. Some perennials may be treated as annuals
by starting the seeds early; Chinese pink, pansy and snapdragon
are examples.

The regular biennials may be treated practically as annuals; that is,
seeds may be sown every year, and after the first year, therefore, a
seasonal succession of bloom may be had. Of such are adlumia, Canterbury
bell, lunaria, ipomopsis, oenothera Lamarckiana; and foxglove,
valerian, and some other perennials would better be treated as

Most annuals will bloom in central New York if the seeds are sown in the
open ground when the weather becomes thoroughly settled. But there are
some kinds, as the late cosmos and moon-flowers, for which the northern
season is commonly too short to give good bloom unless they are started
very early indoors.

If flowers of any annual are wanted extra early, the seeds should be
started under cover. A greenhouse is not necessary for this purpose,
although best results are to be expected with such a building. The seed
may be sown in boxes, and these boxes then placed in a sheltered
position on the warm side of a building. At night they may be covered
with boards or matting. In very cold "spells" the boxes should be
brought inside. In this simple way seeds may often be started one to
three weeks ahead of the time when they can be sown in the open garden.
Moreover, the plants are likely to receive better care in these boxes,
and therefore to grow more rapidly. Of course, if still earlier results
are desired, the seed should be sown in the kitchen, hotbed, coldframe,
or in a greenhouse. In starting plants ahead of the season, be careful
not to use too deep boxes. The gardener's "flat" may be taken as a
suggestion. Three inches of earth is sufficient, and in some cases (as
when the plants are started late) half this depth is enough.

The difficulty with early sown seedlings is "drawing up," and weakness
from crowding and want of light. This is most liable to occur with
window-grown plants. Vigorous June-sown plants are better than such
weaklings. It must be remembered that very early bloom usually means the
shortening of the season at the other end; this may be remedied to some
extent by making sowings at different times.

The "hardy" annuals are such as develop readily without the aid of
artificial heat. They are commonly sown in May or earlier, directly in
the open ground where they are to grow. Florists often sow certain kinds
in the fall, and winter the young plants in coldframes. They may also be
wintered under a covering of leaves or evergreen boughs. Some of the
hardy annuals (as sweet pea) withstand considerable frost. The
"half-hardy" and "tender" annuals are alike in that they require more
warmth for their germination and growth. The tender kinds are very
quickly sensitive to frost. Both these, like the hardy kinds, may be
sown in the open ground, but not until the weather has become settled
and warm, which for the tender kinds will not commonly be before the
first of June; but the tender kinds, at least, are preferably started in
the house and transplanted to their outdoor beds. Of course, these terms
are wholly relative. What may be a tender annual in Massachusetts may be
a hardy annual or even a perennial in Louisiana.

These terms as ordinarily used in this country refer to the northern
states, or not farther south than middle Atlantic states.

Some familiar examples of hardy annuals are sweet alyssum, ageratum,
calendula, calliopsis, candytuft, Centaurea Cyanus, clarkia, larkspur,
gilia, California poppy, morning-glory, marigold, mignonette, nemophila,
pansy, phlox, pinks, poppies, portulaca, zinnia, sweet pea, scabiosa.

Examples of half-hardy annuals are: China aster, alonsoa, balsam,
petunia, ricinus, stocks, balloon-vine, martynia, salpiglossis,
thunbergia, nasturtium, verbena.

Examples of tender annuals: Amarantus, celosia or coxcomb, cosmos,
cotton, Lobelia Erinus, cobea, gourds, ice-plant, sensitive-plant,
solanums, torenia, and such things as dahlias, caladiums, and acalypha
used for bedding and subtropical effects.

Some annuals do not bear transplanting well; as poppies, bartonia,
Venus' looking-glass, the dwarf convolvulus, lupinus, and malope. It is
best, therefore, to sow them where they are to grow.

Some kinds (as poppies) do not bloom all summer, more especially not if
allowed to produce seed. Of such kinds a second or third sowing at
intervals will provide a succession. Preventing the formation of seeds
prolongs their life and flowering period.

A few of the annuals thrive in partial shade or where they receive
sunshine for half the day; but most of them prefer a sunny situation.

Any good garden soil is suitable for annuals. If not naturally fertile
and friable, it should be made so by the application of well-rotted
stable-manure or humus. The spading should be at least one foot deep.
The upper six inches is then to be given a second turning to pulverize
and mix it. After making the surface fine and smooth the soil should be
pressed down with a board. The seed may now be sprinkled on the soil in
lines or concentric circles, according to the method desired. After
covering the seed, the soil should be again pressed down with a board.
This promotes capillarity, by which the surface of the soil is better
supplied with moisture from below. Always mark with a label the kind and
position of all seed sown.

