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Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry by War Department

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combinations of dictionary words, each dictionary word so used
will be counted.

12. The following are exceptions to paragraph 55, and are counted
as shown:

A. M. 1 word
P. M. 1 word
O. K. 1 word
Per cent 1 word

13. No message will be considered sent until its receipt has been
acknowledged by the receiving station.

The International Morse or General Service Code.

18. The International Morse Code is the General Service Code
and is prescribed for use by the Army of the United States and
between the Army and the Navy of the United States. It will be
used on radio systems, submarine cables using siphon recorders,
and with the heliograph, flash-lantern, and all visual signaling
apparatus using the wigwag.

_Alphabet_.

A . - N - .
B - . . . O - - -
C - . - . P . - - .
D - . . Q - - . -
E . R . - .
F . . - . S . . .
G - - . T -
H . . . . U . . -
I . . V . . . -
J . - - - W . - -
K - . - X - . . -
L . - . . Y - . - -
M - - Z - - . .

_Numerals_.

1 . - - - - 6 - . . . .
2 . . - - - 7 - - . . .
3 . . . - - 8 - - - . .
4 . . . . - 9 - - - - .
5 . . . . . 0 - - - - -

_Punctuation_.

Period . . . . . .
Comma . - . - . -
Interrogation . . - - . .
Hyphen or dash - . . . . -
Parentheses (before and after the words) - . - - . -
Quotation mark (beginning and ending) . - . . - .
Exclamation - - . . - -
Apostrophe . - - - - .
Semicolon - . - . - .
Colon - - - . . .
Bar indicating fraction - . . - .
Underline (before and after the word or
words it is wished to underline) . . - - . -
Double dash (between preamble and address,
between address and body of message,
between body of message and signature,
and immediately before a fraction) - . . . -
Cross . - . - .

Visual Signaling in General.

21. Methods of visual signaling are divided as follows:

(a) By flag, torch, hand lantern, or beam of searchlight (without
shutter). (General Service Code).

(b) By heliograph, flash lantern, or searchlight (with shutter).
(General Service Code).

(c) By Ardois. (General Service Code).

(d) By hand flags or by stationary semaphore. (Two-arm semaphore
Code.)

(e) By preconcerted signals with Coston lights, rockets, bombs,
Very pistols, small arms, guns, etc.

(f) By flag signals by permanent hoists. (International Code.)

22. The following conventional signals, with exceptions noted,
will be used in the first four classes.

_Exceptions_
Ardois and semaphore.
End of word. Interval.
End of sentence. Double interval.
End of message. Triple interval.
Signal separating
preamble from
address; address
from text; text
from signature. - . . . - Double interval,
signature preceded
also by "Sig."
Interval.
Acknowledgement. R.
Error. . . . . . . . . A.
Negative. K.
Preparatory. L.
Annulling. N.
Affirmative. P.
Interrogatory. . . - - . . O.
Repeat after word. Interrogatory. A
(word).
Repeat last message. Interrogatory
three times
Send faster. QRQ
Send slower. QRS
Cease sending QRT
Wait a moment . - . . . None.
Execute. IX, IX
Move to your right. MR
Move to your left. ML
Move up. MU
Move down. MD
Finished . . . - . - None.

Visual Signaling: By Flag (Wig-Wag), Torch, Hand Lantern, or Beam
or Searchlight (Without Shutter).

GENERAL SERVICE CODE.

23. For the flag used with the General Service Code there are
three motions and one position. The position is with the flag
held vertically, the signalman facing directly toward the station
with which it is desired to communicate. The first motion (the
dot) is to the right of the sender, and will embrace an arc of
90 deg., starting with the vertical and returning to it, and will
be made in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the
two stations. The second motion (the dash) is a similar motion
to the left of the sender. The third motion (front) is downward
directly in front of the sender and instantly returned upward
to the first position. Front is used to indicate an interval.

24. The beam of the searchlight, though ordinarily used with
the shutter like the heliograph, may be used for long-distance
signaling, when no shutter is suitable or available, in a similar
manner to the flag or torch, the first position being a vertical
one. A movement of the beam 90 deg. to the right of the sender indicates
a dot, a similar movement to the left indicates a dash; the beam
is lowered vertically for front.

25. To use the torch or hand lantern, a foot light must be employed
as a point of reference to the motion. The lantern is most
conveniently swung out upward to the right of the footlight for
a dot, to the left for a dash, and raised vertically for front.

NOTE.--To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged,
at intervals giving the call or signal of the calling station.
If the call letter of a station is unknown, wave flag until
acknowledged. In using the searchlight without shutter throw
the beam in a vertical position and move it through an arc of
180 deg. in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the two
stations until acknowledged. To acknowledge a call, signal
"Acknowledgment" followed by the call letter of the acknowledging
station.

Signaling with Heliograph, Flash Lantern, and Searchlight (With
Shutter).

GENERAL SERVICE CODE.

26. The first position is to turn a steady flash on the receiving
station. The signals are made by short and long flashes. Use a
short flash for dot and a long steady flash for dash. The elements
of a letter should be slightly longer than in sound signals.

27. To call a station, make its call letter until acknowledged.

28. If the call letter of a station be unknown, signal A until
acknowledged. Each station will then turn on a steady flash and
adjust. When adjustment is satisfactory to the called station,
it will cut off its flash and the calling station will proceed
with its message.

29. If the receiver sees that the sender's mirror or light needs
adjustment, he will turn on a steady flash until answered, by a
steady flash. When the adjustment is satisfactory the receiver
will cut off his flash and the sender will resume his message.

[Illustration: THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.]

[Illustration: THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.]

30. To break the sending station for other purposes, turn on a
steady flash.

SOUND SIGNALS.

56. Sound signals made by the whistle, foghorn, bugle, trumpet,
and drum may well be used in a fog, mist, falling snow, or at
night. They may be used with the dot and dash code.

In applying the General Service Code to whistle, foghorn, bugle,
or trumpet, one short blast indicates a dot and one long blast
a dash. With the drum, one tap indicates a dot and two taps in
rapid succession a dash. Although these signals can be used with
a dot and dash code, they should be so used in connection with
a preconcerted or conventional code.

Signaling by Two-Arm Semaphore.

HAND FLAGS.

43. Signaling by the two-arm semaphore is the most rapid method
of sending spelled-out messages. It is, however, very liable to
error if the motions are slurred over or run together in an attempt
to make speed. Both arms should move rapidly and simultaneously,
but there should be a perceptible pause at the end of each letter
before making the movements for the next letter. Rapidity is
secondary to accuracy. For alphabet see pages following.

NOTE.--In making the interval the flags are crossed downward in
front of the body (just above the knees); the double interval
is the "chop-chop" signal made twice; the triple interval is
"chop-chop" signal made three times. In calling a station face
it squarely and make its call. If there is no immediate reply
wave the flags over the head to attract attention, making the call
at frequent intervals. When the sender makes "end of message" the
receiver, if message is understood, extends the flags horizontally
and waves them until the sender does the same, when both leave
their stations. Care must be taken with hand flags to hold the
staffs so as to form a prolongation of the arms.

LETTER CODES.

INFANTRY.

47. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

-------------------------------------------------------------
Letter of | If signaled from | If signaled from
alphabet | the rear to the | the firing line
| firing line. | to the rear.
------------|------------------------|-----------------------
AM | Ammunition going | Ammunition required.
| forward. |
CCC | Charge (mandatory | Am about to charge
| at all times). | if no instructions
| | to the contrary.
CF | Cease firing. | Cease firing.
DT | Double time or "rush." | Double time or "rush."
F | Commence firing. |
FB | Fix bayonet. |
FL | Artillery fire is |
| causing us losses. |
G | Move forward. | Preparing to move
| | forward.
HHH | Halt. |
K | Negative. | Negative.
LT | Left. | Left.
O | What is the (R. N., | What is the (R. N.,
(Ardois and | etc.)? Interrogatory. | etc.)? Interrogatory.
Semaphore | |
only.) | |
. . - - . . | What is the (R. N., | What is the (R. N.,
(All methods| etc.)? Interrogatory. | etc.)? Interrogatory.
but ardois | |
and | |
semaphore.) | |
P | Affirmative. | Affirmative.
RN | Range. | Range.
RT | Right. | Right.
SSS | Support going forward. | Support needed.
SUF | Suspend firing. | Suspend firing.
T | Target. | Target.
-------------------------------------------------------------

CAVALRY.

48. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

AM--Ammunition going forward (if signaled from the
rear to the front).
Ammunition required (If signaled from the front).
CCC--Charge (if signaled rear the rear to the front).
About to charge if no instructions to the
contrary (if signaled from the front).
CF--Cease firing.
DT--Double time, rush, or hurry.
F--Commence firing.
FL--Artillery fire is causing us losses.
G--Move forward (if signaled from the rear to
the front). Preparing to move forward (if
signaled from the front).
HHH--Halt.
K--Negative.
LT--Left.
M--Bring up the horses (if signaled from front
to rear). Horses going forward (if signaled
from rear to front).
O--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
(Ardois and semaphore only.)
. . - - . .--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
(All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
P--Affirmative.
R--Acknowledgment.
RN--Range.
RT--Right.
SSS--Support going forward (if signaled from the
rear to the front). Support needed (if
signaled from the front).
SUF--Suspend firing.
T--Target.

FIELD ARTILLERY.

49. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

. . . . . . . .--Error. (All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
A--Error. (Ardois and semaphore only.)
AD--Additional.
AKT--Draw ammunition from combat tram.
AL--Draw ammunition from limbers.
AM--Ammunition going forward.
AMC--At my command.
AP--Aiming point.
B (numerals)--Battery (so many) rounds.
BS (numerals)--(Such.) Battalion station.
BL--Battery from the left.
BR--Battery from the right.
CCC--Charge (mandatory at all times). Am about to
charge if not instructed to contrary.
CF--Cease firing.
CS--Close station.
CT--Change target.
D--Down.
DF--Deflection.
DT--Double time. Rush. Hurry.
F--Commence firing.
FCL (numerals)--On 1st piece close by (so much).
FL--Artillery fire is causing us losses.
FOP (numerals)--On 1st piece open by (so much).
G--Move forward. Preparing to move forward.
HHH--Halt. Action suspended.
IX--Execute. Go ahead. Transmit.
JI--Report firing data.
K--Negative. No.
KR--Corrector.
L--Preparatory. Attention.
LCL (numerals)--On 4th piece close by (so much).
LOP (numerals)--On 4th piece open by (so much).
LT--Left.
LL--Left from the left.
LR--Left from the right.
LE (numerals)--Left (so much).
MD--Move down.
ML--Move to your left.
MR--Move to your right.
MU--Move up.
MO (numerals)--Move (so much).
N--Annul, cancel.
O--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
(Ardois and semaphore only.)
. . - - . .--What is the (R. N.. etc.)? Interrogatory.
(All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
P--Affirmative. Yes.
PS--Percussion. Shrapnel.
QRQ--Send faster.
QRS--Send slower.
QRT--Cease sending.
R--Acknowledgment. Received.
RS--Regimental station.
RL--Right from the left.
RR--Right from the right.
RN--Range.
RT--Right.
S--Subtract.
SCL (numerals)--On 2d piece close by (so much).
SOP (numerals)--On 2d piece open by (so much).
SH--Shell.
SI--Site.
SSS--Support needed.
T--Target.
TCL (numerals)--On 3d piece close by (so much).
TOP (numerals)--On 3d piece open by (so much).
U--Up.
Y (letter)--Such battery station.

CHAPTER XIII.

FIRST AID RULES.

The bandages and dressings contained in the first-aid packet
have been so treated as to destroy any germs thereon. Therefore,
when dressing a wound, be careful not to touch or handle that
part of the dressing which is to be applied to the wound.

A sick or injured person should always be made to lie down on his
back, if practicable, as this is the most comfortable position,
and all muscles may be relaxed.

All tight articles of clothing and equipment should be loosened,
so as not to interfere with breathing or the circulation of the
blood. Belts, collars, and the trousers at the waist should be
opened.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Don't let mere onlookers crowd about the patient. They prevent
him from getting fresh air and also make him nervous and excited.

In case of injury the heart action is generally weak from shock,
and the body, therefore, grows somewhat cold. So don't remove
any more clothing than is necessary to expose the injury.

Cut or rip the clothing, but don't pull it. Try to disturb the
patient as little as possible.

Don't touch a wound with your fingers or a handkerchief, or with
anything else but the first-aid dressing. Don't wash the wound
with water, as you may infect it.

Don't administer stimulants (whisky, brandy, wine, etc.) unless
ordered to do so by a doctor. While in a few cases stimulants
are of benefit, in a great many cases they do positive harm,
especially where there has been any bleeding.

The heart may be considered as a pump and the arteries as a rubber
hose, which carry the blood from the heart to every part of the
body. The veins are the hose which carry the blood back to the
heart. Every wound bleeds some, but, unless a large artery or
a large vein is cut, the bleeding will stop after a short while
if the patient is kept quiet and the first-aid dressing is bound
over the wound so as to make pressure on it.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

When a large artery is cut the blood gushes out in spurts every
time the heart beats. In this case it is necessary to stop the
flow of blood by pressing upon the hose somewhere between the
heart and the leak.

If the leak is in the arm or hand, apply pressure as in figure
1.

If the leak is in the leg, apply pressure as in figure 2.

If the leak is in the shoulder or armpit, apply pressure as in
figure 3.

The reason for this is that at the places indicated the arteries
may be pressed against a bone more easily than at any other places.

Another way of applying pressure (by means of a tourniquet) is
shown in figure 4. Place a pad of tightly rolled cloth or paper,
or any suitable object, over the artery. Tie a bandage loosely
about the limb and then insert your bayonet, or a stick, and
twist up the bandage until the pressure of the pad on the artery
stops the leak. Twist the bandage slowly and stop as soon as
the blood ceases to flow, in order not to bruise the flesh or
muscles unnecessarily.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

A tourniquet may cause pain and swelling of the limb, and it
left on too long may cause the limb to die. Therefore, about
every half hour or so, loosen the bandage very carefully, but if
the bleeding continues pressure must be applied again. In this
case apply the pressure with the thumb for five or ten minutes,
as this cuts off only the main artery and leaves some of the
smaller arteries and the veins free to restore some of the
circulation. When a tourniquet is painful, it is too tight and
should be carefully loosened a little.

It the leg or arm is held upright, this also helps to reduce
the bleeding in these parts, because the heart then has to pump
the blood uphill.

A broken bone is called a fracture. The great danger in the case
of a fracture is that the sharp, jagged edges of the bones may
stick through the flesh and skin, or tear and bruise the arteries,
veins, and muscles. If the skin is not broken, a fracture is
not so serious, as no germs can get in. Therefore never move a
person with a broken bone until the fracture has been so fixed
that the broken ends of the bone can not move.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Improvised tourniquet.]

If the leg or arm is broken, straighten the limb gently and if
necessary pull upon the end firmly to get the bones in place.
Then bind the limb firmly to a splint to hold it in place. A
splint may be made of any straight, stiff material--a shingle
or piece of board, a bayonet, a rifle, a straight branch of a
tree, etc. Whatever material you use must be well padded on the
side next to the limb. Be careful never to place the bandages
over the fracture, but always above and below. (Figs. 5, 6, 7,
8.)

Many surgeons think that the method of binding a broken leg to
the well one, and of binding the arm to the body, is the best
plan in the field as being the quickest and one that serves the
immediate purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

With wounds about the body the chest and abdomen you must not
meddle except to protect them when possible without much handling
with the materials of the packet.

FAINTING, SHOCK, HEAT EXHAUSTION.

The symptoms of fainting, shock, and heat exhaustion are very
similar. The face is pale, the skin cool and moist, the pulse is
weak, and generally the patient is unconscious. Keep the patient
quiet, resting on his back, with his head low. Loosen the clothing,
but keep the patient warm, and give stimulants (whisky, hot coffee,
tea, etc.).

SUNSTROKE.

In the case of sunstroke the face is flushed, the skin is dry
and very hot, and the pulse is full and strong. In this case
place the patient in a cool spot, remove the clothing, and make
every effort to lessen the heat in the body by cold applications
to the head and surface generally. Do not, under any circumstances,
give any stimulants or hot drinks.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

FREEZING AND FROSTBITE.

The part frozen, which looks white or bluish white, and is cold,
should be very slowly raised in temperature by brisk but careful
rubbing in a cool place and never near a fire. Stimulants are to
be given cautiously when the patient can swallow, and followed by
small amounts of warm liquid nourishment. The object is to restore
the circulation of the blood and the natural warmth gradually and
not violently. Care and patience are necessary to do this.

RESUSITATION OF THE APPARENTLY DROWNED.

In the instruction of the Army in First Aid the method of
resuscitation of the apparently drowned, as described by "Schaefer,"
will be taught instead of the "Sylvester Method," heretofore
used. The Schaefer method of artificial respiration is also
applicable in cases of electric shock, asphyxiation by gas, and
of the failure of respiration following concussion of the brain.