If the flowers are to be grown about the edges of the lawn, make sure
that the grass roots do not run underneath them and rob them of food and
moisture. It is well to run a sharp spade deep into the ground about the
edges of the bed every two or three weeks for the purpose of cutting off
any grass roots that may have run into the bed. If beds are made in the
turf, see that they are 3 ft. or more wide, so that the grass roots will
not undermine them. Against the shrub borders, this precaution may not
be necessary. In fact, it is desirable that the flowers fill all the
space between the overhanging branches and the sod.

It is surprising how few of the uncommon or little known annuals really
have great merit for general purposes. There is nothing yet to take the
place of the old-time groups, such as amaranths, zinnias, calendulas,
daturas, balsams, annual pinks, candytufts, bachelor's buttons,
wallflowers, larkspurs, petunias, gaillardias, snapdragons, coxcombs,
lobelias, coreopsis or calliopsis, California poppies, four-o'clocks,
sweet sultans, phloxes, mignonettes, scabiosas, nasturtiums, marigolds,
China asters, salpiglossis, nicotianas, pansies, portulacas, castor
beans, poppies, sunflowers, verbenas, stocks, alyssums, and such good
old running plants as scarlet runners, sweet peas, convolvuluses,
ipomeas, tall nasturtiums, balloon vines, cobeas. Of the annual vines of
recent introduction, the Japanese hop has at once taken a prominent
place for the covering of fences and arbors, although it has no floral
beauty to recommend it.

For bold mass-displays of color in the rear parts of the grounds or
along the borders, some of the coarser species are desirable. Good
plants for such use are: sunflower and castor bean for the back rows;
zinnias for bright effects in the scarlets and lilacs; African marigolds
for brilliant yellows; nicotianas for whites. Unfortunately, we have no
robust-growing annuals with good blues. Some of the larkspurs and the
browallias are perhaps the nearest approach to them.

For lower-growing and less gross mass-displays, the following are good:
California poppies for oranges and yellows; sweet sultans for purples,
whites, and pale yellows; petunias for purples, violets, and whites;
larkspurs for blues and violets; bachelor's buttons (or cornflowers) for
blues; calliopsis and coreopsis and calendulas for yellows; gaillardias
for red-yellows and orange-reds; China asters for many colors.

For still less robustness, good mass-displays can be made with the
following: alyssums and candytufts for whites; phloxes for whites and
various pinks and reds; lobelias and browallias for blues; pinks for
whites and various shades of pink; stocks for whites and reds;
wallflowers for brown-yellows; verbenas for many colors.

A garden of pleasant annual flowers is not complete that does not
contain some of the "everlastings" or immortelles. These "paper flowers"
are always interesting to children. They are not so desirable for the
making of "dry bouquets" as for their value as a part of a garden. The
colors are bright, the blooms hold long on the plant, and most of the
kinds are very easy to grow. My favorite groups are the different kinds
of xeranthemums and helichrysums. The globe amaranths, with clover-like
heads (sometimes known as bachelor's buttons), are good old favorites.
Rhodanthes and acrocliniums are also good and reliable.

The ornamental grasses should not be overlooked. They add a note to the
flower-garden and to bouquets that is distinct and can be secured by no
other plants. They are easily grown. Some of the good annual grasses are
_Agrostis nebulosa,_ the brizas, _Bromus brizaeformis,_ the species of
eragrostis and pennisetums, and _Coix Lachryma_ as a curiosity. Such
good lawn grasses as arundo, pampas-grass, eulalias, and erianthus are
perennials and are therefore not included in this discussion.

Some of the most reliable and easily grown annuals are given in the
following lists (under the common trade names).

_List of annuals by color of flowers._

White Flowers

Ageratum Mexicanum album.
Alyssum, common sweet; compacta.
Centranthus macrosiphon albus.
China asters.
Convolvulus major.
Dianthus, Double White Margaret.
Iberis amara; coronaria, White Rocket.
Ipomoea hederacea.
Lavatera alba.
Malope grandiflora alba.
Matthiola (Stocks), Cut and Come Again; Dresden Perpetual; Giant
Perfection; White Pearl.
Mirabilis longiflora alba.
Phlox, Dwarf Snowball; Leopoldii.
Poppies, Flag of Truce; Shirley; The Mikado.

Yellow and Orange Flowers

Cacalia lutea.
Calendula officinalis, common; Meteor; sulphurea; suffruticosa.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata; cardaminefolia; elegans picta.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Erysimum Perofskianum.
Eschscholtzia Californica.
Hibiscus Africanus; Golden Bowl.
Ipomoea coccinea lutea.
Loasa tricolor.
Tagetes, various kinds.
Thunbergia alata Fryeri; aurantiaca.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf, Lady Bird; Tall, Schulzi.