Being under water for four of five minutes is generally fatal,
but an effort to revive the apparently drowned should always
be made, unless it is known that the body has been under water
for a very long time. The attempt to revive the patient should
not be delayed for the purpose of removing his clothes or placing
him in the ambulance. Begin the procedure as soon as he is out
of the water, on the shore or in the boat. The first and most
important thing is to start artificial respiration without delay.

The Schaefer method is preferred because it can be carried out
by one person without assistance, and because its procedure is
not exhausting to the operator, thus permitting him, if required,
to continue it for one or two hours. When it is known that a
person has been under water for but a few minutes continue the
artificial respiration for at least one and a half to two hours
before considering the case hopeless. Once the patient has begun to
breathe watch carefully to see that he does not stop again. Should
the breathing be very faint, or should he stop breathing, assist
him again with artificial respiration. After he starts breathing
do not lift him nor permit him to stand until the breathing has
become full and regular.

As soon as the patient is removed from the water, turn him face
to the ground, clasp your hands under his waist, and raise the
body so any water may drain out of the air passages while the
head remains low. (Figure 9.)

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Schaefer method of artificial respiration.
Inspiration.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Schaefer method of artificial respiration.
Expiration.]

The patient is laid on his stomach, arms extended from his body
beyond his head, face turned to one side so that the mouth and
nose do not touch the ground. This position causes the tongue to
fall forward of its own weight and so prevents its falling back
into the air passages. Turning the head to one side prevents the
face coming into contact with mud or water during the operation.
This position also facilitates the removal from the mouth of
foreign bodies, such as tobacco, chewing gum, false teeth, etc.,
and favors the expulsion of mucus, blood, vomitus, serum, or
any liquid that may be in the air passages.

The operator kneels, straddles one or both of the patient's thighs,
and faces his head. Locating the lowest rib, the operator, with
his thumbs nearly parallel to his fingers, places his hands so
that the little finger curls over the twelfth rib. If the hands
are on the pelvic bones the object of the work is defeated; hence
the bones of the pelvis are first located in order to avoid them.
The hands must be free from the pelvis and resting on the lowest
rib. By operating on the bare back it is easier to locate the
lower ribs and avoid the pelvis. The nearer the ends of the ribs
the hands are placed without sliding off the better. The hands
are thus removed from the spine, the fingers being nearly out
of sight.

The fingers help some, but the chief pressure is exerted by the
heels (thenar and hypothenar eminences) of the hands, with the
weight coming straight from the shoulders. It is a waste of energy
to bend the arms at the elbows and shove in from the sides, because
the muscles of the back are stronger than the muscles of the
arms.

The operator's arms are held straight, and his weight is brought
from his shoulders by bringing his body and shoulders forward.
This weight is gradually increased until at the end of the three
seconds of vertical pressure upon the lower ribs of the patient
the force is felt to be heavy enough to compress the parts; then
the weight is suddenly removed. If there is danger of not returning
the hands to the right position again, they can remain lightly
in place; but it is usually better to remove the hands entirely.
If the operator is light and the patient an overweight adult,
he can utilize over 80 per cent of his weight by raising his
knees from the ground and supporting himself entirely on his
toes and the heels of his hands, the latter properly placed on
the ends of the floating ribs of the patient. In this manner
he can work as effectively as a heavy man.

A light feather or a piece of absorbent cotton drawn out thin
and held near the nose by some one will indicate by its movements
whether or not there is a current of air going and coming with
each forced expiration and spontaneous inspiration.

The natural rate of breathing is 12 to 15 times per minute. The
rate of operation should not exceed this. The lungs must be
thoroughly emptied by three seconds of pressure, then refilling
takes care of itself. Pressure and release of pressure--one complete
respiration--occupies about five seconds. If the operator is
alone, he can be guided in each act by his own deep, regular
respiration or by counting or by his watch lying by his side.
If comrades are present, he can be advised by them.

The duration of the efforts as artificial respiration should
ordinarily exceed an hour; indefinitely longer if there are any
evidences of returning animation, by way of breathing, speaking,
or movements. There are liable to be evidences of life within 25
minutes in patients who will recover from electric shock, but
where there is doubt the patient should be given the benefit
of the doubt. In drowning, especially, recoveries are on record
after two hours or more of unconsciousness; hence, the Schaefer
method, being easy of operation, is more likely to be persisted
in.

Aromatic spirits of ammonia may be poured on a handkerchief and
held continuously within 3 inches of the face and nose. If other
ammonia preparations are used, they should be diluted or held
farther away. Try it on your own nose first.

When the operator is a heavy man it is necessary to caution him
not to bring force too violently upon the ribs, as one of them
might be broken.

Do not attempt to give liquids of any kind to the patient while
unconscious. Apply warm blankets and hot-water bottles as soon
as they can be obtained.

CHAPTER XIV.

LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

The Army of the United States is governed by certain laws called
"The Articles of War" and certain regulations called "Army
Regulations."

The following list includes the offenses most often committed
by soldiers, generally through ignorance or carelessness rather
than viciousness. Violations of any rule or regulation should
be carefully guarded against, since they not only subject the
offender to punishment, but also bring discredit on his comrades,
his organization, and on the military profession:

1. Selling, pawning, or, through neglect, losing or spoiling
any Government property, such as uniforms, blankets, equipment,
ammunition, etc.

2. Disobedience of the orders of any officer or noncommissioned
officer.

3. Disrespect to an officer or noncommissioned officer.

4. Absence from camp without leave.

5. Absence from any drill, formation, or other duty without
authority.

6. Drunkenness on duty or off duty, whether in camp or when absent
either with or without leave.

7. Bringing liquor into camp.

8. Noisy or disorderly conduct in camp or when absent either with
or without leave.

9. Entering on private property, generally for the purpose of
stealing fruit, etc.

10. Negligence or carelessness at drill or on other duty,
particularly while on guard or as a sentinel over prisoners.

11. Wearing an unauthorized uniform or wearing the uniform in
an improper manner.

12. Urinating in or around camp.

13. Falling to salute properly.

14. Disrespect or affront to a sentinel.

15. Abuse or neglect of his horse.

"The basic principles of the combat tactics of the different arms
are set forth in the Drill Regulations of those arms for units as
high as brigades," (_Preface,_Field_Service_Regulations_.)

"The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide
the principles for training and for increasing the probability
of success in battle. In the interpretation of the regulations
the spirit must be sought. Quibbling over the minutae of form is
indicative of failure to grasp the spirit," (_Paragraph_4,_
_Infantry_Drill_Regulations._)

Field Service Regulations govern all arms of the Army of the United
States."

SECTION 2. THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES.

The Army of the United States shall consist of the Regular Army,
the Volunteer Army, the Officers' Reserve Corps, the Enlisted
Reserve Corps, the National Guard while in the service of the United
States, and such other land forces as are now or may hereafter
be authorized by law. (Sec. 1, act of June 3, 1916.)

SECTION 3. RANK AND PRECEDENCE OF OFFICERS AND NONCOMMISSIONED
OFFICERS.

The following are the grades of rank of officers and noncommissioned
officers:

1. Lieutenant general.
2. Major general.
3. Brigadier general.
4. Colonel.
5. Lieutenant colonel.
6. Major.
7. Captain.
8. First lieutenant.
9. Second lieutenant.
10. Aviator, Signal Corps.
11. Cadet.
12. (a) Sergeant major, regimental; sergeant major, senior
grade, Coast Artillery Corps; (b) quartermaster sergeant,
senior grade, Quartermaster Corps; master hospital sergeant,
Medical Department; master engineer, senior grade, Corps of
Engineers; master electrician, Coast Artillery Corps; master
signal electrician; band lender; (c) hospital sergeant, Medical
Department; master engineer, junior grade, Corps of Engineers;
engineer, Coast Artillery Corps.
13. Ordnance sergeant; quartermaster sergeant, Quartermaster
Corps; supply sergeant, regimental.
14. Sergeant-major, squadron and battalion; sergeant major,
junior grade, Coast Artillery Corps; supply sergeant, battalion,
Corps of Engineers.
15. (a) First sergeant; (b) sergeant, first class, Medical
Department; sergeant, first class, Quartermaster Corps; sergeant,
first class, Corps of Engineers; sergeant, first class, Signal
Corps; electrician sergeant, first class, Coast Artillery Corps;
electrician sergeant, Artillery Detachment, United States
Military Academy; assistant engineer, Coast Artillery Corps;
(c) master gunner, Coast Artillery Corps; master gunner,
Artillery Detachment, United States Military Academy; band
sergeant and assistant leader, United States Military Academy
band; assistant band leader; sergeant bugler; electrician
sergeant, second class, Coast Artillery Corps; electrician
sergeant, second class, Artillery Detachment, United States
Military Academy; radio sergeant.
16. Color sergeant.
17. Sergeant; supply sergeant, company; mess sergeant; stable
sergeant; fireman, Coast Artillery Corps.
18. Corporal.

In each grade and subgrade date of commission, appointment, or
warrant determines the order of precedence. (Paragraph. 9 Army
Regulations, 1913.)

SECTION 4. INSIGNIA OF OFFICERS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

The insignia of rank appearing on the shoulder straps, shoulder
loops, or collar of shirt (when shirt is worn without coat) of
officers are as follows:

General: Coat of arms and two stars.
Lieutenant general: One large star and two smaller ones.
Major general: Two silver stars.
Brigadier general: One silver star.
Colonel: One silver spread eagle.
Lieutenant colonel: One silver leaf.
Major: One gold leaf.
Captain: Two silver bars.
First lieutenant: One silver bar.

The grade of noncommissioned officers is indicated by chevrons
worn on the sleeve.

SECTION 5. EXTRACTS FROM THE ARTICLES OF WAR.

(Relating to enlisted men.)

CERTAIN ARTICLES TO BE READ AND EXPLAINED.

ART. 110. Articles 1, 2, and 29, 54 to 96, inclusive, and 104
to 109, inclusive, shall be read and explained to every soldier
at the time of his enlistment or muster in, or within six days
thereafter, and shall be read and explained once every six months
to the soldiers of every garrison, regiment, or company in the
service of the United States.

DEFINITIONS.

ARTICLE 1. The following words when used in these articles shall
be construed in the sense indicated in this article, unless the
context shows that a different sense is intended, namely:

(a) The word "officer" shall be construed to refer to a commissioned
officer;

(b) The word "soldier" shall be construed as including a
noncommissioned officer, a private, or any other enlisted man;

(c) The word "company" shall be understood as including a troop
or battery; and

(d) The word "battalion" shall be understood as including a squadron.

PERSONS SUBJECT TO MILITARY LAW.

ART. 2. The following persons are subject to these articles and
shall be understood as included in the term "any person subject
to military law" or "persons subject to military law" whenever
used in these articles: _Provided_, That nothing contained
in this act, except as specifically provided in article 2,
subparagraph (c), shall be construed to apply to any person under
the United States naval jurisdiction, unless otherwise specifically
provided by law:

(a) All officers and soldiers belonging to the Regular Army of
the United States; all volunteers, from the dates of their muster
or acceptance into the military service of the United States;
and all other persons lawfully called, drafted, or ordered into
or to duty or for training in the said service, from the dates
they are required by the terms of the call, draft, or order to
obey the same.

(b) Cadets.

(c) Officers and soldiers of the Marine Corps when detached for
service with the armies of the United States by order of the
President: _Provided_, That an officer soldier of the Marine
Corps when so detached may be tried by military court-martial
for an offense committed against the laws for the government of
the naval service prior to his detachment, and for an offense
committed against these articles he may be tried by a naval
court-martial after such detachment ceases.

(d) All retainers to the camp and all persons accompanying or
serving with the armies of the United States without the territorial
jurisdiction of the United States, and in time of war all such
retainers and persons accompanying or serving with the armies
of the United States in the field, both within and without the
territorial jurisdiction of the United States, though not otherwise
subject to these articles.

(e) All persons under sentence adjudged by courts-martini.

(f) All persons admitted into the Regular Army Soldiers' Home
at Washington. D. C.

ENLISTMENT WITHOUT DISCHARGE.

ART. 29. Any soldier who, without having first received a regular
discharge, again enlists in the Army, or in the militia when
in the service of the United States, or in the Navy or Marine
Corps of the United States, or in any foreign army, shall be
deemed to have deserted the service of the United States; and,
where enlistment is in one of the forces of the United States
mentioned above, to have fraudulently enlisted therein.

FRAUDULENT ENLISTMENT.

ART. 54. Any person who shall procure himself to be enlisted in
the military service of the United States by means of willful
misrepresentation or concealment as to his qualifications for
enlistment, and shall receive pay or allowances under such
enlistment, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

OFFICER MAKING UNLAWFUL ENLISTMENT

ART. 55. Any officer who knowingly enlists or musters into the
military service any person whose enlistment or muster in is
prohibited by law, regulation, or orders shall be dismissed from
the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial
may direct.

MUSTER ROLLS--FALSE MUSTER.

ART. 56. At every muster of a regiment, troop, battery, or company
the commanding officer thereof shall give to the mustering officer
certificates, signed by himself, stating how long absent officers
have been absent and the reasons of their absence. And the commanding
officer of every troop, battery, or company shall give like
certificates, stating how long absent noncommissioned officers
and private soldiers have been absent and the reasons of their
absence. Such reasons and time of absence shall be inserted in
the muster rolls opposite the names of the respective absent
officers and soldiers, and the certificates, together with the
muster rolls, shall be transmitted by the mustering officer to
the Department of War as speedily as the distance of the place
and muster will admit. Any officer who knowingly makes a false
muster of man or animal, or who signs or directs or allows the
signing of any muster roll knowing the same to contain false
muster or false statement as to the absence or pay of an officer
or soldier, or who wrongfully takes money or other consideration
on mustering in a regiment, company, or other organization, or
on signing muster rolls, or who knowingly musters as an officer
or soldier a person who is not such officer or soldier, shall
be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.

FALSE RETURNS--OMISSION TO RENDER RETURNS.

ART. 57. Every officer commanding a regiment, an independent
troop, battery, or company, or a garrison shall, in the beginning
of every month, transmit, through the proper channels, to the
War Department an exact return of the same, specifying the names
of the officers then absent from their posts, with the reasons
for and the time of their absence. Every officer whose duty it
is to render to the War Department or other superior authority
a return of the state of the troops under his command, or of the
arms, ammunition, clothing, funds, or other property thereunto
belonging, who knowingly makes a false return thereof shall be
dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as
a court-martial may direct. And any officer who, through neglect
or design, omits to render such return shall be punished as a
court-martial may direct.

DESERTION.

ART. 58. Any person subject to military law who deserts or attempts
to desert the service of the United States shall, if the offense
be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct, and, if the offense be committed
at any other time, any punishment, excepting death, that a
court-martial may direct.

ADVISING OR AIDING ANOTHER TO DESERT.

ART. 59. Any person subject to military law who advises or persuades
or knowingly assists another to desert the service of the United
States shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer
death, or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct,
and if the offense be committed at any other time any punishment,
excepting death, that a court-martial may direct.

ENTERTAINING A DESERTER.

ART. 60. Any officer who, after having discovered that a soldier
in his command is a deserter from the military or naval service
or from the Marine Corps, retains such deserter in his command
without informing superior authority or the commander of the
organization to which the deserter belongs, shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.

ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE.

ART. 61. Any person subject to military law who fails to repair
at the fixed time to the properly appointed place of duty, or
goes from the same without proper leave, or absents himself from
his command, guard, quarters, station or camp without proper
leave, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

DISRESPECT TOWARD THE PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS, SECRETARY
OF WAR, GOVERNORS, LEGISLATURES.

ART. 62. Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespectful words
against the President, Vice President, the Congress of the United
States, the Secretary of War, or the governor or legislature of
any State, Territory, or other possession of the United States
in which he is quartered shall be dismissed from the service
or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.
Any other person subject to military law who so offends shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.

DISRESPECT TOWARD SUPERIOR OFFICERS.

ART. 63. Any person subject to military law who behaves himself
with disrespect toward his superior officer shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.

ASSAULTING OR WILLFULLY DISOBEYING SUPERIOR OFFICER.

ART. 64. Any person subject to military law who, on any pretense
whatsoever, strikes his superior officer or draws or lifts up any
weapon or offers any violence against him, being in the execution
of his office, or willfully disobeys any lawful command of his
superior officer, shall suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.

INSUBORDINATE CONDUCT TOWARD NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER.

ART. 65. Any soldier who strikes or assaults, or who attempts
or threatens to strike or assault, or willfully disobeys the
lawful order of a noncommissioned officer while in the execution
of his office, or uses threatening or insulting language, or
behaves in an insubordinate or disrespectful manner toward a
noncommissioned officer while in the execution of his office,
shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

MUTINY OR SEDITION.

ART. 66. Any person subject to military law who attempts to create
or who begins, excites, causes, or joins in any mutiny or sedition
in any company, party, post, camp detachment, guard, or other
command shall suffer death or such other punishment as a
court-martial may direct.

FAILURE TO SUPPRESS MUTINY OR SEDITION.

ART. 67. Any officer or soldier who, being present at any mutiny
or sedition, does not use his utmost endeavor to suppress the
same, or knowing or having reason to believe that a mutiny or
sedition is to take place, does not without delay give information
thereof to his commanding officer shall suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.