Blue and Purple Flowers

Ageratum Mexicanum; Mexicanum, Dwarf.
Asperula setosa azurea.
Brachycome iberidifolia.
Browallia Czerniakowski; elata.
Centaurea Cyanus, Victoria Dwarf Compact; Cyanus minor.
China asters of several varieties.
Convolvulus minor; minor unicaulis.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata.
Iberis umbellata; umbellata lilacina.
Kaulfussia amelloides; atroviolacea.
Lobelia Erinus; Erinus, Elegant.
Phlox variabilis atropurpurea.
Salvia farinacea.
Verbena, Black-blue; caerulea; Golden-leaved.
Whitlavia gloxinioides.

Red and Rose-red Flowers

Abromia umbellata.
Alonsoa grandiflora.
Cacalia, Scarlet.
Clarkia elegans rosea.
Convolvulus tricolor roseus.
Dianthus, Half Dwarf Early Margaret; Dwarf Perpetual; Chinensis.
Gaillardia picta.
Ipomoea coccinea; volubilis.
Matthiola annuus; Blood-red Ten Weeks; grandiflora, Dwarf.
Papaver (Poppy) cardinale; Mephisto.
Phaseolus multiflorus.
Phlox, Large-flowering Dwarf; Dwarf Fireball; Black Warrior.
Salvia coccinea.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf, Tom Thumb.
Verbena hybrida, Scarlet Defiance.

_Useful annuals for edgings of beds and, walks, and for ribbon-beds._

Ageraturn, blue and white.
Alyssum, sweet.
Dianthuses or pinks.
Gypsophila muralis.
Iberis or candytufts.
Lobelia Erinus.
Portulaca or rose moss (Fig. 243).
Saponaria Calabrica.

_Annuals that continue to bloom after frost._

This list is compiled from Bulletin 161, Cornell Experiment Station.
Several hundred kinds of annuals were grown at this station (Ithaca,
N.Y.) in 1897 and 1898. The notes are given in the original trade names
under which the seedsmen supplied the stock.

Abronia umbellata.
Adonis aestivalis; autumnale.
Argemone grandiflora.
Carduus benedictus.
Centaurea Cyanus.
Centranthus macro-
Cerinthe retorta. {siphon.
Cheiranthus Cheiri.
Convolvulus minor; tricolor.
Dianthus of various kinds.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Erysimum Perofskianum; Arkansanum.
Eschscholtzias, in several varieties (Fig. 249).
Gaillardia picta.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata; laciniata; tricolor.
Iberis affinis.
Lavatera alba.
Matthiolas or stocks.
oenothera rosea; Lamarckiana;
Phlox Drummondii. {Drummondii.
Podolepis affinis; chrysantha.
Salvia coccinea; farinacea; Horminum.
Vicia Gerardi.
Virginian stocks.
Viscaria elegans; oculata; Coeli-rosa.

[Illustration: Figure 243. Portulaca, or rose moss.]

[Illustration: Fig. 244 Pansies]

_List of annuals suitable for bedding (that is, for "mass effects" of

A list of this kind is necessarily both incomplete and imperfect,
because good new varieties are frequently appearing, and the taste of
the gardener must be consulted. Any plants may be used, broadly
speaking, for bedding; but the following list (given in terms of trade
names) suggests some of the best subjects to use when beds of solid,
strong color are desired.