QUARRELS, FRAYS, DISORDERS.

ART. 68. All officers and noncommissioned officers have power to
part and quell all quarrels, frays, and disorders among persons
subject to military law and to order officers who take part in the
same into arrest, and other persons subject to military law who
take part in the same into arrest or confinement, as circumstances
may require, until their proper superior officer is acquainted
therewith. And whosoever, being so ordered, refuses to obey such
officer or noncommissioned officer or draws a weapon upon or
otherwise threatens or does violence to him shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.

ARREST OR CONFINEMENT OF ACCUSED PERSONS.

ART. 69. An officer charged with crime or with a serious offense
under these articles shall be placed in arrest by the commanding
officer, and in exceptional cases an officer so charged may be
placed in confinement by the same authority. A soldier charged
with crime or with a serious offense under these articles shall
be placed in confinement, and when charged with a minor offense
he may be placed in arrest. Any other person subject to military
law charged with crime or with a serious offense under these
articles shall be placed in confinement or in arrest, as
circumstances may require; and when charged with a minor offense
such person may be placed in arrest. Any person placed in arrest
under the provisions of this article shall thereby be restricted
to his barracks, quarters, or tent, unless such limits shall be
enlarged by proper authority. Any officer who breaks his arrest
or who escapes from confinement before he is set at liberty by
proper authority shall be dismissed from the service or suffer
such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and any
other person subject to military law who escapes from confinement
or who breaks his arrest before he is set at liberty by proper
authority shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

INVESTIGATION OF AND ACTION UPON CHARGES.

ART. 70. No person put in arrest shall be continued in confinement
more than eight days, or until such time as a court-martial can
be assembled. When any person is put in arrest for the purpose of
trial, except at remote military posts or stations, the officer
by whose order he is arrested shall see that a copy of the charges
on which he is to be tried is served upon him within eight days
after his arrest, and that he is brought to trial within 10 days
thereafter, unless the necessities of the service prevent such
trial; and then he shall be brought to trial within 30 days after
the expiration of said 10 days. If a copy of the charges be not
served, or the arrested person be not brought to trial, as herein
required, the arrest shall cease. But persons released from arrest,
under the provisions of this article, may be tried, whenever
the exigencies of the service shall permit, within 12 months
after such release from arrest: _Provided_, That in time
of peace no person shall, against his objection, be brought to
trial before a general court-martial within a period of five
days subsequent to the service of charles upon him.

REFUSAL TO RECEIVE AND KEEP PRISONERS.

ART. 71. No provost marshal or commander of a guard shall refute
to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge by an
officer belonging to the forces of the United States, provided
the officer committing shall, at the time, deliver an account
in writing, signed by himself, of the crime or offense charged
against the prisoner. Any officer or soldier so refusing shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.

REPORT OF PRISONERS RECEIVED.

ART. 72. Every commander of a guard to whose charge a prisoner
is committed shall, within 24 hours after such confinement, or
as soon as he is relieved from his guard, report in writing to
the commanding officer the name of such prisoner, the offense
charged against him, and the name of the officer committing him;
and if he fails to make such report he shall be punished as a
court-martial may direct.

RELEASING PRISONER WITHOUT PROPER AUTHORITY.

ART. 73. Any person subject to military law who, without proper
authority, releases any prisoner duly committed to his charge, or
who, through neglect or design, suffers any prisoner so committed
to escape, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

DELIVERY OF OFFENDERS TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES.

ART. 74. When any person subject to military law, except one
who is held by the military authorities to answer, or who is
awaiting trial or result of trial, or who is undergoing sentence
for a crime or offense punishable under these articles, is accused
of a crime or offense committed within the geographical limits
of the States of the Union and the District of Columbia, and
punishable by the laws of the land, the commanding officer is
required, except in time of war, upon application duly made,
to use his utmost endeavor to deliver over such accused person
to the civil authorities, or to aid the officers, of justice in
apprehending and securing him, in order that he may be brought
to trial. Any commanding officer who upon such application refuses
or willfully neglects, except in time of war, to deliver over such
accused person to the civil authorities or to aid the officers of
justice in apprehending and securing him shall be dismissed from
the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial
may direct.

When under the provisions of this article delivery is made to
the civll authorities of an offender undergoing sentence of a
court-martial, such delivery, if followed by conviction, shall
be held to interrupt the execution of the sentence of the
court-martial, and the offender shall be returned to military
custody, after having answered to the civil authorities for his
offense, for the completion of the said court-martial sentence.

MISBEHAVIOR BEFORE THE ENEMY.

ART. 75. Any officer or soldier who misbehaves himself before
the enemy, runs away, or shamefully abandons or delivers up any
fort, post, camp, guard, or other command which it is his duty
to defend, or speaks words inducing others to do the like, or
casts away his arms or ammunition, or quits his post or colors
to plunder or pillage, or by any means whatsoever occasions false
alarms in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death or
such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.

SUBORDINATES COMPELLING COMMANDER TO SURRENDER.

ART. 76. If any commander of any garrison, fort, post, camp,
guard, or other command is compelled by the officers or soldiers
under his command to give it up to the enemy or to abandon it,
the officers or soldiers so offending shall suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.

IMPROPER USE OF COUNTERSIGN.

ART. 77. Any person subject to military law who makes known the
parole or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it
according to the rules and discipline of war, or gives a parole
or countersign different from that which he received, shall, if
the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.

FORCING A SAFEGUARD.

ART. 78. Any person subject to military law who, in time of war,
forces a safeguard shall suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.

CAPTURED PROPERTY TO BE SECURED FOR PUBLIC SERVICE.

ART. 79. All public property taken from the enemy is the property
of the United States and shall be secured for the service of the
United States, and any person subject to military law who neglects
to secure such property or is guilty of wrongful application
thereof shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

DEALING IN CAPTURED OR ABANDONED PROPERTY.

ART. 80. Any person subject to military law who buys, sells,
trades, or in any way deals in or disposes of captured or abandoned
property, whereby he shall receive or expect any profit, benefit, or
advantage to himself or to any other person directly or indirectly
connected with himself, or who falls whenever such property comes
into his possession or custody or within his control to give notice
thereof to the proper authority and to turn over such property to
the proper authority without delay, shall, on conviction thereof,
be punished by fine or imprisonment, or by such other punishment as
a court-martial, military commission, or other military tribunal
may adjudge, or by any or all of said penalties.

RELIEVING, CORRESPONDING WITH, OR AIDING THE ENEMY.

ART. 81. Whosoever relieves the enemy with arms, ammunition,
supplies, money, or other thing, or knowingly harbors or protects
or holds correspondence with or gives intelligence to the enemy,
either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other
punishment as a court-martial or military commission may direct.

SPIES.

ART. 82. Any person who in time of war shall be found lurking
or acting as a spy in or about any of the fortifications, posts,
quarters, or encampments of any of the armies of the United States,
or elsewhere, shall be tried by a general court-martial or by a
military commission, and shall, on conviction thereof, suffer
death.

MILITARY PROPERTY--WILLFUL OR NEGLIGENT LOSS, DAMAGE, OR WRONGFUL
DISPOSITION OF.

ART. 83. Any person subject to military law who willfully or
through neglect suffers to be lost, spoiled, damaged, or wrongfully
disposed of any military property belonging to the United States
shall make good the loss or damage and suffer such punishment
as a court-martial may direct.

WASTE OR UNLAWFUL DISPOSITION OF MILITARY PROPERTY ISSUED TO
SOLDIERS.

ART. 84. Any soldier who sells or wrongfully disposes of or willfully
or through neglect injures or loses any horse, arms, ammunition,
accouterments, equipments, clothing, or other property issued for
use in the military service shall be punished as a court-martial
may direct.

DRUNK ON DUTY.

ART. 85. Any officer who is found drunk on duty shall, if the
offense be committed in time of war, be dismissed from the service
and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct;
and if the offense be committed in time of peace he shall be
punished as a court-martial may direct. Any person subject to
military law, except un officer, who is found drunk on duty shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.

MISBEHAVIOR OF SENTINEL.

ART. 86. Any sentinel who is found drunk or sleeping upon his
post, or who leaves it before he is regularly relieved, shall,
if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if the offense
be committed in time of pence he shall suffer any punishment,
except death, that a court-martial may direct.

PERSONAL INTEREST IN SALE OF PROVISIONS.

ART. 87. Any officer commanding in any garrison, fort, barracks,
camp, or other place where troops of the United States may be serving
who, for his private advantage, lays any duty or imposition upon
or is interested in the sale of any victuals or other necessaries
of life brought into such garrison, fort, barracks, camp, or
other place for the use of the troops, shall be dismissed from
the service and suffer such other Punishment as a court-martial
may direct.

INTIMIDATION OF PERSONS BRINGING PROVISIONS.

ART. 88. Any person subject to military law who abuses, intimidates,
does violence to, or wrongfully interferes with any person bringing
provisions, supplies, or other necessaries to the camp, garrison,
or quarters of the forces of the United States shall suffer such
punishment as a court-martial may direct.

GOOD ORDER TO BE MAINTAINED AND WRONGS REDRESSED.

ART. 89. All persons subject to military law are to behave themselves
orderly in quarters, garrison, camp, and on the march; and any
person subject to military law who commits any waste or spoil,
or willfully destroys any property whatsoever (unless by order
of his commanding officer), or commits any kind of depredation
or riot, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Any
commanding officer who, upon complaint made to him, refuses or
omits to see reparation made to the party injured, in so far as
the offender's pay shall go toward such reparation, as provided
for in article 105, shall be dismissed from the service or otherwise
punished as a court-martial may direct.

PROVOKING SPEECHES OR GESTURES

ART. 90. No person subject to military law shall use any reproachful
or provoking speeches or gestures to another; and any person
subject to military law who offends against the provisions of
this article shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

DUELING.

ART. 91. Any person subject to military law who fights or promotes
or is concerned in or connives at fighting a duel, or who having
knowledge of a challenge sent or about to be sent fails to report
the fact promptly to the proper authority, shall, if an officer,
be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct; and if any other person subject
to military law shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial
may direct.

MURDER-RAPE.

ART. 92. Any person subject to military law who commits murder
or rape shall suffer death or imprisonment for life, as a
court-martial may direct; but no person shall be tried by
court-martial for murder or rape committed within the geographical
limits of the States of the Union and the District of Columbia
in time of peace.

VARIOUS CRIMES.

ART. 93. Any person subject to military law who commits manslaughter,
mayhem, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny, embezzlement, perjury,
assault with intent to commit any felony, or assault with intent
to do bodily harm, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

FRAUDS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.

ART. 94. Any person subject to military law who makes or causes
to be made any claim against the United States or any officer
thereof, knowing such claim to be false or fraudulent; or

Who presents or causes to be presented to any person in the civil
or military service thereof, for approval or payment, any claim
against the United States or any officer thereof, knowing such
claim to be false or fraudulent; or

Who enters into any agreement or conspiracy to defraud the United
States by obtaining, or aiding others to obtain, the allowance
or payment of any false or fraudulent claim; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or against any officer thereof, makes or uses,
or procures, or advises the making or use of, any writing or
other paper, knowing the same to contain any false or fraudulent
statements; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or any officer thereof, makes, or procures, or
advises the making of, any oath to any fact or to any writing
or other paper, knowing such oath to be false; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or any officer thereof, forges or counterfeits,
or procures, or advises the forging or counterfeiting of any
signature upon any writing or other paper, or uses, or procures,
or advises the use of any such signature, knowing the same to
be forged or counterfeited; or

Who, having charge, possession, custody, or control of any money
or other property of the United States, furnished or intended
for the military service thereof, knowingly delivers, or causes
to be delivered, to any person having authority to receive the
same, any amount thereof less than that for which he receives
a certificate or receipt; or

Who, being authorized to make or deliver any paper certifying
the receipt of any property of the United States furnished or
intended for the military service thereof, makes or delivers
to any person such writing, without having full knowledge of
the truth of the statements therein contained and with intent
to defraud the United States; or

Who steals, embezzles, knowingly and willfully misappropriates,
applies to his own use or benefit, or wrongfully or knowingly
sells or disposes of any ordnance, arms, equipments, ammunition,
clothing, subsistence stores, money, or other property of the
United States furnished or intended for the military service
thereof; or

Who knowingly purchases or receives in pledge for any obligation
or indebtedness from any soldier, officer, or other person who is
a part of or employed in said forces or service, any ordnance,
arms, equipment, ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, or
other property of the United States, such soldier, officer, or
other person not having lawful right to sell or pledge the same;

Shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine or imprisonment,
or by such other punishment as a court-martial may adjudge, or
by any or all of said penalties. And if any person, being guilty
of any of the offenses aforesaid while in the military service
of the United States, receives his discharge or is dismissed
from the service, he shall continue to be liable to be arrested
and held for trial and sentence by a court-martial in the same
manner and to the same extent as if he had not received such
discharge nor been dismissed.

CONDUCT UNBECOMING AN OFFICER AND GENTLEMAN.

ART. 95. Any officer or cadet who is convicted of conduct unbecoming
an officer and a gentleman shall be dismissed from the service.

GENERAL ARTICLE.

ART. 96. Though not mentioned in these articles, all disorders and
neglects to the prejudice of good order and military discipline,
all conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the military
service, and all crimes or offenses not capital of which persons
subject to military law may be guilty shall be taken cognizance
of by a general or special or summary court-martial, according
to the nature and degree of the offense, and punished at the
discretion of such court.

DISCIPLINARY POWERS OF COMMANDING OFFICERS.

ART. 104. Under such regulations as the President may prescribe,
and which he may from time to time revoke, alter, or add to,
the commanding officer of any detachment, company, or higher
command may, for minor offences not denied by the accused, impose
disciplinary punishments upon persons of his command without
the intervention of a court-martial, unless the accused demands
trial by court-martial.

The disciplinary punishments authorized by this article may include
admonition, reprimand, withholding of privileges, extra fatigue,
and restriction to certain specified limits, but shall not include
forfeiture of pay or confinement under guard. A person punished
under authority fit this article who deems his punishment unjust
or disproportionate to the offense may, through the proper channel,
appeal to the next superior authority, but may in the meantime
be required to undergo the punishment adjudged. The commanding
officer who imposes the punishment, his successor in command,
and superior authority shall have power to mitigate or remit
any unexecuted portion of the punishment. The imposition and
enforcement of disciplinary punishment under authority of this
article for any act or omission shall not be a bar to trial by
court-martial for a crime or offense growing out of the same
act or omission; but the fact that a disciplinary punishment
has been enforced may be shown by the accused upon trial, and
when so shown shall be considered in determining the measure of
punishment to be adjudged in the event of a finding of guilty.

REDRESS OF INJURIES TO PERSON OR PROPERTY.

ART. 105. Whenever complaint is made to any commanding officer
that damage has been done to the property of any person or that
his property has been wrongfully taken by persons subject to
military law, such complaint shall be investigated by a board
consisting of any number of officers from one to three, which
board shall be convened by the commanding officer and shall have,
for the purpose of such investigation, power to summon witnesses
and examine them upon oath or affirmation, to receive depositions
or other documentary evidence, and to assess the damages sustained
against the responsible parties. The assessment of damages made
by such board shall be subject to the approval of the commanding
officer, and in the amount approved by him shall be stopped against
the pay of the offenders. And the order of such commanding officer
directing stoppages herein authorized shall be conclusive on any
disbursing officer for the payment by him to the injured parties
of the stoppages so ordered.

Where the offenders can not be ascertained but the organization
or detachment to which they belong is known, stoppages to the
amount of damages inflicted may be made and assessed in such
proportion as may be deemed just upon the individual members
thereof who are shown to have been present with such organization
or detachment at the time the damages complained of were inflicted,
as determined by the approved findings of the board.

ARREST OF DESERTERS BY CIVIL OFFICIALS.

ART. 106. It shall be lawful for any civil officer having authority
under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory,
District, or possession of the United States, to arrest offenders,
summarily to arrest a deserter from the military service of the
United States and deliver him into the custody of the military
authorities of the United States.

SOLDIERS TO MAKE GOOD TIME LOST.

ART. 107. Every soldier who in an existing or subsequent enlistment
deserts the service of the United States or without proper authority
absents himself from his organization, station, or duty for more
than one day, or who is confined for more than one day under
sentence, or while awaiting trial and disposition of his case,
if the trial results in conviction, or through the intemperate
use of drugs or alcoholic liquor, or through disease or injury
the result at his own misconduct, renders himself unable for more
than one day to perform duty, shall be liable to serve, after
his return to a full-duty status, for such period as shall, with
the time he may have served prior to such desertion, unauthorized
absence, confinement, or inability to perform duty, amount to
the full term of that part of his enlistment period which he is
required to serve with his organization before being furloughed
to the Army Reserve.

SOLDIERS--SEPARATION FROM THE SERVICE.