Adonis aestivalis; autumnalis.
Ageratum Mexicanum; Mexicanum, Dwarf.
Bartonia aurea.
Calendula officinalis, in several forms; pluvialis; Pongei; sulphurea,
fl. pl.; suffruticosa.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata; cardaminefolia; elegans picta.
Callirrhoe involucrata; pedata; pedata nana.
Centaurea Americana; Cyanus, Victoria Dwarf Compact; Cyanus minor;
China asters.
Chrysanthemum Burridgeanum; carinatum; coronarium; tricolor.
Convolvulus minor; tricolor.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Delphinium, single; double.
Dianthus, Double White Half Dwarf Margaret; Dwarf Perpetual;
Caryophyllus semperflorens; Chinensis, double; dentosus hybridus;
Heddewigii; imperialis; laciniatus, Salmon Queen; plumarius;
superbus, dwarf fl. pl.; picotee.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Eschscholtzia Californica; crocea; Mandarin; tenuifolia (Fig. 249).
Gaillardia picta; picta Lorenziana.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata; laciniata; linifolia; nivalis; tricolor.
Godetia Whitneyi; grandiflora maculata; rubicunda splendens.
Hibiscus Africanus; Golden Bowl.
Iberis affinis; amara; coronaria; umbellata.
Impatiens or balsam.
Lavatera alba; trimestris.
Linum grandiflorum.
Madia elegans.
Malope grandiflora.
Matricaria eximia plena.
Matthiola or stock, in many forms; Wallflower-leaved; bicornis.
Nigella, or Love-in-a-mist.
oenothera Drummondii; Lamarckiana; rosea tetraptera.
Papaver or poppy, of many kinds; cardinale; glaucum; umbrosum.
Petunia, bedding kinds.
Phlox Drummondii, in many varieties.
Portulaca (Fig. 243).
Salvia farinacea; Horminum; splendens.
Schizanthus papilionaceus; pinnatus.
Silene Armeria; pendula.
Tagetes, or marigold, in many forms; erecta; patula; signata.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf.
Verbena auriculaeflora; Italica striata; hybrida; caerulea; Golden-leaved.
Viscaria Coeli-rosa; elegans picta; oculata.
Zinnia, Dwarf; elegans alba; Tom Thumb; Haageana; coccinea
plena (Fig. 247).

[Illustration: XI. The back yard, with summer house, and gardens

_List of annuals by height._

It is obviously impossible to make any accurate or definite list of
plants in terms of their height, but the beginner may be aided by
approximate measurements. The following lists are made from Bulletin 161
of the Cornell Experiment Station, which gives tabular data on many
annuals grown at Ithaca, N.Y. Seeds of most of the kinds were sown in
the open, rather late. "The soil varied somewhat, but it was light and
well tilled, and only moderately rich." Ordinary good care was given the
plants. The average height of the plants of each kind at full growth, as
they stood on the ground, is given in these lists. Of course, these
heights might be less or more with different soils, different
treatments, and different climates; but the figures are fairly
comparable among themselves.

The measurements are based on the stock supplied by leading seedsmen
under the trade names here given. It is not unlikely that some of the
discrepancies were due to mixture of seed or to stock being untrue to
type; some of it may have been due to soil conditions. The same name may
be found in two divisions in some instances, the plants having been
grown from different lots of seeds. The lists will indicate to the
grower what variations he may expect in any large lot of seeds.

Seedsmen's catalogues should be consulted for what the trade considers
to be the proper and normal heights for the different plants.

Plants 6-8 in. high

Abronia umbellata grandiflora.
Alyssum compactum.
Callirrhoe involucrata.
Godetia, Bijou, Lady Albemarle, and Lady Satin Rose.
Gypsophila muralis.
Kaulfussia amelloides.
Leptosiphon hybridus.
Linaria Maroccana.
Lobelia Erinus and Erinus Elegant.
Nemophila atomaria, discoidalis, insignis, and maculata.
Nolana lanceolata, paradoxa, prostrata, and atriplicifolia.
Podolepis chrysantha and affinis.
Rhodanthe Manglesii.
Sedum caeruleum.
Silene pendula ruberrima.

Plants 9-12 in. high

Asperula setosa azurea.
Brachycome iberidifolia.
Calandrinia umbellata elegans.
Callirrhoe pedata nana.
Centaurea Cyanus Victoria Dwarf Compact.
Centranthus macrosiphon nanus.
Collinsia bicolor, candidissima and multicolor marmorata.
Convolvulus minor and tricolor.
Eschscholtzia crocea.
Gamolepis Tagetes.
Gilia laciniata and linifolia.
Godetia Duchess of Albany, Prince of Wales, Fairy Queen, Brilliant,
grandiflora maculata, Whitneyi, Duke of Fife, rubicunda splendens.
Helipterum corymbiflorum.
Iberis affinis.
Kaulfussia amelloides atroviolacea, and a. kermesina.
Leptosiphon androsaceus and densiflorus.
Linaria bipartita splendida.
Matthiola dwarf Forcing Snowflake, Wallflower-leaved.
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.
Mimulus cupreus.
Nemophila atomaria oculata and marginata.
Nolana atriplicifolia.
Omphalodes linifolia.
oenothera rosea and tetraptera.
Phlox, Large-flowering Dwarf and Dwarf Snowball.
Rhodanthe maculata.
Saponaria Calabrica.
Schizanthus pinnatus.
Silene Armeria and pendula.
Viscaria oculata cserulea.

Plants 13-17 in. high

Abronia umbellata.
Acroclinium album and roseum.
Brachycome iberidifolia alba.
Browallia Czerniakowski and elata.
Calandrinia grandiflora.
Calendula sulphurea flore pleno.
Chrysanthemum carinatum.
Collomia coccinea.
Convolvulus minor and minor unicaulis.
Dianthus, the Margaret varieties, Dwarf Perpetual, Caryophyllus
semperflorens, Chinensis, dentosus hybridus, Heddewigii, imperialis,
laciniatus, plumarius, superbus dwarf, picotee, Comtesse de Paris.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Eschscholtzia Californica, Mandarin, maritima and tenuifolia.
Gaillardia picta.
Gilia achillesefolia alba and nivalis.
Helipterum Sanfordii.
Hieracium, Bearded.
Iberis amara, coronaria Empress, coronaria White Rocket,
Sweet-scented, umbellata, umbellata carnea, and umbellata lilacina.
Leptosiphon carmineus.
Lupinus nanus, sulphureus.
Malope grandiflora.
Matthiola, Wallflower-leaved and Virginian stock.
Mirabilis alba.
oenothera Lamarckiana.
Palafoxia Hookeriana.
Papaver, Shirley and glaucum.
Phlox of many kinds.
Salvia Horminum.
Schizanthus papilionaceus.
Statice Thouini and superba.
Tagetes, Pride of the Garden and Dwarf.
Tropaeolum, many kinds of dwarf.
Venidium calendulaceum.
Verbena of several kinds.
Viscaria Coeli-rosa, elegans picta, oculata, and oculata alba.
Whitlavia gloxinioides.

Plants 18-23 in. high

Adonis aestivalis and autumnalis.
Amarantus atropurpureus.
Calendula officinalis, Meteor, suffruticosa, and pluvialis.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata.
Callirrhoe pedata.
Centaurea Cyanus minor Blue and suaveolens.
Centranthus macrosiphon.
Chrysanthemum Burridgeanum, carinatum, tricolor Dunnettii.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Delphinium (annual).
Eutoca Wrangeliana.
Gaillardia picta (Fig. 245), Lorenziana.
Gilia achilleaefolia, a. rosea and tricolor.
Helichrysum atrosanguineum.
Ipomoea coccinea.
Linum grandiflorum.
Loasa tricolor.
Lupinus albus, hirsutus and pubescens.
Malope grandiflora alba.
Matricaria eximia plena.
Matthiola, several kinds.
oenothera Drummondii.
Papaver Mephisto, cardinale, c. hybridum, c. Danebrog, umbrosum.
Tagetes patula and signata.
Vicia Gerardii.
Whitlavia grandiflora and g. alba.
Xeranthemum album and multiflorum album.
Zinnias of many kinds (all not mentioned in other lists).

Plants 24-30 in. high

Bartonia aurea.
Calendula officinalis fl. pl., Prince of Orange and Pongei.
Calliopsis elegans picta.
Cardiospermum Halicacabum.
Carduus benedictus.
Centaurea Cyanus minor Emperor William.
Cheiranthus Cheiri.
Chrysanthemum tricolor, t. hybridum and coronarium sulphureum
fl. pl.
Clarkia elegans rosea.
Datura cornucopia.
Erysimum Arkansanum and Perofskianum.
Eutoca viscida.
Gilia capitata alba.
Helichrysum bracteatum and macranthum.
Hibiscus Africanus.
Impatiens, all varieties.
Lupinus hirsutus pilosus.
Matthiola Blood-red Ten Weeks, Cut and Come Again, grandiflora,
annuus, and others.
Mirabilis Jalapa folio variegata and longiflora alba.
Papaver, American Flag, Mikado and Double.
Perilla laciniata and Nankinensis.
Salvia farinacea.
Tagetes Eldorado, Nugget of Gold, erecta fl. pl.
Xeranthemum annuum and superbissimum fl. pl.
Zinnia elegans alba fl. pl.

[Illustration: Fig. 245. Gaillardia, one of the showy garden annuals.]

Plants 31-40 in. high

Acroclinium, double rose and white.
Adonis aestivalis.
Ageratum Mexicanum album and blue.
Amarantus bicolor ruber.
Argemone grandiflora.
Centaurea Americana.
Centauridium Drummondii.
Cerinthe retorta. {c. double yellow.
Chrysanthemum coronarium album and Clarkia elegans alba fl. pl.
Cleome spinosa.
Cyclanthera pedata.
Datura fastuosa and New Golden
Euphorbia marginata. {Queen.
Gilia capitata alba.
Helianthus Dwarf double and cucu-
Hibiscus Golden Bowl. {merifolius.
Lavatera trimestris.
Madia elegans.
Martynia craniolaria.
Salvia coccinea.

Plants 41 in. and above.

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