ART. 108. No enlisted man, lawfully inducted into the military
service of the United States, shall be discharged from said service
without a certificate of discharge, signed by a field officer of
the regiment or other organization to which the enlisted man
belongs or by the commanding officer when no such field officer
is present; and no enlisted man shall be discharged from said
service before his term of service has expired, except by order
of the President, the Secretary of War, the commanding officer
of a department, or by sentence of a general Court-martial.

OATH OF ENLISTMENT.

ART. 109. At the time of his enlistment every soldier shall take
the following oath or affirmation: "I, ----, do solemnly swear
(or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the
United States of America; that I will serve them honestly and
faithfully against all their enemies whomsoever; and that I will
obey the orders of the President of the United States and the
orders of the officers appointed over me, according to the Rules
and Articles of War," This oath or affirmation may be taken before
any officer.

CHAPTER XV.

ENGLISH-FRENCH VOCABULARY.

COMMON WORDS.

Afternoon (this) . . . . . . Cet apres-midi.
Army (an) . . . . . . . . . . Une armee.
Bandage . . . . . . . . . . . Un bandage.
Bath . . . . . . . . . . . . Un bain.
Bayonet . . . . . . . . . . . Une baionnette.
Bed . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un lit.
Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . Une couverture
Boy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un garcon.
Bullet . . . . . . . . . . . Une balle.
un pruneau (soldier slang).
Camp . . . . . . . . . . . . Un camp.
Un campement.
Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . Une cartouche.
Child . . . . . . . . . . . . Un enfant.
Une enfant.
Cook . . . . . . . . . . . . Un cuisinier.
Un cuistot (slang).
Une Cuisiniere (fem.).
Dance . . . . . . . . . . . . Un bal.
Une danse (one dance).
Dark . . . . . . . . . . . . Obscur.
Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un jour.
Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . Mort.
Deserter . . . . . . . . . . Un deserteur.
Door . . . . . . . . . . . . Une porte.
Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . Une ferme.
Firearms . . . . . . . . . . Des armes a feu.
Field gun . . . . . . . . . . Une piece de campagne.
Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . Un drapeau.
Un etendard (standard).
Forest . . . . . . . . . . . Une foret.
Un bois (woods).
Un boqueteau (clump of trees).
Friend . . . . . . . . . . . Un ami.
Une amie.
Girl . . . . . . . . . . . . Une jeune fille.
Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . Un guide.
Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un fusil.
Halt! . . . . . . . . . . . . Halte!
Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . Une main.
Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un chapeau.
Un kepi (cap).
Un casque (helmet).
Un feutre (campaign hat).
Head . . . . . . . . . . . . La tete.
Headquarters . . . . . . . . Le quartier-general.
Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . Un cheval.
Interpreter . . . . . . . . . Un interprete.
Knife . . . . . . . . . . . . Un couteau.
Lake . . . . . . . . . . . . Un lac.
Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un homme.
Meat . . . . . . . . . . . . De la viande.
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . Un nom.
Night . . . . . . . . . . . . La nuit.
Noon . . . . . . . . . . . . Midi.
Machine gun . . . . . . . . . Une mitrailleuse.
Mess call . . . . . . . . . . La soupe.
Password . . . . . . . . . . Le mot de passe.
Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . Le pret (enlisted men).
La solde (officers).
Prisoner . . . . . . . . . . Un prisonnier.
Recruit . . . . . . . . . . . Une recrue.
Un bleu (slang).
Un bleuet (slang).
Un blanc-bec (slang).
Restaurant . . . . . . . . . Un restaurant.
Un cafe.
Road . . . . . . . . . . . . Un chemin.
Une route.
Retreat . . . . . . . . . . . La retraite.
Reveille . . . . . . . . . . Le reveil.
La diane.
Saber . . . . . . . . . . . . Un sabre.
Saddle . . . . . . . . . . . Une selle.
Shoe . . . . . . . . . . . . Des chaussures (shoes in general).
Des souliers (low shoes).
Des bottines (high shoes).
Des brodequins (marching shoes).
Shotgun . . . . . . . . . . . Un fusil de cirasse
Sick . . . . . . . . . . . . Malade.
Soup . . . . . . . . . . . . Une soup.
Un potage.
Spy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un espion.
Supper . . . . . . . . . . . Le sourer.
Sword . . . . . . . . . . . . Une epee.
Tent . . . . . . . . . . . . Une tente.
Shelter tent . . . . . . . . Une tente-abri.

NUMERALS.

One . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un, une.
Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deux.
Three . . . . . . . . . . . . Trois.
Four . . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre.
Five . . . . . . . . . . . . Cinq(pronounce _sank_).
Six . . . . . . . . . . . . . Six (pronounce _cease_).
Seven . . . . . . . . . . . . Sept (pronounce _set_).
Eight . . . . . . . . . . . . Huit (pronounce _weet_).
Nine . . . . . . . . . . . . Neuf.
Ten . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dix (pronounce _deess_)
Eleven . . . . . . . . . . . Onze.
Twelve . . . . . . . . . . . Douze.
Thirteen . . . . . . . . . . Treize.
Fourteen . . . . . . . . . . Quatorze.
Fifteen . . . . . . . . . . . Quinze.
Sixteen . . . . . . . . . . . Seize.
Seventeen . . . . . . . . . . Dix-sept.
Eighteen . . . . . . . . . . Dix-huit.
Nineteen . . . . . . . . . . Dix-neuf.
Twenty . . . . . . . . . . . Vingt (pronounce _vant_.)
Twenty-one . . . . . . . . . Vingt-et-un.
Thirty . . . . . . . . . . . Trente.
Thirty-one . . . . . . . . . Trente-et-un.
Thirty-two . . . . . . . . . Trente-deux.
Forty . . . . . . . . . . . . Quarante.
Fifty . . . . . . . . . . . . Cinquante.
Sixty . . . . . . . . . . . . Soixante.
Seventy . . . . . . . . . . . Soixante-dix.
Seventy-one . . . . . . . . . Soixante-et-onze.
Seventy-two . . . . . . . . . Soixante-douze.
Eighty . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt.
Eighty-one . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-un.
Ninety . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-dix.
Ninety-one . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-onze.
One hundred . . . . . . . . . Cent.
One hundred and one . . . . . Cent un.
Two hundred . . . . . . . . . Deux cents.
Two hundred and one . . . . . Deux cent un.
One thousand . . . . . . . . Mille.
Two thousand . . . . . . . . Deux mille.
One thousand one hundred . . Mille cent; onze cents.
Thousands of soldiers . . . . Des milliers de soldats.
A million . . . . . . . . . . Un million.
Two million men . . . . . . . Deux millions d'hommes.
A score . . . . . . . . . . . Une vingtaine.
About forty men . . . . . . . Une quarantaine d'hommes.
Hundreds of men . . . . . . . Des centaines d'hommes.

CURRENCY, MEASURES, AND WEIGHTS.

1 cent . . . . . . . . . . . Un sou; cinq centimes.
10 cents . . . . . . . . . . Dix sous; cinquante centimes.
20 cents (about) . . . . . . Un francs.
1 dollar . . . . . . . . . . Cinq francs.

(The French have gold pieces of 10 francs and 20 francs; bank
notes of 50 francs, 100 francs, and higher. The gold pieces are
probably replaced by bank notes now.)

1 meter (1.0936 yards) . . . Un metre.
1 kilometer (0.62138 mile) . Un kilometre.

NOTE:--For all ordinary purposes, the "kilometre" = 5/8 of a mile;
the "centimetre"--4/10 of an inch.

1 league (2.48552 miles) . . Une lieue.
1 hectare (2.4711 acres) . . Un hectare.
1 gram (15.43239 grains troy) Un gramme.
1 kilogram (2.204621 pounds
avoirdupois) . . . . . . . Un kilogramme.
220.46 pounds avoirdupois . . Un quintal; 100 kilos.
2,204.6 pounds avoirdupois . Une tonne; 1,000 kilos.

(Coal is sold by the _tonne_; grain and hay by the
_quintal_. Dix quintaux de ble, de foin = 10 quintals of
grain, of hay.)

1,0567 quart (liquid) . . . . Un litre.
26.417 gallons . . . . . . . Un hectolitre.
0.9081 quart (dry) . . . . . Un litre.
2.8379 bushels . . . . . . . Un hectolitre.

(The _litre_, which is the principal unit of both fluid
and dry measures, is the contents of 1 cubic _decimetre_
(decimetre = 1/10 metre).)

DAYS, MONTHS, AND SEASONS.

Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . Dimanche.
Monday . . . . . . . . . . . Lundi.
Tuesday . . . . . . . . . . . Mardi.
Wednesday . . . . . . . . . . Mercredi.
Thursday . . . . . . . . . . Jeudi.
Friday . . . . . . . . . . . Vendredi.
Saturday . . . . . . . . . . Samedi.
January . . . . . . . . . . . Janvier.
February . . . . . . . . . . Fevrier.
March . . . . . . . . . . . . Mars.
April . . . . . . . . . . . . Avril.
May . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mai.
June . . . . . . . . . . . . Juin.
July . . . . . . . . . . . . Juillet.
August . . . . . . . . . . . Aout (pronounce _oo_).
September . . . . . . . . . . Septembre.
October . . . . . . . . . . . Octobre.
November . . . . . . . . . . Novembre.
December . . . . . . . . . . Decembre.
The seasons . . . . . . . . . Les saisons.
Winter . . . . . . . . . . . L'hiver.
Spring . . . . . . . . . . . Le printemps.
Summer . . . . . . . . . . . L'ete.
Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . L'automne.
Year . . . . . . . . . . . . Un an; une annee.
Month . . . . . . . . . . . . Un mois.
Week . . . . . . . . . . . . Un semaine.
Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un jour.
Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . Un heure.
Minute . . . . . . . . . . . Un minute.
Second . . . . . . . . . . . Une seconde.

COMMON PHRASES.

Good morning, sir, madam, \ Bonjour, monsieur, madame,
miss. Good afternoon / mademoiselle.
Good evening, sir . . . . . . Bonsoir, monsieur.
Good night, sir . . . . . . . Bonne nuit, monsieur.
Pardon me . . . . . . . . . . Pardon; je vous demande pardon.
Don't mention it . . . . . . Je vous en prie.
How do you do? . . . . . . . Comment allez-vous?
Comment ca va?
Comment vous portez-voue?
Very well, thank you . . . . Tres bien, merci.
Je vais bien, merci.
Ca va bien, merci.
Je me porte bien, merci.
Do not trouble yourself . . . Ne vous genez pas.
Ne vous derangez pas.
I am very glad to see you . . Je suis bien aise de vous voir.
Je suis content (heureux) de
vous voir.
What time is it? . . . . . . Quelle heure est-it?
It is 10 o'clock . . . . . . Il est dix heures.
Take care; look out . . . . . Prenez garde
Do not bother me . . . . . . Ne me derangez pas.
Stop here . . . . . . . . . . Arretez-vous ici.
Does Mr. -- live here? . . . M. -- demeure-t-il ici?
Come in . . . . . . . . . . . Entrez.
You are very kind . . . . . . Voue etes tres aimable.
At what time does the first . A quelle heure part le premier
train start? train?
What is the name of this . . Comment s'appelle cette station
station? (gare)?
I want . . . . . . . . . . . Je desire; Je veux (stronger).
I do not want it . . . . . . Je n'en veux pas.
Let me know what I owe you . Dites-moi ce que je vous dois.
Are you not mistaken? . . . . Ne faites-vous pas erreur?
Ne vous trompez-vous pas?
Please give me . . . . . . . Veuillez me donner.
Move on . . . . . . . . . . . Avancez.
Circulez. (Policeman.)
I want something to eat . . . Je desire quelque chose a manger.
Where is it? . . . . . . . . Ou est-ce?
Go and look for it . . . . . Allez le chercher.
Take this letter to the . . . Portez cette lettre a la poste.
post office
How much is it? . . . . . . . Combien?
Combien cela coute-t-il?
It is dear . . . . . . . . . C'est cher.
Thank you . . . . . . . . . . Merci.
Je vous en remercie.
Don't mention it . . . . . . Il n'y a pas de quoi.
De rien.
Allow me to present my . . . Permettez-moi de vous presenter
friend ---- mon ami ----.
I am glad to make your . . . Je suis enchante de faire votre
acquaintance. connaissance.
How far is it? . . . . . . . A quelle distance est-ce?
What can I do for you? . . . Que puis-je faire pour vous?
Do you speak English? . . . . Parlez-vous anglais?
I do not speak French very . Je ne parle pas tres bien le
well. francais.
Where do you come from? . . . D'ou venez-vous?
How did you come? . . . . . . Comment etes-vous venu?
On foot, in a carriage, in . A pied, eu voiture, en auto, en
an auto, by rail, by boat, chemin de fer, en bateau, a
on a bicycle, on horseback, bicyclette, a cheval, en
in an aeroplane. aeroplane.

MILITARY TITLES, RANKS, AND GRADES.

General officers . . . . . . Les officers generaux.
General Staff . . . . . . . . L'etat-major general.
Field officers . . . . . . . Les officers superieurs.
Company officers . . . . . . Les officers subalternes.
Enlisted men . . . . . . . . Les hommes de troupe.
Noncommissioned officers . . Les sous-officiers.
Private soldiers . . . . . . Les simples soldats.
Colonel . . . . . . . . . . . Le colonel (addressed[14] as
"Mon colonel ").
Major . . . . . . . . . . . . Le commandant ("Mon commandant").
Captain . . . . . . . . . . . Le capitaine ("Mon capitaine").
Le piston (slang).
First lieutenant . . . . . . Le lieutenant (en premier)
("Mon lieutenant").
Second Lieutenant . . . . . . Le sous-lieutenant
("Mon lieutenant").
A doctor . . . . . . . . . . Un (medecin) major.
A sergeant . . . . . . . . . Un sergent (addressed as
"Sergent").
Un marechal des logis (mounted
service).
A corporal . . . . . . . . . Un caporal ("Caporal").
Un brigadier (mounted service).
A private . . . . . . . . . . Un simple soldat.
A body of troops . . . . . . Une troupe.
French troops . . . . . . . . Des troupes francaises.
A wagoner . . . . . . . . . . Un conducteur.
Un fourgonnier.
A horseshoer . . . . . . . . Un marechal-ferrant.
A saddler . . . . . . . . . . Un sellier.
A signaler . . . . . . . . . Un signaleur.
A deserter . . . . . . . . . Un deserteur.
A soldier of Infantry . . . . Un fantassin.
Cavalry . . . . Un cavalier.
Artillery . . . Un artilleur.
Engineers . . . Un sapeur-mineur.
Quartermaster Corps . Un homme de l'intendance.
Signal Corps . . Un homme du corps des signaux.
Hospital Corps . Un infirmier.
Line of Communications . Un garde des voies et
communications, G. V. C.
Infantry . . . . . . . . . . L'infanterie.
Cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . La cavalarie.
Artillery . . . . . . . . . . L'artillerie.
Engineers . . . . . . . . . . Le genie.
Signal Corps . . . . . . . . Le corps des signaux.
Hospital Corps . . . . . . . Le corps de sante.
Le service de sante.
Aviation Corps . . . . . . . Le corps d'aviation.

[Footnote 14: See note at the end of Chapter XV.]

MILITARY TERMS.

The headquarters . . . . . . Le quartier general.
The train . . . . . . . . . . Le train des equipages.
Railway service . . . . . . . Le service des chemins de fer.
Telegraph service . . . . . . Le service des telegraphes.
Rural guards . . . . . . . . La gendarmerie.
Des gendarmes.
A paymaster . . . . . . . . . Un tresorier.
A chaplain . . . . . . . . . Un aumonier.
An army . . . . . . . . . . . Une armee.
General So-and-so's army . . L'armee--(l'armee Foch).
An army corps . . . . . . . . Un corps d'armee.
A division . . . . . . . . . Une division.
A brigade . . . . . . . . . . Une brigade.
A regiment . . . . . . . . . Un regiment.
A battalion . . . . . . . . . Un bataillon.
A company . . . . . . . . . . Une compagnie.
A platoon . . . . . . . . . . Un peloton.
A section . . . . . . . . . . Une section.
A squad . . . . . . . . . . . Une escouade.
A detachment . . . . . . . . Un detachement.
Barracks . . . . . . . . . . Une caserne.
A camp . . . . . . . . . . . Un camp (more or less permanent).
Un campement (temporary).
A cantonment . . . . . . . . Un cantonnement.
Line . . . . . . . . . . . . (Une) ligne.
Column . . . . . . . . . . . (Une) colonne.
As skirmishers . . . . . . . En tirailleurs.
Follow me, as skirmishers . . A moi, en tirailleurs.
Scouts . . . . . . . . . . . Des eclaireurs.
A patrol . . . . . . . . . . Une patrouille.
The advance guard . . . . . . L'avant-garde.
The rear guard . . . . . . . L'arriere-garde.
Flankers . . . . . . . . . . Des flanc-gardes.
The main body . . . . . . . . Le gros (de la colonne).
Combat train . . . . . . . . Le train de combat.
Field train . . . . . . . . . Le train regimentaire.
Outposts . . . . . . . . . . Des avant-postes.
Cossack posts . . . . . . . . Des avant-postes a la cosaque.
A sentinel . . . . . . . . . Une sentinelle.

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